Yuvarajan, Elil; Stanford, Matthew S
Although congregants often turn to clergy for help in dealing with personal difficulties, including marital problems, substance abuse issues, and mental illness, survivors of sexual assault do not commonly turn to clergy for support or guidance. This study utilized a mixed-methods approach, online survey, and semi-structured interviews to determine how clergy perceive sexual assault victimization. The results of this study showed that more blame was assigned to the victim as the relationship with the perpetrator became closer, with the exception of marital rape. This study also found that hostile sexism was a predictor of negative attitudes toward rape victims. PMID:26416842
Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara; Wallace, Amanda; James, John; Moore, H Edgar; Swift, Robin; Toole, David
Research indicating high rates of chronic disease among some clergy groups highlights the need for health programming for clergy. Like any group united by similar beliefs and norms, clergy may find culturally tailored health programming more accessible and effective. There is an absence of research on what aspects clergy find important for clergy health programs. We conducted 11 focus groups with United Methodist Church pastors and district superintendents. Participants answered open-ended questions about clergy health program desires and ranked program priorities from a list of 13 possible programs. Pastors prioritized health club memberships, retreats, personal trainers, mental health counseling, and spiritual direction. District superintendents prioritized for pastors: physical exams, peer support groups, health coaching, retreats, health club memberships, and mental health counseling. District superintendents prioritized for themselves: physical exams, personal trainers, health coaching, retreats, and nutritionists. Additionally, through qualitative analysis, nine themes emerged concerning health and health programs: (a) clergy defined health holistically, and they expressed a desire for (b) schedule flexibility, (c) accessibility in rural areas, (d) low cost programs, (e) institutional support, (f) education on physical health, and (g) the opportunity to work on their health in connection with others. They also expressed concern about (h) mental health stigma and spoke about (i) the tension between prioritizing healthy behaviors and fulfilling vocational responsibilities. The design of future clergy health programming should consider these themes and the priorities clergy identified for health programming. PMID:22694161
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
This article investigates child sexual abuse by Catholic clergy in two jurisdictions, Ireland and the United States. These jurisdictions are selected because most of the research on this topic emanates from the United States and because my own research with Catholic clergy is situated in Ireland. The article begins by taking a critical look at the dominant discourses of child sexual abuse, as these discourses form part of the context in which sexual abuse by Catholic clergy is currently under...
Beebe, Ronald S.
Typically, the literature on clergy burnout employs an individual model and describes the pastoral role from the perspective of multiple demands or offers prescriptions for recovery. Although some literature examines the systemic nature of clergy burnout, little attention is paid to the internal psychological dynamics surrounding social…
Colburn, Alan; Henriques, Laura
Spurred by students who felt conflicted accepting evolution and the tenets of their faiths, yet knowing their faiths supported science and evolution, we began a study to determine the views clergy espouse on issues related to evolution, creationism, science, and religion. The resulting study included structured interviews with eight clergy and a…
Tanner, Marcus N; Wherry, Jeffrey N; Zvonkovic, Anisa M
Forced termination of clergy is a demeaning and psychologically distressing experience. Clergy who experience a forced termination are subjected to mobbing (psychological harassment) and other activities meant to publicly or privately demean a minister in such a way that they resign their ministry position. In a purposive convenience sample of 55 ministers who had been forcibly terminated, participants scored above the known cut-off score for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and scored high on a measure of burnout and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Forced termination has been anecdotally connected to PTSD and GAD, this project sought to empirically link PTSD and GAD to the forced termination of clergy. This study raises concern for the long-term mental health effects of ministers who have been forcibly terminated and provides implications for future clinical study on this group of clergy. Findings in this research indicate there may be a process to forced termination, which could be developed into a theory on forced termination of clergy. PMID:22278328
Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny
This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education. PMID:26733448
Clergy are significant providers of mental health services in the United States. The literature shows disparity between the need of clergy for mental health training and the type of brief training provided through seminar formats. It also indicates that the collaborative professional activities of clinicians and clergy may be enhanced when (1) the…
Getz, Hildy D.; Kirk, Ginger; Driscoll, Lisa G.
Describes a workshop and exploratory study done by counselors for a clergy group that requested assistance in working with families. Counselors focused on four family dynamic concepts: communication, distance, hierarchy, and adaptability to change. Data show that changes occurred in distance and adaptability to change concept perceptions among…
Wickersham, Mary Eleanor
The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…
Leigh Blalock; Dew, Rachel E.
Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety...
Hsieh, Ellie Y.
This study examined how cultural, religious, and demographic factors of Asian Christian clergy affect their perceptions and responses to domestic violence. Their age, years lived in the U.S., amount of pastoral counseling education, adherence to Asian cultural values, gender role beliefs, and degree of religious fundamentalism (n = 72) were assessed using an anonymous questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice items and short-answers. Multiple regression analyses determined that individual...
Lindholm, Greg; Johnston, Judy; Dong, Frank; Moore, Kim; Ablah, Elizabeth
This study sought to obtain a better understanding of how clergy view their health and to investigate their self-reported health status. Additionally, this study sought to explore personal and professional barriers among clergy to living a healthier life. An electronic 32-item survey was sent to all practicing clergy in Kansas East and West conferences of United Methodist church by the Kansas Area Office of the United Methodist Church. Survey items included participants' demographic information and health conditions (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol). The self-reported general health, mental health, and physical health data were also collected to compare to the general population in Kansas. Clergy were also asked to identify perceived barriers to health. A total of 150 clergy participated in the survey. The majority (93.7 %) self-reported their health as good, very good, or excellent. Participating clergy self-reported a higher prevalence of chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol) than the Kansas general population, but those differences were not statistically significant. More than three-fourths (77.4 %) of the participating clergy reported weights and heights that classified them as either overweight or obese. Lack of family time was the most frequently reported personal barrier to achieving a healthier lifestyle. An unpredictable work schedule was reported as the most frequent professional barrier to achieving a healthier lifestyle. This study suggests that Kansas clergy generally view their overall health status favorably despite being overweight or obese. Clergy also self-reported higher prevalence of chronic diseases than the general Kansas population, though the prevalence was not statistically different. This study provides additional insight into clergy health and offers suggestions to address the barriers preventing clergy from working toward better health. PMID:25539868
Isely, Paul J.; Isely, Peter; Freiburger, Jim; McMackin, Robert
This study examines the impact of child sexual molestation on men assaulted as children by Catholic clergy. In-depth interviews were used to conduct a qualitative analysis of how clergy-perpetrated childhood sexual abuse affected the adult psychological and/or psychosocial functioning of nine men. Subjects were selected in coordination with a…
Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin
The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…
While bereavement-related compassion fatigue and burnout have been studied in many helping professions, this researcher has found no peer-reviewed articles based specifically on bereavement experiences of Roman Catholic (RC) clergy in Ireland and only a handful on experiences of other religious ministers worldwide. There is a clear gap in research with regard to clergy experiences of personal or professional grief, the possible effects this may have on them, or the supports they use to help them cope. Peer support, some form of mentoring/supervision, and debriefing may help clergy to recognize their own grief, have it acknowledged by others, and recognize their personal strengths and limitations. While prevention of burnout is important to individual clergy, it is also vital for the health of the wider Church and formal support structures may be necessary as part of the Church's duty of care towards its clergy. PMID:26463852
Full Text Available Collaborations between healthcare and faith-based organizations have emerged in the drive to improve access to care. Little research has examined clergy views on collaborations in the provision of mental healthcare, particularly to children. The current paper reports survey responses of 25 clergy from diverse religious traditions concerning mental health care in children. Subjects queried include clergy referral habits, specific knowledge of childhood conditions such as depression and anxiety, past experiences with behavioral health workers, and resources available through their home institutions. Overall, surveyed clergy support collaborations to improve childhood mental health. However, they vary considerably in their confidence with recognizing mental illness in children and perceive significant barriers to collaborating with mental health providers.
Barnes, Sandra L
When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition. PMID:24059966
This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA) by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is consid...
Muse, Stephen; Love, Milton; Christensen, Kyle
A pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental matched pairs design was used to assess the effectiveness of a week-long multi-therapist intensive outpatient intervention process with clergy suffering from depression and burnout. Participants (n = 23) in the "Clergy in Kairos" program of the Pastoral Institute (Muse in J Pastor Care Couns 61(3):183-195, 2007) constituted the experimental variable. Clergy surveyed from United Methodist and Presbyterian denominations (n = 121) provided a control group from which 23 respondents were selected whose pre-test scores in depression and burnout were statistically equivalent to those in the experimental group. The treatment group consisted of clergy from three denominations who self-selected (or in some cases were referred by denominational officials) into the program. At the outset, clergy in both groups reported equivalent levels of conflict, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and depression. At the 6-months follow-up, clergy in the experimental group showed significant improvement of depression, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization scores. By contrast, there was no change in the burnout and depression scores in the control group at 6-months post-test. Findings suggest the usefulness of a week-long multi-therapist intensive outpatient intervention in reducing burnout and depression. PMID:25682015
Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.
Montana, Stephen; Thompson, Gary; Ellsworth, Peter; Lagan, Hugh; Helmus, Leslie; Rhoades, Colin J
The Static-99 is an instrument commonly used to measure the likelihood of recidivism among sex offenders. The current study explores whether the Static-99 is an effective predictor of relapse among Catholic clergy who have had sexual contact with minors. Static-99 scores were compiled for 337 treated clergy who had offended against minors, including 21 who were known to have relapsed after treatment. Clergy were followed up for 5 to 25 years posttreatment (M = 16.05; SD = 5.12) after their completion of treatment. Post release, they were closely supervised, with explicit rules limiting their contacts with minors and church officials monitoring their compliance with posttreatment plans. Descriptive information on the victims of clergy sex offenders is provided. Although all clergy offenders had the same score on 4 of the 10 Static-99 items, Static-99 total scores still significantly predicted relapse with a moderate to large effect size (area under the curve [AUC] = .672; Cohen's d = .808). Predictive accuracy of each item is also reported. Issues concerning the use of the Static-99 with this population are discussed. PMID:22593148
Sofiya Viktorovna Melnikova
Full Text Available The initial thesis of my article is the unity between ecclesiastic and secular literature which Russian culture has preserved in the Modern period. The interrelation of ecclesiastic and secular traditions is shown here on the example of the Siberian regional literary process in the 19th century. We primarily focus on non-fiction written by the Orthodox clergy: memoirs, autobiographies, travel notes. Memoirs were a new phenomenon in church literature of late 18th – early 19th centuries. These compositions were of special significance for the literature of Siberia: half of all memoirs of Siberians at that time were written by priests and missionaries. We argue that memoirs of the clergy can be considered not only as sources on the history of the Russian church, but also as cultural texts and literary monuments. All major features of the 19th century Siberian regional literature are conspicuous here: a focus on Siberia proper, a combination of art and non-fiction, a special importance of prevalence of a genre of travel notes, etc. In their genre poetics and language, memoirs of the clergy also followed the practices of secular literature, which made them an integral part of the regional historical and literary process. At the same time, literary works of the clergy preserved the specific features of religious consciousness and the link with traditional church literature, primarily hagiography and pilgrim travelogues. It can be seen, for example, in the sacralization of the Siberian space and the strong emphasis on apostolic service.
Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.
Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…
Full Text Available In the current work I intend to inquire into the internal motives that led the Portuguese seaborne empire to decadence. After making a brief review of the historiography about the decline of Estado da Índia, I proceed to the analysis of the Crown-Church-Nobility triangle in the course of os Descobrimentos, and of their respective roles in the evolution of Portuguese empire. The absolutization of the crown, the over-expansion of the clergy and the empowerment of the aristocracy became the most conspicuous and longstanding features in the Portuguese social fabric after the country launched herself into maritime undertakings, which crippled her agriculture and retarded the industrialization. As a consequence, the rise of bourgeoisie and the transformation of mercantilist economy into the capitalist were obstructed, and a strong adventurous but non-productive spirit mixed with disdain of manual work prevailed both in metropolis and in overseas territories. In conclusion, the Portuguese decadence commenced from within rather than from without, and far prior to Dutch intrusions in Portuguese Asia, which only accelerated the decline.No presente trabalho tenciono indagar as causas internas que dirigiram o império marítimo português à decadência. Depois de uma revisitação da historiografia relativa ao declínio do Estado da Índia, procedo a uma análise do triângulo de Monarca-Igreja-Nobreza durante os Descobrimentos e dos seus papéis respectivos no evoluir do Império português. É verificável que a absolutização da Coroa, a sobre-expansão do clero e a potenciação da aristocracia tornaram-se as características mais salientes e duradouras na estrutura social portuguesa depois de o país se lançar nas façanhas marítimas, do que resultou a agricultura prejudicada e indústria atrasada. A predominância dessas três instituições, por um lado, impediu a ascensão da burguesia, assim dificultando a transformação da economia
Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin
Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...
Goodhead, Andrew; Speck, Peter; Selman, Lucy
BACKGROUND: Spiritual distress is a factor associated with poor outcomes at the end of life. Timely interventions, assessing and meeting spiritual distress, among patients are contained within nationally agreed guidance. Community clergy are well placed to work alongside healthcare professionals and chaplains to meet spiritual needs.METHODS: Qualitative interviews among Christian clergy in two South East London boroughs and a self-completed Death Anxiety Questionnaire.RESULTS: Fourteen clergy...
Eugene Newman JosephThe Psychological Phenomena of Burnout and Engagement in the Indian Catholic Diocesan Clergy: An Integrative ApproachPromotors: Prof. Dr. Hans De Witte, Prof. Dr. Jozef CorveleynCo-promotor: Prof. Dr. Patrick LuytenProefschrift aangeboden tot het verkrijgen van de graad van Doctor in the Psychologische Wetenschappen Burnout is a metaphor that is commonly used to describe a state of mental weariness (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) characterized by emotional exhaust...
Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael
Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526
Full Text Available This paper considers constructions of institutional culture and power in the cover-up of child sexual abuse (CSA by clergy in the Roman Catholic Church of Australia. The issue of cover-up has previously been considered in international inquiries as an institutional failing that has caused significant harm to victims of CSA by Catholic Clergy. Evidence given by select representatives of the Catholic Church in two government inquiries into institutional abuse carried out in Australia is considered here. This evidence suggests that, where cover-up has occurred, it has been reliant on the abuse of institutional power and resulted in direct emotional, psychological and spiritual harm to victims of abuse. Despite international recognition of cover-up as institutional abuse, evidence presented by Roman Catholic Representatives to the Victorian Inquiry denied there was an institutionalised cover-up. Responding to this evidence, this paper queries whether the primary foundation of cover-up conforms to the ‘bad apple theory’ in that it relates only to a few individuals, or the ‘bad barrel theory’ of institutional structure and culture.
This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design…
James, Bawo O; Igbinomwanhia, Nosa G; Omoaregba, Joyce O
The paucity of skilled manpower in sub-Saharan Africa limits the delivery of effective interventions for the mentally ill. Individuals with mental disorders and their caregivers frequently consult clergy when mental symptoms cause distress. There is an urgent need for collaboration with nonprofessionals in order to improve mental health care delivery and close the widening treatment gap. Using a cross-sectional descriptive method, we explored clergy's (Christian and Muslim) aetiological attributions for common mental illness (schizophrenia and depression) from Benin City, Nigeria, as well as their willingness to collaborate with mainstream mental health services. We observed that a majority of clergy surveyed were able to correctly identify mental illnesses depicted in vignettes, embraced a multifactorial model of disease causation, and expressed willingness to collaborate with mental health care workers to deliver care. Clergy with a longer duration of formal education, prior mental health training, and Catholic/Protestant denomination expressed a greater willingness to collaborate. Educational interventions are urgently required to facilitate this partnership. PMID:24599283
Irina Aleksandrovna Strakhova
Full Text Available The article discusses the position of the Orthodox clergy in the territory of Belgorod in 1917-1920, when in the new socio-political and economic situation, the Soviet authorities monitor the activities of the clergy, has limited his rights when liquidated prerevolutionary privilege for the clergy, and church lands transferred to public use than undermined the economic foundation of the church and the deteriorating financial situation of the priests. Also the article highlights recessionary trends in the life of priesthood arose when the Soviet power implemented decrees «On Freedom of Worship, church and religious societies» (1918, "On the separation of church and state and school from church" (1918 , «Enactment of establishment of communities» (1919 as well as in the period of expropriation of church valuables in 1922. The analysis of this issue showed that the Soviet government restricted rights of priesthood, its civil rights and weakened the economic base of the Russian orthodox church and its priesthood financial status. But despite of everything, the orthodox priesthood sought a compromise in creating a new model of relationships between and government and the church after 1917.
Ryan, Gregory P; Baerwald, Jeffrey P; McGlone, Gerard
This study was designed to examine hypothesized differences between sex offending and nonoffending Roman Catholic clergy on cognitive mediation abilities as measured by the Rorschach Inkblot Test (H. Rorschach, 1921/1942). This study compared 78 priest pedophiles and 77 priest ephebophiles with 80 nonoffending priest controls on the Inkblot test using J. E. Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System. The three groups were compared on seven variables that constitute Exner's Cognitive Mediation cluster. Additionally, the groups' coping styles were compared to examine the interaction of coping style and cognitive mediational abilities. We found interactions between coping style and offending status across most of the cognitive variables indicating impairment in the mild to pathological ranges. Moreover, significantly higher unusual thinking styles (Xu%) and significantly lower conventional thinking styles (X+%) in offenders compared to nonoffenders. Those with an Extratensive style (n=31) showed significantly higher distorted thinking when compared to the Introversive (n=81), Ambitent (n=73), and Avoidant (n=50) coping styles. This study suggests that offenders display significantly higher distorted thinking styles than do nonoffenders. Possible reasons for these discrepancies and the role of coping styles in abusive behaviors were discussed. PMID:18161043
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the Orthodox Parish Clergy of Romania based on the materials of «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry». The a uthor shows the comparative characteristic of the country and city clergy and considers the level of its education, competency, everyday life and influence on the parish. On the basis of the publications found in «The Kishinev Diocesan Registry» the author analyses widespread among the clergy bribery, drunkenness and dissoluteness. It reveals that the material support and educational process at the seminaries didn't contribute to the increase of the intellectual and moral level of the priests. The article also considers an information about the quantity and the condition of the churches and temples in Romania.
In light of the Royal Commission into Institutional Child Sexual Abuse, this article analyses the custodial sentences of 143 Australian Catholic clergy. The majority of these sentences were for convictions for indecent assault for which the median sentence was two years' imprisonment. It is doubtful whether the Australian community would consider such sentences as adequate, particularly where offences were against children. Current Australian legislation allows for ongoing long-term sanctions, including judicial orders for chemical castration, to be imposed on convicted sex offenders, especially those assessed as being at high risk of re-offending. Clergy on parole are likely to be prohibited from resuming most pastoral responsibilities on the grounds of high actuarial risk of re-offending, but what limited data are available suggests that priests may have low rates of re-offending. If priests do have low rates of recidivism, what then should the Catholic Church do about priests convicted of child sexual abuse offences who want to return to pastoral work and how might they be managed and monitored? Laicisation of offender priests will inevitably produce ostracism and isolation which are conducive to re-offending. PMID:26939512
Manuel Jesús González Manrique
Full Text Available The conquest and colonization of the territory now called Mexico has been a recurrent theme in Mexican film and, of course, the central role that the clergy has played in the evangelization of those lands has been present for the entirety of Mexican cinematography. In this historical genre, the representation of the clergy has varied depending upon historiographic tendencies and the important historic, political, and cultural events of the time that the film was made; in this way, we can see representation of the Catholic Church’s power on a spectrum that ranges from goodness to absolute wickedness. Most of the time these representations are based more on historical perceptions than available documentation. This article will analyze the evolution of clerical figures in conquest films, noting different modes of representation dictated by the official historiographical tendency in the moment that the film was made and presented to the public.
