Sample records for clear air turbulence

  1. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  2. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  3. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  4. SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  5. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent


    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  6. Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine


    Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners. PMID:27140350

  7. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk


    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection ...

  8. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    Vrancken, Patrick; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk


    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuations measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configu...

  9. Mode S and ADS-B as a Source of Clear-Air Turbulence Measurements

    Kopeć, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Kamil; de Haan, Siebren; Malinowski, Szymon


    Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) beside being the most common cause for commercial aircraft incidents in the cruise phase is a complex physical phenomenon. CAT is an effect of various underlying physical mechanisms such as different kinds of hydrodynamic instabilities or large scale forcing. In order to properly understand and correctly forecast it one needs a significant amount of observation data. Up to date the best available observations are the in-situ EDR (from eddy dissipation rate - a measure of turbulence intensity). Those observations are reported every ~1 min of flight (roughly every 15 km). Yet their availability is limited by the willingness of the airlines to cooperate in adjusting on-board software. However there is a class of data that can be accessed more freely. In this communication we present and discuss a feasibility analysis of the three methods of processing Mode S/ADS-B messages into viable turbulence measurements. The Mode S/ADS-B messages are unrestricted navigational data broadcast by most of the commercial aircraft. The unique characteristic of this data is a very high temporal resolution. This allows to employ processing which results in obtaining turbulence information characterized by spatial resolution comparable with the best available data sources. Moreover due to using Mode-S/ASS-B data, the number of aircraft that are providing observations increases significantly. The methods are either using simple positioning information available in the ADS-B or high-resolution wind information from the Mode S. The paper is largely based on the results of the methods application to the data originating from DELICAT flight campaign that took place in 2013. The flight campaign was conducted using NLR operated Cessna Citation II. The reference Mode-S/ADS-B data partly overlapping with the research flights were supplied by the KNMI. Analysis shows very significant potential of the Mode-S wind based methods. J. M. Kopeć, K. Kwiatkowski, S. de Haan, and

  10. Range resolution dependence of VHF radar returns from clear-air turbulence and precipitation

    Chu, Y.-H. Y.-H.; Su, C.-L.


    With employing 1.5 h of the data observed by the Chung-Li VHF radar, the range resolution dependences of the VHF backscatter from refractivity fluctuation and precipitation are investigated in this article. It indicates that the atmospheric layer structure of refractivity seems to play a role in governing the range resolution dependence of clear-air turbulent echoes. Observations shows that the VHF clear-air echo power ratios for 4 to 2 μs pulse lengths are close to 3 dB in the middle or bottom side of the layer, while the ratios are significantly greater than 3 dB in the top side of the layer. The analysis of the precipitation echo power ratio for 4 to 2 ms pulse lengths shows that basically the ratios above 3.0 km are close to 3 dB, but enormously smaller than 3 dB below 3.0 km. The feature of extraordinarily small echo power ratios below 3.0 km is also observed for the radar returns from refractivity turbulence. The radar recovery effect is thought to be a primary factor responsible for the severe diminution of the echo power ratios at the lower altitudes. In addition, statistical analysis reveals that the range resolution effect on the first and second moments of the Doppler spectra for the radar echoes from clear-air turbulence and precipitation is insignificant and negligible. The dependences of the coefficient A and power B in the power-law approximation Vt=APBr to the terminal velocity Vt and range-corrected echo power Pr are examined theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the coefficient A (powers B) is inversely (positively) proportional to the range resolution, in a good agreement with the observations. Because of the strong dependence of coefficient A and power B on the radar pulse width, it suggests that great caution should be taken in comparing the power-law expressions Vt=APBr established from the radar returns obtained with different range resolutions.

  11. Aeronautical diagnostics for Clear-Air Turbulence forecast at Meteofrance in the context of DELICAT European project

    A study on Clear-Air Turbulence (abbreviated by CAT) forecast in a Numerical Weather Model is presented in this paper. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ARPEGE Meteofrance-NWP model's ability to reproduce CAT, by calculating various CAT indices at the regional scale (over Europe) in this model. The list of indices used here is inspired from that proposed by R. Sharman and Wolff (2006). Calculated indices are then compared with AMDARs (Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay) turbulence measurements during winter, early in 2010. This work was performed within DELICAT european project (*DEmonstration of LIdar based Clear-Air Turbulence detection), in the Seventh Research Framework program of the European Union [FP7], in Meteofrance national weather agency.

  12. Experimental Validation of a Forward Looking Interferometer for Detection of Clear Air Turbulence due to Mountain Waves

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Daniels, Taumi S.; West, Leanne L.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Lane, Sarah E.; Burdette, Edward M.; Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Cornman, Larry; Sharman, Robert D.


    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is an airborne sensor concept for detection and estimation of potential atmospheric hazards to aircraft. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing. The FLI is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards, during all phases of flight, including clear air turbulence, volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing. In addition, the FLI is being evaluated for its potential to detect hazardous runway conditions during landing, such as wet or icy asphalt or concrete. The validation of model-based instrument and hazard simulation results is accomplished by comparing predicted performance against empirical data. In the mountain lee wave data collected in the previous FLI project, the data showed a damped, periodic mountain wave structure. The wave data itself will be of use in forecast and nowcast turbulence products such as the Graphical Turbulence Guidance and Graphical Turbulence Guidance Nowcast products. Determining how turbulence hazard estimates can be derived from FLI measurements will require further investigation.

  13. Retrieving clear-air turbulence information from regular commercial aircraft using Mode-S and ADS-B broadcast

    Kopeć, J. M.; Kwiatkowski, K.; de Haan, S.; Malinowski, S. P.


    Navigational information broadcast by commercial aircraft in the form of Mode-S and ADS-B messages can be considered a new and valid source of upper air turbulence measurements. A set of three processing methods is proposed and analysed using a quality record of turbulence encounters made by a research aircraft. The proposed methods are based on processing the vertical acceleration or the background wind into the eddy dissipation rate. All the necessary parameters are conveyed in the Mode-S/ADS-B messages. The comparison of the results of application of the processing against a reference eddy dissipation rate obtained using on-board accelerometer indicate a significant potential of those methods. The advantages and limitation of the presented approaches are discussed.

  14. Cean air and clear responsibility

    This paper is the text of the address given by Commissioner Kenneth C. rogers, USNRC, at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Mr. Rogers reviews the regulatory approach to the subject, discussing the requirements of 10CFR20 and ALARA principles. A discussion of the talk follows the text

  15. Clear-air radar observations of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Ince, Turker


    This dissertation presents the design and operation of a high-resolution frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM- CW) radar system to study the structure and dynamics of clear-air turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This sensitive radar can image the vertical structure of the ABL with both high spatial and temporal resolutions, and provide both qualitative information about the morphology of clear-air structures and quantitative information on the intensity of fluctuations in refractive-index of air. The principles of operation and the hardware and data acquisition characteristics of the radar are described in the dissertation. In October 1999, the radar participated in the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES'99) Experiment to characterize the temporal structure and evolution of the boundary-layer features in both convective and stable conditions. The observed structures include clear-air convection, boundary layer evolution, gravity waves, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, stably stratified layers, and clear-air turbulence. Many of the S-band radar images also show high- reflectivity returns from Rayleigh scatterers such as insects. An adaptive median filtering technique based on local statistics has, therefore, been developed to discriminate between Bragg and Rayleigh scattering in clear-air radar observations. The filter is tested on radar observations of clear air convection with comparison to two commonly used image processing techniques. The dissertation also examines the statistical mean of the radar-measured C2n for clear-air convection, and compares it with the theoretical predictions. The study also shows that the inversion height, local thickness of the inversion layer, and the height of the elevated atmospheric layers can be estimated from the radar reflectivity measurements. In addition, comparisons to the radiosonde-based height estimates are made. To examine the temporal and spatial structure of C2n , the dissertation

  16. Interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air

    Liu, C. H.


    The nature of the scattering and reflection mechanisms that give rise to the MST radar echoes from the clear air is essential in the correct interpretation of the data about winds, waves, turbulence and stability in the atmosphere. There are two main aspects: the nature of the targets the radar sees and their generation mechanisms; and the signatures of the radar signals returned from the different targets. Volume scatterings from isotropic or anisotropic turbulence, and partial reflections from horizontally stratified, sharp refractive index gradients are believed the main contributors to radar echoes. Combined effects from all the mechanisms probably produce the observed data. The signature of the echo signals for these different scatterers under realistic experimental conditions should be studied. It is hoped from these studies, the nature of the targets can be better understood, and related to atmospheric dynamic processes.

  17. Pollution prevention at ports: clearing the air

    Seaports are major hubs of economic activity and of environmental pollution in coastal urban areas. Due to increasing global trade, transport of goods through ports has been steadily increasing and will likely continue to increase in the future. Evaluating air pollution impacts of ports requires consideration of numerous sources, including marine vessels, trucks, locomotives, and off-road equipment used for moving cargo. The air quality impacts of ports are significant, with particularly large emissions of diesel exhaust, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides. The health effects of these air pollutants to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. In children, there are links with asthma, bronchitis, missed school days, and emergency room visits. The significance of these environmental health impacts requires aggressive efforts to mitigate the problem. Approaches to mitigation encompass a range of possibilities from currently available, low-cost approaches, to more significant investments for cleaner air. Examples of the former include restrictions on truck idling and the use of low-sulfur diesel fuel; the latter includes shore-side power for docked ships, and alternative fuels. A precautionary approach to port-related air pollution would encourage local production of goods in order to reduce marine traffic, greener design for new terminals, and state-of-the art approaches to emissions-control that have been successfully demonstrated at ports throughout the world

  18. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Todde, V.


    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  19. Clear-Air Propagation Modeling using Parabolic Equation Method

    V. Kvicera


    Full Text Available Propagation of radio waves under clear-air conditions is affected bythe distribution of atmospheric refractivity between the transmitterand the receiver. The measurement of refractivity was carried out onthe TV Tower Prague to access evolution of a refractivity profile. Inthis paper, the parabolic equation method is used in modelingpropagation of microwaves when using the measured data. This paperbriefly describes the method and shows some practical results ofsimulation of microwave propagation using real vertical profiles ofatmospheric refractivity.

  20. TurbEFA: an interdisciplinary effort to investigate the turbulent flow across a forest clearing

    Ronald Queck


    Full Text Available It is assumed that the description of the exchange processes between heterogeneous natural surfaces and the atmosphere within turbulence closure models is mainly limited by a realistic three-dimensional (3D representation of the vegetation architecture. Within this contribution we present a method to record the 3D vegetation structure and to use this information to derive model parameters that are suitable for numerical flow models. A mixed conifer forest stand around a clearing was scanned and represented by a dense 3D point cloud applying a terrestrial laser scanner. Thus, the plant area density (PAD with a resolution of one cubic meter was provided for analysis and for numerical simulations. Multi-level high-frequency wind velocity measurements were recorded simultaneously by 27 ultrasonic anemometers on 4 towers for a period of one year. The relationship between wind speed, Reynolds stress and PAD was investigated and a parametrization of the drag coefficient CD$C_D$ by the PAD is suggested. The derived 3D vegetation model and a simpler model (based on classical forest assessments of the site were applied in a boundary layer model (BLM and in large-eddy simulations (LES. The spatial development of the turbulent flow over the clearing is further demonstrated by the results of a wind tunnel experiment. The project showed, that the simulation results were improved significantly by the usage of realistic vegetation models. 3D simulations are necessary to depict the influence of heterogeneous canopies on the turbulent flow. Whereas we found limits for the mapping of the vegetation structure within the wind tunnel, there is a considerable potential for numerical simulations. The field measurements and the LES gave new insight into the turbulent flow in the vicinity and across the clearing. The results show that the zones of intensive turbulence development can not be restricted to the locations found in previous studies with more idealized

  1. TurbEFA: an interdisciplinary effort to investigate the turbulent flow across a forest clearing

    Ronald Queck; Christian Bernhofer; Anne Bienert; Thomas Eipper; Valeri Goldberg; Stefan Harmansa; Veit Hildebrand; Hans-Gerd Maas; Fabian Schlegel; Jörg Stiller


    It is assumed that the description of the exchange processes between heterogeneous natural surfaces and the atmosphere within turbulence closure models is mainly limited by a realistic three-dimensional (3D) representation of the vegetation architecture. Within this contribution we present a method to record the 3D vegetation structure and to use this information to derive model parameters that are suitable for numerical flow models. A mixed conifer forest stand around a clearing was scanned ...

  2. Vertical velocity structure and geometry of clear air convective elements

    Rowland, J. R.; Arnold, A.


    The paper discusses observations of individual convective elements with a high-power narrow-beam scanning radar, an FM-CW radar, and an acoustic sounder, including the determination of the vertical air velocity patterns of convective structures with the FM-CW radar and acoustic sounder. Data are presented which link the observed velocity structure and geometrical patterns to previously proposed models of boundary layer convection. It is shown that the high-power radar provides a clear three-dimensional picture of convective cells and fields over a large area with a resolution of 150 m, where the convective cells are roughly spherical. Analysis of time-height records of the FM-CW radar and acoustic sounder confirms the downdraft-entrainment mechanism of the convective cell. The Doppler return of the acoustic sounder and the insect-trail slopes on FM-CW radar records are independent but redundant methods for obtaining the vertical velocity patterns of convective structures.