Breen, Michael J; McGee, Hannah; O’Boyle, Ciaran; Goode, Helen; Devereux, Eoin
The Sexual abuse of children became a significant public issue in Ireland in the 1990s, with frequent media reports about the issue. In the main these focused on the issue of abuse of children by members of the clergy and religious orders. Headline cases included the abuse perpetrated by Fr Brendan Smyth, a priest of a religious order who was convicted of multiple counts of sexual abuse of children and subsequently died in prison, and Fr Seán Fortune, a diocesan priest, who committed suicide ...
Spraitz, Jason D; Bowen, Kendra N
The sexual abuse problem in the Catholic Church has received considerable attention by the media in recent years and growing attention from empirical researchers. Despite this growth, there is a lack of theoretical research that uses neutralization techniques to examine clergy offending. Using Sykes and Matza's theory, this study examines the techniques of neutralization used by accused priests in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. Priests' personnel files, which were made publicly available by the Archbishop of Milwaukee in July 2013, were analyzed retrospectively through a qualitative content analysis of all direct statements and correspondences from the accused. The findings indicate that many priests denied responsibility or injury in an effort to justify their sexually abusive behaviors, but that no discernible patterns of technique use emerged. The need for continued research using recently released personnel files from other dioceses is also discussed. PMID:25854588
Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira
Full Text Available The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastical discourse searched opposing to their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.
Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.
Full Text Available Dealing with the legal culture of the clergymen in the late Middle Ages, this study aims to comprehend the coincidence between the spread of a particular type of intellectual training and the consciousness that a social group could have to build its own identity. Three topics are successively discussed. The first part considers the legal studies, especially at the University of Angers where law schools were organized from the 13th century. The second section focuses on the careers of the clergy (university teaching, service of Church and States. The last part is devoted to the study of the private and institutional libraries (abbeys and cathedrals.
Linguagem, saberes e mediação sobrenatural: magia, clerezia e intervenção sobre a natureza no cotidiano e nas representações do Ocidente Medieval = Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West
Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira
their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.
¿«Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? La exención del clero de la ciudad de Nápoles entre las finanzas urbanas y fiscalidad papal (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? The exemption of the clergy of the city of Naples between urban finances and papal taxation (1535-1618 «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? L’esenzione del clero della città di Napoli tra finanze cittadine e fiscalità papale (1535-1618
Massimo Carlo GIANNINI
Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es analizar la construcción de mecanismos de exención del clero de los impuestos sobre el consumo en la ciudad de Nápoles entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de evitar el fraude y contra el pago anual de una suma de dinero, el clero napolitano fue de hecho llamado a pagar los impuestos sobre géneros de amplio consumo. El uso de los fondos de estas «franquicias» pronto se convirtió en objeto de disputa dentro del mismo clero. El Papado rápidamente asumió un papel clave, tanto como fuente de legitimidad de la exacción, cuanto como beneficiario del dinero de las «franquicias» del clero de Nápoles, que fue destinado a la Fabbrica di San Pietro en Roma.The aim of this article is to analyze the construction of mechanisms of exemption of the clergy from excise taxes in the city of Naples between XVIth and XVIIth centuries. In order to avoid fraud and against annual repayment of a sum of money, the Neapolitan clergy was in fact called upon to pay the taxes on certain consumer goods. The use of the proceeds of this «franchigie» soon became the subject of dispute among the clergy. The Papacy quickly assumed a key role, both as legitimizing power for the levy and as the beneficiary of the money of the exemptions of the clergy of Naples, which was allocated for the Fabric of St. Peter’s Church in Rome.Scopo di questo articolo è analizzare la costruzione dei meccanismi di esenzione degli ecclesiastici dalle gabelle nella città di Napoli fra Cinque e Seicento. Al fine di evitare frodi e a fronte del rimborso annuale di una somma di denaro, il clero napoletano era infatti chiamato a pagare le gabelle su alcuni generi di consumo. La destinazione del gettito di tale «franchigia» divenne ben presto oggetto di contrasti all’interno del clero. Il papato assunse ben presto un ruolo chiave, sia come legittimatore del prelievo sia come beneficiario del denaro delle franchigie del clero di Napoli, che furono
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Abrahams, Jocelyn; Hoey, Helen
A case study is presented of a female adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse where the perpetrator was her older brother. The family dynamics are described, emphasizing the physically absent father (a clergyman), the emotionally distant mother, and the surrogate parent status of the perpetrator. The individual's efforts to receive appropriate…
Nagi, Mostafa H.; And Others
Even though Catholic and Protestant clergymen, in about the same proportions, tend to see the terminal patient as competent to make decisions concerning euthanasia, the two groups, strongly agree that neither the individual patient nor the state should be allowed sole responsibility for the decision. (Author)
Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David
A rapidly growing literature indicates that supportive social relationships are associated with better physical and mental health. However, this research further reveals that interaction with others may also be conflicted and unpleasant. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate negative interaction that arises within a social context that…
Full Text Available Mesdames et Messieurs les membres du jury, je voudrais commencer mon exposé en vous remerciant très sincèrement d’avoir accepté de lire mon dossier et de le juger en conséquence. Depuis le moment où j’ai connu la composition définitive du Jury de mon Habilitation, j’ai souvent anticipé ce que notre conversation de cet après-midi pourrait être ; tout en la redoutant, car mon travail contient assurément des erreurs et des affirmations discutables, je l’attends depuis longtemps : très rares sero...
Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.
Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…
Laissez faire or faire mourir. The significance of participation of the clergy in the contract of purchase and sale of annuities in Central Europe between the 14th and the 15th century / Krzysztof Olendzki ; komment. Tiina Kala
Rendiseostust ja -müügist ning kiriklike institutsioonide osalusest selles. Raha tulu saamise eesmärgil väljalaenamist kritiseeriti. Intressi suurust üritati piirata või rendiselepinguid tühistada.
Andrés Eichmann Oehrli
Full Text Available La reflexión sobre el mejor modo de gobernar y de armonizar las potestades civiles y eclesiásticas tuvo particular impulso en La Plata (hoy Sucre, Bolivia, a fines del siglo XVII. El escrito más importante de ese tiempo es un voluminoso tratado del sardo Pedro Frasso, fiscal de dicha Real Audiencia. Algunos de los más encumbrados personajes de la ciudad (entre ellos cinco eclesiásticos elogian a este jurista por medio de cartas que son publicadas en los preliminares de ambos volúmenes del tratado. Me interesa: 1 situar estos paratextos en relación con las controversias en torno al regalismo; 2 delinear el perfil de sus autores; 3 poner a la vista sus argumentos; 4 ensayar respuestas a la pregunta por las motivaciones de su adhesión, así, como por las del silencio de otros.In La Plata (nowadays Sucre, Bolivia, reflections on the best way of governing and harmonizing civil and ecclesiastical authority were of particular interest at the end of the 17Th century. The most important text of that time is a voluminous treatise written by the Sardinian Pedro Frasso, a public prosecutor of the Royal Audience mentioned above. Some of the highest personages of the city (among them five ecclesiastics eulogized this jurist by means of letters published within the preliminaries to the two volumes of the treatise. I would like 1 to situate these paratexts with regard to the controversies about the regalismo; 2 to outline the profile of the authors; 3 to make their argumentation visible; and 4 to explain the motivations of their adhesion while others remained silent.
This article investigates child sexual abuse by Catholic clergy in two jurisdictions, Ireland and the United States. These jurisdictions are selected because most of the research on this topic emanates from the United States and because my own research with Catholic clergy is situated in Ireland. The article begins by taking a critical look at the dominant discourses of child sexual abuse, as these discourses form part of the context in which sexual abuse by Catholic clergy is currently under...
Emilio C. Viano
The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has had a major impact on society’s understanding, approach and effort to protect children.It must be stated and stressed from the beginning that child abuse by the clergy is not limited to the Catholic Church. Clergy, nuns and religious personnel from other denominations, Christian or not, have also been accused and at times convicted of child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Moreover, a substantial amount of abuse has been perpetrated by ...
Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial…
Full Text Available ... for depression. Treatment options include counseling, anti-depressant medicine or a combination. Confide in someone you trust, such as a family member, friend or a clergy person. Those close ...
Emerging data suggests that as children, gay males have an increased risk for physical and sexual abuse. Anecdotal evidence suggests that a significant subset of children abused by clergy identify as gay as adults. However, we know very little about the impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse in childhood on the development and psychosocial functioning of gay men. This article describes the incidence of childhood abuse in the lives of gay men and the probable impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse. In the treatment of gay men sexually abused as children, including those abused by clergy, providers should use a normative frame for gay identity development such as the Homosexual Identity Formation Model. This treatment model, highlighted with case material, is also discussed. PMID:19042606
Despite the occasional mutterings in the public press and the rare suggestion in the empirical literature, there is no evidence to suggest that Catholic clergy enter clerical and religious life with the purpose of gaining access to children to abuse them. In fact, the most comprehensive research ever carried out on sexual abuse by Catholic clergy, conducted by researchers in the United States (John Jay Study, 2011), reports that whatever else formed the men’s motivation for joining, there is ...
Payne, Jennifer Shepard
Depression is a major, preventable problem in the United States, yet relatively few individuals seek care in traditional mental health settings. Instead, many choose to confide in friends, family, or clergy. Thus, it is important to discover how clergy perceive the definition of and etiology of depression. The author conducted a survey with 204 Protestant pastors in California. Multinomial logistic regression revealed a statistically significant difference in how depression is perceived based...
Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P
Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....
Sullivan, Greer; Hunt, Justin; Haynes, Tiffany F.; Bryant, Keneshia; Cheney, Ann M.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Reaves, Christina; Sullivan, Steve; Lewis, Caleb; Barnes, Bonita; Barnes, Michael; Hudson, Cliff; Jegley, Susan; Larkin, Bridgette; Russell, Shane; White, Penny; Gilmore, LaNissa; Claypoole, Sterling; Smith, Rev. Johnny; Richison, Ruth
Background The Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program established partnerships between institutional (Department of Veterans’ Affairs [VA] chaplains, mental health providers) and community (local clergy, parishioners) groups to develop programs to assist rural veterans with mental health needs. Objectives Describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Mental Health–Clergy Partnership Program in three Arkansas towns between 2009 and 2012. Methods Researchers identified three rural Arkansas sites, established local advisory boards, and obtained quantitative ratings of the extent to which partnerships were participatory. Results Partnerships seemed to become more participatory over time. Each site developed distinctive programs with variation in fidelity to original program goals. Challenges included developing trust and maintaining racial diversity in local program leadership. Conclusions Academics can partner with local faith communities to create unique programs that benefit the mental health of returning veterans. Research is needed to determine the effectiveness of community based programs, especially relative to typical “top-down” outreach approaches. PMID:24859098
Ricardo Arias Trujillo.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the different challenges faced by the Colombian clergy during the 1960s and the way in which it tried to ad-dress them. It starts from the central assumption that the Catholic hierarchy in Colombia wanted to ignore the profound changes occurring in Colombian society and opposed the reorientations stemming from the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965 and the Second Latin American Episcopal Conference (Medellín, 1968. Far from reexamining its traditional positions, the Colombian clergy hardened its intransigent and deep-rooted discourse, and struggled to preserve a series of values and privileges that ever-growing sections of the society deemed anachronistic. In this way, the Colombian clergy, suspicious of any change, delayed its renovation, at least until the 1990s.
COELHO, Maria Helena da Cruz
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main axes of the project DEGRUPE whose principal objective is to study the role of the clergy in the construction of the Iberian monarchies and mobility circuits designed by these protagonists. To fulfill this objective, the interuniversity project team of DEGRUPE opted for a comparative perspective between different kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The second part of this paper consists of a brief analysis of the underlying historiographical framework of the project including mainly research on relationship between clergy and royalty in the middle ages.
Alla V. Shadrina
Full Text Available After 1941, in the Soviet Union, many churches were reopened due to the Great Patriotic War, and as a consequence of it, the clerical social group began to form again. The selected questionnaires of the priests of the Rostov Region published for the first time, show that the clergy of the Rostov Diocese of the 1940s and 1950s was characterized by heterogeneity. The priests who became members of the clergy of that time, in their majority, considered their service as a survival strategy.
Alexander, E. Curtis
Reported are the author's personal accounts of a tour of Grenada to determine the extent to which Marxist-Leninist thought was being taught in schools, the relationship between the clergy and the government of Grenada, and whether the new international airport posed a threat to U.S. national security. In the new educational system, a Centre for…
Francis, Leslie J.; Jones, Susan H.
Some of the Gospel passages proposed for Disability Awareness Sunday raise challenges as well as opportunities for preachers. This paper reports findings from an educational exercise, drawing on insights from the SIFT approach to biblical hermeneutics, in which 23 Anglican clergy studied Mark 2: 1-12 and Mark 10: 46-52 in groups structured…
Хитровська Ю. В.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis of the Rome-Catholic Church political position in the Right-Bank Ukraine to Russian autocracy in the 19th— early 20th ct. For the investigating of this problem author used scientific literature, archives documents and the materials of the periodical press. Rome-Catholic Church in the Right-Bank Ukraine on the whole supported the policy of the autocracy, because the most religion ministers of this confession satisfied social security, which gave them Russian government. But existing of social stratificationon also seriously influenced on their official position , because among clergy of this confession were as hierarchs, as a simple clergy. Their political positions often did not coincide. Church’s hierarchs on the whole supported Russian autocracy. Simple clergy often had another, non-official position, display of opposition. Anti-Catholic Church’s policy of government which played vital importance role in forming of Rome-Catholic clergy political position was also very important in this situation.
Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.
While much research has outlined the importance of intra-psychic factors in predicting workplace success, it is rare that attention is given to the development of these factors in training for human service professions (e.g. psychology, clergy, nursing). Accordingly, the present study explores differences in self-concept, a key intra-psychic…
Tuttle, Tara M.
The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…
United Methodist minister David Jenkins was meeting with fellow clergy last year in the small Kansas community of Sharon Springs when one of the pastors made what sounded like a routine request. He noted that the Todd Becker Foundation was coming to town, and the evangelical Christian organization, which purports to warn youngsters about the…
Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.
Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…
Stevens, Robert E.; And Others
In a survey, 150 individuals evaluated 7 professions on prestige, honesty and ethical standards, importance to society, and interesting and challenging nature of occupation. Overall, university professors were rated lower than doctors, dentists, pharmacists, and clergy; the same as lawyers; and higher than bankers. Respondent income, age, and…
PhD. Bugiulescu Marin
Full Text Available Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry
Nillsen, C.; Earl, J. K.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L.
This study explored whether congruence, calling, job characteristics or personality were better predictors of job satisfaction and tenure. The sample consisted of 1968 employees across four different job roles: sales engineers (N = 309), graphic designers (N = 383), teachers (N = 481) and clergy (N = 795). Data was collected as part of a selection…
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
McKenna, Judy; Miller, Jacque; Curtis, Lisa
Acknowledging the pain and loss senior citizens experience due to fraud, the Denver District Attorney's Office launched a campaign--"Clergy Against Senior Exploitation (CASE)"--to reduce fraud perpetrated on older persons. The thrust of this project was preventing fraud by educating older adults through their religious affiliations in order to…
PhD. Bugiulescu Marin
Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry
München : Oldenbourg Verlag, 2011, s. 147-183. ISBN 978-3-486-70661-1. - (Veröffentlichungen des Collegium Carolinum. 122) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Social network * Church * clergy Subject RIV: AB - History
Šimůnek, Robert; Doležalová, Eva
München : Oldenbourg Verlag, 2011, s. 1-12. ISBN 978-3-486-70661-1. - (Veröffentlichungen des Collegium Carolinum. 122) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Social network * Church * clergy Subject RIV: AB - History
Stephens, Darryl W.
Clergy often begin their ministerial careers unprepared to handle issues of professional power, sexuality and intimacy, and interpersonal boundaries. In response, denominational bodies and theological schools are seeking together ways to enhance the teaching of "professional sexual ethics"--referring to the integration of professional ethics,…
Teague, James Brian
In 2002, in light of the sexual abuse crisis in the Catholic church, The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops established "The charter for the Protection of Children and Young People" that mandated safe environment training for clergy personnel, and volunteers working in the Catholic church. In this study, under the auspices of a…
McCarthy, Joseph M.
The "Transylvanian School," a group mainly composed of clergy of the Transylvanian Uniate Church, was chiefly responsible for originating and fostering the myth of the Roman origins of the Romanian people, elaborating it in works of history, in schoolbooks, and in grammars and dictionaries. The major figure of the group, Gheorge Sincai, had the…
... to become problem drinkers than people with low self-esteem. Where Can I Get Help? If you think you have a drinking problem, get help as soon as possible. The best approach is to talk to an adult you trust. If you can't approach your parents, talk to your doctor, school counselor, clergy member, ...
López Ulloa, José Luis
This thesis focuses on the Mexican Revolution and on the opposition strategies followed by the opponents of the revolutionary regime who lived in the region known as Los Altos de Jalisco. In this particular region, the Catholic population, supported by the Clergy, was in constant conflict with the r
During the Enlightenment of eighteenth-century France, the encyclopedists created a systematic compilation of all human knowledge in order to dispel current disinformation imposed by kings and clergy. The resultant Encyclopedie has been considered the turning point of the Enlightenment, where knowledge became power and the power was made…
The article discusses choreographer Liz Lerman's work with clergy, faith practitioners, and communities in the merging of religious themes with dance. Throughout the article, Lerman raises questions and provides answers that address her investigation of the power of creativity, prayer, ritual and performance, as well as artistry, spirituality,…
¿«Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? La exención del clero de la ciudad de Nápoles entre las finanzas urbanas y fiscalidad papal (1535-1618) «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? The exemption of the clergy of the city of Naples between urban finances and papal taxation (1535-1618) «Ad conservandam ecclesiasticam immunitatem»? L’esenzione del clero della città di Napoli tra finanze cittadine e fiscalità papale (1535-1618)
Giannini, Massimo Carlo
El propósito de este artículo es analizar la construcción de mecanismos de exención del clero de los impuestos sobre el consumo en la ciudad de Nápoles entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Con el fin de evitar el fraude y contra el pago anual de una suma de dinero, el clero napolitano fue de hecho llamado a pagar los impuestos sobre géneros de amplio consumo. El uso de los fondos de estas «franquicias» pronto se convirtió en objeto de disputa dentro del mismo clero. El Papado rápidamente asumió un pa...
Rebecca Klemme Eliceiri
Full Text Available Theological (seminary and congregational libraries in the Christian and Jewish religious traditions have coexisted in some fashion since their beginnings; however, little research exists regarding the relationship between these related-but-distinct library types. This essay explores the relationship between these types of libraries through a survey of their literatures and available statistics, considering their histories and contexts within the broader religious and library worlds, as well as their current relationship in light of their diverse religious institutions. The roles of these libraries will be examined regarding religious, theological, and information literacies as well as exploring their staffs, their staff's education, funding, library hours, their goals, objectives, and outcomes, particularly regarding the changing landscape of religious and theological education for both clergy and laypeople. It concludes with future possibilities in the religious library world in a congregational landscape that often cannot afford full-time, traditionally-theologically-educated clergy, much less paid congregational librarians.
Contemporary settled democracies, including the United States, England and Wales and Ireland, have witnessed a string of high profile cases of institutional child abuse in both church and state settings. Set against the broader literature on transitional justice, this analysis argues that there are significant barriers to truth recovery within the particular context of historical institutional abuse by the clergy in the Republic of Ireland. In the main, I argue that the frameworks of the inqu...
Dolní Břežany : Scriptorium, 2000 - (Pešek, J.), s. 150-153 ISBN 80-86197-22-0. [Sjezd českých historiků /8./. Hradec Králové (CZ), 10.09.1999-12.09.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8015903 Keywords : history * clergy * ordination Subject RIV: AB - History
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Sharp, Erin Colleen
While there is abundant research and literature on the transition to becoming a mother while working and on mothers and work-life balance, literature on clergy and, in particular, clergywomen and work-life balance is scarce. This study contributes to that literature by utilizing role theory and grounded theory methods to investigate the experience of 12 clergywomen who negotiated maternity leave with their congregations and the implications of that process on how they understood and managed ...
The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis examines factors relating to youth interest in joining the Navy among the Hispanic population in South-Central Los Angeles, California. The study begins with a comprehensive review of literature on Hispanics of Mexican origin. Informatio on youth interest in the Navy is gleaned from personal interviews with teachers, counselors, JROTC instructors, military recruiters, and local clergy. The results suggest that Hispanic yout...
Chiung Hwang Chen
In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules), regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas an...
Komlósi, Péter Attila
This thesis examines the transformation of the clergy in the late sixteenth century Scotland in which ministerial training had a crucial role to play both in the academia and in the Kirk. In order to demonstrate this transformation attention will be focused on the training of ministers at the Town College, Edinburgh and then following the unfolding of their ecclesiastical career including the ‘exercise’. The foundation of the ‘Tounis College’ in Edinburgh is placed within the b...
Robert M. Vanderbeck; Gill Valentine; Kevin Ward; Joanna Sadgrove; Johan Andersson
Recent discussions of the international Anglican Communion have been dominated by notions of a 'crisis' and 'schism' resulting from conflicts over issues of homosexuality. Existing accounts of the Communion have often tended to emphasise the perspectives of those most vocal in the debates (particularly bishops, senior clergy, and pressure groups) or to engage in primarily theological analysis. This article examines the nature of the purported 'crisis' from the perspectives of Anglicans in loc...
Gielen, Pascal; Laermans, Rudi
With modernity arriving in the world of arts, the clergy and the nobility were deprived from their monopoly in artistic selection. This created a permanent problem within modern art industry very soon. The fact is that the question of what exactly renders art into Art became a favourite mind-bending issue for historians, scientists, philosophers and sociologists of art. The same problem of the discovery of dance talent arose with the 'commencing' of contemprary dance in Flanders. We went out ...
First discovered by accident in 1884 – and thereafter informally investigated by workmen, nuns and clergy, for several decades – the archaeological site at the Sisters of Nazareth convent in central Nazareth has remained unpublished and largely unknown to scholarship. However, work by the Nazareth Archaeological Project in 2006–10 showed that this site offers a full and important stratified sequence from ancient Nazareth, including well-preserved Early Roman-period and later features. These i...
Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance
This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms ...
Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire) and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lan...
Steve O. Michael
What constitutes the curricular experience for the award of a baccalaureate degree has never been static and could not have been expected to be if higher education is to fulfill its role to a dynamic society. Since the creation of the modern university, the role of higher education has continued to expand, initially serving to prepare the clergy for the church, later to prepare statesmen, much later to prepare the general citizens for gainful employment. Although performed differently by diff...
The past decade (1990s) in Ireland has witnessed numerous high profile child abuse scandals, some involving members of the clergy and others occurring in institutions for children in care. A problem that was once seldom or never discussed is now very much in the public arena. The End of Innocence describes the background to the scandals uncovered during the 1990s and the reactions to them, and then provides a thorough understanding of all the issues surrounding child sexual abuse. Leading pra...
Until the Middle Ages the clergy were the most educated class in the history of mankind – science and religion were one. In the Middle Ages, religion distanced itself from the science that led to the rise of materialism, idealism and atheism. Religion is not developed, and science has progressed and today not only confirms the validity of certain religious dogmas, but corrects and clarifies the understanding of a number of religious delusions, including the scientific understanding of the Hol...
I read the Letters page of the latest issue of the JBAA (2000 October) with some amusement. My very good friend Bob Evans had, according to the letter header, not only been elevated to the clergy, but had also transferred his nationality from Kiwi to Aussie. While he'll probably overlook the religious error he may not be so sanguine about being mistaken for an Australian.
This thesis offers an account of dualist heresy in medieval Aquitaine. The first part asserts that the heresy referred to in early eleventh-century sources was dualist and originated in Balkan Bogomilism. It does this by combining two established methodologies. Through the first, reading the sources in their social context, it finds the poor experiencing increased poverty and oppression, and that some amongst the laity and clergy were observing signs prefiguring The End of historical time. No...
Fener-Greek Ortadox Patriarchate has claimed to be the Ecumenical Patriarchate and Halki Theological Seminary to he opened as a training facility for Ortodox clergy all over the world. In this respect the Patriarchate has requested the Turkish Government either Turkish citizenship or work permits be granted for non-Turkish personnel and non- Turkish pishops so that they work in Turkey and vote in the Patriarch elections.The requests of the Patriarchate by either itself or through foreign powe...
The Ptolemies, the last Pharaohs, took over a country with a high standing civilization and a mighty clergy, receiving at the same time numerous Greek immigrants. They were able to maintain the control over Greeks and Egyptians by balancing between innovation and tradition and by bargaining with the elite groups (Greek and priestly elite).1 This paper on selling procedures is a test case for this general statement. Evidence of the Egyptian chora will be discussed, constituti...
Álvarez Icaza Longoria, María Teresa
Since 1750 Archbishop Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordered the taking place of the transference to clerics from doctrines previously administered by the regular clergy. Several of the secularized curates used to have a vast territory, the Diocesan prelate decided to divide them. As there were more parishes, a higher number of the clerics could have more chance to get accommodation. In addition, argued Rubio, the parishioners were favored because it improved their spiritual administration. The estab...
Full Text Available Contemporary study of history approaches popular witchcraft and magic folk culture as concepts associated with cultural dichotomies: popular culture versus high culture. The component of magic is considered most characteristic of popular culture. Aron Gurevich constructs medieval folk culture from the aspect of magic by means of early medieval books of penitence. This material, however, does not allow such construction for two reasons: firstly, the content information, and secondly, the articles on superstition and magic in the books of penitence are not targeted at peasantry. Quite conspicuously, it is often the clergy that is accused of witchcraft. The letters of witchcraft (charms, mostly spread in written form, were accessible for the literate clergy. Thus the early medieval witchcraft was clerical rather than popular. The access to the tradition of witchcraft texts makes the clergy an expert of witchcraft, to whom the people turn for advice and who are therefore persecuted in the Late Middle Ages. Therefore, witchcraft formulae moved in the downward direction.
Full Text Available Th e present work aims to show the main elements of the legal culture of the clergy in the 14th century-Hungary. Th e starting point is the explanation of the notion “legal culture”, the presentation of its three main elements, the legal service at the royal court, the activities of the loca credibilia and of the ecclesiastical courts, the personal legal culture. Th e paper shows not only the connection of the legal culture and the development of the bureaucratic writing, the chancellery, but the eff ects of the university studies as well, its main turning points and periods (Paris, Bologna, Padova, with a special focus on the Angevin era (14th century. We can state that the legal culture of Hungarian clergy underwent several changes in this era. With the laicisation of the bureaucratic activities, the royal court needed representatives who had legal experiences for its international aff airs, thus it favoured the change of the legal culture of the clergy at the court. Th e same period is also very important because of the ecclesiastical and secular justice. Several elements of personal legal culture (e. g. collection are also presented.
Elena CATALÁN MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: A pesar de que teóricamente el clero estaba exento de impuestos, a partir de mediados del siglo XVI se le incluyó entre los contribuyentes habituales de la Hacienda real a través del Subsidio y del Excusado. Sus protestas por tributar en ambas gracias acabaron con la concertación de las mismas en un tanto alzado, fosilizado durante siglo y medio, consiguiendo una estabilidad contributiva que a la larga beneficiaría a la Iglesia. La estabilidad nominal de los impuestos eclesiásticos unido al pago de los mismos en una moneda devaluada con una serie de ventajas adicionales hizo que la carga contributiva descendiera en términos relativos.ABSTRACT: The Spanish clergy was free tax. As from second half of the sixteenth century, the clergy was included between usual taxpayers of Royal Finances through the Subsidio and the Excusado. The clergy's protests finished with compound a tax lump-sum which lay over the one century and half. During seventeenth century, the lump-sum payment, the devaluation to vellón and others advantages in the tax-payment did that the tax pressure would have descended comparatively.
Sterkhov Dmitry Vladimirovich
Full Text Available The article touches upon the impact of the religion on the national consciousness of European nations in the 19th century. As an example of this impact can serve the sermons of the German protestant clergy dedicated to the victory of the German and Allied troops over Napoleon armies in the Battle of Leipzig on 16–19 October, 1813. On the battlefield of Leipzig there emerged a very powerful national myth, partly created by means of the patriotic preaching of German pastors. This myth of Leipzig, propagandized by the protestant clergy, consisted of several components; one of them was the popular idea of “God’s Judgment” which was imposed by God on Napoleon and the French nation. The salvation of Germany was thus explained by God’s direct intervention in the Liberation Wars against France. The pastors create a dark and unattractive image of Napoleon who is exposed as tyrant, theomachist and even Antichrist. Not less negative is the image of the French who are described in the sermons as unreligious and immoral. Their direct opposites are the Germans whom the protestant preachers endow with such qualities as piety and morality. In the eyes of the pastors the Germans constitute a single nation united by common features, such as the German language, the German traditions and the German religiousness. As considerable national symbols in the sermons appear the German national heroes such as Martin Luther, the Swedish King Gustav Adolph and the most notable hero Hermann, the leader of one of the ancient German tribes. Consequently the French are compared with ancient Romans who overindulged in sins and immorality and were defeated by the brave Germans with the help of God. As a result the German protestant clergy contribute to the creating of the myth of Leipzig which became a considerable symbol of the German national history.
The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust
Borràs Matamoros, Noelia
Charles III's decision to open Alfacs harbour to foreign trade with America.in 1778 led to the development of a series of projects in the area of Ràpita which culminated in the founding of a new village. It was planned the fortification of the bay by building three gun batteries and opening a navigable channel between Ràpita and Amposta to facilitate trade along the Ebre river. Due to the land claims of the peasantry, nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie, the structure of land ownership in ...
Hart, Curtis W
This essay is an exploration of the development of moral imagination as an important outcome in the teaching of medial ethics. It is contextualized within the growth of professionalism and pays attention to the formation of character of physicians in their formal training and in the first phase of their careers. Issues around formation as it is understood historically in the vocation of the clergy are also considered. Finally, there is discussion of the place rites of passage as they figure in the lives of those who teach medical ethics. PMID:26519262
Archambault, Elizabeth; Schuster, Jennifer; Richardson, Peter; Moye, Jennifer
Research on the relationship between religious coping and psychological well-being in cancer survivors is limited. Forty-eight veteran cancer survivors completed measures of psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, and positive and negative religious coping. Negative religious coping was associated with greater distress and growth. Positive religious coping was associated with greater growth. Gender, race, and religious affiliation were significant predictors of positive and negative religious coping. Veteran cancer survivors who utilize negative religious coping may benefit from referral to clergy or a mental health professional. Assessment of religious coping may be particularly important for female, non-White, and Christian cancer survivors. PMID:21822744
Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA) began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that ther...
Minow, Martha Louise
Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...
Velázquez Bonilla, María Carmela
The article analyzes the political and administrative changes carried out in the Diocese of Nicaragua and Costa Rica from the reforms proposed by the Bourbon crown. It also examines the period before and after independence. In these processes we will seek to know what the role of the Church and its clergy was. The changes are manifested equally in the religious, as the main brotherhoods, which were the main source of the devotions of their patron saints and the Holy Week processions, saw thei...
Dembinski, Paul H.
On the 29 of June 2009, the Pope Benedict XVIth published Caritas in Veritate, his third encyclical letter. It was addressed to the clergy but also to “lay faithful and all people of good will”. In the two papers assembled here under one single title, the author enters in dialogue with the Papal encyclical from the perspective of an economist interested in ethical issues related specially to finance. > First paper “Incompleteness of Economy and Business: A Forceful Reminder” is to be publishe...
Glenna S. Jackson
Full Text Available In the article the author reflected on her personal and existential experience of a journey to Egypt, and how this highlights radical inclusivity. The article focused on the issues of the violence of poverty, the history of Coptic Christianity and the role of women within this tradition. The article touched on aspects such as ‘women monks’, ecclesiastical hierarchy in modern Coptic Christianity, and the ordination of clergy. It also considered the perspective of ‘social hierarchy’ and ‘spiritual or divine hierarchy’.
Norberto Pablo Cirio
Through its history, one can see traces of African roots in the popular cult of San Baltazar in Argentina. In spite of starting as an imposed devotion by the clergy and the Spanish Crown to the slaves in the middle of 18th Century, early the later could insert their own cultural traditions, producing a sort of sui generis syncretism.Now days, those traditions are present in some religious ceremonies, especially in the devotional area. So far they consider that he is the patron saint of the jo...
Marcelo Alejandro Bonnassiolle Cortés
The Chilean anarchist anti-clericalism, was a mix of anti-theism, atheism and critique everything about the Church and religion, was part and defined the political culture anarchist of period as it was the result of a way of understanding social reality supported by the complicity of the church with the power State, oligarchy and capitalism. This speech had a dual role as one hand denounce this complexity church-State-capital and other cultural practices attacked the clergy and everything aro...
Clarke, J N
This paper argues that the work of the contemporary physician is at least in part the work of a moral entrepreneur. The effects of religious affiliation and religiosity on the decision making of a modern doctor are examined in an analysis of the responses of 231 physicians to a mailed questionnaire. Decision-making issues were considered to be those with social/moral implications. Religious physicians tend to favor clergy involvement in social and procreative issues. Roman Catholic physicians oppose the involvement of the medical profession in birth control issues. PMID:24310078
Marcelo Alejandro Bonnassiolle Cortés
Full Text Available The Chilean anarchist anti-clericalism, was a mix of anti-theism, atheism and critique everything about the Church and religion, was part and defined the political culture anarchist of period as it was the result of a way of understanding social reality supported by the complicity of the church with the power State, oligarchy and capitalism. This speech had a dual role as one hand denounce this complexity church-State-capital and other cultural practices attacked the clergy and everything around him.
Sweden was transformed to a democratic industrial society in the late 19th century. Political influence had been bound to the four estates, nobles, clergy, burghers and farmers. The reforms of the 1860s moved Sweden towards political democracy with universal suffrage. At the national level a two-chamber parliament was established in 1866. Political power should now be a function of economic status. The right to vote was seen as a right for those who paid taxes and contributed to the community...
The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.
Fabricio Lyrio Santos
Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil.
Fabricio Lyrio Santos
Full Text Available This paper discusses the transformation process of the Indian villages (called «aldeias» into parishes, in the Archdiocese of Bahia, from the new guidelines issued in the Pombaline period concerning indigenous and colonial policy. This process occurred in the last months of the year 1758 driven by a special tribunal of the «Mesa da Consciência e Ordens», introduced in Bahia, chaired by the diocesan prelate and attended by three royal ministers from Lisbon. The replacement of the Jesuits by priests contributed to a greater involvement of the secular clergy with indigenous issues in Brazil
The present paper describes the position of catholic, protestant and orthodox Churches concerning the various aspects of organ retrieval and transplantation. The official position of the catholic Church, defined by the pope favors these activities if they respond to strict rules. The absence of magisterium in the protestant and orthodox Churches causes sometimes divergent opinions among the members of the clergy. However, there are convergences between the three religions. Theologians who are in favour of organ transplantation promote organ donation but consider that it is not mandatory. They do not admit the principle of presumed consent and organ commerce is expressly forbidden. PMID:18705602
Ю. В. Хитровська
Full Text Available This article strives to analyze issues of alienation of Ukrainian peasantry from official Church institutions in Right-bank Ukraine during the first half of 19th cent. Changing the official status and russification of Orthodox Church in Right-bank Ukraine created the blank wall of mistrust and hostility between many lo-cal parishioners and clergy, caused peasant antichurch disturbances, weakened ideological influence of Church on all layers of the society. However, the majority of Ukrainian peasants retained traditional worship practices, original understanding of Christian ideas, Church and clergy as institutions. As a result of this reality of Christian life in Ukraine and particularly Right-bank Ukraine, two types of religious approaches began to coexist: the first one was imposed by the church and other official institutions, and the other one based on folk Christianity, which relied on Christian elements and pagan naturalist worldview. Peasant religiosity in the face of these reforms, as well as after abolition of many rights, went through substantial changes, but nevertheless it remained a spiritual factor which to a large extent determined future of the peasantry.
Full Text Available Before the Croatian-Slavonian parliamentary elections in 1897, two oppositional parties formed the so called United Opposition which was backed by large segments of the clergy. Afraid, variously, of liberalism, the Hungarian church reforms, the ideas of social democracy and the demands for secularization, the United Opposition chose antisemitism as a political means. Supported by the Catholic paper (Katolički list and its editor in chief Stjepan Korenić, who openly called for the clergy to organize politically, they blamed Jews for all the putative threats of the modern world. For the first time an election campaign in Croatia-Slavonia had open antisemitic traits. The author shows the impact of antisemitic ideas within some parts of the Croatian opposition since the 1880s, including political Catholicism and the United Opposition, down to the turn of the century. The paper considers in addition the role of the Catholic newspaper and the press in general in the antisemitic campaign in 1897, as well as in the distribution of antisemitic ideas in the 1880s and 1890s in the Habsburg crownland Croatia-Slavonia.
Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R
Religious congregations are uniquely poised to provide programs to support survivors of violence against women; yet little is known regarding the prevalence of such programs. In this study, we used data from three waves of the National Congregation Study (N = 3334) to examine change across time in the presence of a congregational program to support survivors of sexual assault or domestic violence. We also explored results among different Christian religious traditions across time. Given the gendered nature of this violence, we also tested whether the (a) gender of the head clergy (i.e., religious leader), and (b) ability of women to serve in congregational leadership roles predicted the presence of programs. As points of comparison, we also examined the total number of congregational social service programs and food programs in particular. Overall, we found different patterns of change across religious traditions for the different programs. Moreover, clergy gender and the ability of women to serve in leadership roles predicted the presence of different types of programs. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research also are discussed. PMID:27233477
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching suggests that the reading and proclaiming of scripture reflects the psychological type preferences of the reader and preacher. This thesis is examined among a sample of clergy (training incumbents and curates serving in the one Diocese of the Church of England (N = 22. After completing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the clergy worked in groups (designed to cluster individuals who shared similar psychological type characteristics to reflect on and to discuss the Advent call of John the Baptist. The Marcan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the perceiving functions (sensing and intuition in light of its rich narrative. The Lucan account was chosen for the exercise exploring the judging functions (thinking and feeling in light of the challenges offered by the passage. In accordance with the theory, the data confirmed characteristic differences between the approaches of sensing types and intuitive types, and between the approaches of thinking types and feeling types.
Esteban Alemán Ruiz
Full Text Available Las quejas por el crecimiento desproporcionado del clero bajo los AUstrias no fueron privativas de los reinos peninsulares de la Corona de Castilla. En Canarias también las hubo, aunque la voces contrarias d Id proliferación de conventos y monasterios y -en menor medida- a la amorti7ación de la tierra, se escucharon comparativamente tarde (después del primer tercio del XVII y, sobre todo, en la segunda mitad del siglo. Al igual que en otros territorios de la Monarquía hispánica, la crítica procedió del mundo seglar, pero también de dentro del propio estamento eclesiástico. La protesta del primero se organizó en torno a los concejos o cabildos insulares (aunque no faltó la del vecindario sin mediación institucional, a la cabeza de todos el de Tenerife, isla que contaba con el clero secular más numeroso del Archipi6lago y donde se fundó la mayor cantidad -con diferencia- de casas de religión. También el episcopado, el cabildo catedralicio y el clero parroquia se opusieron a lo que entendían como un aumento desmedido de la fundaciones del clero regular, en ocasiones en perfecta sintonía con las autoridades seglares, si bien su comportamiento no se comprende al margen de la conflictividad intestina del estamento (lo cual, sumado a la competencia por la captación de limosnas y rentas, explica las críticas vertidas por unas órdenes religiosas contra otras. El estudio de estas posturas -y de los casos particulares a través de los cuales se manifestaron habitualmente- apenas si puede ser esbozado, dado el estado actual de nuestros conocimientos sobre el tenia. No obstante, todo apunta a que semejante conciencia de saturación obedeció -en parte, al menos- a un crecimiento del clero en las Islas desequilibrado desde los puntos de vista demográfico, económico y espacial.The complaints due to the desproptionate increasement of fhe clergy in the reign of the Spanish Habsburgs were not exclusive of the territories in the mainland of
Ю. В. Хитровська
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.