  3. Clearing the Air: A Global Agenda. Worldwatch Paper 94.

    French, Hilary F.

    The environmental impact of air pollution on the earth can be described as grave. Air pollution, particularly acid rain, is devastating forests, crops, and lakes over wide areas of North America and Europe. In many cities, ancient buildings have eroded more in recent decades than they had over the previous thousand years. Indications are that…

  4. The TurbEFA Field Experiment—Measuring the Influence of a Forest Clearing on the Turbulent Wind Field

    Queck, Ronald; Bernhofer, Christian; Bienert, Anne; Schlegel, Fabian


    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere. Measurements and modelling efforts have revealed significant uncertainties in state-of-the-art flux assessments due to spatial inhomogeneities in the airflow and land surface. Here, a field experiment is used to describe the turbulent flow across a typical Central European forest clearing. A three-dimensional model of the inhomogeneous forest stand was developed using an innovative approach based on terrestrial laser-scanner technology. The comparison of the wind statistics of two measurement campaigns (5 and 12 months long) showed the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ultrasonic anemometer measurements within the canopy. An improved method for the correction of the vertical velocity enables the distinction between the instrumental offsets and the vertical winds due to the inclination of the instrument. Despite a 13 % fraction of deciduous plants within the otherwise evergreen canopy, the effects of phenological seasons on the velocity profiles were small. The data classified according to the wind speed revealed the intermittent nature of recirculating air in the clearing. Furthermore, the development of sub-canopy wind-speed maxima is explained by considering the velocity moments and the momentum equation (including measurements of the local pressure gradient). Clearings deflect the flow downward and feed the sub-canopy flow, i.e., advective fluxes, according to wind speed and, likely, clearing size, whereas local pressure gradients play an important role in the development of sub-canopy flow. The presented dataset is freely available at the project homepage.

  5. Microstructure of premixed propane/air flame in the transition from laminar to turbulent combustion

    CHEN XianFeng; SUN JinHua; LIU Yi; LIU XuanYa; CHEN SiNing; LU ShouXiang


    In order to explore the flame structure and propagation behavior of premixed propane/air in the transition from laminar to turbulent combustion, the high speed camera and Schlieren images methods were used to record the photograph of flame propagation process in a semi-vented pipe. Meanwhile, the super-thin thermocouple and ionization current probe methods were applied to detect the temperature distribution and reaction intensity of combustion reaction. The characteristics of propane/air flame propagation and microstructure were analyzed in detail by the experimental results coupled with chemical reaction thermodynamics. In the test, the particular tulip flame behavior and the formation process in the laminar-turbulent transition were disclosed clearly. From the Schlieren images and iron current results, one conclusion can be drawn that the small-scale turbulent combustion also appeared in laminar flame, which made little influence on the flame shape, but increased the flame thickness obviously.



    Experimental and numerical studies of air-cushion-cascade were conducted and described. The SIMPLE algorithm combined with the normal k-ε turbulence model was adopted to simulate the air-phase flow. The experiment was carried out an IFA 300 anemometer. The flow field was measured for different ratios of main-stream velocity to jet velocity, different numbers of gaps and a couple of gap widths. The contur of the air-cushion was obtained, and the numerical calculations gave a closed-form result. The results show that the air-cushion thickness would increase with the increase of the jet volcoity, gap width and gap number mainly determined by the jet in the former half cascade. The possibility to achieve anti-erosion by the turbulent jet was examined and confirmed.

  7. Turbulent drag reduction over air- and liquid- impregnated surfaces

    Rosenberg, Brian J.; Van Buren, Tyler; Fu, Matthew K.; Smits, Alexander J.


    Results on turbulent skin friction reduction over air- and liquid-impregnated surfaces are presented for aqueous Taylor-Couette flow. The surfaces are fabricated by mechanically texturing the inner cylinder and chemically modifying the features to make them either non-wetting with respect to water (air-infused, or superhydrophobic case), or wetting with respect to an oil that is immiscible with water (liquid-infused case). The drag reduction, which remains fairly constant over the Reynolds number range tested (100 ≤ Reτ ≤ 140), is approximately 10% for the superhydrophobic surface and 14% for the best liquid-infused surface. Our results suggest that liquid-infused surfaces may enable robust drag reduction in high Reynolds number turbulent flows without the shortcomings associated with conventional superhydrophobic surfaces, namely, failure under conditions of high hydrodynamic pressure and turbulent flow fluctuations.

  8. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  9. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  10. Preliminary verification of instantaneous air temperature estimation for clear sky conditions based on SEBAL

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhou, Chuxuan; Zhang, Guixin; Zhang, Hailong; Hua, Junwei


    Spatially distributed near surface air temperature at the height of 2 m is an important input parameter for the land surface models. It is of great significance in both theoretical research and practical applications to retrieve instantaneous air temperature data from remote sensing observations. An approach based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) to retrieve air temperature under clear sky conditions is presented. Taking the meteorological measurement data at one station as the reference and remotely sensed data as the model input, the research estimates the air temperature by using an iterative computation. The method was applied to the area of Jiangsu province for nine scenes by using MODIS data products, as well as part of Fujian province, China based on four scenes of Landsat 8 imagery. Comparing the air temperature estimated from the proposed method with that of the meteorological station measurement, results show that the root mean square error is 1.7 and 2.6 °C at 1000 and 30 m spatial resolution respectively. Sensitivity analysis of influencing factors reveals that land surface temperature is the most sensitive to the estimation precision. Research results indicate that the method has great potentiality to be used to estimate instantaneous air temperature distribution under clear sky conditions.

  11. Characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed jet flame in cross air flow

    An experimental study on the characteristics of stability of propane turbulent nonpremixed jet flames discharged normal to air free-streams with uniform velocity profile is conducted. Experimental observations are focused on the flame shape, the stability considering two kinds of flame, lift-off distance,and the flame length according to velocity ratio. In order to investigate the mixing structure of the flame base at the lower limit, we employ the RMS technique and measure the species consent ration by a gas chromatography. In the results of the stability curve and lifted flame, it is found that the dependency of nozzle diameter is closely related to the large-scale vortical structure representing counter-rotating vortices pair. Also, the detailed discussion on the phenomenon of blowout due to this large vortical motion, is provided

  12. Response of surface air temperature to small-scale land clearing across latitudes

    Climate models simulating continental scale deforestation suggest a warming effect of land clearing on the surface air temperature in the tropical zone and a cooling effect in the boreal zone due to different control of biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Ongoing land-use/cover changes mostly occur at local scales (hectares), and it is not clear whether the local-scale deforestation will generate temperature patterns consistent with the climate model results. Here we paired 40 and 12 flux sites with nearby weather stations in North and South America and in Eastern Asia, respectively, and quantified the temperature difference between these paired sites. Our goal was to investigate the response of the surface air temperature to local-scale (hectares) land clearing across latitudes using the surface weather stations as proxies for localized land clearing. The results show that north of 10°N, the annual mean temperature difference (open land minus forest) decreases with increasing latitude, but the temperature difference shrinks with latitude at a faster rate in the Americas [−0.079 (±0.010) °C per degree] than in Asia [−0.046 (±0.011) °C per degree]. Regression of the combined data suggests a transitional latitude of about 35.5°N that demarks deforestation warming to the south and cooling to the north. The warming in latitudes south of 35°N is associated with increase in the daily maximum temperature, with little change in the daily minimum temperature while the reverse is true in the boreal latitudes. (paper)

  13. Clear Air Attenuation on FSO Links Experimental : Measurements in Czech Republic

    Fišer, Ondřej; Brázda, Vladimír; Fišer, O., jr.

    New York : SBMO/IEEEMTT-S, 2013, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-4799-1397-8. [IMOC 2013 (International Microwave and Optoelectronic Conference). Rio de Janeiro (BR), 04.08.2013-07.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13036 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : free space optics * sonic temperature * clear air attenuation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Modeling of Air Temperature for Heat Exchange due to Vertical Turbulence and Horizontal Air Flow

    ZHANG Lei; MENG Qing-lin


    In order to calculate the air temperature of the near surface layer in urban environment,the Sur-face layer air was divided into several layers in the vertical direction,and some energy bakmce equations were de-veloped for each air layer,in which the heat exchange due to vertical turbulence and horizontal air flow was tak-en into account.Then,the vertical temperature distribution of the surface layer air was obtained through the coupled calculation using the energy balance equations of underlying surfaces and building walls.Moreover,the measured air temperatures in a small area (with a horizontal scale of less than 500 m) and a large area (with ahorizontal scale of more than 1000 m) in Guangzhou in summer were used to validate the proposed model.The calculated results agree well with the measured ones,with a maximum relative error of 4.18%.It is thus con-cluded that the proposed model is a high-accuracy method to theoretically analyze the urban heat island and the thermal environment.

  15. Influences of initial velocity, diameter and Reynolds number on a circular turbulent air/air jet

    Mi Jian-Chun; Du Cheng


    This paper assesses the suitability of the inflow Reynolds number defined by Reo ≡ UoD/v (here Uo and D are respectively the initial jet velocity and diameter while v is kinematic viscosity) for a round air/air jet.Specifically an experimental investigation is performed for the influences of U(o),D and Re(o) on the mean-velocity decay and spread coefficients (Ku,Kr) in the far field of a circular air jet into air from a smoothly contracting nozzle.Present measurements agree well with those previously obtained under similar inflow conditions.The relations Ku (oc) U(o) and Kr (oc) 1/U(o) for U(o) < 5 m/s appear to work,while each coefficient approaches asymptotically to a constant for U(o) > 6 m/s,regardless of the magnitudes of Reo and D.It is revealed that Reo may not be an appropriate dimensionless parameter to characterize the entire flow of a free air/air jet.This paper is the first paper that has challenged the suitability of Re(o) for turbulent free jets.

  16. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    Lane, Todd


    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  17. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  18. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    Rowland, J. R.


    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  19. The evolution of the clear air convective layer revealed by surface-based remote sensors

    Noonkester, V. R.


    Results are reported for simultaneous observations of the growth and decay of the clear-air convective mixing layer near a coastline, which were made with an FM-CW radar, a high-power narrow-beam S-band radar, and an acoustic echo sounder. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the rise rate of the convective depth and the lapse rate of temperature, particularly in the morning hours. The results indicate that the three remote sensors can provide excellent mutually supporting data on the convective depth. It is found that this depth is well behaved during the day and that its rise rate varies roughly linearly with the inverse square root of the temperature lapse rate during the morning. The data suggest that some models concerning the rise rate require modification, since these models imply that the surface heat flux would have to be unreasonably large to produce the observed relationship.

  20. Prices that clear the air: energy use and pollution in Chile and Indonesia

    Emission reductions could be provided by cleaner technologies as well as substitution towards less polluting inputs and goods. The paper presents a model to assess the scope for emission reductions by input substitution. The model is applied to manufacturing in Chile and Indonesia - two developing countries considering air pollution control strategies. Substitutability in input demand in manufacturing is estimated using standard techniques and combined with emission factors to assess the potential for emission reductions via demand changes. For sulphur oxides (SOx) and suspended particulates (TSP), emission elasticities with respect to the price of heavy fuels range from -0.4 to -1.2. A price increase of 20% would reduce emissions of SOx and TSP by 8 to 24%. While these results indicate how emissions can be reduced by presumptive taxes on fuels - clearing the air as well as the markets for energy - such a strategy preferably should be accompanied by other instruments that stimulate cleaner technologies. Similarly, emission standard should be accompanied by presumptive taxes on goods and inputs. Emission taxes, if feasible, optimally combined inducements along both avenues. 42 refs., 14 tabs

  1. Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud

    I. Astin

    Full Text Available A number of proposed lidar systems, such as ESA’s AEOLUS (formerly ADM and DIAL missions (e.g. WALES are to make use of lidar returns in clear air. However, on average, two-thirds of the globe is covered in cloud. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that data from these instruments may be contaminated by cloud. Similarly, optically thick cloud may not be penetrated by a lidar pulse, resulting in unobservable regions that are overshadowed by the cloud. To address this, it is suggested, for example, in AEOLUS, that a number of consecutive short sections of lidar data (between 1 and 3.5 km in length be tested for cloud contamination or for overshadowing and only those that are unaffected by cloud be used to derive atmospheric profiles. The prob-ability of obtaining profiles to near ground level using this technique is investigated both analytically and using UV air-borne lidar data recorded during the CLARE’98 campaign. These data were measured in the presence of broken cloud on a number of flights over southern England over a four-day period and were chosen because the lidar used has the same wavelength, footprint and could match the along-track spacing of the proposed AEOLUS lidar.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; general circulation

  2. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    Rowland, J. R.


    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  3. Communication with spatially modulated Light through turbulent Air across Vienna

    Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Malik, Mehul; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton


    The transverse spatial modes of light offer a large state-space with interesting physical properties. For exploiting it in future long-distance experiments, spatial modes will have to be transmitted over turbulent free-space links. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in the mode quality after transmission through simulated turbulence and consecutive coherent detection. Here we experimentally analyze the transmission of one prominent class of spatial modes,...

  4. Liquid mean velocity and turbulence in a horizontal air-water bubbly flow


    The liquid phase turbulent structure of an air-water bubbly horizontal flow in a circular pipe has been investigated experimentally. Three-dimensional measurements were implemented with two "X" type probes oriented in different planes, and local liquid-phase velocities and turbulent stresses were simultaneously obtained. Systematic measurements were conducted covering a range of local void fraction from 0 to 11.7%. The important experiment results and parametric trends are summarized and discussed.