Leila Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available This text is linked to the aspects of power relations in the Vita Sancti Aemiliani in Vita Sancti Fructuosi and autobiography of Valério of Bierzo: Christianization and ecclesiastical reorganization of the Visigothic kingdom in the seventh century, funded by CNPq. Among other assumptions, this research recognizes that the ecclesiastical authorities at the beginning of the Middle Ages worked for the promotion of a comprehensive education program, which was associated with standardization and education of lay and clergy. In this process, the hagiographic literature has assumed a prominent place. Considering the autobiography written by Valerius of Bierzo as an expression of the hagiographic genre, it is intended in this article, based on the historiographical reflections of ecclesiastical activity in the Hispanic peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries, discussing the role played by the devil in such a report, sometimes more sharply expression a literary topos, now speaker of the specific situation of the author.
Alin Cristian Scridon
Full Text Available The church press published important documents regarding the religious life of Romanians from Transylvania and Banat. This publication also included details regarding the religious life of the school from Banat. The Biserica şi Şcoala magazinewas published in the western historical Banat, in Arad. This was possible due to the fact that Timisoara, the most important city in Banat, had a Romanian Orthodox Deanery that was dependent on the Diocese of Arad, before the establishment of the Diocese of Timisoara in 1939.The Caransebes Diocese’ magazine Foaia Diecezană (The Diocesan Sheet provided the clergy and the faithful with information on Christian spirituality. Along the aforementioned magazines, there were a few newspapers which have enriched this field's literature. Based on those covered by the study, we find that the media made an overwhelming contribution to the dissemination of the biblical information during that particular period of time.
Full Text Available The accommodation and management of diversity at congregational levelDiversity is becomming a prominent phenomenon of our society within a postmodern context. Many clergy and church members believe it threatens the peace and stability of churches and local congregations. Seemingly, diversity contributes to the escalation of conflict and the stress levels church leaders are experiencing. This article attempts to analize and describe the phenomenon of diversity from the angles of postmodernity, personality preferences and systems thinking. The research is based upon the hypothesis that diversity does not necessarily threaten the unity of local congregations. The manifestation of unity within diversity is only possible if leaders are sensitized to manage the challenges of pluriformity.
Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H
A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience. PMID:25569780
Moreno Seco, Mónica
Full Text Available This article studies the situation of the Church in the diocese of Orihuela- Alicante during the years of the Spanish transition. Here are watched the differents attitudes of hierarchy, clergy, and the secular movements in view of the new politic situation that was horning in 1975.
Este artículo estudia la situación de la Iglesia en la diócesis de Orihuela- Alicante durante los años de la transición española. En él se observan las distintas actitudes de la jerarquía, el clero y los movimientos seglares ante la nueva situación política que nacía en 1975.
The "pharmacopoeia or collection of divine remedies found in the documents of an old rural priest after his death" is a publication of nearly 400 pages including a long list of diseases with their associated treatments, followed by several recipes for the day to day life (such as: how to preserve wine, how to produce Champagne's wine, recipes for filler paste, etc.). A last part, very unique, is dedicated to evil spells, i.e. to diseases that do not have natural explanations and for which Saint Benoit's medal works wonders, according to the author. This pharmacopoeia of 1864 is a typical example of "incoherent collection" mentioned by Tardieu in 1862 concerning clergy and pharmacy. It is, from that point of view, the archetype that pharmacists wanted to see disappearing after the law of germinal year XI (1803), but that persisted until the beginning of the XXth century: the illegal practice of pharmacy by priests and nuns. PMID:27281931
Chiung Hwang Chen
Full Text Available In 2001, during an academic conference on Humanistic Buddhism in Taipei, Venerable Shi Zhaohui, accompanied by a few Buddhist clergy and laypeople, tore apart a copy of the Eight Garudhammas (Eight Heavy Rules, regulations that govern the behavior of Buddhist nuns. Zhaohui's symbolic act created instant controversy as Taiwan's Buddhist community argued about the rules' authenticity and other issues within Buddhist monastic affairs. This paper examines the debate over the Eight Garudhammas and situates the debate within Taiwan's cultural terrain as well as the worldwide Buddhist feminist movement. I argue that while Zhaohui's call resulted in the abolishment of the rules neither at home nor abroad, it profoundly affected nuns' position in Buddhism and contributed to broader discussions on women and religion. In making this argument, I revisit the impact of Western feminism (and Western Buddhist feminists on Eastern religions and reconsider the tensions this relationship encompasses.
Manuel Tamayo Hurtado
Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the presence of the evolution in secondary education textbooks used en Chile since 1902 to 2003. Textbooks analysis of secondary education shows the disputes between evolutionisms and their opponents. Members of the clergy participated actively as antievolutionisms and several of the most outstanding evolutionisms were liberal and francmasones. The text of Bernardino Quijada marked a landmark and polarized to those in favor and detractors during half century. The evolutionary subject was reduced in second half of century XX, partly by the development of other biological fields, but also by ideological pressures of preservative religious sectors. During the last reforms, evolutionary theory oscillates between the compulsory and the optative contents of the programs of Chilean secondary education.
Dalín Miranda Salcedo.
Full Text Available The following article explores the rhetoric of the Catholic Church in Barranquilla during a period of political and juridical instability. The struggle between Liberals and Conservatives in their attempt to build a nation according to their own ideological interests led the Church to adhere to the political project of the Conservative party since it supported and vindicated the principles of Roman Catholicism principles. Therefore, those who rejected the authority of the Church, i.e., the Liberals, were persecuted. In order to counteract social transgressions in this particular context, the Catholic Church in Barranquilla designed a new rhetorical strategy in Barranquilla. Civil marriage, Templar structures, women and the Holy Family archetype were key issues within this particular discourse. In this way, the clergy tried to regulate the daily practices of a society characterized by high levels of illegitimacy and civil marriage.
Full Text Available Ministers in the Buddhist Churches of America (BCA began performing same-sex marriages approximately forty years ago. These were among the first clergy-led religious ceremonies for same-sex couples performed in the modern era, and were apparently the first such marriages conducted in the history of Buddhism. In this article, I seek to explain why Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in America widely and easily affirmed same-sex weddings in the later 20th and early 21st centuries. My argument is that there are three factors in particular—institutional, historical, and theological elements of American Shin Buddhism—that must be attended to as contributing reasons why ministers were supportive of same-sex marriage.
During the twentieth-century, dramatic changes in the manner and location of care for the dying resulted in the conception and birth of the modern American hospice movement. Idealistic nurses, clergy, and others concerned about the plight of terminally ill cancer patients launched hospice as a necessary health care reform. As new hospice programs opened across the country, the idealism of the early leaders gave way to more pragmatic issues such as program viability. As hospice was studied and integrated into the health care system, it came to be redefined by the politics of health policy and the health care industry. As a result, there is a disarticulation between the needs of seriously ill persons and their families and the health care that is available to them. Important lessons can be learned from the history of the Medicare hospice benefit to help guide current palliative care policy initiatives. While formalized reimbursement for hospice enhanced organizational sustainability, many critical issues remain. PMID:22184500
Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies. In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.
Black, J W
In 1985 the families of 137 passengers killed when a Delta Airlines jet crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport stayed in a secluded hotel while waiting for the victims' bodies to be retrieved and identified. In this protected environment, which the author calls the "libidinal cocoon," the families received intensive nurturing from the author, a Dallas psychiatrist; a team of Red Cross nurses; hotel staff; airline representatives; clergy; and each other. The supportive environment allowed the families to regress safely and to satisfy the basic yearning, intensified in times of personal loss, for an idealized caretaker who will meet all one's needs. The author believes this kind of intervention may be useful in future disasters with massive casualties. PMID:3692459
Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S
After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes. PMID:23760855
William Elvis Plata Quezada
Full Text Available Organizing housemaids to form a trade union has been quite a difficult task because of the characteristics of this occupation,the lack of school education of its members, and the traditional undervaluation and disdain such an important activity generates. Not many people are aware of a relatively long history of attempts for organizing these workers and that in the 1940s the foundation of the first domestic service union was set by a Catholic Church initiative through the so-called Catholic Action. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct part of this story, highlighting the paternalistic bias of the organization and, even though the movement had female leadership, activities and development of the union were determined by the support given by the clergy and the ecclesiastical institution. Also, although it was a lay organization in its beginnings, the union served as for the creation of two women religious orders.
Bandak, Andreas; Boylston, Tom
relations among clergy and lay people that amounts to a religious world and a shared tradition. These relations are characterized by correctness and deferral—formal modes of relating to authority that are open-ended and non-definitive and so create room for certain kinds of pluralism, heterodoxy, and dis......This article uses ethnographic studies of Orthodox Christianities as a way to investigate the concept of ‘orthodoxy’ as it applies to religious worlds. Orthodoxy, we argue, is to be found neither in opposition to popular religion nor solely in institu- tional churches, but in a set of encompassing......- sent within an overarching structure of faith and obedience. Attention to the aesthetics of orthodox practice shows how these relations are conditioned in multi-sensory, often non-linguistic ways. Consideration of the national and territorial aspects of Orthodoxy shows how these religious worlds of...
Holden, Mark; Buck, Era; Clark, Mark; Szauter, Karen; Trumble, Julie
There has been increasing emphasis on professionalism in medical education over the past several decades, initially focusing on bioethical principles, communication skills, and behaviors of medical students and practitioners. Authors have begun to discuss professional identity formation (PIF), distinguishing it as the foundational process one experiences during the transformation from lay person to physician. This integrative developmental process involves the establishment of core values, moral principles, and self-awareness. The literature has approached PIF from various paradigms-professionalism, psychological ego development, social interactions, and various learning theories. Similarities have been identified between the formation process of clergy and that of physicians. PIF reflects a very complex process, or series of processes, best understood by applying aspects of overlapping domains: professionalism, psychosocial identity development, and formation. In this study, the authors review essential elements of these three domains, identify features relevant to medical PIF, and describe strategies reported in the medical education literature that may influence PIF. PMID:23104548
О. В. Мартинюк
Full Text Available The article brings up a topic of electoral processes in Right-bank Ukraine in the period between the Revolution of 1905, when the State Duma was established, and the beginning of World War I in 1914. During this time existed very limited, but nevertheless legal, opportunities for political representation of different national groups from left to right political specter. A considerable success at the elections won Russian nationalists, particularly those of moderate right-wing views. This success resulted from a certain level of institutional support, participation of Orthodox clergy in the mobilization of voters, the use of powerful media tools, etc. Russian nationalists developed a wide publication work aimed at spreading the idea that Russian nationalism is the nationalism of the majority of population in the Southwest of the Empire, which is threatened by non-Russians (inorodcy.
Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.
Full Text Available The upholding of the privileges of some of the ecclesiastics dependent on the Burgos' Cathedral allows a reflexion to the author about the state of the bishopric in the transition times of Ancien Regime. The request of payment of the horse and mule foods of these people is a way to approach the state of the clergy in the second half of the 18th century.
El mantenimiento de los privilegios de algunos de los eclesiásticos dependientes de la catedral de Burgos permite al autor una reflexión sobre la situación del obispado en la época de transición del Antiguo Régimen. La petición del pago de los alimentos para los caballos y muías de estas personas es una manera para aproximarse a la situación del clero en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.
Full Text Available Around the world, most professional people are requested and expected to participate in continuing training, which is often referred to as �continuing professional development�. Many denominations expect their pastors and other clergy to participate in such training. The Dutch Reformed Church has an official policy, in terms of which it expects such continuing theological training and ministry development of its ordained pastors. The introduction to this article offers some insight into the rationale behind such an expectation. After describing the history and programme of one of the first centres that offers such training, the history and programme of the ecumenical Centre for Contextual Ministry, Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria is described.�
О. В. Мартинюк
Full Text Available ased on the sources of Kyiv, Volhynia and Podolia gubernias, the author analyses actual ways of practicing freedoms of elections, public gatherings and press at the beginning of 1906, before the convocation of First State Duma of Russian Empire. Main question is how different ethnic and social groups used new tools of political modernization. While in Kyiv city and Kyiv gubernia cells of Progressive and Conservative blocks had strong impact on the electoral practices, the main actors of social processes in Volhynia and Podolia gubernias were representatives of traditional social groups, i.e. clergy, burghers, peasants. Scandals regarding isolation of peasant voters in Zhytomyr and Kamianets indicate exacerbating of ethic and social conflict in the process of implementing modern forms of political representation.
Drawing on interviews with the chaplains and archival material from Disaster Chaplaincy Services--NY, this article discusses the formation of the chaplaincy at the Temporary Mortuary at Ground Zero after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. It describes the initial chaplaincy response in New York by local clergy and the SAIR team of the American Red Cross. The first 6 weeks of chaplaincy at Ground Zero are explored highlighting the significant contributions of the Archdiocese of New York and Episcopal Diocese of New York out of St. Paul's Chapel. The mission and impact of the Temporary Mortuary chaplains' ministry of presence and blessing is discussed with some final reflections for the future of Disaster Chaplaincy. PMID:21850560
Pietkiewicz, Igor J; Kołodziejczyk-Skrzypek, Monika
Religious principles and values provide meaning and affect personal identity. They may also conflict with intimate needs and desires. This article examines how gay Catholics manage conflicting areas between their sexual and religious selves. Eight Polish gays with a Catholic background, who identified themselves as strong believers, shared their experiences during semi-structured interviews that were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results showed that internalization of the principles taught by the Roman Catholic Church triggered a conflict when participants became aware of their homosexuality. They used a number of strategies to reconcile conflicting identities, including limiting their religious involvement, questioning interpretation of the doctrine, undermining priests' authority, trying to reject homosexual attraction, putting trust in God's plan, using professional help, and seeking acceptance from clergy. This study alerts mental health professionals to specific risk factors associated with experiencing a religious conflict, and offers guidelines for counseling and further research. PMID:27220312
Full Text Available The subject of this paper is usage/misusage of a church music by a portion of clergy: a religious identity is being suppressed while a church music is used as a mean of communication of a national identity. The problem is discussed using the territory of the Belgrade-Karlovac diocese. In the 1990’s many choruses were found that were suppose to perform in church-Slavic and Serbian languages. This music has evoked many different reactions, from delight to banishment until finally it was outlawed on the diocese territory. The mode of singing, present among Serbs in the last hundred years was proclaimed native and original, and therefore as the only mode suitable on liturgies. Thus, an invented tradition takes place, where newer mode of performing and singing becomes older and more Serbian.
Vertrees C. Malherbe
Full Text Available In the wake of the mineral revolution, and the Cape Colony's attainment of responsible government, Cape Town's population doubled in the nineteenth century's latter years. Its largely British ruling class, seeing opportunities for wealth and a greater significance in empire and world, sought to construct a social order conducive to those goals. Faced with increasing ethnic heterogeneity, gender imbalance due to the numbers of male immigrants, and frustration in combating the endemic poverty and slums, city fathers and their closest colleagues - doctors, clergy - perceived the way forward in terms not of extending rights but of moral reform. This article carries the ongoing investigation of family life and law in Cape Town through the Victorian period. It examines legal enactments and social developments where they impacted on marriage, divorce, concubinage and related matters, with particular reference to the welfare of children and those born out of wedlock.
Steve O. Michael
Full Text Available What constitutes the curricular experience for the award of a baccalaureate degree has never been static and could not have been expected to be if higher education is to fulfill its role to a dynamic society. Since the creation of the modern university, the role of higher education has continued to expand, initially serving to prepare the clergy for the church, later to prepare statesmen, much later to prepare the general citizens for gainful employment. Although performed differently by different institutions, the mission of a modern university is basically a universal one: to generate knowledge, transmit knowledge, serve as the custodian of the stock of knowledge, and provide service to society. In other words, the role of a university is to create, critique, and transform civilizations.
Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary
Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.
Sanz de la Higuera, Francisco J.
Full Text Available The Catastro of Ensenada contains, inside the thick volumes of the Respuestas Particulares or Memoriales, a detailed description of the vital parameters of the clergy. The usual formula is to take care of the ecclesiastical with independent housing and to study their professional activities. However, we also discovered the existence of clergy who, by different circumstances, are forced to live under the order of any close relation, within the walls of their own households and under the shadow of their own business. How many are they? What were their household structures? What were their professional activities? What impact did their presence in the household which gave them shelter? What colaciones and streets did they live?.El Catastro de Ensenada contiene, en el interior de los gruesos volúmenes de las Respuestas Particulares o Memoriales, una detallada descripción de los parámetros vitales del clero. La fórmula habitual es ocuparse de los eclesiásticos con vivienda independiente y estudiar sus actividades profesionales. No obstante, también descubrimos la existencia de clérigos que, por diversas circunstancias, estaban obligados a vivir bajo la férula de algún pariente, entre las paredes de sus hogares y a la sombra de sus quehaceres. ¿Cuántos son? ¿En qué estructuras domésticas se albergaban? ¿Cuáles eran sus actividades profesionales? ¿Qué impacto tenía su presencia en los hogares que les daban cobijo? ¿En qué colaciones y calles habitaban?.
Full Text Available At the Humboldt University of Berlin, German historian Alexander Korb defended, with the highest grade (summa cum laude, his doctoral thesis in historical studies „In the Shadow of the World War II. Mass violence by the Ustaša against Serbs, Jews and Roma“. His radically new thesis are as follows: 1 in the State of Croatia (1941-1945 „there was no genocide against the Serbs“; 2 clerical component (Croatian Catholic clergy and the Vatican „played no significant role“ in the mass violence against the Serbs in the State of Croatia (1941-1945, so the forced catholicization of the Serbs was „purely secular in character“. Korb, therefore, enters into absolute conflict with the vast majority of previous research papers and their conclusions. Korb’s theses are challenged from three aspects in this analysis: a scientific and historical, b linguistic and philosophical (definitionism theory and c political. Regarding scientific and historical aspects, Korb approached this problem one-sidedly, in a selective way, and from the very beginning drastically reduced i.e. excluded an enormous part of primary historical sources and scientific literature. He excluded all Serbian sources, including testimonies of Serbian survivors and victims, on the grounds that they were either „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, then all testimonies of eye-witnesses from the opressors side - German Nazis and Italian Fascists - with justification that they are manipulated by „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, as well as all primary historical sources and scientific literature which testify of the role of Croatian Roman Catholic clergy and the Vatican, on the basis that they are „anti-clerical“. From linguistic and philosophical aspect, Korb‘s argumentations clearly belong to the principle of „usurpation of power over definitions and psychagogy“ recognized by classical theory of concepts as a convenient
Stella D. Potgieter
Full Text Available Pastoral care is a biblical mandate to the Church to be involved in the lives of God’s people. A key metaphor used by Jesus to describe his pastoral role was that of a shepherd. Thus, to be God’s shepherds and instruments of healing and transformation in God’s world is an imperative to all people, clergy and laity alike. The brokenness in South African society is strikingly apparent, exacerbated by the effects of exceptionally high criminal behaviour as statistics show. The demand for pastoral care and assistance with various personal problems is on the increase, with many non-church goers turning to churches for help. Also apparent in South Africa is the acute shortage of trained individuals to offer care and counselling. The task of offering care is not the sole responsibility of clergy, as all are called to be shepherds and caregivers. The importance and urgency in training church-based counselling teams cannot be overstated. More so in that we are becoming increasingly aware that not only are individuals in need of care, but whole communities are struggling with trauma and life’s challenges, and often do not know whom to turn to. In pursuance of the realisation that pastoral care is the function and duty of all Christians, this article will delineate in particular an explanation of lay counselling, reasons for its importance including biblical foundations, where and how ordinary South Africans can get involved, and will propose certain models and approaches for getting started. These models will not be discussed in depth, but present an opportunity for the next. Teams for these models consist of professional counsellors, but ought not to be restricted to a select few, as all are called to this special ministry and can be trained for the task, which will include on-going supervision and mentoring. The overall purpose of this article is to highlight the urgency of training lay counsellors and some recommendations will be made how to
In the thesis of the Irish physician Bernard Connor (1666-1698) from 1693 in Rheims he describes the torso of a man whose bones were joined together due to ankylosing spondylitis which is considered to be the first example of such skeletal findings. This communication must however be seen in connection with earlier and similar observations following soon after, which were published in the German and especially in the English literature. This further put into question the eponym of Strümpell-Marie-Bechterew disease commonly used in Germany for a long time. However, Bernard Connor was also a very interesting personality of the seventeenth century for other medical and historical reasons. With natural science oriented publications he attracted the opposition of the Clergy. In his 3-volume history of Poland where he worked for several months as the personal physician to King John III Sobieski, which was also published in German, he described very graphically not only the current political and social situation but also the medicine of the country which he found to be very backward. This stands in contrast to the exemplary achievements in rheumatology in Poland under European standards at the end of the twentieth century which are described and exemplified by some exceptional personalities. PMID:22699220
Robin Ann Rice
Full Text Available Pese a la prohibición de publicar o importar literatura imaginativa a la Nueva España, miembros de la élite de la Compañía de Jesús produjeron hagiografías con todas las características de una novela híbrida: parte épica y parte picaresca. Por esto, este trabajo propone que las hagiografías constituyen las primeras novelas novohispanas. Por medio del análisis de la hagiografía más voluminosa escrita en el siglo xvii, la vida de Catarina de San Juan de Alonso Ramos, esta investigación pretende formular una poética hagiográfica compuesta por técnicas extraídas de la épica y la novela picaresca que narran la vida del protagonista. Even though the publication and importation of imaginative literature was prohibited in New Spain, high- ranking clergy from the Company of Jesus produced hagiographies with all of the characteristics of a hybrid novel: part epic, part picaresque. For that reason, this work proposes that the hagiographies constitute the first, New Spain novels. By analyzing the most voluminous hagiography written in the seventeenth century, the life of Catarina de San Juan by Alonso Ramos, the research aims to formulize a hagiographic poetics made up of techniques from the epic and the picaresque novel to narrate the life of the protagonist.
Dionisio Vivas, Miguel Ángel
Full Text Available One of the many areas of activity of Cardinal Isidro Goma during the Civil War was the attention to the Basque question. After, the controversy with lehendakari Aguirre A, the result of the alignment of Basque nationalism with the Republic. The primate was also a central role regarding the end of conflict in the Basque Country, with negotiations for the surrender of Bilbao. Finally had to face conflict with the national clergy, who remained in Spain, who was victimized who was exiled or those who criticized the position of Cardinal Goma.Uno de los múltiples campos de actuación del cardenal Isidro Gomá durante la guerra civil fue la atención a la cuestión vasca. En primer lugar los problemas derivados del enfrentamiento de las autoridades militares con el obispo de Vitoria, Mateo Múgica. Después la polémica entre el propio Gomá y el lehendakari Aguirre, consecuencia del alineamiento del nacionalismo vasco con la República. El primado tuvo, asimismo, un papel central en torno al fin del conflicto bélico en el Pais Vasco, con las negociaciones para la rendición de Bilbao. Por último debió afrontar los conflictos clero nacionalista, el que permaneció en España, el que fue represaliado y el que fue exiliado o aquellos que censuraron la posición del Cardenal Gomá.
Martínez Hoyos, Francisco
Full Text Available In 1968, the catalonian Church lived in a full post-council crisis. The most progressive sections felt themselves disappointed because the expected changes after the Second Vatican Council did not achieve. The parisian events affect this ecclesiastic context, which is accentuated by division and the marxism influence. This article is focused on the responses of Alfonso Carlos Comín, «El Ciervo» magazine and the clergy represented by the «Correspondència» review.En 1968, la Iglesia catalana vivía en plena crisis postconciliar. Los sectores más progresistas se sentían decepcionados porque no se habían producido los cambios que esperaban tras el Vaticano II. Los acontecimientos parisinos inciden sobre este contexto eclesial, marcado por la división y el influjo del marxismo. El artículo se centra en las reacciones de Alfonso Carlos Comín, El Ciervo y el clero representado por la revista Correspondència.
JOHN H. MORGAN
Full Text Available This essay is an exploration into the social inevitabilities of culture shifts within the American Muslim community’s self-understanding of their faith. Rather than a theological explication of the reasons why and why not Islam may or can or will not assimilate in America, our approach will be strictly sociological thereby side-stepping the intricate dialectic of theological niceties in deference to the social realities of culture change. As a social psychologist, my duty is to acknowledge the inevitabilities of behavioral shifts brought about due to social and cultural pressures resulting from immigration into an alien cultural weltanschauung, i.e., worldview. Therefore in this essay, we will explicate the meaning and nature of de-ethnicization and re-enculturation as we endeavor to disentangle religion from culture, recognizing that much of what goes under the flag of religious orthodoxy is really culturally-mandated behavior and worldview. The assimilation process, however, will bear heavily upon the necessity for Muslim clergy in America to become professional by Western standards and we will in the process explore the complexities of religious secularism as a way of becoming an “American” Muslim. Finally, we will suggest liturgical and architectural “adjustments” to Western modes of public worship while indicating linguistic niceties which will prove helpful in the assimilation process which we have chosen here to call the “Islamicization of America”.
Emilio C. Viano
Full Text Available The clergy abuse scandal in the Catholic Church has had a major impact on society’s understanding, approach and effort to protect children.It must be stated and stressed from the beginning that child abuse by the clergy is not limited to the Catholic Church. Clergy, nuns and religious personnel from other denominations, Christian or not, have also been accused and at times convicted of child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Moreover, a substantial amount of abuse has been perpetrated by lay personnel, volunteers, teachers, and auxiliaries working under the aegis of religious organizations and by other children.It must also be stressed that the abuse scandal has not been limited to the United States. The transparency of American society, its powerful media and a strong tradition of investigative journalism have quite simply uncovered it and made it more visible than in other countries.No doubt the story of child sexual abuse by the clergy has been major news in the United States, Europe, and other parts of the world for a considerable amount of time now. It has caused debate, discussion and soul-searching on child exploitation issues in many homes, public gatherings, conferences, legislatures, religious events, and the media. The debate has had complex consequences, both positive and negative.Le scandale des abus du clergé dans l'Église Catholique a eu une grande résonance dans l'opinion publique et des conséquences importantes pour ce qui concerne la protéction des enfants.Ce problème n'est pas circonscrit à l'Église Catholique. Clergé, religieuses et autre personnel religieux, chrétien ou appartenant à d'autres confessions, ont été accusés, et parfois condamnés, pour d'abus physiques, psychologiques et sexuels sur enfants. En plus, une nombreuse partie de ces actes ont été perpétrés aussi bien par d'autres enfants que par professionnels laïques, bénévoles, enseignants, auxiliaires qui travaillent sous l'égide d
Flores de la Flor, Mª Alejandra
Full Text Available Baptism has always been one of the most important sacraments of the Holy Catholic Church. The administration was made up of a series of complex rituals in which it had to keep in mind various factors, including the soul, considered the main element allowing access to baptism, without it any being could be baptized. The birth of deformed beings (considered monsters generated, therefore, a problem that forced the clergy, in their confessors manuals, to reflect on their souls and their right to be baptized.El bautismo ha sido siempre uno de los más importantes sacramentos de la Santa Iglesia Católica. Su administración lo componían una serie de rituales complejos en los que había tener presente diferentes elementos, entre ellos el alma, considerada el elemento principal que permitía el acceso al bautismo, sin ella ningún ser podía ser bautizado. El nacimiento de los seres deformes (considerados monstruos generó, por tanto, una problemática que obligó a los clérigos, en sus manuales de confesores, a reflexionar sobre sus almas y su derecho al bautismo.
Full Text Available This article re-opens the debate on secularism in India by looking at a religion and a region that has historically been marginal to this discourse, focusing on the way in which the Catholic Church has historically mediated the relationship between individuals and the state, among the fishing communities of South India. The Catholic Church’s dominant position among the fishing communities, its minority status within India, as well as theological and other shifts that have taken place within the global Church, lead it to articulate a secular, even radical politics as its primary mode of religious engagement. Radical clergy, many from fishing backgrounds, act as both organic and traditional intellectuals in the Gramscian sense, linking the traditional religious concerns of the Church to the secular interests of their parishioners. Likewise, villagers participate in Church-generated associations spaces to secure wider political goals. The paper concludes that certain forms of religious organisation in the public sphere might indeed be compatible with democracy, citizenship, and even secularism.
Strous, Rael D; Shenkelowsky, Eliezer
Recently, one of the most important medical halakhists of all time, Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg died. He was affectionately known as the Tzitz Eliezer after his monumental halakhic treatise of that name. He was a leading rabbi, a judge on the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem, and an eminent authority on medical halakha. He also served as the rabbi of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem for many years prior to his death. His most important body of work, the Tzitz Eliezer, is a treatise of medical halakhic questions and many consider it as one of the great achievements of halakhic scholarship of the 20th century. Although he has written in all fields of halakha in general and medicine in particular, he is best known for his verdicts on physician responsibility, fertility, abortion, smoking, medicine on the Sabbath, organ transplantation, cosmetic surgery and determination of death. While some of his decisions on medical issues have proven controversial, they reflect scholarship and sensitivity and are respected by ethicists and clergy across the board. In 1976 he received the Israel Prize, the nation's highest honor, for Torah literature. His greatness lay in his ability to connect and gain respect across the board of the worlds of modern medicine and halakhic Judaism. Many of his decisions are today considered as routine and standard operating procedure, but, at the time, his definitions were considered new and original. He will be sorely missed by the medical and halakhic communities. PMID:18300631
Three years ago St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, made a commitment to strengthen its community relationships and reaffirm its mission of serving those in need by following the Catholic Health Association's Social Accountability Budget. While implementing the program, administrators were surprised to learn the hospital was already participating in many community programs for which it received little or no reimbursement. They also discovered that the hospital had no formal, written charity care policy even though St. John provided more than $14 million in uncompensated care annually. To learn what the needs of the surrounding community were, the hospital went to the clergy, who overwhelmingly identified the needs of the elderly as the number-one priority. A close second was supporting the basic family unit. Other concerns included basic family needs, safe neighborhoods and schools, and teen pregnancy. Although the hospital realized it could not do all that was needed, it felt obliged to be a leader in seeing that the needs were met and drew up a community benefit plan that documented the problems and the solutions. The hospital did what it could and worked with other organizations to address needs such as housing for the elderly, affordable and accessible healthcare, neighborhood improvement and safety, and family services. PMID:10131088
The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders
Full Text Available In this paper we compare two methods for estimating the size of personal networks using a nationally representative sample of the United States. Both methods rely on the ability of respondents to estimate the number of people they know in specific subpopulations of the U.S. (e.g., diabetics, Native Americans and people in particular relation categories (e.g., immediate family, coworkers. The results demonstrate a remarkable similarity between the average network size generated by both methods (approximately 291. Similar results were obtained with a separate national sample. An attempt to corroborate our estimates by replication among a population we suspect has large networks (clergy, yielded a larger average network size.Extensive investigation into the existence of response effects showed some preference for using certain numbers when making estimates, but nothing that would significantly affect the estimate of network size beyond about 6 percent. We conclude that both methods for estimating personal network size yield valid and reliable proxies for actual network size, but questions about accuracy remain.
Full Text Available The possession cults in Ethiopia, linked to traditional beliefs and practiced in brotherhoods of believers who lean to the Christian Orthodox religion and Islam are multifaceted experiences, both ancient and well-established throughout the country but are difficult to access by Western scholars due to their esoteric character, the disapproval of the Orthodox clergy and the ambiguous relationship with the state power. The author draws on her experience in the field conducted between 2008 and 2009, carried out in some villages of Wollo, in the northern highlands. The essay manages to convey feelings and emotions experienced in person while attending the ceremonies of possession (hadra at the home of the healer known as Ali, together with the later study of the recording of the event. Some fragments of the dialogues between the bale-zar and his followers / patients are reported and included in the text, to outline the roles and voices of the actors involved – human or otherwise – in the performative structure of the ceremonies.
Nadine F. Bowers du Toit
Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.
Haywood, T W; Kravitz, H M; Grossman, L S; Wasyliw, O E; Hardy, D W
Cleric sexual misconduct with minors is a problem receiving increased attention from the media, victims groups, and church authorities. Mental health professionals are increasingly being asked to assist church and civil authorities to help better understand the problem of cleric sexual misconduct with minors. In the current study we compared self-reported sexual functioning among cleric alleged child molesters, noncleric alleged child molesters, and normal control subjects. We hypothesized clerics would differ from nonclerics and normals in reported sexual functioning. Our sample included 30 Roman Catholic clerics and 39 nonclerics who were alleged to have engaged in sexual misconduct with minors, and 38 normal control subjects, all of whom took the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) as part of their forensic psychiatric evaluation. Our results indicated clerics were more likely to report fewer victims, older victims, and victims of male gender than noncleric alleged child molesters. Clerics differed from nonclerics and normal control subjects on several dimensions of self-reported sexual functioning. Lower offense rate histories among clerics suggest that, as a group, clerics may be less seriously psychologically disordered than noncleric child molesters. Low DSFI scores among Roman Catholic clerics may be accounted for in part by their unique training and socialization process. Future studies should attempt to study the influence of social desirability on DSFI scores. Normative data from nonoffending celibate clergy are needed. PMID:8800527
J. H. Morgan
Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic treatment with the goal of cure, of course, is the standard within the healing professions but when we are dealing with late life depression where there is no hope for longevity, the agenda necessarily must shift from cure to care, from treatment with the goal of renewed healthy living to a focus upon the palliative aspects of a limited prognosis. Here, then, the clinician is faced with the challenge of existential intervention with an emphasis upon the “moment” rather than the future. The encroachment of ennui upon the elderly, particularly and especially those who have been actively engaged in a full life of service such as the clergy, physicians, teachers, and attorneys, can be a traumatic and debilitating experience.When hope for the future is not being sought but rather an effective and celebrative address to the existential realities confronting the elderly patient who is facing decline and death, the quest for those “happy moments” conjured in the patient’s memory constitute a promising field of treatment.Geriatric logotherapy is uniquely constructed to do just that. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Kim, Daniel T; Curlin, Farr A; Wolenberg, Kelly M; Sulmasy, Daniel P
U.S. medical scholarship and education regarding religion and spirituality has been growing rapidly in recent years. This rising interest, however, is not new; it is a renewal of significant interweavings that date back to the mid-20th century. In this Perspective, the authors draw attention to the little-known history of organized medicine's engagement with religion from 1961 to 1974. Relying on primary source documents, they recount the dramatic rise and fall of the Committee on Medicine and Religion (CMR) at the American Medical Association (AMA). At its height, there were state-level committees on medicine and religion in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, and there were county-level committees in over 800 county medical societies. Thousands of physicians attended annual conferences for clinicians and clergy, and direct outreach to patients included a film viewed by millions. The CMR arose in the context of rapid medical advances, the growth of professional chaplaincy, and concern for declining "humanism" in medicine-conditions with parallels in medicine today. The CMR was brought to a puzzling end in 1972 by the AMA's Board of Trustees. The authors argue that this termination was linked to the AMA's long and contentious debate on abortion. They conclude with the story's significance for today's explorations of the intersection of spirituality, religion, and medicine, focusing on the need for mutual respect, transparency, and dialogue around the needs of patients and physicians. PMID:24979288
Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana
Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.
Francoeur, Richard B; Burke, Nancy; Wilson, Alicia M
Spiritual values and beliefs of patients and families influence resilience during chronic illness and shape patient choices during advance care planning. The spiritual needs of Baby Boomers will be more diverse than previous generations, in connection with the questioning, experimental mind-set of this group and the fact that it includes a higher proportion of immigrant populations outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Social workers are trained explicitly to intervene with diverse populations and are well positioned to offer spiritual support in ways that do not necessarily conform to traditional religions. To the extent of their individual expertise and competence, social workers should assess and provide spiritual care to clients, including those who either are underserved or prefer not to seek assistance from clergy or chaplains because they feel alienated from religious institutions and representatives. They should also be aware of ethical dilemmas in consulting with spiritual care professionals in developing spiritual interventions. Social work education should address clients' humanistic and existential concerns, beliefs and behaviors of the major religions, and forms of nontraditional religious and spiritual experiences; it should also provide experiential opportunities for engaging with grief and earlier advance care planning. There should be attention to different theodical perspectives of the major religions regarding the problem of good and evil, which may preoccupy even clients who no longer participate in organized religion, because these unresolved existential issues may weaken client coping with chronic conditions and may diminish clarity and self-awareness for engaging authentically and effectively in advance care planning. PMID:27187806
García Gómez, M. Dolores
Full Text Available At this article are studied and published the two reports sent in 1869 and 1870 for the confiscation of archives, libraries and objects of art of the clergy. Besides the dispositions of the government, this documentation shows the value of the manuscripts that are preserved in the majority of the Spanish provinces, although their validity are connected with the preparation and the ability of local informants and the facilities they have to accede to the resources.
En el presente artículo se estudian y publican los dos informes remitidos en 1869 y 1870 para la incautación de archivos bibliotecas y objetos de arte del clero. Además de las disposiciones del gobierno, esta documentación lo que nos permite conocer es el valor de los manuscritos que se conservan en la mayor parte de las provincias españolas, aunque su validez va a estar en función de la preparación y la capacidad de los informantes locales y las facilidades que tienen para acceder a los fondos.
Severiano Rojo Hernandez
Full Text Available Cet article étudie la répression franquiste en Biscaye à l’encontre du clergé nationaliste basque. Il en souligne l’ampleur et les objectifs : neutraliser des prêtres susceptibles de porter préjudice au modèle de société franquiste et les remplacer par des ecclésiastiques chargés de transmettre la nouvelle idéologie.This article studies the repression carried out by Franco’s forces in Viscaya against the Basque nationalist clergy. It underlines its dimension and objectives: to neutralize priests susceptible of jeopardizing the establishment of a pro-Franco model of society, and replacing them by clerics whose task was to spread the new ideology.Este artículo estudia la represión franquista en Vizcaya contra el clero nacionalista vasco. Subraya su dimensión y sus objetivos : neutralizar a sacerdotes que pueden perjudicar la instauración del modelo de sociedad franquista y sustituirlos por eclesiásticos encargados de transmitir la nueva ideología.
Skowronski, G A
Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position. PMID:26126073
Peitzman, Steven J
The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship. PMID:14523261
„Creixent saber, l.ignorança.s desperta“ – Ausiàs Marchs Cant CXIII und die Grenzen des menschlichen Wissens ["Creixent saber, l.ignorança.s desperta" - Ausiàs March's poem CXIII and the limits of human knowledge
Full Text Available The social and cultural transformations that occur in occidental Europe in the later Middle Ages have an impact on the diversification and diffusion of knowledge. Through the increasing number of scientific texts in vernacular language, knowledge formerly reserved for the clergy becomes accessible for literate laymen. The importance of this phenomenon becomes evident with authors such as Ausiàs March, who incorporate into their literary language philosophical, theological, medical or technical notions and concepts. The present paper proposes an interpretation of March’s Cant CXIII which focuses on his use of what we call the ‘discourses of knowledge’ (Wissensdiskurse. With regard to the main argument of the text – the capacity of man to understand the truth is limited, human knowledge is vain – the poet follows the ideas propa¬gated by the church. However, at the same time, he uses these scientific discourses (above all notions and concepts of Aristotelian psychology and ethics for his description and analysis of human behaviour. What at first glance seems to be a paradox, is, in fact, characteristic of the contemporary attempts to reconcile the new knowledge about man and cosmos with the Christian world vision. Yet, the tension between ‘human science’ and ‘divine science’ (which intensified in the following centuries is perceptible in March’s poem.