  5. An investigation of turbulent catalytically stabilized channel flow combustion of lean hydrogen - air mixtures

    Mantzaras, I.; Benz, P.; Schaeren, R.; Bombach, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The catalytically stabilised thermal combustion (CST) of lean hydrogen-air mixtures was investigated numerically in a turbulent channel flow configuration using a two-dimensional elliptic model with detailed heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions. Comparison between turbulent and laminar cases having the same incoming mean properties shows that turbulence inhibits homogeneous ignition due to increased heat transport away from the near-wall layer. The peak root-mean-square temperature and species fluctuations are always located outside the extent of the homogeneous reaction zone indicating that thermochemical fluctuations have no significant influence on gaseous combustion. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs.

  6. Turbulence structure and CO2 transfer at the air-sea interface and turbulent diffusion in thermally-stratified flows

    A supercomputer is a nice tool for simulating environmental flows. The Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies purchased a supercomputer SX-3 of CGER about three years ago, and it has been used for various environmental simulations since. Although one of the main purposes for which the supercomputer was used was to simulate global warming with a general circulation model (GCM), our research organization used the supercomputer for more fundamental work to investigate heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows. Our motivations for this work was the fact that GCMs involve a number of uncertain submodels related to heat and mass transfer in turbulent atmospheric and oceanic flows. It may be easy to write research reports by running GCMs which were developed in western countries, but it is difficult for numerical scientists to do original work with such second-hand GCMs. In this sense, we thought that it would be more original to study the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer mechanisms in environmental flows rather than to run a GCM. Therefore, we tried to numerically investigate turbulence structure and scalar transfer both at the air-sea interface and in thermally stratified flows, neither of which were well modeled by GCMs. We also employed laboratory experiments to clarify the turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanism, since numerical simulations are not sufficiently powerful to clarify all aspects of turbulence structure and scalar transfer mechanisms. A numerical technique is a promising tool to complement measurements of processes that cannot be clarified by turbulence measurements in environmental flows. It should also be noted that most of the interesting phenomena in environmental flows can be elucidated by laboratory or field measurements but not by numerical simulations alone. Thus, it is of importance to combine laboratory or field measurements with numerical simulations

  7. Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow

    The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in a cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 20-cm in width and 1-cm in gap. The miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions

  8. Turbulence

    Bailly, Christophe


    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  9. The effect of precipitation on wind-profiler clear air returns

    A. J. McDonald


    Full Text Available A small number of studies have indicated that reductions in the signal strength of clear air returns can be observed at low altitudes in regions of precipitation. This study uses data from the NERC MST radar facility in Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W and co-located tipping bucket rain gauge data to determine whether this effect can be observed for all periods where high rainfall rates were observed at the ground. The period selected for examination includes all of the days where a peak rainfall rate of 6mm h-1 was exceeded in 2001. A statistical examination of VHF radar signal power during periods with and without surface rainfall suggests that the returned power is reduced by the presence of precipitating clouds. The corrected spectral width of the Doppler spectra is also significantly wider during periods of precipitation. The process which causes the decrease in the VHF signal power seems to be associated with a reduction in Fresnel reflection within precipitating clouds. This, in turn, may be due to a reduction of humidity gradients in clouds. UHF wind profiler data is also used to show that there is a relationship between enhanced UHF returns (signifying precipitation and reduced VHF returns. To clarify the processes and effects observed we examine three case studies which show typical relationships between the VHF signal power and surface rainfall or enhanced UHF signal-to-noise ratios. The effect of precipitation on the signal processing scheme's derivation of signal power and spectral width is explored using individual Doppler spectra.

  10. Twisted light communication through turbulent air across Vienna

    Krenn, Mario; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Malik, Mehul; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton


    The orbital-angular momentum (OAM) of light has recently emerged as a promising candidate for quantum and classical information systems. The discrete, unbounded state-space of OAM not only promises vastly enhanced data rates, but also an increased tolerance to eavesdropping in quantum communication. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in OAM mode quality while transmitting light carrying such modes through simulated turbulence. Here we experimentally realize the transmission of classical information encoded in the intensity patterns of 16 OAM mode superpositions through 3 km of strong turbulence over the city of Vienna. The average error rate is 1%. Our method relies on a novel detection scheme that identifies the mode intensity patterns using an artificial neuronal network. We show that in our method the relative phase between two modes is transmitted in a stable way. This opens the possibility for long-distance quantum communication with entangled OAM states.

  11. Communication with spatially modulated light through turbulent air across Vienna

    Transverse spatial modes of light offer a large state-space with interesting physical properties. For exploiting these special modes in future long-distance experiments, the modes will have to be transmitted over turbulent free-space links. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in the mode quality after transmission through simulated turbulence and consecutive coherent detection. Here, we experimentally analyze the transmission of one prominent class of spatial modes—orbital-angular momentum (OAM) modes—through 3 km of strong turbulence over the city of Vienna. Instead of performing a coherent phase-dependent measurement, we employ an incoherent detection scheme, which relies on the unambiguous intensity patterns of the different spatial modes. We use a pattern recognition algorithm (an artificial neural network) to identify the characteristic mode patterns displayed on a screen at the receiver. We were able to distinguish between 16 different OAM mode superpositions with only a ∼1.7% error rate and to use them to encode and transmit small grayscale images. Moreover, we found that the relative phase of the superposition modes is not affected by the atmosphere, establishing the feasibility for performing long-distance quantum experiments with the OAM of photons. Our detection method works for other classes of spatial modes with unambiguous intensity patterns as well, and can be further improved by modern techniques of pattern recognition. (paper)

  12. Theoretical analysis and semianalytical solutions for a turbulent buoyant hydrogen-air jet

    El-Amin, M.F.


    Semianalytical solutions are developed for turbulent hydrogen-air plume. We derived analytical expressions for plume centerline variables (radius, velocity, and density deficit) in terms of a single universal function, called plume function. By combining the obtained analytical expressions of centerline variables with empirical Gaussian expressions of the mean variables, we obtain semianalytical expressions for mean quantities of hydrogen-air plume (velocity, density deficit, and mass fraction).

  13. Theoretical Analysis and Semianalytical Solutions for a Turbulent Buoyant Hydrogen-Air Jet

    El-Amin, M. F.; Shuyu Sun; Amgad Salama


    Semianalytical solutions are developed for turbulent hydrogen-air plume. We derived analytical expressions for plume centerline variables (radius, velocity, and density deficit) in terms of a single universal function, called plume function. By combining the obtained analytical expressions of centerline variables with empirical Gaussian expressions of the mean variables, we obtain semianalytical expressions for mean quantities of hydrogen-air plume (velocity, density deficit, and mass fraction).

  14. Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna.

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Zeilinger, Anton


    Photons with a twisted phase front can carry a discrete, in principle, unbounded amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The large state space allows for complex types of entanglement, interesting both for quantum communication and for fundamental tests of quantum theory. However, the distribution of such entangled states over large distances was thought to be infeasible due to influence of atmospheric turbulence, indicating a serious limitation on their usefulness. Here we show that it is possible to distribute quantum entanglement encoded in OAM over a turbulent intracity link of 3 km. We confirm quantum entanglement of the first two higher-order levels (with OAM=± 1ħ and ± 2ħ). They correspond to four additional quantum channels orthogonal to all that have been used in long-distance quantum experiments so far. Therefore, a promising application would be quantum communication with a large alphabet. We also demonstrate that our link allows access to up to 11 quantum channels of OAM. The restrictive factors toward higher numbers are technical limitations that can be circumvented with readily available technologies. PMID:26578763

  15. Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna

    Krenn, Mario; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Zeilinger, Anton


    Photons with a twisted phase front can carry a discrete, in principle unbounded amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The large state space allows for complex types of entanglement, interesting both for quantum communication and for fundamental tests of quantum theory. However, the distribution of such entangled states over large distances was thought to be infeasible due to influence of atmospheric turbulence, indicating a serious limitation on their usefulness. Here we show that it is possible to distribute quantum entanglement encoded in OAM over a turbulent intra-city link of 3 kilometers. We confirm quantum entanglement of the first two higher-order levels (with OAM=$\\pm 1 \\hbar$ and $\\pm 2 \\hbar$). They correspond to four new quantum channels orthogonal to all that have been used in long-distance quantum experiments so far. Therefore a promising application would be quantum communication with a large alphabet. We also demonstrate that our link allows access to up to 11 quantum channels of OAM. The r...

  16. Turbulence

    Z. Lin; R.E. Waltz


    @@ Turbulent transport driven by plasma pressure gradients [Tangl978] is one of the most important scientific challenges in burning plasma experiments since the balance between turbulent transport and the self-heating by the fusion products (a-particles) determines the performance of a fusion reactor like ITER.

  17. Quasi 3-D measurements of turbulence structure in horizontal air-water bubbly flow

    Quasi 3-D measurements of the turbulence structure of air-water bubbly flow in a horizontal tube with 35 mm i.d. are undertaken with two TSI 'X''-type hot-film probes. The turbulent fluctuations, uf,vf,wf, in axial, radial and circumferential directions, respectively, and Reynolds tresses -UV-bar and -u w-bar are obtained. It is found that in the lower portion of the tube, the profiles of turbulent fluctuation and Reynolds tress resemble those of single phase flow; whereas in the upper portion of he tube, where the bubble population is high, the turbulence, especially the circumferential fluctuation wf, is substantially enhanced, and the radial turbulence assumes highest value in the radial position -0.7< r/R<0.5. The magnitudes of Reynolds stresses -u w-bar and -UV-bar in our measurements are in the same level except in the lower portion of the tube where -u w-bar assumes a value close to zero as is the case in single phase flow and vertical air-water bubbly flow

  18. Hydrogen autoignition in a turbulent jet with preheated co-flow air

    Echekki, Tarek; Gupta, Kamlesh G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2601 Stinson Drive - Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States)


    The autoignition of hydrogen in a turbulent jet with preheated air is studied computationally using the stand-alone one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. The simulations are based on varying the jet Reynolds number and the mixture pressure. Also, computations are carried out for homogeneous autoignition at different mixture fractions and the same two pressure conditions considered for the jet simulations. The simulations show that autoignition is delayed in the jet configuration relative to the earliest autoignition events in homogeneous mixtures. This delay is primarily due to the presence of scalar dissipation associated with the scalar mixing layer in the jet configuration as well as with the presence of turbulent stirring. Turbulence plays additional roles in the subsequent stages of the autoignition process. Pressure effects also are present during the autoignition process and the subsequent high-temperature combustion stages. These effects may be attributed primarily to the sensitivity of the autoignition delay time to the mixture conditions and the role of pressure and air preheating on molecular transport properties. The overall trends are such that turbulence increases autoignition delay times and accordingly the ignition length and pressure further contribute to this delay. (author)

  19. Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K


    Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours

  20. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances RiCC

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Robert I.; Iredell, Lena


    ECMWF, NCEP, and GMAO routinely assimilate radiosonde and other in-situ observations along with satellite IR and MW Sounder radiance observations. NCEP and GMAO use the NCEP GSI Data Assimilation System (DAS).GSI DAS assimilates AIRS, CrIS, IASI channel radiances Ri on a channel-by-channel, case-by-case basis, only for those channels i thought to be unaffected by cloud cover. This test excludes Ri for most tropospheric sounding channels under partial cloud cover conditions. AIRS Version-6 RiCC is a derived quantity representative of what AIRS channel i would have seen if the AIRS FOR were cloud free. All values of RiCC have case-by-case error estimates RiCC associated with them. Our experiments present to the GSI QCd values of AIRS RiCC in place of AIRS Ri observations. GSI DAS assimilates only those values of RiCC it thinks are cloud free. This potentially allows for better coverage of assimilated QCd values of RiCC as compared to Ri.

  1. Numerical simulation of high-speed turbulent water jets in air

    Guha, Anirban; Balachandar, Ram


    Numerical simulation of high-speed turbulent water jets in air and its validation with experimental data has not been reported in the literature. It is therefore aimed to simulate the physics of these high-speed water jets and compare the results with the existing experimental works. High-speed water jets diffuse in the surrounding atmosphere by the processes of mass and momentum transfer. Air is entrained into the jet stream and the entire process contributes to jet spreading and subsequent pressure decay. Hence the physical problem is in the category of multiphase flows, for which mass and momentum transfer is to be determined to simulate the problem. Using the Eulerian multiphase and the k-\\epsilon turbulence models, plus a novel numerical model for mass and momentum transfer, the simulation was achieved. The results reasonably predict the flow physics of high-speed water jets in air.

  2. Numerical study of turbulent normal diffusion flame CH4-air stabilized by coaxial burner

    Riahi Zouhair


    Full Text Available The practical combustion systems such as combustion furnaces, gas turbine, engines, etc. employ non-premixed combustion due to its better flame stability, safety, and wide operating range as compared to premixed combustion. The present numerical study characterizes the turbulent flame of methane-air in a coaxial burner in order to determine the effect of airflow on the distribution of temperature, on gas consumption and on the emission of NOx. The results in this study are obtained by simulation on FLUENT code. The results demonstrate the influence of different parameters on the flame structure, temperature distribution and gas emissions, such as turbulence, fuel jet velocity, air jet velocity, equivalence ratio and mixture fraction. The lift-off height for a fixed fuel jet velocity is observed to increase monotonically with air jet velocity. Temperature and NOx emission decrease of important values with the equivalence ratio, it is maximum about the unity.

  3. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela


    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  4. Gas transfer at the air-water interface in a turbulent flow environment



    The gas transfer process across the air-water interface in a bottom-shear-induced turbulent environment was investigated to gain improved fundamental understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the process. For this purpose, it is necessary to reveal the hydrodynamics of the flow field as well as the molecular diffusion and the turbulent transport contributions to the total flux. Therefore, detailed laboratory experiments were conducted to obtain this information. The experiments were performed in a grid-stirred tank using a combined Particle Image Velocimetry - Laser Induced Fluorescence (PIV-LIF) technique that has been developed for these near surface gas transfer measurements. The turbulence characteristics of the velocity near the interface were acquired from the PIV measurements and showed generally good agreement with the theoretical profiles from Hunt and Graham (1978). The LIF technique enabled visualization of the planar concentration fields which provided more insight into the gas transfer mechanisms. The high data resolution allowed detailed quantification of the concentration distribution within the thin aqueous boundary layer. The interrelated interpretation of the obtained results suggest that the gas transfer process is controlled by a spectrum of different eddy sizes and the gas transfer at different turbulence levels can be associated to certain eddy sizes. For high turbulence levels the gas transfer should be asymptotic to the small eddy model, whereas for low turbulence level to the large eddy model. The new results of turbulent mass flux should aid as an excellent database in refining numerical models and developing more accurate models for the prediction of the transfer velocity. (orig.)

  5. Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent stably stratified air flow above a wavy water surface

    Druzhinin, O. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Zilitinkevich, S. S.


    The influence of the roughness of the underlaying water surface on turbulence is studied in a stably stratified boundary layer (SSBL). Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted at various Reynolds (Re) and Richardson (Ri) numbers and the wave steepness ka. It is shown that, at constant Re, the stationary turbulent regime is set in at Ri below the threshold value Ri c depending on Re. At Ri > Ri c , in the absence of turbulent fluctuations near the wave water surface, three-dimensional quasiperiodical structures are identified and their threshold of origin depends on the steepness of the surface wave on the water surface. This regime is called a wave pumping regime. The formation of three-dimensional structures is explained by the development of parametric instability of the disturbances induced by the surface water in the air flow. The DNS results are quite consistent with prediction of the theoretical model of the SSBL flow, in which solutions for the disturbances of the fields of velocity and temperature in the wave pumping regime are found to be a solution of a two-dimensional linearized system with the heterogeneous boundary condition, which is caused by the presence of the surface wave. In addition to the turbulent fluctuations, the three-dimensional structures in the wave pumping regime provide for the transfer of impulse and heat, i.e., the increase in the roughness of the water-air boundary caused by the presence of waves intensifies the exchange in the SSBL.

  6. Experimental study of humid air reverse diffusion combustion in a turbulent flow field

    GE Bing; ZANG Shusheng; GU Xin


    Experiments were performed to investigate the differences between the propane/air turbulent diffusion reactive flows past bluff-body and the propane/humid air turbulent diffusion reactive flows in the same conditions.The velocity distributions of the non-humid reactive flow fields and the humid reactive flow fields were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques.The temperature fields were measured by high temperature thermocouples,and NOx distributions were obtained by using gas detection instruments.The results show that although humid air reactive flow fields are similar to non-humid flow fields in general,there are some differences in the humid air combustion flow field comparing with the non-humid combustion flow field:the center of the reversed-flow region goes forward;the dimension of the reversed-flow region is smaller;the peak temperature and NOx formation are reduced.It is suggested that humid air combustion is helpful to shorten the axial length of combustors,and reduce the formation of pollutants.

  7. Clearing the air: challenges to introducing smoking restrictions in West Virginia.

    Stebbins, K R


    One of the most fundamental rights, the right to breathe air free of unhealthy carcinogens, is continuously threatened by powerful corporate tobacco interests, which spend enormous amounts of money not only to promote smoking, but also to stifle local, state, and national efforts to control smoking in the United States. From the perspective of a "committed participant" this paper discusses recent difficulties encountered in attempting to introduce West Virginia's first comprehensive smoking control legislation, and the strategies used to overcome them. The primary message reported here is that, given the overwhelming financial, emotional, and human-potential costs involved in ongoing tobacco abuse in the United States, it is essential that citizens unite to protect the health of all children and the vast majority of adults who do not smoke, and to discourage the consumption of cigarettes, the single biggest cause of disease and death in our society. The example reported here from West Virginia demonstrates that persistent citizen activism can make a critical difference in promoting laws that protect human health from unhealthy environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:9141171

  8. Food selection of Microtus agrestis in air-pollution affected clearings in the Beskydy Mts, Czech Republic

    Heroldová, Marta


    Roč. 51, Suppl. 1 (2002), s. 83-91. ISSN 0139-7893. [Rodens et spatium /7./. České Budějovice, 10.07.2000-14.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŽP ZZ/620/2/97; GA ČR GA524/01/1316; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Microtus agrestis * diet * air pollution clearings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002

  9. Experimental Study on Turbulent Structure of Humid Air Flame in a Bluff-body Burner

    Bing Ge; Shu-Sheng Zang; Pei-qing Guo


    The main objective of the present experimental study is to analyze the turbulent structure in humid air non-premixed flame, and determine the effect of humidity on the flow field and the flame stability limit in turbu-lent non-premixed flame. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to capture the instantaneous appearance of vortex structures and obtain the quantitative velocity field. The distributions of Reynolds shear stress, mean and root-mean squared fluctuating (rms) velocities are examined to get insight into the effect of fuel-to-air velocity ra-tio on velocity flow field. The results show that with steam addition, the air-driven vortex in the bluff-body wake is thinner; the biggest peaks of rms velocity and Reynolds shear stress are lower; the distance between the peaks of rms velocity on the sides of centerline reduces. Besides these, the flame stability is affected. Both central fuel penetration limit and partially quenching limit reduce with steam addition.

  10. Horizontal H 2-air turbulent buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    The current article is devoted to introducing mathematical and physical analyses with numerical investigation of a buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage in air from a horizontal round source. H 2-air jet is an example of the non-Boussinesq buoyant jet in which a low-density gas jet is injected/leak into a high-density ambient. The density of the mixture is a function of the concentration only, the binary gas mixture is assumed to be of a linear mixing type and the rate of entrainment is assumed to be a function of the plume centerline velocity and the ratio of the mean plume and ambient densities. On the other hand, the local rate of entrainment consists of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The top-hat profile assumption is used to obtain the mean centerline velocity, width, density and concentration of the H 2-air horizontal jet in addition to kinematic relations which govern the jet trajectories. A set of ordinary differential equations is obtained and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. In the second step, the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet are obtained based on Gaussian model. Finally, several quantities of interest, including the cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity-concentration correlation (radial flux), turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity, are obtained by solving the governing partial differential equations. Additionally, the turbulent Schmidt number is estimated and the normalized jet-feed material density and the normalized momentum flux density are correlated. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clearing the Air.

    Ryan, Ellen


    The importance of communication between college advancement professionals and fund raisers is emphasized, and some techniques are offered for resolving specific communication issues, including time constraints during travel, timely filing of reports, resistance to computers, completeness of information recorded, resistance to information sharing,…

  12. 2-D Numerical Simulation of Eruption Clouds : Effects of Turbulent Mixing between Eruption Cloud and Air

    Suzuki, Y.; KOYAGUCHI, T.; OGAWA, M.; Hachisu, I.


    Mixing of eruption cloud and air is one of the most important processes for eruption cloud dynamics. The critical condition of eruption types (eruption column or pyroclastic flow) depends on efficiency of mixing of eruption cloud and the ambient air. However, in most of the previous models (e.g., Sparks,1986; Woods, 1988), the rate of mixing between cloud and air is taken into account by introducing empirical parameters such as entrainment coefficient or turbulent diffusion coefficient. We developed a numerical model of 2-D (axisymmetrical) eruption columns in order to simulate the turbulent mixing between eruption column and air. We calculated the motion of an eruption column from a circular vent on the flat surface of the earth. Supposing that relative velocity of gas and ash particles is sufficiently small, we can treat eruption cloud as a single gas. Equation of state (EOS) for the mixture of the magmatic component (i.e. volcanic gas plus pyroclasts) and air can be expressed by EOS for an ideal gas, because volume fraction of the gas phase is very large. The density change as a function of mixing ratio between air and the magmatic component has a strong non-linear feature, because the density of the mixture drastically decreases as entrained air expands by heating. This non-linear feature can be reproduced by changing the gas constant and the ratio of specific heat in EOS for ideal gases; the molecular weight increases and the ratio of specific heat approaches 1 as the magmatic component increases. It is assumed that the dynamics of eruption column follows the Euler equation, so that no viscous effect except for the numerical viscosity is taken into account. Roe scheme (a general TVD scheme for compressible flow) is used in order to simulate the generation of shock waves inside and around the eruption column. The results show that many vortexes are generated around the boundary between eruption cloud and air, which results in violent mixing. When the size of

  13. Turbulent vertical fluxes and air quality measured in urban air in Helsinki

    JÀrvi, Leena


    There is a growing need to understand the exchange processes of momentum, heat and mass between an urban surface and the atmosphere as they affect our quality of life. Understanding the source/sink strengths as well as the mixing mechanisms of air pollutants is particularly important due to their effects on human health and climate. This work aims to improve our understanding of these surface-atmosphere interactions based on the analysis of measurements carried out in Helsinki, Finland. The v...

  14. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.


    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  15. TECNAIRE winter field campaign: turbulent characteristics and their influence on air quality conditions

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artíñano, Begoña; Diaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier


    An urban field campaign was conducted at an air pollution hot spot in Madrid city (Spain) during winter 2015 (from 16th February to 2nd March). The zone selected for the study is a square (Plaza Fernández Ladreda) located in the southern part of the city. This area is an important intersection of several principal routes, and therefore a significant impact in the air quality of the area is found due to the high traffic density. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation and global solar radiation) were daily recorded as well as micrometeorological measurements obtained from two sonic anemometers. To characterize this urban atmospheric boundary layer (uABL), micrometeorological parameters (turbulent kinetic energy -TKE-, friction velocity -u∗- and sensible heat flux -H-) are calculated, considering 5-minute average for variance and covariance evaluations. Furthermore, synoptic atmospheric features were analyzed. As a whole, a predominant influence of high pressure systems was found over the Atlantic Ocean and western Spain, affecting Madrid, but during a couple of days (17th and 21st February) some atmospheric instability played a role. The influence of the synoptic situation and specially the evolution of the micrometeorological conditions along the day on air quality characteristics (Particulate Matter concentrations: PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, and NOx concentrations) are analyzed and shown in detail. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  16. Impact of Turbulence Intensity and Equivalence Ratio on the Burning Rate of Premixed Methane–Air Flames

    Gábor Janiga


    Full Text Available Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS have been conducted to study the response of initially laminar spherical premixed methane–air flame kernels to successively higher turbulence intensities at five different equivalence ratios. The numerical experiments include a 16-species/25-step skeletal mechanism for methane oxidation and a multicomponent molecular transport model. Highly turbulent conditions (with integral Reynolds numbers up to 4513 have been accessed. The effect of turbulence on the physical properties of the flame, in particular its consumption speed Sc, which is an interesting measure of the turbulent flame speed ST has been investigated. Local quenching events are increasingly observed for highly turbulent conditions, particularly for lean mixtures. The obtained results qualitatively confirm the expected trend regarding correlations between u′/SL and the consumption speed: Sc first increases, roughly linearly, with u′/SL (low turbulence zone, then levels off (bending zone before decreasing again (quenching limit for too intense turbulence. For a fixed value of u′/SL, Sc/SL varies with the mixture equivalence ratio, showing that additional parameters should probably enter phenomenological expressions relating these two quantities.

  17. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage in air

    El-Amin, M.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    This paper is devoted to introduce a numerical investigation of a vertical axisymmetric non-Boussinesq buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage in air as an example of injecting a low-density gas jet into high-density ambient. As the domain temperature is assumed to be constant and therefore the density of the mixture is a function of the concentration only, the binary gas mixture is assumed to be of a linear mixing type. Also, it is assumed that the rate of entrainment to be a function of the plume centerline velocity and the ratio of the mean plume and ambient densities. On the other hand, the local rate of entrainment may be considered to be consisted from two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. Firstly, the integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some non-dimensional transformations known as similarity transformations. The given ordinary differential system is integrated numerically and the mean centerline mass fraction, jet width and mean centerline velocity are obtained. In the second step, the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet are obtained. Finally in the third step of this article, several quantities of interest, including the cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity-concentration correlation (radial flux), turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity, are obtained. In addition, the turbulent Schmidt number is estimated and the normalized jet-feed material density and the normalized momentum flux density are correlated. (author)

  18. Numerical study of turbulence-influence mechanism on arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker

    Wu, Mingliang; Yang, Fei; Rong, Mingzhe; Wu, Yi; Qi, Yang; Cui, Yufei; Liu, Zirui; Guo, Anxiang


    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc characteristics in an air direct current circuit breaker (air DCCB). Using magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) theory, 3D laminar model and turbulence model are constructed and calculated. The standard k-epsilon model is utilized to consider the turbulence effect in the arc chamber of the DCCB. Several important phenomena are found: the arc column in the turbulence-model case is more extensive, moves much more slowly than the counterpart in the laminar-model case, and shows stagnation at the entrance of the chamber, unlike in the laminar-model case. Moreover, the arc voltage in the turbulence-model case is much lower than in the laminar-model case. However, the results in the turbulence-model case show a much better agreement with the results of the breaking experiments under DC condition than in the laminar-model case, which is contradictory to the previous conclusions from the arc researches of both the low-voltage circuit breaker and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) nozzle. First, in the previous air-arc research of the low-voltage circuit breaker, it is assumed that the air plasma inside the chamber is in the state of laminar, and the laminar-model application gives quite satisfactory results compared with the experiments, while in this paper, the laminar-model application works badly. Second, the turbulence-model application in the arc research of the SF6-nozzle performs much better and gives higher arc voltage than the laminar-model application does, whereas in this paper, the turbulence-model application predicts lower arc voltage than the laminar-model application does. Based on the analysis of simulation results in detail, the mechanism of the above phenomena is revealed. The transport coefficients are strongly changed by turbulence, which will enhance the arc diffusion and make the arc volume much larger. Consequently, the arc appearance and the distribution of Lorentz force in the turbulence-model case

  19. The evolution of the boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air

    du Puits, R.; Willert, C.