Paul L. Hover
Full Text Available This overview, the second article in an exploratory study of the information seeking (IS behavior of a group of eighty-four reference librarians from Egypt and the USA, is intended to assist readers less familiar with Islamic history to better understand cross-cultural influences on Arab IS behavior. A description of pre-Islamic poetry and orality precedes a discussion of the importance of the Koran and Islamic traditions on the development of a religious, scribal society. Oral transmission of mysteries omitted from texts leads to procedures in establishing the authenticity of scholarly works, which result in high standards of manuscript production. Reasons for Muslim resistance to the printing press are discussed, followed by a chronicle of European invasions that eventually convince Islamic authorities of the need to adopt printing to resist colonial pressure. The early years of publishing see the emergence of distinct centers of publishing in Egypt and Lebanon, and reasons for the quick acceptance of lithography are examined. The acceptance of printing by Muslim clergy marks the beginning of religious publishing. The Arab Awakening is a movement to compel the general Arabic population to take notice of public dialogue in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The role of printing in the age of self-rule leads to a discussion of current information dissemination in Arab countries. Memorization, orality, Arabic as a linguistic vehicle, illiteracy, and the Arabization of science are discussed as issues in the transmission of knowledge in the modern Middle East.
Charles M. Rix
The story of Hagar （Genesis 16 and 12） figures prominently in Bible＇s patriarchal narratives of both the elected and rejected with respect to divine promise. As the story of an abused foreign woman cast out into an inhospitable wilderness along with her son, the story raises troubling questions about the portrayal of domestic violence perpetuated by those otherwise celebrated as “faithful” within biblical narratives： Abraham and his wife Sarah. In response to the relative silence on the topic of domestic violence among clergy and leaders of churches, synagogues, and other “sacred spaces”, this paper explores a reading of Hagar＇s story that reclaims her value as a human being. With the help of post-Shoah reading sensitivities that expose strategies of dehumanization, this reading makes visible the way in which the ancient writer/reactor of Genesis performs as an advocate for Hagar in the face of the abuse heaped upon her. In so doing, Hagar＇s story is transformed from a narrative about a rejected “other” into one that exposes abuse by the so-called“elected.” Thus read, the story provides support and encouragement for victims in contemporary religious cultures to step forward and tell their stories.
Smith, G P
The "New Biology" has already made profound impact on the law. Cryonics and genetic engineering represent technological triumphs. The natural, organic process of dying is being replaced by a humanly engineered technological process for living. The dying phase of life is prolonged until biological knowledge is available to reverse the dying phase and restore the living phase. Both cryonics and genetic engineering in their attempts to replace the organic process with the technological process disturb the delicate balance of the triad of life which each individual experiences--faith, health, and justice. Since law is a basic tool to achieve justice among human beings, how should it respond to the health argument of the cryonics' physician who views death as a disease which is curable? How should the law respond to the faith questions surrounding the cryonics patient? What am I? A block of ice. Who am I? A living, comatose patient or a dormant, static body with the possibility of a reverter. Why am I? A new human being now endowed with immortality through the triumph of life over death founded on man's current faith in the God called Technology. Cryonics through its unbalancing of the traditional triad of life poses formidable challenges to the major institutions of faith, health and justice. The practitioners in these institutions: clergy, physicians and lawyers must now reassess the rules of the game of life be they religious, medical or legal. This article offers insights to begin this reassessment. PMID:10263329
Full Text Available The article examines and publishes in the Appendix a document kept in the Archive of the Archbishop of Pisa, known until now only in a partial transcript, because was for a long time not available. The relevance of this document lies both in its materials and graphics characteristics , but also in its unique content, which presents a cross section of political and social life of the entourage of Bishops in the city and county in the first half of the Twelfth century. In fact, it shows the different sides of an inquest (inspectio conducted in the diocese of Pisa by an anonymous investigator appointed by the Archbishop of Pisa Hubert in 1137. The numerous stages of the inquest were probably recorded in some files and then, with the help of judges (and law experts and the graphic abilities of the episcopal clergy, were written in an entire parchment, with a clear and fluid book-Caroline and with a good rhetoric form. The goals of this document were surely informative, but we don’t exclude also a memorial and judicial objective. In conclusion, the inspectio give us the opportunity of studying the non-epistolographic practices of medieval communication and allows us to know a pragmatic and non-formal system of document building. This system is out of the field of notarial acts with legal effects (chartae and brevia recordationis and different from the writing of judicial records.
Francisco Ramírez Santacruz
Full Text Available While many critics (Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Ian Michael and Colin Smith, among others have suggested a likely influence of Cantar de mio Cid on the authorof Libro de Alexandre, until now no comprehensive catalogue of concordances has been prepared in order to corroborate this hypothesis. This paper aims to provide the most extensive series of equivalences between these two works. A detailed three stage analysis of the poems reveals strong connections of both a thematic and formal nature. First, the common binomial expressions and similar phraseology in both texts are studied from a rhetorical point of view. Second, the constant dialogue with the listener - which both works share - represents a similarity of technique, that should not be underestimated.Third and finally, the analogous treatment that both poems give to certain themes (the spoils of war, the function of dreams, the relationship between conquerors and conquered, and the heros journey also reveals an extensive inventory of similarities. This study also confirms that a certain set of poetic habits identified by critics in Libro de Alexandre as a trait common to jongleursis a direct legacy of the Cid, which implies a wide distribution and popularity of the epic poem amongst the clergy. Finally, the results of this comparative analysis show a more intense relationship between the poetics of Spanish epic poetry and mester de clerecía than has been generally acknowledged
Whilst pastoral work is aimed at the consciousness of men, the duty of the psychotherapist is to turn the subconscious into the conscious. After clarifying the situation in his inner world the patient should be able to take free decisions. The psychotherapist is not responsible for the decision made by the person, which means that the conscious area is the responsibility of the individual. The psychotherapist must not manipulate the conscious parts just as the clergy must not manipulate the subconscious. So whilst there is a difference in both areas that must be maintained, that difference is less than the two have in common. The common aim or goal is: 1. The basis of both areas is a 'Socratic optimism' rooted in the fact that pastoral work and psychotherapy want the person to discover his or her own truth which cannot be told to him or her. However, it can be found by the person with assistance. 2. Both are characterised by a pragmatic individualism that says that it is worth listening to a single person for days, weeks, months or years until it is ascertained what the soul suffers from. 3. Both are convinced that the truth of a person cannot be described in moral categories. Social and ethical standards don't help but they may reflect the symptoms and the distress of the person. 4. Taking into consideration the dimension of the subconscious in pastoral duty as well, human decisions and activity can be understood much better. PMID:10544459
P. G.R. Meiring
Full Text Available The churches in Rwanda: Disappointments and challenges -and lessons for South Africa. The author, one of a team of South Africans invited to Rwanda to advise the newly appointed Unity and Reconciliation Commission, gives an overview of the political developments that led to the bloody genocide (February-April 1994 during which more than a million Rwandans died at the hands of their compatriots. The role that the churches played during the crisis was a disappointment to many; the conduct of many of the clergy - who not only condoned what was happening but actively took part in the events - is nothing less than shameful in view of the Gospel. If the churches want to regain their integity, five challenges should be taken seriously: the churches should lead the country in a sincere confession of guilt; the churches should regain their prophetic witness in the country; they should contribute to leadership development and training; the churches shouldplay their part in ministering to the poor and needy, to the traumatized in Rwanda; and, lastly, the churches should act as servants of reconciliation.
Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo
Full Text Available Council Vatican II (1962-1965 supposed a very important change in many aspects of catholic faith, included the concept of Church. A part of clergy considered that it was the moment to break with the rigid structures of this institution, based in the importance of hierarchy and order, and it meant an unavoidable conflict with the different ecclesial authorities. In the case of Spain, this problem turned bigger because of the confusion of changes in Catholic Church with the targets for democratization of a society that was under authoritism of Franco’s Regime.El Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965 supuso un extraordinario cambio en muchos aspectos de la fe católica, entre los que debe incluirse el concepto de Iglesia. Un sector del clero consideró que era el momento de romper con las rígidas estructuras de la institución, basadas en la importancia de la jerarquía y el orden, lo que supuso un inevitable conflicto con las diferentes autoridades eclesiales. En el caso de España, este problema adquirió mayor complejidad todavía en la medida que los cambios en el seno de la Iglesia fueron confundidos, en no pocas ocasiones, con los objetivos de democratizar una sociedad que hasta ese momento se encontraba bajo el autoritarismo del Régimen de Franco.
Cucino, Claudia; Sonnenberg, Amnon
The epidemiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer has remained poorly understood. The occupational distribution of this cancer may provide clues about its yet unknown etiology. Data files from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the United States offer a unique source to study causes of death, broken down by occupation and industry. The number of deaths from esophageal cancer was retrieved from the computerized US vital statistics. Mortality by occupation or industry was expressed as standardized proportional mortality ratio (PMR), adjusted by age, gender, and ethnicity. Between 1991 and 1996, 63,717 subjects died from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Mortality was particularly high among nonwhites and men. The industrial and the occupational distributions shared a similar pattern. Mortality from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma occurred more frequently among subjects exposed to silica dust, such as brickmasons and stonemasons, concrete and terrazzo finishers, roofers, and construction laborers. It was also high in such industries as unspecified machinery or manufacturing and such occupations as unspecified material handlers, janitors, or cleaners. It was low in industries and occupations associated with agriculture, clergy, work in religious organizations, and textiles. In conclusion, mortality from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be low in occupations associated with less consumption of alcohol and tobacco. It was high among occupations potentially associated with exposure to silica dust and chemical solvents or detergents. PMID:11911344
Leeb, R T; Fluke, J D
Application of epidemiologic surveillance to child abuse and neglect (CAN) presents specific challenges related to varying definitions and incident reporting. Definitions of abuse and neglect differ within and across countries, obscuring estimates of the true magnitude of the problem. Definitions also vary depending on the nature of the child protection system. Countries may lack legal or social systems with specific responsibility for responding to and recording reports of CAN, particularly countries where populations are remote or in flux (e.g. due to conflict). Underreporting of CAN results in underestimates of prevalence. Violence by caregivers toward children is often known only to the perpetrator, and depending on the developmental capacity of the child, the victim. Further, CAN cases may be reported to a wide variety of sentinels (e.g. educators, clergy, physicians, law enforcement, child welfare), or may not be reported to any official source at all. Social stigma and unintended consequences of reporting, as well as cultural and political barriers, also impact reporting both within communities and globally. PMID:26605561
Raj C Shah
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of initiating medications with anticholinergic activity on the cognitive functions of older persons. METHODS: Participants were 896 older community-dwelling, Catholic clergy without baseline dementia. Medication data was collected annually. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale was utilized to identify use of a medication with probable or definite anticholinergic activity. Participants had at least two annual cognitive evaluations. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 10 years, the annual rate of global cognitive function decline for never users, prevalent users, and incident users was -0.062 (SE = 0.005, -0.081(SE = 0.011, and -0.096 (SE = 0.007 z-score units/year, respectively. Compared to never users, incident users had a more rapid decline (difference = -0.034 z-score units/year, SE = 0.008, p<0.001 while prevalent users did not have a significantly more rapid decline (p = 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Older persons initiating a medication with anticholinergic activity have a steeper annual decline in cognitive functioning than those who are not taking these medications.
Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.
Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.
In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.
María Pilar SALOMÓN CHÉLIZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la crisis política del sistema de la Restauración abierta tras el desastre del 98, el republicanismo recurrió al anticlericalismo para movilizar el electorado en favor de su proyecto político. Centrándose en Aragón, este artículo analiza qué sectores sociales formaban parte del movimiento anticlerical en la primera década del siglo XX, cuáles eran los motivos de su rivalidad con el clero y cómo trataron de instrumentalizar el anticlericalismo popular. Este último punto lleva a estudiar los motivos del descontento anticlerical popular y las formas de exteriorizarse la protesta anticlerical popular. Palabras Clave. Crisis de la Restauración, Aragón, Republicanismo, Anticlericalismo. ABSTRACT: In Restoration political crisis opened by 1898 militar disaster, republicanism in Spain appealed to anticlericalism in order to mobilize electorate in favor of his political project. Through Aragon's case, this article analyzes which social sectors took part in the anticlerical movement in XXth-century first decade, why they rivaled Catholic clergy and how they tried to turn to account popular anticlericalism. To answer this last question requires both to deep into the motives for popular anticlerical unrest and into the ways how popular anticlerical protest was exteriorized. Key Words: Crisis of Restoration, Aragón, Republicanism, Anticlericalism.
Di Stefano, Roberto
Full Text Available The «misiones interiores» were promoted by the political authorities, required by bishops and parsons and carried out by Jesuits, Mercedarios and Franciscans. Both in Europe and America, during the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries they were conceived as missionary strategies to spread the teachings and the sacraments to areas of weak ecclesiastical presence, and they often sought to pacify the most distant and conflictive communities. The missions were an extraordinary moment of contact with religion, and were planned with a strong pedagogical character, so that the duties of the missionaries meant an important help to the parsons. The «misiones interiores» involved a wide range of actors: parishioners and churchmen, political and religious authorities, regular and secular clergy. This article offers a comparison between the missions developed in the countryside of Buenos Aires in two moments of change in the relationships between regular and secular clergy on one hand, and between the Church and the civil authorities on the other, during the colonial period and Juan Manuel de Rosas’ second period of government. We want to highlight the way in which the civil powers resorted to these missions, and their characteristics in those two different historical contexts, in which the role of the ecclesiastical institutions in the social order and their ties with the civil powers were subject to modifications.Las «misiones interiores» fueron promovidas por las autoridades políticas, requeridas por obispos y párrocos y llevadas a cabo por jesuitas, mercedarios y franciscanos. Tanto en Europa como en América, durante los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX se plantearon como estrategias misionales para llevar la predicación y los sacramentos a regiones donde la presencia eclesiástica era débil. A menudo se proponían pacificar las comunidades más alejadas y conflictivas. La misión constituía un momento extraordinario de contacto con la
Full Text Available The article discusses the link between rock-carvings of Lake Onega in one of their locations, Cape Besov Nos, and five legends about devils. These are mostly new interpretations of etiological legends. The stories describe the origin of a rock island near the cape and the birth of some petroglyphs (the giant anthropomorphic figure of Cape Besov Nos, and representations resembling sun and staff. The legends discuss the devils’ conflict with Christianity, their flight and perdition. One legend contains the motif of how the devil may crawl into a vessel if it does not have a lid or a cross-sign made on it. The weakening of the association of the local population with petroglyphs and the influence of Christianity led to the identification of the giant anthropomorphic figure with devil and the belief that smaller figures were made by devils. The motif of a devil in a kvass vessel seems to share common elements with the hagiography of the first bishop of Novgorod (12th century, which was probably known also in the areas beyond Lake Onega. The article attempts to refute the chrestomatic view that the cross-sign on the anthropomorphic figure and a swan representation at Cape Besov Nos has been carved by monks of the Saviour Monastery of Murom in the 14th century or later, because the Besov village remained outside the sphere of influence of the said monastery. It is more likely that it was carved in the 16th century or later by the clergy of Shala and Nigizhma.
An evaluation of the Jamaican Women's Center Programme by the Population Council of New York found that 55% of teenage mothers in Jamaica returned to school in Kingston and 73% in the Mandeville branch following their pregnancies and exposure to the program. Only 15% who were not exposed to the program returned to school. The Sister School Workshop Program on Teenage Pregnancy provides knowledge instead of the myth and fantasy given by parents and clergy. Continuing education is particularly important for those with low self-esteem. The Center also provided knowledge about contraception. The findings were that contraceptive use was 89% among program graduates and 81% among nonprogram persons. In addition to the higher % of usage, there were differences in methods used. Center users preferred the IUD and pills, while nonprogram persons favored pills and injections. Subsequent pregnancies were much higher among nonprogram persons at 39%, while for program participants 15% at Kingston and 8% from the Mandeville Center had subsequent pregnancies within 3 years. The creation of the Jamaican Women's Center in 1978 has also promoted continuing education during pregnancy. Assistance is also provided to those reentering the school system after giving birth. The financial cost has been reasonable at J$3500 program year/woman and nursery facility costs at J$664/child/year. Other services to former students include counseling and school visits and occasionally financial aid amounts J$176/woman/year. Rural outreach averages J$336/woman/year. The identifiable weakness was in preparation of these girls for employment. It is suggested that additional efforts be made to provide wider and more marketable skills to meet local needs. There is also a need to provide linkage with other skills training programs and small business groups in order to expand labor force opportunities for these women. PMID:12285431
Full Text Available Because so soon after it was overtaken by the School of Salamanca, historians have neglected the importance of the Chapter of nearby Zamora in the legal development of early thirtheenth century Spain. In the light of the ambivalent significance of Zamora’s proximity to the kingdom of Portugal in a period of political tension with the papacy, and the role of Zamora’s man at the papal curia, Cardinal Gil Torres, the present study attempts to view that development in terms of its own time, making use of the material evidence in the Vatican and peninsular archives of Zamora’s juristic activity, the level of juristic sophistication revealed by a routine case involving local clergy and laity, and the calculations of the contemporary rulers of León.
Debido a que muy pronto fue sobrepasada por la Escuela de Salamanca, los historiadores han descuidado la importancia del Capítulo de la cercana Zamora en el progreso jurídico español de los comienzos del siglo XIII. A la luz del ambivalente significado de la proximidad de Zamora al reino de Portugal, en un periodo de tensión política con el papado y del papel desempeñado por el Cardenal zamorano Gil Torres en la curia papal, el presente estudio se propone examinar ese progreso de la actividad jurídica de Zamora durante su tiempo, utilizando para ello los testimonios de los archivos del Vaticano y peninsulares, el nivel de sofisticación jurídica manifestado en un caso rutinario en el que se implicaba un clérigo local y el laicado, así como las astucias de los gobernantes coetáneos de León.
Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel
Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.