    We report measurements of the near-wall flow field in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air (Pr = 0.7) using particle image velocimetry. The measurements were performed in a thin, rectangular sample at fixed Rayleigh number Ra = 1.45 × 1010. In particular, we focus on the evolution of the boundary layer that a single convection roll generates along its path at the lower horizontal plate. We identify three specific flow regions along this path: (i) a region of wall-normal impingement of the down flow close to one corner of the sample, (ii) a region where a shear layer with almost constant thickness evolves, and (iii) a region in which this boundary layer grows and eventually detaches from the plate surface at the opposite corner of the sample. Our measurements with a spatial resolution better than 1/500 of the total thickness of the boundary layer show that the typical velocity field as well as its statistics qualitatively varies between the three flow regions. In particular, it could be verified that the shear layer region covering about 75% of the total area of the plate is in transition to turbulence at the Rayleigh number as low as investigated in the present work.

  20. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.


    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.

  1. E-ɛ modelling of turbulent air flow downwind of a model forest edge

    Liu, J.; Chen, J. M.; Black, T. A.; Novak, M. D.


    A two-dimensional E-ɛ model, which included the effects of plant-atmosphere interaction, was used to simulate air flow downwind of forest edges for the purpose of predicting the microclimate in forest openings. A suitable set of wall functions was selected to consider the aerodynamic effects of the ground in the opening. The model with discretization and parameter schemes was validated using a set of data from a wind-tunnel experiment. The simulated wind speed and turbulence kinetic energy closely agreed with the measured values. After validation, the model was used to predict eddy diffusivity in the lee of the forest edge. The modelled spatial distribution of the eddy diffusivity agreed in general with that calculated using wind-tunnel measurements. The usefulness and limitations of the E-ɛ model are discussed.

  2. Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity

    H.-m. Hsu


    Full Text Available With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, SO2, and O3 and aerosol (PM10 measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with a mixed combination of geographic settings, and include urban/rural, coastal/inland, plain/hill, and industrial/agricultural locations. In addition to the well-known semi-diurnal and diurnal oscillations, weekly, and intermediate (20 ~ 30 days peaks are also identified with the continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The spectra indicate power-law scaling regions for the frequencies higher than the diurnal and those lower than the diurnal with the average exponents of −5/3 and −1, respectively. These dual-exponents are corroborated with those with the detrended fluctuation analysis in the corresponding time-lag regions. These exponents are mostly independent of the averages and standard deviations of time series measured at various geographic settings, i.e., the spatial inhomogeneities. In other words, they possess dominant universal structures. After spectral coefficients from the CWT decomposition are grouped according to the spectral bands, and inverted separately, the PDFs of the reconstructed time series for the high-frequency band demonstrate the interesting statistical regularity, −3 power-law scaling for the heavy tails, consistently. Such spectral peaks, dual-exponent structures, and power-law scaling in heavy tails are important structural information, but their relations to turbulence and mesoscale variability require further investigations. This could lead to a better understanding of the processes controlling air quality.

  3. Turbulent hydraulic jumps: Effect of Weber number and Reynolds number on air entrainment and micro-bubble generation

    Mortazavi, Milad; Mani, Ali


    Air entrainment in breaking waves is a ubiquitous and complex phenomenon. It is the main source of air transfer from atmosphere to the oceans. Furthermore, air entrainment due to ship-induced waves contributes to bubbly flows in ship wakes and also affect their performance. In this study, we consider a turbulent hydraulic jump as a canonical setting to investigate air entrainment due to turbulence-wave interactions. The flow has an inlet Froude number of 2.0, while three different Weber numbers (We = 1820, 729, 292), and two different Reynolds numbers (Re = 11000, 5500) based on the inlet height and inlet velocity are investigated. Air entrainment is shown to be very sensitive to the We number, while Re number has a minor effect. Wave breaking and interface collisions are significantly reduced in the low Weber number cases. As a result, micro-bubble generation is significantly reduced with decreasing Weber number. Vortex shedding events are observed to emerge at the toe of the jump in all of the cases. For high Weber number regimes, shedding of vortices is accompanied by engulfment of air pockets into the jump in a periodic manner, while for lower Webber number regimes such events are significantly suppressed. Reynolds number is shown to have a negligible effect on the air entrainment, wave breaking and micro-bubble generation, contrary to the previous assumptions in other studies. Supported by ONR.

  4. Effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames

    Hydrogen (H2) is a clean burning component, but relatively expensive. Mixing a small amount of hydrogen with other fuels is an effective way to use H2. H2 enriched combustion significantly improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollutant (nitrogen oxide and particulate matter) emissions. This presentation discussed the effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The presentation discussed flame configuration; the experimental methodology using laser tomography; and results for typical images, burning velocity, ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocities, flame surface density, curvature, flame brush thickness, and integrated flame surface area. It was concluded that the increase of turbulent burning velocity was faster than that of laminar burning velocity, which contradicted traditional theory. figs.


    Chen Xinglong; Zhou Lixing; Zhang Jian


    A new second-order moment model for turbulent combustion is applied in the simulation of methane-air turbulent jet flame.The predicted results are compared with the experimental results and with those predicted using the wellknown EBU-Arrhenius model and the original second-order moment model.The comparison shows the advantage of the new model that it requires almost the same computational storage and time as that of the original second-order moment model,but its modeling results are in better agreement with experiments than those using other models.Hence,the new second-order moment model is promising in modeling turbulent combustion with NOx formation with finite reaction rate for engineering application.

  6. OAFlux Satellite-Based High-Resolution Analysis of Air-Sea Turbulent Heat, Moisture, and Momentum Fluxes

    Yu, Lisan


    The Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has recently developed a new suite of products: the satellite-based high-resolution (HR) air-sea turbulent heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes over the global ocean from 1987 to the present. The OAFlux-HR fluxes are computed from the COARE bulk algorithm using air-sea variables (vector wind, near-surface humidity and temperature, and ocean surface temperature) derived from multiple satellite sensors and multiple missions. The vector wind time series are merged from 14 satellite sensors, including 4 scatterometers and 10 passive microwave radiometers. The near-surface humidity and temperature time series are retrieved from 11 satellite sensors, including 7 microwave imagers and 4 microwave sounders. The endeavor has greatly improved the depiction of the air-sea turbulent exchange on the frontal and meso-scales. The OAFlux-HR turbulent flux products are valuable datasets for a broad range of studies, including the study of the long-term change and variability in the oean-surface forcing functions, quantification of the large-scale budgets of mass, heat, and freshwater, and assessing the role of the ocean in the change and variability of the Earth's climate.

  7. Summary of Turbulence Data Obtained During United Air Lines Flight Evaluation of an Experimental C Band (5.5 cm) Airborne Weather Radar

    Coe, E. C.; Fetner, M. W.


    Data on atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of thunderstorms obtained during a flight evaluation of an experimental C band (5.5 cm) airborne radar are summarized. The turbulence data were obtained with an NACA VGH recorder installed in a United Air Lines DC-3 airplane.

  8. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.


    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  9. Breakup and coalescence models for turbulent air-water mixtures in a vertical pipe

    The range of multiphase flow applications (air-water mixtures) in today's technology is immense. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. The design of such systems requires the accurate prediction of the dynamical evolution of local bubble size or of interfacial area, since the rate of exchange of mass, momentum and energy between bubbles and water as well as between the two-phase mixture and external boundaries depends severely on the internal flow geometry or interfacial shape and area. The rapidly increasing computer power allows one to use CFD codes combined with the so-called population balance equation (PBE) to trace the transient change of local bubble size of poly-dispersed flows. Unfortunately, there are still some efforts needed to develop reliable constitutive models for the interaction between phases and the law governing the evolution of bubble size. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble- Class Test Solver (Lucas et al., 2005) is developed in our institute for validating and improving these constitutive models such as bubble forces, multiphase turbulence, coalescence and breakup. Models of bubble coalescence and breakup were found to be the weakest points in modeling of poly-dispersed flows (Lucas et al., 2007; Krepper et al., 2008). (orig.)

  10. Growth of gravity-capillary waves in countercurrent air/water turbulence

    Soldati, Alfredo; Zonta, Francesco; Onorato, Miguel


    We use Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the Navier Stokes equations to analyze the dynamics of the interface between air and water when both phases are driven by opposite pressure gradients (countercurrent configuration). The Reynolds number (Reτ), the Weber number (We) and the Froude number (Fr) fully describe the physical problem. We examine the problem of the transient growth of interface waves for different combinations of physical parameters. Keeping Reτ constant and varying We and Fr , we show that, in the initial stages of the wave generation process, the amplitude of the interface elevation η grows in time as η ~t 2 / 5 . Wavenumber spectra, E (kx) , of the surface elevation in the capillary range are in good agreement with the prediction of the Wave Turbulence Theory. Finally, the wave-induced modification of the average wind and current velocity profiles will be addressed. Support from Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia under grant PAR FSC 2007/2013 is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Experimental study on characteristics of dynamic pressure in direct condensation of steam and water. During steady steam discharging and air clearing period

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the pressure oscillation generated from non-condensable gas-steam-water direct condensation in subcooled water during the steady steam discharging and air clearing period. Steam and/or air is discharged through an I-type sparger whose pitc over diameter ratio (P/D) varies from 2 to 5. The tests were divisible into two separate phases. In the first phase, a low pressure steady steam test, the test conditions were restricted to the condensation oscillation regime. The pressure pulse shows a peak at a pool temperature around 50 ∼ 80degC depending on the sparger and the steam mass flux. The dominant frequency of pressure oscillation increases significantly with the subcooling temperature of pool water and it lies in the range of 100 ∼ 760Hz. The P/D ratio has a stron influence on the magnitude of pressure oscillation. As the P/D ratio increases, the amplitude of the dynamic pressure increases significantly. In the second phase of the test, a high pressure air clearing test, the dominant frequencies and amplitudes that occurred during the air clearing period were measured by using piezoelectric type pressure sensor and the Blowdown and Condensation (B and C) loop at KAERI. The steam mass flux is within the range of 1,230 ∼ 2,380 kg/m2-s. The results show that the dominant frequency shows a very similar trend with that of the low pressure steady steam test. The dominant frequencies of the air clearing period, however, vary in the range of 5 ∼ 30Hz depending on the water temperature and the shape of sparger. (author)

  12. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with an improved joint beta PDF

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.


    Attempts at modeling recent experiments of Cheng et al. indicated that discrepancies between theory and experiment can be a result of the form of assumed probability density function (PDF) and/or the turbulence model employed. Improvements in both the form of the assumed PDF and the turbulence model are presented. The results are again used to compare with measurements. Initial comparisons are encouraging.

  13. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    LI Gen; REN BaoHua; ZHENG JianOiu; WANG Jun


    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables dataeets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-eea humidity gradient (△q') as well as mean air-eea humidity gradient (△q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (△T'). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of △q', low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U'), △q and mean wind speed (U), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of △T' and U. 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20ON, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa' (Ta') and U', indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs' (Ts') also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  14. The study of droplet-laden turbulent air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation

    Druzhinin, Oleg A.; Troitskaya, Yuliya I.; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S.