Starcher, Rachael W.; Eicher, Jennifer L.; Wilcox, Sara
Background Translating evidence-based, community-delivered, fall-prevention exercise programs into new settings is a public health priority. Community Context Older adults (aged ≥65 y) are at high risk for falls. We conducted a community engagement project in West Virginia to evaluate the adoption of a tai chi exercise program, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, by rural faith-based organizations (FBOs) and exercise instructors by recruiting 20 FBOs and 20 or more exercise instructors and by obtaining input from key stakeholders (representatives of FBOs, community representatives, exercise instructors) regarding potential barriers and facilitators to program adoption. Methods We used both multistage, purposeful random sampling and snowball sampling to recruit FBOs and exercise instructors in 7 West Virginia counties. Two forums were held with stakeholders to identify barriers and facilitators to program adoption. We calculated separate adoption rates for organizations and exercise instructors. Outcome It took up to 3 months to recruit each FBO with an adoption rate of 94%. We made 289 telephone calls, sent 193 emails and 215 letters, distributed brochures and flyers to 69 FBOs, held 118 meetings, and made 20 trips over a period of 31 days (8,933 miles traveled). Nineteen of 22 trained exercise instructors started classes, an instructor adoption rate of 86%. Key issues regarding adoption were the age requirement for participants, trust, education, and competing priorities. Interpretation Although we had recruitment challenges, our adoption rates were similar to or higher than those reported in other studies, and the objectives of the community engagement project were met. Clustering the FBOs and having them located closer geographically to our location may have reduced our resource use, and using a recruitment coordinator from the local community may have enabled us to gain the trust of congregants and clergy support. PMID:27418214
Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Aghaei, Mir Hossein; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Asgarlo, Zoleikha
Introduction: In view of the recent surge in chronic disease rates and elderly population in the developing countries, there is an urgent felt need for palliative and hospice care services. The present study investigates the views and attitudes of patients and their families, physicians, nurses, healthcare administrators, and insurers regarding designing and delivering hospice care service in a middle income country. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the required data was collected using semi structured interviews and was analyzed using thematic analysis. Totally 65 participants from hospitals and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively to achieve data saturation. Results: Analyzing the data, five main themes (barriers, facilitators, strategies, attitudes, and service provider) were extracted. Barriers included financial issues, cultural-religious beliefs, patient and family-related obstacles, and barriers related to healthcare system. Facilitators included family-related issues, cultural-religious beliefs, as well as facilitators associated with patients, healthcare status, and benefits of hospice service. Most participants (79%) had positive attitude towards hospice care service. Participant suggested 10 ways to design and deliver effective and efficient hospice care service. They thought the presence of physicians, nurses, and psychologists and other specialists and clergy were necessary in the hospice care team. Conclusion: Due to lack of experience in hospice care in developing countries, research for identifying probable barriers and appropriate management for reducing unsuccessfulness in designing and delivering hospice care service seems necessary. Input from the facilitators and their suggested solutions can be useful in planning the policy for hospice care system. PMID:26600704
My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While education
Díaz Ibáñez, Jorge
Full Text Available The aim of this work, based mainly on manuscripts and unpublished documents from Burgos Cathedral Archive, is the study and analysis of violence, physical and verbal, among the cathedral clergy of Burgos, emphasizing the individual and collective scale of the conflicts and the variety of their causes. The cathedral chapter of Burgos exercised its jurisdiction by punishing the culprits, favouring reconciliation processes and trying to stop, often unsuccessfully, the conflicts between clergymen that increased during the last decades of the fifteenth century, and that have a close connection with the conflicts which took place between different families and lineages of the urban oligarchy of Burgos during the same period.El objetivo de este trabajo, basado fundamentalmente en fuentes manuscritas e inéditas procedentes del Archivo Catedralicio de Burgos, es el estudio y análisis de la violencia, tanto física como verbal, en el seno del clero catedralicio burgalés, poniendo de relieve la dimensión tanto individual como colectiva de los enfrentamientos y su variada casuística. El cabildo catedralicio burgalés ejerció su jurisdicción imponiendo castigos a los culpables, fomentando fórmulas de reconciliación y tratando de frenar, a menudo sin éxito, unos enfrentamientos entre clérigos que aumentaron durante las últimas décadas del siglo XV, y que guardan un estrecho paralelismo y relación con los conflictos que en la misma época se produjeron entre diferentes familias y linajes de la oligarquía urbana burgalesa.
Full Text Available After the outbreak of the First World War, when Bulgaria joined the Central Powers through the alliance with Germany, and Romania joined the Entente, the religious relations had a few special times. The defeat of the Romanian army in Dobrudgea and its occupation by the German – Bulgarian troops brought about a real exodus of the Romanian Orthodox clergy who took refuge especially to Moldova. The war ruined a few churches of Dobrudgea and destroyed the houses of the priests who had left their parishes. The issue of the priests fled from Dobrudgea was discussed within a Council met in Iasi in the summer of 1918, when the participants tried to find solutions for their return to their parishes. I personally examined the documents of this council found today in the Archives of the Metropolitanate of Moldova and Bucovina, because they reveal the deficiencies of the Romanian Orthodox Church in regard to the administrative organisation both in Dobrudgea and in the Quadrilateral. Our study approaches two major events occurred in the Bucharest occupied by the German-Bulgarian troops: the Te-Deum service celebrated in the honour of the royal family of Bulgaria in the Metropolitan Cathedral and the attempt to steal the Holy Relics of Pious Dimitrios Basarabov. The German administration has also been involved in the two events, because the Primate metropolitan Conon asked them to resolve these religious Romanian- Bulgarian conflicts. The documents which mention the two events can be found in the Archives of the Holy Synod of Bucharest and have a special significance because they represent an aspect less examined of the First World War and of the Romanian-Bulgarian relations. The theme of this study has never been approached so far by the Romanian theologians and historians, the research covering a gap in the study of the history of the First World War and of the Romanian- Bulgarian relations.
José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the ‘Three Estates Model’ of the English medieval society in Chaucer’s General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Based upon the descriptions and illustrations of the characters, it aims to explore the hierarchal structure of the medieval society which is divided into three main groups or ‘estates’: the ones who pray, the ones who rule and govern, and the ones who work. In the General Prologue, Chaucer gives a series of sketches of the characters that are the representatives of the three estates, and through these depictions he investigates the social characteristics and roles of the medieval people who are expected to speak and behave in accordance with what their social group requires. While presenting Three Estates Model, he employs the tradition of ‘estates satire’ by criticising the social vices resulting from the corruption in this model. Through the characteristics and virtues of the ‘Knight’, the ‘Parson’, and the ‘Plowman’, he demonstrates the perfect integration of the people who belong to chivalry, clergy and the commoners in the medieval English society. Also, by offering contrasting views to these positive traits in the portrayal of almost all of the other characters, as illustrated in the portrayal of the ‘Monk’, the ‘Reeve’, and the ‘Wife of Bathe’ in this paper, he criticises the vices and sins (that are mainly resulted from the religious, financial and moral corruption of the people belonging to the social classes of the Middle Ages.
Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione.SOMMARIO: 1. Connessioni e distinzioni tra responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica negli ordinamenti religiosi - 2. Responsabilità morale e responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia ecclesiastica - 3. La responsabilità giuridica della gerarchia nell’ordinamento canonico e sue conseguenze negli ordinamenti statuali - 4. La riparazione del danno ingiusto nel diritto canonico. Responsabilità della gerarchia - 5. La responsabilità penale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici - 6. Responsabilità morale, pastorale e comunionale della gerarchia nel caso di abusi sessuali commessi dai chierici.ABSTRACTCatholic Hierarchy Responsibility in Clerical Sexual Abuse: Between Canon Law and Civil Law This essay aims to demonstrate moral and legal catholic hierarchy responsibility in clerical sexual abuses. Stories about child maltreatment in catholic Church dominated media worldwide. There is no longer any doubt about the need to punish the guilty, both in canon and civil law. It means that they must be punished under criminal law and they must refund victims. However there are divisions about hierarchy responsibility. Some civil courts (eg. in the USA, Canada or Spain attributed to the diocese the obligation to pay damages. These statements are very criticized by the canonists, who contest the equivalence relationship priest-diocese as a business one. So they claim the legal irresponsibility of hierarchy. At the moment this is the position of the Italian courts. The present essay defends the opposite view. The hierarchy has a primary moral responsibility, which obliges both to defend the victims of the abuses committed by the clergy, both the ecclesial community from abusive priests. This moral responsibility translates into a legal one, which requires the hierarchy to refund the victims on the basis of canon law. Therefore, the civil courts may impose diocesan bishops the
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.
Adam Gambo Saleh
between demographic factors and search strategies adopted. Finally, the study identified the similarities and differences between the information seeking behaviors of the Christian clergy and the Ulama.
Vázquez Bertomeu, Mercedes
Full Text Available The most important tax that Galician clergy must confront in late Middle Ages is the decimal, delivered initially to the Pontificate and afterwards to the royal chambre, which became the revenue called in the century XV «decima y subsidio del clero». The payment that the diocesan representative does to the papal or royal collector is the final point of a process whose details are described here for the case of the Galician churches. This charge, which envolves all the diocesan benefices, caused a specific documentary type known as taxation in which is established a roll of contributors and a valuation of beneficies - a very useful source to know late medieval dioceses.
La tasa más importante que pesa sobre el clero gallego es la décima, entregada inicialmente en beneficio del pontificado y más tarde al tesoro real, dando lugar al canon que en el siglo XV se conoce como «décima y subsidio del clero». El pago que el representante diocesano hace al recaudador pontificio o real es el punto final de un proceso cuyos pormenores son aquí descritos para el caso de las diócesis gallegas. Este gravamen, que afecta a todo los beneficios diocesanos, dio lugar al nacimiento de un tipo documental específico conocido como tasación en el que se establece la cantidad que cada contribuyente debe aportar y que es de gran interés para el acercamiento a la geografía diocesana bajomedieval.
Fernández Arrillaga, Inmaculada
Full Text Available When, in April of 1767, the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain is ordered, the group of novices who was studying in the recognized Colleges of the Society is tom between following the priests into exile or forgetting their projects and staying in Spanish territory. This work concentrates on the one hand, the reactions of these youths, tempted the representatives of the administration and of the Spanish clergy, which used all the means at their disposal of convincing them for being in Spain and, on the other, the crusading spirit surrounding the decision to defend their vocation and going into voluntary exile into the States of the Pope.
Cuando, en abril de 1767, se procede a la expulsión de los jesuitas de España, el grupo de novicios que se encontraba en los reconocidos colegios de la Compañía se debate entre el dilema de seguir a estos padres en su exilio o abandonar sus proyectos en la orden de san Ignacio y quedarse en territorio español. En este trabajo se estudian, por una parte, las reacciones de estos jóvenes, tentados por los representantes de la administración y del clero español, que desplegaron un amplio dispositivo con el objetivo de convencerlos para que permanecieran en España y, por otra, el espíritu de cruzada que rodeó la decisión de defender su vocación y autoexiliarse en los Estados Pontificios.
Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the first three decades of the 19th century in the Río de la Plata region through the lives of two important Franciscans. Using civil and ecclesiastical documents, sermons and newspapers we will try to identify in which ways, different events changed the lives of two members of the Catholic Church. Two life stories are the windows to analyze the effect of the Bourbon Reforms at a local level, the impact of the revolution inside and outside the convents, the ideological transformation of the Clergy and the different attitudes towards the ecclesiastical reforms of the 1820s.En este trabajo, de carácter exploratorio, he procurado realizar un recorrido histórico de las primeras tres décadas del siglo XIX en el Río de la Plata a través de la vida de dos importantes franciscanos. Usando archivos eclesiásticos y civiles, sermones y diarios, intento identificar de qué manera, diferentes acontecimientos de largo alcance trasformaron las vidas de dos hispanoamericanos. A partir de dos historias de vida pretendo brindar algunas sugerencias sobre el funcionamiento en el ámbito local de las políticas borbónicas, el impacto de la revolución dentro y fuera de los conventos, la transformación ideológica dentro de las Órdenes regulares y las intrincadas redes de relaciones sociales a ambos lados del Atlántico.
A rising movement within Islam is to turn back to Islamic values and to inject them into everyday life. Another movement gaining popularity is a campaign to grant women improved status. The two movements argue about how to interpret the prerogatives and duties of women addressed in the Koran. The tension between the two movements often threatens social harmony. Muslim communities have different laws and regulations to protect females and to nurture their lives, but they often cause inequalities and become obsolete or impractical. For example, in Malaysia, Muslim women can be theologians and teachers, but not clergy. Many think that Islam prevents them from divorce and allows their husbands to abuse them. Perhaps all leading Islamic scholars should meet to discuss and then agree on Koranic interpretations that would regulate all aspects of social interaction. They must abhor any violation of basic rights, e.g., denying education to females. Any answers to gender inequalities within Islam must be based in Muslim realities. In Malaysia, Sisters of Islam, a Muslim professional group, want a comprehensive gender policy that considers contemporary realities and Muslim culture. They point out that past interpretations of laws may no longer be pertinent, especially since women did not work outside the home in the 7th century. A male Muslim made a commentary that Allah's message does not change over time, but its form may change according to the needs and exigencies of the time. Thus, Islamic leaders can invoke new decrees to conform to modern situations. Pakistanis have done so with usury laws to allow a modern banking system to operate properly. Muslim women are in the forefront of the debate and try to change the system from within while preserving harmony. Men must remember that everyone is equal before God. PMID:12287494
Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.
Full Text Available Syed Khurram AzmatTechnical Services and Research and Metrics, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Sindh, PakistanPurpose: Pakistan is a patriarchal society in which male opinion leaders play an important role in determining health-seeking behaviors pertaining to family planning (FP among their respective communities. This research focuses on cataloguing the perceptions of opinion leaders (clergymen, health professionals, and social workers about the barriers for using services and practical solutions for promoting FP in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan.Materials and methods: A qualitative study using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule with hypothetical scenarios and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 45 opinion leaders (25 mosque imams/clergymen, 12 nonallopathic health professionals, and eight social workers/activists was conducted in 2006–2007 in Karachi, Pakistan. Transcripts were coded thematically utilizing NVivo by using an adapted constant comparison analysis process as described by Strauss and Corbin.Results: Seven key themes were derived from the in-depth interviews. Five themes provide insight into the opinion leaders' perceptions of barriers to FP and modern contraception methods. Among the barriers religious taboos and cultural pressures were particularly noteworthy. Two themes offered opportunities for more effective development and implementation of FP programs.Conclusion: It is evident from the study that opinion leaders in the community and the clergy lack the understanding of the importance of birth spacing. However, because they have a great deal of influence on the community at large, it is imperative to interact with them to build their capacity in order to propagate the messages of FP and improve maternal health and reproductive health in general.Keywords: religious leaders/community imams/clergyman, health professionals, social workers
Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. La “novità” dell’ordinanza del Tribunale di Lecce 8 ottobre 2012 – 2. Il precedente belga – 3. Uno sguardo sulla dottrina civilistica del respondeat superior nell’esperienza americana – 4. La fattispecie esaminata dai giudici salentini e la questione della soggettività della Curia arcivescovile – 5. (segue Il riconoscimento della responsabilità indiretta ex art. 2049 c.c. – 6. Le ragioni della non configurabilità di una posizione di responsabilità del vescovo ex art. 2049 c.c. - Appendice.It’s “Déjà vu” in Case Law: Vicarious Liability of the Diocesan Bishopfor the Intentional Torts committed by his PriestsABSTRACT: This Article addresses the issue of a Diocesan Curia’s liability for the intentional torts (sexual assault committed by his parish priest. The paper takes as a starting point a recent Italian ruling that found a master-servant relationship between the Diocesan Curia and parish priest. The Court also held that a parish priest who committed a intentional tort (sexual assault, causally connected to the relationship, is acting within the scope of employment, so that the Diocesan Curia is vicariously liable. The Author suggests a comparative approach to the guidelines of Belgian and American case law on the subject of sexual abuse committed by clergy and examines the legal aspects of the topic as they are ruled by Italian law, which should lead to reject the conclusion of imputing a vicarious liability upon the Diocesan Curia.KEYWORDS: Vicarious liability of churches for sexual misconduct; Respondeat superior liability; Master-servant relationship in the religious organizations.
Full Text Available Physicians, health care workers, members of the clergy, and laypeople throughout the world have accepted fully that a person is dead when his or her brain is dead. Although the widespread use of mechanical ventilators and other advanced critical care services have transformed the course of terminal neurologic disorders. Vital functions can now be maintained artificially for a long period of time after the brain has ceased to function. There is a need to diagnose brain death with utmost accuracy and urgency because of an increased awareness amongst the masses for an early diagnosis of brain death and the requirements of organ retrieval for transplantation. Physicians need not be, or consult with, a neurologist or neurosurgeon in order to determine brain death. The purpose of this review article is to provide health care providers in India with requirements for determining brain death, increase knowledge amongst health care practitioners about the clinical evaluation of brain death, and reduce the potential for variations in brain death determination policies and practices amongst facilities and practitioners. Process for brain death certification has been discussed under the following: 1. Identification of history or physical examination findings that provide a clear etiology of brain dysfunction. 2. Exclusion of any condition that might confound the subsequent examination of cortical or brain stem function. 3. Performance of a complete neurological examination including the standard apnea test and 10 minute apnea test. 4. Assessment of brainstem reflexes. 5. Clinical observations compatible with the diagnosis of brain death. 6. Responsibilities of physicians. 7. Notify next of kin. 8. Interval observation period. 9. Repeat clinical assessment of brain stem reflexes. 10. Confirmatory testing as indicated. 11. Certification and brain death documentation.
Full Text Available The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion. El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.
The disturbances of 1391 in Barcelona provoked conversions in mass of Jews. In this article there is exposed the need of an investigation based on very abundant documentation preserved in the files. This documentation shows the sudden step of a majority of Jewish population to a majority of converted. Besides this documentation demonstrates the maintenance of the familiar cohesion between jewish members and converted members. The Registra ordinatiorum of the diocesan file of Barcelona allow to raise the question of if the access to the clergy of the converted ones is a test of the sincerity of his conversion.
El dia 5 d’agost de 1391 es produïa l’assalt al call major de Barcelona. Immediatament començaren les conversions massives. En aquest article s’exposa la necessitat d’una recerca sobre la població conversa basada en la molt abundosa documentació existent en els arxius barcelonins. Aquesta documentació ens mostra el canvi radical al sí de la comunitat jueva de Barcelona: d’una majoria de jueus a una majoria de conversos. Malgrat tot, es va mantenir la cohesió familiar entre membres jueus i membres conversos. Per altra banda, els Registra ordinatorum conservats a l’Arxiu Diocesà de Barcelona permeten fer-nos la pregunta de si l’accés al clergat per part de conversos és una prova de la sinceritat de llur conversió.
R. A. Khachidogov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal establishment of the government in the field of Islamic education in the North Caucasus region. It is noted that the establishment of the Russian state did not bring any significant changes in the everyday life of Muslims of the North Caucasus. For the first time on "foreigners" of the state-level education has been fixed 26 March 1870 "Rules", which talked about the struggle "with a tribal organization and Mohammedan civilization, aimed at the Russification of early Muslims and their coalescence with the Russian people." The next step came Nov. 20, 1874 with the approval of the State Supreme Council, which introduced the system of Islamic education in the school accountability department. So finally implement a project of Russification of the Muslim community, which was the most negative factor hindering the mental development of children who are accustomed to speak the mother tongue. Even in 1838, in the report the Minister of War Chernyshev commander of a separate Caucasian Corps, General Golovin wrote that "it is necessary, wherever possible, to establish Muslim schools for the education of the clergy, through which you can act on the minds of the people." Caucasian leaders were in no hurry to close Muslim schools, trying to use them as centers of education spread. During the Caucasian War, the Russian government is trying to pursue such a policy among the Muslims, which would cause the sympathy not only among the common people, but also among the educated elite of the Muslim community in order to drag her to his side. December 18, 1848 Nicholas I approved the "Regulations on the Caucasian school district and the school district, his subordinate", in which the military gymnasium in Ekaterinodar started teacher "Mohammedan law." In 1853 Muslim students of military schools of the empire received an official entitled to exemption from the training sessions in the days of religious feasts and fasts.
Álvarez Icaza Longoria, María Teresa
Full Text Available Since 1750 Archbishop Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordered the taking place of the transference to clerics from doctrines previously administered by the regular clergy. Several of the secularized curates used to have a vast territory, the Diocesan prelate decided to divide them. As there were more parishes, a higher number of the clerics could have more chance to get accommodation. In addition, argued Rubio, the parishioners were favored because it improved their spiritual administration. The establishment of these boundaries was sometimes done with the consensus of several actors involved, but in other cases it involved conflicts that could represent a number of major obstacles in the process of creating new parishes.