    The detailed knowledge of the interaction of wind with surface water waves is necessary for correct parameterization of turbulent exchange at the air-sea interface in prognostic models. At sufficiently strong winds, sea-spray-generated droplets interfere with the wind-waves interaction. The results of field experiments and laboratory measurements (Andreas et al., JGR 2010) show that mass fraction of air-borne spume water droplets increases with the wind speed and their impact on the carrier air-flow may become significant. Phenomenological models of droplet-laden marine atmospheric boundary layer (Kudryavtsev & Makin, Bound.-Layer Met. 2011) predict that droplets significantly increase the wind velocity and suppress the turbulent air stress. The results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent particle-laden Couette flow over a flat surface show that inertial particles may significantly reduce the carrier flow vertical momentum flux (Richter & Sullivan, GRL 2013). The results also show that in the range of droplet sizes typically found near the air-sea interface, particle inertial effects are significant and dominate any particle-induced stratification effects. However, so far there has been no attempt to perform DNS of a droplet-laden air-flow over waved water surface. In this report, we present results of DNS of droplet-laden, turbulent Couette air-flow over waved water surface. The carrier, turbulent Couette-flow configuration in DNS is similar to that used in previous numerical studies (Sullivan et al., JFM 2000, Shen et al., JFM 2010, Druzhinin et al., JGR 2012). Discrete droplets are considered as non-deformable solid spheres and tracked in a Lagrangian framework, and their impact on the carrier flow is modeled with the use of a point-force approximation. The droplets parameters in DNS are matched to the typical known spume-droplets parameters in laboratory and field experiments. The DNS results show that both gravitational settling of droplets and

  15. Mark I Containment Program. Scaling analysis for modeling initial air clearing caused by reactor safety/relief valve discharge

    A generalized method of similitude is introduced and applied to develop scaling relationships for a General Electric Mark I suppression pool. A scale model is proposed to model suppression pool wall loads due to air flow through a T-quencher discharge device. The scaling relationships developed provide the means for relating scale model parameters (i.e., pressure, velocity,) to full scale

  16. Application of the subroutine SYSTD in the analytical determination of the laws of velocity and temperature distributions for turbulent flow in air

    The variation of velocity and temperature profiles for turbulent flow in air is obtained theoretically when the physical properties of the air vary with temperature. By adopting certain assumptions, a set of equations is derived which are used with the help of the computer sub-routine SYSTD, to obtain the velocity and temperature profiles

  17. The ecologically clear and safe nuclear reactor RUTA for aims of the thermal delivery, the seawater desalination and air conditioning

    Scientific research and design institute of energy technic (Moscow, Russia) works up the projects of thermal pool reactors RUTA with power 20 and 55 MW for heat delivery of apartment buildings and production premises. The reactors may be use as protected sources of energy for air conditioning or seawater desalination. Variant of underground siting of heat delivery atomic station with reactor RUTA is examined. Calculation studies of worked regimes confirms the high level of safety of heat delivery atomic station with the reactor RUTA. Work analysis of reactor installation RUTA in the central heat delivery systems is showing that for practically all space heating period this reactor is satisfying the standard requirements of heat delivery of buildings

  18. Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems

    Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres


    In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.

  19. Turbulent flow field and air entrainment in laboratory plunging breaking waves

    Na, Byoungjoon; Chang, Kuang-An; Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Lim, Ho-Joon


    This paper presents laboratory measurements of turbulent flow fields and void fraction in deep-water plunging breaking waves using imaging and optical fiber techniques. Bubble-size distributions are also determined based on combined measurements of velocity and bubble residence time. The most excited mode of the local intermittency measure of the turbulent flow and its corresponding length scale are obtained using a wavelet-based method and found to correlate with the swirling strength and vorticity. Concentrated vortical structures with high intermittency are observed near the lower boundaries of the aerated rollers where the velocity shear is high; the length scale of the deduced eddies ranges from 0.05 to 0.15 times the wave height. The number of bubbles with a chord length less than 2 mm demonstrates good correlation with the swirling strength. The power-law scaling and the Hinze scale of the bubbles determined from the bubble chord length distribution compare favorably with existing measurements. The turbulent dissipation rate, accounting for void fraction, is estimated using mixture theory. When void fraction is not considered, the turbulent dissipation rate is underestimated by more than 70% in the initial impinging and the first splash-up roller. A significant discrepancy of approximately 67% between the total energy dissipation rate and the turbulence dissipation rate is found. Of this uncounted dissipation, 23% is caused by bubble-induced dissipation.

  20. Turbulence modelling of statistically periodic flows: Synthetic jet into quiescent air

    Computations of a 2D synthetic jet are performed with usual RANS equations solved in time-accurate mode (URANS), with the standard k-ε model and the Rotta + IP second moment closure. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the ability of these standard turbulence models to close the phase-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Results are compared with recent experiments by Yao et al. made available to the CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control workshop held in Williamsburg in 2004. Comparisons of the performance of the models with experimental data show that the evolution of the vortex dipole generated by inviscid mechanisms is not correctly reproduced by the k-ε model. The Reynolds-stress model gives much more realistic predictions. However, several characteristics are not well predicted, as for instance the convection velocity. A detailed analysis shows that the vortex dipole dynamics is essentially inviscid during the early blowing phase, when the flow is more transitional than fully turbulent. Turbulence develops and influences the dynamics of the vortices only at a later stage of the blowing phase. Consequently, it is of importance that the turbulence models do not predict erroneously high levels of turbulence. In particular, the present study shows that the correct prediction of the region of negative production that appears during the deceleration of the blowing velocity, due to the misalignment of the strain and anisotropy tensors, is crucial. Therefore, linear eddy-viscosity models must be discarded for this type of pulsed flows, in particular for flow control using synthetic jets

  1. Turbulence modelling of statistically periodic flows: Synthetic jet into quiescent air

    Carpy, S. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, UMR 6609, CNRS/University of Poitiers/ENSMA, SP2MI, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2 - BP 30179 - 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Manceau, R. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Aerodynamiques, UMR 6609, CNRS/University of Poitiers/ENSMA, SP2MI, Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2 - BP 30179 - 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)]. E-mail:


    Computations of a 2D synthetic jet are performed with usual RANS equations solved in time-accurate mode (URANS), with the standard k-{epsilon} model and the Rotta + IP second moment closure. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the ability of these standard turbulence models to close the phase-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Results are compared with recent experiments by Yao et al. made available to the CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control workshop held in Williamsburg in 2004. Comparisons of the performance of the models with experimental data show that the evolution of the vortex dipole generated by inviscid mechanisms is not correctly reproduced by the k-{epsilon} model. The Reynolds-stress model gives much more realistic predictions. However, several characteristics are not well predicted, as for instance the convection velocity. A detailed analysis shows that the vortex dipole dynamics is essentially inviscid during the early blowing phase, when the flow is more transitional than fully turbulent. Turbulence develops and influences the dynamics of the vortices only at a later stage of the blowing phase. Consequently, it is of importance that the turbulence models do not predict erroneously high levels of turbulence. In particular, the present study shows that the correct prediction of the region of negative production that appears during the deceleration of the blowing velocity, due to the misalignment of the strain and anisotropy tensors, is crucial. Therefore, linear eddy-viscosity models must be discarded for this type of pulsed flows, in particular for flow control using synthetic jets.

  2. Inertial-dissipation methods and turbulent fluxes at the air-ocean interface

    Fairall, C. W.; Larsen, Søren Ejling


    The use of high frequency atmospheric turbulence properties (inertial subrange spectra, structure function parameters or dissipation rates) to infer surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat is more practical for most ocean going platforms than direct covariance measurement. The...

  3. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats


    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection in a large air-filled cavity

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the turbulent natural convection flow that develops in a differentially heated cavity of height H=1 m, width W=H and depth D=0.32H, submitted to a temperature difference between the active vertical walls equal to 15 K resulting in a characteristic Rayleigh number equal to 1.5 x 109. In the experiment temperature is measured by 25 μm micro-thermocouples and velocity by a Laser Doppler Anemometer. Both 2D and 3D LES and 3D DNS are performed. DNS uses a Chebyshev spectral method and LES a finite volume method with a local subgrid diffusivity model. Numerical simulations are performed for both adiabatic conditions and experimentally measured temperature on the horizontal walls. Time-averaged quantities and turbulent statistics in the median vertical plane are presented and compared

  5. An improved algorithm of simulation on air-sea turbulent heat fluxes in China seas


    With a global GSSTF2 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database and observation data at the Yong Xing station of Xisha Island in the South China Sea, we simulated the turbulent sensible and latent heat flux at sea surface in Chinese and neighboring seas (hereafter termed as China seas) using a common bulk method with some improved parameters. Comparing the simulated results with the observed and reanalyzed data, the improvement yielded higher accuracy, a smaller mean square deviation within 10 W/m2, and a smaller average relative error at about 25%. In addition, spatial resolution was improved to 0.1°×0.1°. The simulation is able to replay the main features of regional and seasonal variation in turbulent heat fluxes, and also the general pattern of heat flux changes during the summer monsoon outbreak in the South China Sea.

  6. Numerical predictions of turbulent heat transfer for air flow in rotating pipe

    Ould-Rouiss, M., E-mail: ould@univ-mlv.f [Universite Paris-Est, MSME, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Dries, A. [Universite Paris-Est, MSME, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Mazouz, A. [Universite de Valenciennes, LMF, 59326 Valenciennes (France)


    Heat transfer in fully developed turbulent pipe flow with isoflux condition imposed at the wall is investigated numerically by use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) for various rotation rates (0{<=}N{<=}7) at a Reynolds number equal to 5500. To validate the present computations, predictions are compared to the results reported in the archival literature, and found to agree fairly well with them. With increasing rotation number, the temperature fluctuations decrease near the wall and are enhanced in the core region. The pipe rotation induces a reduction of the streamwise turbulent heat flux and an obvious augmentation of the azimuthal one, especially near the wall. Thus, heat transfer between fluid and wall is reduced. For higher rotation numbers (N>3), the flow and the scalar transport become nearly insensitive to N. Joint probability density functions sketch the correlation between flow and thermal fields. Visualization of the temperature field exhibits the stabilizing effects of the centrifugal forces.

  7. A review of the sources of uncertainties when estimating global-scale turbulent air-sea fluxes

    Brodeau, Laurent; Barnier, Bernard


    Bulk formulae are used to estimate turbulent air-sea fluxes needed to provide surface boundary conditions to most of present-day OGCMs, AGCMs and coupled Earth systems. This study aims at making an inventory of the major sources of uncertainties and errors made when estimating turbulent air-sea fluxes with the bulk method, namely wind stress, evaporation (latent heat flux) and sensible heat flux. We use 6-hourly near-surface atmospheric fields and daily SST of ERA-Interim to compute global estimates of these fluxes during the last three decades. Those fluxes are computed using different bulk routines and different types of physical and numerical simplifications widely used within the GCM community. Moreover, to assess the sensitivity of these flux estimates to possible errors in the input atmospheric fields and SST, user-controlled biases are applied to each of these fields prior to bulk computation. As a result, a quantification of the potential sources of uncertainties related to the accuracy of both the parametrization and input fields is proposed. Any parametrization-related approximation can also be expressed in terms of a bias on a given input field. We find that the largest source of flux uncertainties is the choice of the bulk algorithm used to estimate the bulk transfer coefficients. The resulting disagreement in terms of globally-averaged heat flux and evaporation is 8 W/m2 and 1 Sv. In mid latitudes, this heat flux disagreement is about 10 W/m2, which independently compares to a bias of 1 m/s in surface wind speed, 3° in SST, 0.5° in surface temperature, or a modification of 5% in the surface humidity. Our study also underlies the relative importance of the accuracy of the estimate of the air density and the specific humidity at saturation.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Fully Turbulent Plasma Jet and its Interaction with Ambient Air

    Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy; Hrabovský, Milan

    Kyoto : International Plasma Chemistry Society, 2007 - (Tachibana, K.; Takai, O.; Ono, K.; Shirafuji, T.), 00421-00429 ISBN 978-4-9903773-3-5. [International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/18th./. Kyoto (JP), 26.08.2007-31.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Turbulent thermal plasma jet * Hybrid gas-water torch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. NOx emission characteristics in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    The characteristics of NOx emissions in pure hydrogen nonpremixed jet flames with coaxial air are analyzed numerically for a wide range of coaxial air conditions. Among the models tested in simple nonpremixed jet flame, the one-half power scaling law could be reproduced only by the Model C using the HO2/H2O2 reaction, implying the importance of chemical nonequilibrium effect. The flame length is reduced significantly by augmenting coaxial air, and could be represented as a function of the ratio of coaxial air to fuel velocity. Predicted EINOx scaling showed a good concordance with experimental data, and the overall one-half power scaling was observed in coaxial flames with Model C when flame residence time was defined with flame volume instead of a cubic of the flame length. Different level of oxygen mass fraction at the stoichiometric surface was observed as coaxial air was increased. These different levels imply that the coaxial air strengthens the nonequilibrium effect

  10. Using an ensemble data set of turbulent air-sea fluxes to evaluate the IPSL climate model in tropical regions

    Gainusa-Bogdan, Alina; Servonnat, Jerome; Braconnot, Pascale


    Low-latitude turbulent ocean-atmosphere fluxes play a major role in the ocean and atmosphere dynamics, heat distribution and availability for meridional transport to higher latitudes, as well as for the global freshwater cycle. Their representation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models is thus of chief importance in climate simulations. Despite numerous reports of important observational uncertainties in large-scale turbulent flux products, only few model flux evaluation studies attempt to quantify and directly consider these uncertainties. To address this problem for large-scale, climatological flux evaluation, we assemble a comprehensive database of 14 climatological surface flux products, including in situ-based, satellite, hybrid and reanalysis data sets. We develop an associated analysis protocol and use it together with this database to offer an observational ensemble approach to model flux evaluation. We use this approach to perform an evaluation of the representation of the intertropical turbulent air-sea fluxes in a suite of CMIP5 historical simulations run with different recent versions of the IPSL model. To enhance model understanding, we consider both coupled and forced atmospheric model configurations. For the same purpose, we not only analyze the surface fluxes, but also their associated meteorological state variables and inter-variable relationships. We identify an important, systematic underestimation of the near-surface wind speed and a significant exaggeration of the sea-air temperature contrast in all the IPSL model versions considered. Furthermore, the coupled model simulations develop important sea surface temperature and associated air humidity bias patterns. Counterintuitively, these biases do not systematically transfer to significant biases in the surface fluxes. This is due to a combination of compensation of effects and the large flux observational spread. Our analyses reveal several inconsistencies in inter-variable relationships between

  11. Trying to Clear the Air.

    Berlin, Joey


    Texas physicians have been pushing for action to curb or eliminate coal-fired power plant emissions, pointing to studies and evidence that those plants' congesting environmental output makes patient populations sicker and the number of emergency department visits greater. PMID:27295290

  12. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with a multivariate beta PDF

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.


    Recent calculations of turbulent supersonic reacting shear flows using an assumed multivariate beta PDF (probability density function) resulted in reduced production rates and a delay in the onset of combustion. This result is not consistent with available measurements. The present research explores two possible reasons for this behavior: use of PDF's that do not yield Favre averaged quantities, and the gradient diffusion assumption. A new multivariate beta PDF involving species densities is introduced which makes it possible to compute Favre averaged mass fractions. However, using this PDF did not improve comparisons with experiment. A countergradient diffusion model is then introduced. Preliminary calculations suggest this to be the cause of the discrepancy.

  13. An application of SPIV technique to experimental validation of the turbulence model for the air flow in the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery

    Jaszczur, Marek; Nowak, Remigiusz; Szmyd, Janusz [Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland); Branny, Marian; Karch, Michal; Wodziak, Waldemar, E-mail: [Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland)


    This paper presents a comparison between results obtained using SPIV experimental technique and numerical simulations approach. An analysis has been performed to validate the turbulent models used in mining ventilation systems. The flow of air across the intersection of the mining face with the ventilation gallery has been examined.

  14. Turbulent-diffusion vertical transfer coefficient in relationship to the electrical parameters of air

    The vertical movement of ions in the lower atmosphere is due to two main causes: the atmospheric electrical field and turbulent diffusion. The vertical current is thus the sum of a conduction current and of a diffusion current. In order to resolve the discrepancies between the theories usually adopted (which neglect the diffusion current) and the experimental results, we propose here a theoretical model which takes into account the turbulent diffusion. This model makes it possible, if it is assumed that the conductivity is independent of the altitude in the exchange layer, to calculate the diffusivity from the three basic electrical parameters: electrical field, space charge, conductivity. The diffusivity values thus obtained have been compared to those deduced from thoron determinations made at different levels, and carried out at the same point and at the same time as the measurements of the electrical parameters. When the diffusivity is greater than 0.05 m2s-1 (this corresponding to adiabatic or super-adiabatic conditions) the values obtained are practically equal. This theoretical model thus appears to be satisfactory. (author)

  15. Air-chemistry "turbulence": power-law scaling and statistical regularity

    Hsu, H.-m.; Lin, C.-Y.; Guenther, A.; J. J. Tribbia; Liu, S. C.


    With the intent to gain further knowledge on the spectral structures and statistical regularities of surface atmospheric chemistry, the chemical gases (NO, NO2, NOx, CO, SO2, and O3) and aerosol (PM10) measured at 74 air quality monitoring stations over the island of Taiwan are analyzed for the year of 2004 at hourly resolution. They represent a range of surface air quality with ...

  16. An experimental investigation of the effect of air on steam condensation under turbulent natural convection

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation that has been conducted to determine the condensation heat transfer coefficient of steam in the presence of air in order to simulate the conditions that may be encountered in reactor containments under accidental conditions. The experimental test section consisted of an internally cooled, vertical copper cylinder enclosed in a large steel vessel. Air was admitted inside the vessel from an outside air supply source while steam was produced at the bottom of the vessel by a set of heaters with a total capacity of 36 KW. The pressure vessel was fully insulated so that the heat produced by steam condensation was entirely removed by water flowing inside the cylinder. With the arrangement, the air-stream mixture was in a natural circulation mode. Three sets of experiments were performed. In each set the system pressure was held constant while the air content and the cylinder wall subcooling were varied. The three sets had pressures of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 atmospheres respectively. Cylinder wall subcooling ranged from 15 to 50 C. The air mass fraction ranged from 25% to 90%. The maximum Grashoff number was on the order of 1011. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient decreased slowly with subcooling, and increased significantly with pressure, and mildly with height

  17. Climate simulations with a new air-sea turbulent flux parameterization in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3)

    Ban, Junmei; Gao, Zhiqiu; Lenschow, Donald H.


    This study examines climate simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (NCAR CAM3) using a new air-sea turbulent flux parameterization scheme. The current air-sea turbulent flux scheme in CAM3 consists of three basic bulk flux equations that are solved simultaneously by an iterative computational technique. We recently developed a new turbulent flux parameterization scheme where the Obukhov stability length is parameterized directly by using a bulk Richardson number, an aerodynamic roughness length, and a heat roughness length. Its advantages are that it (1) avoids the iterative process and thus increases the computational efficiency, (2) takes account of the difference between z0m and z0h and allows large z0m/z0h, and (3) preserves the accuracy of iteration. An offline test using Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) data shows that the original scheme overestimates the surface fluxes under very weak winds but the new scheme gives better results. Under identical initial and boundary conditions, the original CAM3 and CAM3 coupled with the new turbulent flux scheme are used to simulate the global distribution of air-sea surface turbulent fluxes, and precipitation. Comparisons of model outputs against the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), the Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux), and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) show that: (1) the new scheme produces more realistic surface wind stress in the North Pacific and North Atlantic trade wind belts and wintertime extratropical storm track regions; (2) the latent heat flux in the Northern Hemisphere trade wind zones shows modest improvement in the new scheme, and the latent heat flux bias in the western boundary current region of the Gulf Stream is reduced; and (3) the simulated precipitation in the new scheme is closer to observation in the Asian monsoon

  18. Extension of radiative transfer code MOMO, matrix-operator model to the thermal infrared – Clear air validation by comparison to RTTOV and application to CALIPSO-IIR

    1-D radiative transfer code Matrix-Operator Model (MOMO), has been extended from [0.2−3.65μm] the band to the whole [0.2−100μm] spectrum. MOMO can now be used for the computation of a full range of radiation budgets (shortwave and longwave). This extension to the longwave part of the electromagnetic radiation required to consider radiative transfer processes that are features of the thermal infrared: the spectroscopy of the water vapor self- and foreign-continuum of absorption at 12μm and the emission of radiation by gases, aerosol, clouds and surface. MOMO's spectroscopy module, Coefficient of Gas Absorption (CGASA), has been developed for computation of gas extinction coefficients, considering continua and spectral line absorptions. The spectral dependences of gas emission/absorption coefficients and of Planck's function are treated using a k-distribution. The emission of radiation is implemented in the adding–doubling process of the matrix operator method using Schwarzschild's approach in the radiative transfer equation (a pure absorbing/emitting medium, namely without scattering). Within the layer, the Planck-function is assumed to have an exponential dependence on the optical-depth. In this paper, validation tests are presented for clear air case studies: comparisons to the analytical solution of a monochromatic Schwarzschild's case without scattering show an error of less than 0.07% for a realistic atmosphere with an optical depth and a blackbody temperature that decrease linearly with altitude. Comparisons to radiative transfer code RTTOV are presented for simulations of top of atmosphere brightness temperature for channels of the space-borne instrument MODIS. Results show an agreement varying from 0.1 K to less than 1 K depending on the channel. Finally MOMO results are compared to CALIPSO Infrared Imager Radiometer (IIR) measurements for clear air cases. A good agreement was found between computed and observed radiance: biases are smaller than 0

  19. Turbulence, aeration and bubble features of air-water flows over macro- and intermediate roughness

    Stefano PAGLIARA


    Full Text Available Free surface flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions have a high aeration potential in which the flow characteristics vary with slopes and discharges. The underlying phenomenon of two phase flow characteristics in the macro and intermediate roughness conditions were analyzed in a setup assembled at the PITLAB center of the University of Pisa, Italy. Crushed angular rocks and hemispherical boulders were used to intensify the roughness nature of the bed. Flow discharges per unit width ranging between 0.03 m2/s and 0.09 m2/s and slopes between 0.26 and 0.46 were tested over different arrangements of rough bed. Analyses were mainly concentrated in the inner flow region which constitutes both bubbly and intermediate flow region. The findings revealed that two phase flow properties over rough bed were very much affected by the different rough bed arrangement. Turbulence features of two phase flows over rough beds were compared with that of the stepped chute data under similar flow conditions. Overall the results highlighted the flow features in the inner layers of the two phase flow.

  20. Changing the balance of power – Worldwide air force`s capability turbulences

    Pavel NEČAS


    Full Text Available In past Century, the air power had undergone a significant journey. In its humble beginnings during WWI an airplane proved itself a perspective and highly capable new weapon. WWII demonstrated the importance of air superiority for waging a global warfare. The Cold War mastered technologies enabling air power to be not only a weapon a mass destruction but also a surgical tool. On one hand, an aircraft has become a state of art technology, yet on the other hand a cost for its development, procurement, and servicing grew into an astronomic levels. Therefore, since mid 1970s there have been trends to shift airpower from quantity into quality, which has gained a new moment with the end of the Cold War. Starting with the first Gulf War, in past two decades demonstrated a growing importance of a multirole fighter aircraft that is able to carry out a full specter of missions for minimal costs. When analyzing five most potent airpowers of the 21st century, we can witness that this is the trend is on and it will surely continue in future.

  1. Influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a turbulent rectangular free jet of air

    Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length LND = L1. • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length LSD. • Total length, LND + LSD = L2, is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, LU. • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length LCV. • Total length, LND + LSD + LCV = L3, is in agreement with average Potential core, LP. - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length LCIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio LCIH/H equal to LCIH/H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to LCIH/H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U‾0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U‾0, remain below ±4% for a length LCIV, defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio LCIV/H increases from LCIV/H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to LCIV/H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to LCIH/H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length LCIT, defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio LCIT/H is equal to LCIV/H. The instant PIV velocity profiles in the

  2. Quantifying the clear-sky temperature inversion frequency and strength over the Arctic Ocean during summer and winter seasons from AIRS profiles

    A. Devasthale


    Full Text Available Temperature inversions are one of the dominant features of the Arctic atmosphere and play a crucial role in various processes by controlling the transfer of mass and moisture fluxes through the lower troposphere. It is therefore essential that they are accurately quantified, monitored and simulated as realistically as possible over the Arctic regions. In the present study, the characteristics of inversions in terms of frequency and strength are quantified for the entire Arctic Ocean for summer and winter seasons of 2003 to 2008 using the AIRS data for the clear-sky conditions. The probability density functions (PDFs of the inversion strength are also presented for every summer and winter month.

    Our analysis shows that although the inversion frequency along the coastal regions of Arctic decreases from June to August, inversions are still seen in almost each profile retrieved over the inner Arctic region. In winter, inversions are ubiquitous and are also present in every profile analysed over the inner Arctic region. When averaged over the entire study area (70° N–90° N, the inversion frequency in summer ranges from 69% to 86% for the ascending passes and 72% to 86% for the descending passes. For winter, the frequency values are 88% to 91% for the ascending passes and 89% to 92% for the descending passes of AIRS/AQUA. The PDFs of inversion strength for the summer months are narrow and right-skewed (or positively skewed, while in winter, they are much broader. In summer months, the mean values of inversion strength for the entire study area range from 2.5 K to 3.9 K, while in winter, they range from 7.8 K to 8.9 K. The standard deviation of the inversion strength is double in winter compared to summer. The inversions in the summer months of 2007 were very strong compared to other years. The warming in the troposphere of about 1.5 K to 3.0 K vertically extending up to 400 hPa was observed in the summer months of 2007.

  3. Finite-Difference Solution for Laminar or Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Axisymmetric Bodies with Ideal Gas, CF4, or Equilibrium Air Chemistry

    Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.


    A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.

  4. Lidar sounding of the optical parameter of atmospheric turbulence

    Gurvich, A. S.; Fortus, M. I.


    The operation of a lidar intended for clear air turbulence (CAT) positioning on the basis of the backscatter enhancement (BSE) effect is analyzed using a turbulence model with a power-law spectrum. Systematic distortions occurring due to a need to regularize the lidar positioning problem solution are estimated. It is shown that the effect of molecular viscosity of air on the positioning result can be neglected if the wave parameter, which characterizes the diffraction manifestation, is higher than 3. This corresponds to sounding ranges of more than 1 km for optical or UV lidars. The analysis results show that the BSE lidar positioning accuracy weakly depends on the exponent in the turbulence spectrum in regions of severe turbulence. The results can justify a physical experiment for the design of an aircraft system for the lidar detection of CAT regions ahead of the flight course.

  5. Laboratory investigations of the heat and momentum transfer in the stably stratified air turbulent boundary layer above the wavy surface

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim


    the spray of droplets generation, especially heat transfer. The work was supported by RFBR grants (14-05-91767, 14-08-31740, 15-35-20953) and RSF grant 14-17-00667 and by President grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5 References: 1. Emanuel, K. A. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to surface exchange coefficients and a revised steady-state model incorporating eye dynamics // J. Atmos. Sci., 52(22), 3969-3976,1995. 2. Brian K. Haus, Dahai Jeong, Mark A. Donelan, Jun A. Zhang, and Ivan Savelyev Relative rates of sea-air heat transfer and frictional drag in very high winds // GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L07802, doi:10.1029/2009GL042206, 2010 3. Yu. I. Troitskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, V.I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions // JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, C00J21, 13 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JC007778 4. Yu.I.Troitskaya, D.A.Sergeev, A.A.Kandaurov, M.I. Vdovin, A.A. Kandaurov, E.V.Ezhova, S.S.Zilitinkevich Momentum and buoyancy exchange in a turbulent air boundary layer over a wavy water surface. Part 2. Wind wave spectra // Nonlinear. Geoph. Processes, Vol. 20, P. 841-856, 2013.