A partir de 1750 el arzobispo Manuel Rubio y Salinas ordenó que se llevara a cabo la transferencia a clérigos de doctrinas hasta entonces administradas por el clero regular. Varios de los curatos secularizados tenían un territorio muy amplio; el prelado diocesano tomó la decisión de dividirlos. Al existir más parroquias tenían ocasión de conseguir acomodo mayor número de clérigos; además, argumentaba Rubio, los feligreses se veían beneficiados porque mejoraba su administración espiritual. El establecimiento de estas demarcaciones a veces fue realizado con el consenso de los diversos actores involucrados, pero en otras implicó conflictos que pudieron representar obstáculos importantes en el proceso de creación de nuevas sedes parroquiales.
Aleksandr N. RIYBICOV
Full Text Available In this article, basing on archival materials and the research literature, the authors analyzed the characteristics of the religious policy of the Soviet power in the North Caucasus in 1917-1946 years regarding the renovative associations. The various definitions of the concept of «renovationism» were studied and the own wording were appeared to achieve this goal. According to new concept, the Renovationism is difficult phenomenon, developing under the influence of the processes, having various nature: inside-church processes due to the growth of democratic sentiment among the clergy and policy processes, initiated by the Soviet power to conduct their own religious course. The theoretical basis of this article advocates a synthesis of two modeling methods. Basing on these methods, it is proved that the revolution of 1917 led to the creation of a new separation model of the churchstate relations, basing on the principle of gradual elimination of the religious organizations` influence in the public life. The activity of Renovationist Synod of the North Caucasus were assessed; the dynamics of the beginning a new dioceses in various parts of the region were analyzed; the changes in the conduct of worship were discussed. It is concluded that the supporting of the Renovationism was an important part of religious policy during the 20's - early 30-ies XX century. The cooperation of local governments with the hierarchs of the new church structure had a longer duration of time than in the central areas of the country. This situation was explained largely by the low success of atheistic propaganda, the preservation of the religious consciousness on the part of party functionaries. At the same time the abolition of renovationist organizations in the North Caucasus (as well as in other areas of the country was caused by a common factor, the change in the line of the Stalin's religious course in the direction of the
Leila Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available Este texto se vincula às questões analisadas no âmbito do projeto financiado pelo CNPq, intitulado “Aspectos das relações de poder na Vita Sancti Aemiliani, na Vita Sancti Fructuosi e na autobiografia de Valério do Bierzo: cristianização e reorganização eclesiástica no reino visigodo do século VII”. Dentre outros pressupostos, tal pesquisa se pauta no reconhecimento de que as autoridades eclesiásticas em princípios da Idade Média atuaram visando à promoção de um amplo projeto pedagógico, ao qual se associavam a normatização e a instrução de laicos e clérigos. Nesse processo, a literatura hagiográfica assumiu lugar de destaque. Considerando de natureza hagiográfica a autobiografia escrita por Valério de Bierzo, pretende-se, à luz das reflexões historiográficas sobre a atividade eclesiástica na península hispânica nos séculos VI e VII, discutir o papel assumido pelo diabo em tal relato, ora mais acentuadamente expressão de um topos literário, ora interlocutor da conjuntura específica do autor.This text is linked to the aspects of power relations in the Vita Sancti Aemiliani in Vita Sancti Fructuosi and autobiography of Valério of Bierzo: Christianization and ecclesiastical reorganization of the Visigothic kingdom in the seventh century, funded by CNPq. Among other assumptions, this research recognizes that the ecclesiastical authorities at the beginning of the Middle Ages worked for the promotion of a comprehensive education program, which was associated with standardization and education of lay and clergy. In this process, the hagiographic literature has assumed a prominent place. Considering the autobiography written by Valerius of Bierzo as an expression of the hagiographic genre, it is intended in this article, based on the historiographical reflections of ecclesiastical activity in the Hispanic peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries, discussing the role played by the devil in such a report
sedative in a half of patients and morphine only in 40% of the cases. Patients mainly died for acute respiratory failure (55% or infective complications (34%, almost all under mechanical ventilation. Only a minority of them (28% reported to have had a discussion about end-of-life care with their physician; palliative/end of life decisions were taken in 13% of the cases. Sustaining figures such as psychologist (17% or clergy (13% were marginally required. Conclusions The current data have confirmed that, also in a Rehabilitative Respiratory setting, quality of end-of-life care and patient-physician communication need further improvement.
Inarejos Muñoz, Juan Antonio
Full Text Available In the Spanish Constituent assembly of 1854 some previously unknown issues were raised about Church-State relations, including tolerance of worshipping and religious freedom. The clergy, whose interference in political confrontations was nothing new, placed themselves as a majority alongside one of the factions of the Moderate party, which, in a contradictory way, used the new mechanisms of political representation arisen with the representative State of the citizen (The press and Parliamentary representation to fight against liberalism. A defense of Church rights directed towards the sacralization of society was undertaken by the pulpit, the press, the parliamentary tribune and the Printing press. These represented the main lines of an analysis which wakes reference to the provinces that nowadays make up Castilla-La Mancha, where the neocatholic brend had a reasonable electoral support and relied on the ideological, numerical and organizational support provided by the Archbishopric of Toledo and the diocese of Cuenca.En las Cortes Constituyentes de 1854 se plantearon cuestiones hasta entonces inéditas en las relaciones Iglesia-Estado: tolerancia de cultos, libertad religiosa o confesionalidad del Estado. El clero, cuya injerencia en las confrontaciones políticas no era en absoluto novedosa, se posicionó de forma mayoritaria al lado de una de las fracciones del partido moderado que, contradictoriamente, utilizó los nuevos mecanismos de representación política surgidos con el Estado representativo de la ciudadanía (prensa y representación parlamentaria, para combatir el liberalismo. Desde el púlpito, la prensa, la tribuna parlamentaria y la imprenta se emprendió una defensa de los derechos de la Iglesia orientada a la sacralización de la sociedad. Constituyen los principales trazos de un análisis que toma como referente las provincias que en la actualidad constituyen Castilla-La Mancha, donde la corriente neo-católica gozó de un
María Verónica Fernández Armesto
Full Text Available El artículo intenta una primera mirada al mundo de las lecturas económicas en Buenos Aires en los últimos años del período colonial: qué autores circulaban con mayor profusión, cuáles obras se privilegiaban en las bibliotecas privadas y qué público lector se interesaba en ellas, a partir de los inventarios de bibliotecas privadas e, indirectamente, del registro de donaciones de libros a la Biblioteca Pública en los primeros años independientes. Se postula como hipótesis la mayor libertad de que habrían gozado los libros de economía en el Buenos Aires finicolonial, para propiciar la difusión de las nuevas ideas que surgían de la mano de la llamada "Ilustración cristiana". En este contexto, caracterizado por la activa presencia del clero y de los funcionarios de la administración virreinal (es decir, los miembros de los dos poderes, Corona e Iglesia y un sector mercantil cada vez más influyente, se constituyó el público lector de las obras de economía. Por otra parte, el análisis de los inventarios de bibliotecas muestra la frecuencia con que aparecen los autores españoles e italianos que actuaron, ya sea por medio de la traducción, la adaptación o la copia, como intermediarios de otros economistas europeos.The article attempts a first look to the world of the economic readings in Buenos Aires in the last years of the colonial period: which authors circulated more frequently, which books used to be found in the private libraries, and what type of people were interested in them, starting from the inventories of private libraries, and indirectly, from the registration of books donations to Public Library in the first independent years. The postulated hypothesis is that the economics books enjoyed of more freedom in the Buenos Aires late colonial period, propitiating the diffusion of the new ideas of the so-called "Christian Enlightenment». It was in this context, characterized by the active presence of the clergy and the
Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after
Full Text Available Se estudian las transformaciones que sufrió la estructura eclesiástica santafesina desde el surgimiento de un poder político formalmente autónomo en la provincia hasta la caída del rosismo y la organización constitucional del estado federal a nivel nacional. Se traza en primer lugar un bosquejo de la organización jurisdiccional eclesiástica de la futura provincia a fines del período colonial y se estima numéricamente el clero diocesano y regular que oficiaba en ese espacio. Se analizan luego las modificaciones que produjo el surgimiento de un poder provincial autónomo en las formas del gobierno eclesiástico y se relacionan esas transformaciones con la centralización del poder eclesiástico en la figura del cura párroco de la Matriz santafesina, José de Amenábar. En tercer lugar, se estudia la relación entre el fisco provincial y las rentas eclesiásticas de la provincia. Por último, se sondean los límites de la iglesia provincial en razón de la dependencia jurisdiccional respecto de Buenos Aires.This article deals with the ecclesiastical changes in Santa Fe arisen from its political autonomy in 1815 up to the end of Rosas government and the successive constitutional organization of a federal nation State. The jurisdictional structure of the Catholic Church and the clergy numbers in late-colonial Santa Fe are analyzed in the first place. Secondly, this paper studies the effects of a new autonomous government on ecclesiastical hierarchy and its link with the promotion of José de Amenábar to the highest position in local Church. In the third place the relation between provincial treasury and ecclesiastical financial resources is examined. Finally the bounds of provincial Church autonomy are taken into account considering Buenos Aires jurisdictional and political primacy.
María de los Ángeles FAYA DIAZ
Full Text Available The Economic Society of Asturias was an instrument of enlightened reformism which should act in a region with severe economic backwardness. Born in 1780 at the initiative of Campomanes, it responds to Matritense model, focusing on economic development and popular education. Designed around the possibilities of development offered by the coal, was finally oriented to promote agricultural growth, according to the interests of the educated elite of Asturias, mainly composed by members of the nobility and clergy. The industrial promotion efforts were focused on the popular industry, centered in the linen, mining and metallurgical techniques, but it met with little success. Because of the existing poverty, the Society developed a new secular charity, while education was limited to a School of Drawing and four sewing schools for women. In short, the Society was unable to lead the region’s economic takeoff, which delayed still several decades.La Sociedad Económica de Asturias fue un instrumento del reformismo ilustrado que tuvo que actuar en una región con grave atraso económico. Nace en 1780 por iniciativa de Campomanes y responde al modelo de la Matritense, centrada en el desarrollo económico y la educación popular. Ideada en torno a las posibilidades que ofrecía el carbón, se termina orientando a impulsar el crecimiento agrario, acorde con los intereses de la élite ilustrada asturiana, integrada por miembros de la nobleza y del clero. Los esfuerzos para el fomento industrial en Asturias estuvieron centrados en la industria popular en torno al lino, así como a los sectores minero y metalúrgico, pronto fracasados. Dada la pobreza existente, la Sociedad desarrolló la nueva beneficencia laica, mientras que la enseñanza quedó limitada a una Escuela de Dibujo y cuatro escuelas de coser para mujeres. En definitiva, la Sociedad fue incapaz de vehicular el despegue económico de la región, que aún tardaría varias décadas.
, how are experienced and perceived the different ways of internationalization of the high clergy and what is the place it takes among the instruments of legitimation within the field of power?
José Ramón Rodríguez Lago
Full Text Available El análisis del rol desempeñado por las redes eclesiásticas en las relaciones centro-periferia, en un Estado como el español, caracterizado por los debates suscitados en torno a este binomio durante una buena parte del siglo XX, nos adentra en la dimensión alcanzada por la cuestión territorial en la administración de las diócesis y provincias eclesiásticas, la promoción vocacional del clero y la selección de sus más cualificados dirigentes. La acción y el discurso de los órganos pontificios y las diversas instituciones de la Iglesia en España incidirán no sólo en el desarrollo de prácticas pastorales más atentas a las peculiaridades culturales y sociales propias de cada Iglesia local, sino también en la singular trayectoria de los diversos proyectos de construcción nacional que compitieron durante la pasada centuria. Palabras clave: Vaticano, España, diócesis, provincia eclesiástica, regionalismo, nacionalismo. _____________ Abstract: The analysis of the role played by the church networks in center-periphery relations in a state such as Spain, characterized by the discussions on this pair at least for most of the 20th century, takes us into the dimension reached by the territorial issue in the administration of dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces, vocational promotion of the clergy and the selection of its most qualified leaders. The action and discourse of the pontifical bodies and several institutions of the Church in Spain will impact not only in pastoral practices more alive to the social and cultural peculiarities, but also in the unique path of various nation-building projects which competed during the last century. Keywords: Vatican, Spain, dioceses, ecclesiastical provinces, regionalism, nationalism.
Full Text Available David E VanceThe University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Many of us think of nurses as people who provide direct care to us and our loved ones. And that is true. Images of a selfless person such as Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War running from one wounded soldier to another providing care inspires the imagination of what a nurse is and can be. Based on that image, a nurse is anyone who cares (and from a spiritual or philosophical perspective, that may be true. But nursing as a profession is so much more. nurse is someone with a very selective skill set that can only be developed and honed by intense training, education, and discipline while being used in a proscribed ethical manner. With such a combination of skills, ethics, and caring, nurses are the backbone of health care settings, tending to the individual needs of the patients; however, many nurses also function outside such traditional settings and perform numerous functions. Nurses are educators and provide data to the public designed to improve health literacy and promote physical and mental wellness. Nurses are computer and organizational specialists who provide hospitals and institutions with the technologies for keeping, maintaining, and analyzing records. Nurses are clergy, psychologists, and philosophers providing a direction and a moral compass in how to are for patients and each other. Nurses are researchers investigating everything from developing medication for Alzheimer's disease to improving crop yields to reduce hunger. Finally, nurses are advocates and leaders petitioning for justice and beneficence of all regardless of gender, age, race, religion, sexual orientation, and nationality; and as such, nursing is political and has a global impact. Nursing is global in nature and is facing global, as well as country specific, problems. The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief overview of what
Francisco José SANZ DE LA HIGUERA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En la ciudad de Burgos, a mediados del siglo XVIII, nueve hogares disponían, entre sus componentes, de un capellán privativo, contratado por el pater-familias a título de «doméstico». Sus quehaceres eran múltiples: dirigir la celebración de actos religiosos, servir la mesa, educar a la progenie, llevar los asuntos de su patrón, etcétera. Muchos de esos hogares tenían, en sus grandes mansiones, oratorio y cochera, donde se guardaban celosamente los menajes sacros y los carruajes. Las razones para contratar capellanes ah hoc son varias, pero una destaca entre las demás. En un siglo caracterizado por la transición desde una religiosidad colectiva, teatralizada, de templo y estridencias en las calles hasta una religiosidad más intimista, doctrinal, hogareña, personal e individualista, se mantenía, alimentaba y/o asalariaba a un clero flotante que servía en exclusiva a los miembros de algunos hogares aristocráticos. Estos hogares disfrutaban, en general, de unos niveles de renta y de fortuna elevados, muy por encima de la inmensa mayoría de los habitantes de la ciudad.ABSTRACT: In the city of Burgos, in the middle of the 18th century, nine homes had, as their members, a private chaplain, contracted by the pater-familias, as household servant. These jobs were of a great variety: to lead the celebration of religious events, to serve meals, to educate offspring, to be in charge of his landlord's bussiness, etcétera. Many of those homes had, in their great mansions, an oratory and a garage, where the sacred items and the carriages were well kept. The reasons to contract chaplains ad hoc are different, but one is the most important. In a century characterized for the changings from a collective religiousness, exaggerated, in churchs and stridency in the streets to a religiousness more intimate, doctrinal, familiar, personal and individualistic, maintained, fed and/or paid a floating clergy who served the members of some
Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy
In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in
Goldstein, Frederick J
Administration of opioids to alleviate moderate to severe acute pain and chronic cancer pain is an established management process. However, advancements in clinical pharmacologic research have shown that opioids are also effective in chronic noncancerous pain. Many patients properly treated for prolonged periods with opioids develop tolerance and subsequently, physical dependence. This process is not necessarily harmful to the patient and will not cause the patient to develop an addiction (properly defined as psychologic dependence). For many patients who have been on opioid therapy for months or years, analgesic effectiveness tragically becomes less. In addition, opioid-induced constipation can be severe and cause pain; patients do not develop tolerance to this adverse reaction. Therefore, such issues become a management problem and require additional intervention. Currently, many different classes of drugs can serve as effective adjuncts to opioids for treatment of pain. Adding adjunctive medication to opioid therapy improves pain management primarily by nonopioid mechanisms of action. Clinical outcomes of such combinations include greater analgesia and attenuation of opioid-induced adverse reactions such as nausea and vomiting, constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression. Adjuncts include acetaminophen, antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, baclofen, benzodiazepines, capsaicin, calcium channel blockers, clonidine hydrochloride, central nervous system stimulants, corticosteroids, local anesthetics, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, pentoxifylline, and scopolamine. Some adjuncts (eg, acetaminophen) are routinely used today, whereas others (eg, nifedipine [calcium channel blocker]) are used on a limited basis but have great potential for more widespread application. All professionals (eg, nurses, pharmacists, physicians, physicians' assistants, social workers, members of the clergy
“Ascent is made from earth to heaven”: Marx, Engels and religion - doi: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v35i1.17256 “Aqui é da terra que se sobe ao céu”: Marx, Engels e a religião - doi: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v35i1.17256
Rui Bragado Sousa
Full Text Available The frequently controversial relationship between Marxism and Religion, especially with Christianity, is discussed in current article. A detailed study of Marx´s early works, from 1841 to 1848, the year of the publication of the Communist Manifesto is required for the specific analysis of Marxist thinking on religion. The latter is actually the author´s philosophical genesis (derived from Hegel and Feuerbach rather than as an economist. Other works by Friedrich Engels addressing the religious phenomenon will also be discussed. The development of ‘historical materialism’ in the 20th century, coupled to their orthodox and heterodox stance, their affinities, similarities and breaks with the Catholic Clergy will be investigated. Finally, the comprehension of practice in its specific example, the Liberation Theology in Latin America, will be endeavored. There are no claims for a theoretical or philosophical discussion of Historical Materialism and Idealism or other metaphysical abstractions, but historical, social and political factors that produce the theme. O presente artigo pretende discutir a relação, muitas vezes controversa, entre marxismo e religião, sobretudo com o cristianismo. Para a análise específica do pensamento marxiano acerca da religião se fez necessário um estudo detalhado de todas as obras de juventude de Marx, de 1841 a 1848, ano de publicação do Manifesto Comunista, uma vez que esta produção reflete o autor em sua gênese filosófica (hegeliana e feurbachiana e menos economista; além de algumas obras de Friedrich Engels que também abordam o fenômeno religioso. Na sequência, observam-se os desdobramentos dos ‘materialismos históricos’ no século XX, nas suas vertentes ortodoxas e heterodoxas, suas afinidades, aproximações e rupturas com o Clero Católico. Por fim, busca-se a compreensão da práxis em seu exemplo específico, a Teologia da Libertação na América Latina. Não temos a pretensão de
Full Text Available In Polish historiography the martial law period is still an issue that causes a lot of controversy. It also seems that even growing period of time and psychological distance do not automatically facilitate developing clear and objective assessment of the dramatic events of the years 1981–1983. The difference between presented opinions is strongly influenced by current trends of political correctness as well as inaccessibility of classified documents still kept in the Polish and Russian archives. An attempt to conduct a thorough and multifaceted evaluation of the martial law period seems impossible without analysing tense sociopolitical situation as well as difficult economic situation of Poland at the end of 1970s and the beginning of 1980s. It is also necessary to take into account an important factor – the Solidarity movement that was founded in 1980. It was the first post-war mass opposition movement, rooted firmly on the ground of Christian ideas. Thus, it seems impossible to ignore the role of the Polish Catholic Church during the period of the martial law. It was within the framework of the Church structures – due to suspension of almost every social organization – that the victims of repression and their families were granted physical, legal, and spiritual support. The attitude presented by the hierarchy and numerous representatives of the clergy (e.g. Primate J. Glemp, Archbishop B. Dąbrowski, Fr. J. Popiełuszko or Fr. K. Jancarz clearly proved that numerous cases of violating the law, in particular arresting and detaining the members of the Solidarity movement, were strongly condemned. The ideas and conclusions presented in the article, although still imperfect and probably premature, enable the reader to assume that the events of 1981–1983 were caused by the lack of both authority of the government as well as fundamental social freedom rather than insufficient supply of food, economic crisis or a threat of a military