  6. Idealised Simulations of Turbulence Near Thunderstorms

    Zovko Rajak, D.; Lane, T.


    Atmospheric turbulence is a significant hazard to the aviation industry because it can cause injuries, damage to aircraft as well as financial losses. A number of recent studies have been conducted in order to explain the mechanisms that are responsible for convectively induced turbulence (CIT), which can occur within the cloud as well as in the clear air regions surrounding the cloud. The majority of these studies were focused on above cloud turbulence, however, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that generate turbulence around thunderstorms. This type of turbulence, also known as near-cloud turbulence, is of particular interest because it is much more difficult to avoid than turbulence within clouds since it is invisible and undetectable using standard hazard methods (e.g. on-board and ground-based radars). This study examines turbulence generation by organised convection (viz. supercells) using three-dimensional (3D) simulations conducted with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Results from several high-resolution idealised simulations will be shown, with a focus on the role of 3D cloud-induced flow perturbations on turbulence generation and their sensitivity to different background flow conditions like wind shear. High resolution numerical modeling is necessary for more realistic treatment of deep convection and turbulence processes on a scale that affect aircraft (these are on the order of 100 m). Since conducting 3D simulations with cloud-resolving scales is very computationally expensive it is necessary to use nesting in order to resolve these small scale processes. The simulation results show regions of turbulence that extend more than 100 km away from the active deep convection (i.e. regions with high radar reflectivity). These turbulent regions are related to strong upper-level storm outflow and the associated enhanced vertical shear. Simulations also show localised modulation of the outflow jet by small-scale gravity waves (~ 4 km

  7. The study of the effect of the surface wave on turbulent stably-stratified boundary layer air-flow by direct numerical simulation

    Druzhinin, Oleg; Troitskaya, Yliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej


    Detailed knowledge of the interaction of surface water waves with the wind flow is of primary importance for correct parameterization of turbulent momentum and heat fluxes which define the energy and momentum transfer between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The objective of the present study is to investigate the properties of the stably stratified turbulent boundary-layer (BL) air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation (DNS) at a bulk Reynolds number varying from 15000 to 80000 and the surface-wave slope up to ka = 0.2. The DNS results show that the BL-flow remains in the statistically stationary, turbulent regime if the Reynolds number (ReL) based on the Obukhov length scale and friction velocity is sufficiently large (ReL > 100). In this case, mean velocity and temperature vertical profiles are well predicted by log-linear asymptotic solutions following from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory provided the velocity and temperature roughness parameters, z0U and z0T, are appropriately prescribed. Both z0U and z0T increase for larger surface-wave slope. DNS results also show that turbulent momentum and heat fluxes and turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations are increased for larger wave slope (ka) whereas the mean velocity and temperature derivatives remain practically the same for different ka. Thus, we conclude that the source of turbulence enhancement in BL-flow are perturbations induced by the surface wave, and not the shear instability of the bulk flow. On the other hand, if stratification is sufficiently strong, and the surface-wave slope is sufficiently small, the BL-flow over waved surface relaminarizes in the bulk of the domain. However, if the surface-wave slope exceeds a threshold value, the velocity and temperature fluctuations remain finite in the vicinity of the critical-layer level, where the surface-wave phase velocity coincides with the mean flow velocity. We call this new stably-stratified BL-flow regime observed in

  8. The pollution exchange between soil and the near-surface air layer through turbulent transfer, resuspension and dry deposition

    The exchange of pollutants between the soil and the near-surface boundary layer is considered taking into account the effects of dry deposition, sedimentation and resuspension. The time taken to reach steady-state conditions has been evaluated. The exact solutions of conventional vertical turbulent diffusion with a given lower boundary condition have been derived and analysed. (author)

  9. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    Evans, Joni K.


    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  10. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale

    Day, M. S.; Bell, J. B.; Cheng, R. K.; Tachibana, S.; Beckner, V. E.; Lijewski, M. J.


    One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

  11. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale

    One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

  12. Stirring turbulence with turbulence

    Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Joosten, René; van de Water, Willem


    We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model, which is a simple dynamical model of turbulence that produces a velocity field displaying inertial-range scaling behavior. The range of scales can be adjusted by selection of shells. We find that the largest energy input and the smallest anisotropy are reached when the time scale of the random numbers matches that of the largest eddies of the wind-tunnel turbulence. A large mismatch of these times creates a highly intermittent random flow with interesting but quite anomalous statistics.

  13. Galactic turbulence and paleoclimate variability

    Bershadskii, A


    The wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past three ice ages: approximately 340000 years (Antarctic ice cores isotopic data), exhibit clear evidences of the galactic turbulence modulation up to 2500 years time-scales. The observed strictly Kolmogorov turbulence features indicates the Kolmogorov nature of galactic turbulence, and provide explanation to random-like fluctuations of the global temperature on the millennial time scales.

  14. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    Pothérat, Alban


    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  15. Evolution of the air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone for different lengths of SF6: shock tube visualizations and 3D simulations

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Griffond, Jerome; Souffland, Denis; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane


    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a vertical shock tube (based in ISAE DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a thin nitrocellulose membrane maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid (SF6 side) of square mesh spacing hu 1.8 or 12.1 mm is expected to seed perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) while the lower grid with hl 1 mm is needed to prevent the membrane from bulging prior to the shot. The experiments were carried out for different lengths L of SF6 between the initial interface and the shock tube's end plate: 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm. The time resolved Schlieren image processing based on space and frequency filtering yields similar evolution for the TMZ thickness. Before reshock, the thickness grows initially fast then slows down and reaches different values (10 to 14 mm) according to L. Soon after reshock, the TMZ thickness growths rate is 21 mm/ms independently of L and hu. Numerical Schlieren images generated from 3D numerical simulations (performed at CEA DAM IDF) are analyzed as the experimental ones for L 15 and 25 cm and for hu 1.8 and 12.1 mm. The very weak experimental dependence on hu is not obtained by simulation as expected from dimensional reasoning. This discrepancy remains paradoxical.

  16. Clearing the air on energy prices

    Although it is well known that the cost of wind energy continues to fall steadily, it's difficult to supply an answer to the question of how the price of electricity generated by wind compares with prices from other sources. Direct comparisons between wind energy and electricity from fossil fuel sources often ignore the fact that there are hidden costs associated with the latter. Comparisons are often made anyway. Perhaps of equal importance to wind energy's price competitiveness with fossil fuels is how it measures up to other renewable energy sources. The key to both types of comparisons are location and time. (au)

  17. Flowpac successfully clear the air in Lithuania

    Maripuu, M.; Wikstrom, G. [Alstom Power, Vaexjoe (Sweden)


    Following the shutdown of the Ignalina nuclear power plant, Lithuania has restarted the Elektrenai multi-fuel fossil fired power plant. In order to meet EU LCPD emission limits, new pollution control equipment, including innovative Flowpac FGD systems, were installed on several of the plant's boilers and are now running. Early operating experience has demonstrated the advantages of the Flowpac technology. 5 figs.

  18. Do collective actions clear common air?

    Aakvik, A.; Tjoetta, S. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Economics


    Success in managing global public goods and commons is important for future welfare. Examples of global public goods include global warming, maintenance of international macroeconomic stability, international trade rules, international political stability, humanitarian assistance, and knowledge. The list is far from exhaustive. Institutions to manage international public goods include international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and United Nations. Public goods crossing national jurisdictional borders add a dimension to Samuelson's (1954) general theory for public goods. Under the current international law, obligations may be imposed only on a sovereign state with its consent. Hence, multinational institutions and international agreements often have weak or even lack of explicit control and enforcement mechanism. Compliance with agreements is often hard to control and verify, and moreover there is seldom explicit sanction mechanism in these agreements. With this in mind, it is reasonable to question whether these institutions work. In this paper the authors want to address this question by evaluating specific international environmental agreements which share many of the same characteristics as most of the institutions managing global public goods and commons. They consider the effects of voluntary international environmental protocols on emissions using the 1985 Helsinki Protocol and the 1994 Oslo Protocol on the reduction of sulfur oxides. These protocols are voluntary in the meaning that they lack control and enforcement mechanism to handle non-compliance. Lack of control and enforcement mechanism raises the question whether these voluntary protocols have an effect or that they merely tend to codify what countries would have done anwyay. The analysis utilizes panel data from 30 European countries for the period 1960-2002. The authors divided these countries into 'participants' and 'non-participants', ie. those that did and those that did not ratify the specific protocol, respectively. They use a difference-in-difference estimator which focuses on difference in emission before and after signing a specific protocol and compares it to this difference for non-participating countries. Difference-in-difference estimation methods rely on many annual data and hence this will induce serial correlations in the variables. Overlooking this may introduce biased estimate of the standard errors. To overcome this bias the authors follow Bertrand et. al. (2003), and compute the difference-in-difference estimates for a great number of randomly generated placebo protocols. They use this empirical distribution of placebo effects to test estimated effects.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Biskamp, Dieter


    This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi

  20. The influence of gas radiation on the thermal behavior of a 2D axisymmetric turbulent non-premixed methane–air flame

    Highlights: • The study evaluates the importance of thermal radiation in a methane–air flame. • The radiative properties are treated with the WSGG based on HITEMP 2010. • The turbulence–radiation interaction (TRI) is based on a RANS approach. • Radiation strongly affected the temperature field but not the chemical composition. • Neglecting TRI led to a lower estimate of the radiation heat transfer. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the effect of thermal radiation in the simulation of a turbulent, non-premixed methane–air flame. In such a problem, two aspects need to be considered for a precise evaluation of the thermal radiation: the turbulence–radiation interactions (TRI), and the local variation of the radiative properties of the participating species, which are treated here with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (WSGG) model based on newly obtained correlations from HITEMP2010 database. The chemical reactions rates were considered as the minimum values between the Arrhenius and Eddy Break-Up rates. A two-step global reaction mechanism was used, while the turbulence modeling was considered via standard k–ε model. The source terms of the energy equation consisted of the heat generated in the chemical reaction rates as well as in the radiation exchanges. The discrete ordinates method (DOM) was employed to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), including the TRI. Comparisons of simulations with/without radiation (which in turn was solved with/without TRI) demonstrated that the temperature, the radiative heat source, and the wall heat flux were importantly affected by thermal radiation, while the influence on species concentrations proved to be negligible. Inclusion of thermal radiation led to results that were closer to experimental data available in the literature for the same test case considered in this paper. Inclusion of TRI improved the agreement, although in a smaller degree. The main influence of TRI was mainly on global

  1. Clearing, transparency, and collateral

    Francesco Carli; Francesca Carapella; Gaetano Antinolfi


    In an environment of Over-The-Counter trading with adverse selection we study traders' incentives to screen their counterparties under different clearing arrangements. When the clearing arrangement is also a choice, traders decide which types of transactions to clear under each arrangement, with signicant consequences for transparency and collateral requirements. The key trade-off is between insurance and the value of information: on one hand risk averse traders want to smooth consumption and...

  2. Turbulent flux exchange characteristics of air-ice-sea above the Arctic Ocean during the polar day period


    Chinese “Xue Long” breaker made its first voyage to the Arctic Ocean for scientific expedition from July to September, 1999. The tethersonde meteorological tower (TMT) sounding system was used to probe the temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind direction and wind speed on different underlying surfaces above the Arctic Ocean. The probed data were used for calculating the roughness length z0, momentum flux M, drag coefficient CDD, sensible heat flux Hss, bulk transfer coefficient CHH for sensible heat, latent heat flux HLL, and bulk transfer coefficient CEE for latent heat of air-ice-sea on different underlying surfaces. They vary within the ranges of (0.2 ~ 1.0) mm, (1.14~9.19) ×10-2N/m2, (0.87~ 1.76) × 10-3,-(4.2~ 12.5) W/m2, (0.84~ 1.37) x 10-3,-6.6~ 23.6 W/m2 and (0.85 ~ 1.40) x 10-3, respectively. It shows that the drag coefficient is greater than the latent heat transfer coefficient, and again the latent heat transfer coefficient is larger than the sensible heat transfer coefficient. Besides, the fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat are apparently correlated to the mean wind speed and the mean potential temperature difference and mean specific humidity difference.

  3. Turbulence and diffusion fossil turbulence

    Gibson, C H


    Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide ra...

  4. 利用OH-PLIF测量CH4/H2/空气混合气湍流燃烧速率%Measurement of Turbulent Burning Velocity ofCH4/H2/Air Mixtures Using OH-PLIF

    张猛; 王金华; 谢永亮; 卫之龙; 金武; 黄佐华


    Instantaneous flame front structure and turbulent burning velocities of CH4/H2/air mixtures were measured using OH-PLIF technique. Various turbulence intensities were generated by perforated plates with different hole di-ameter and opening ratio. Stabilized turbulent premixed flames were obtained at the outlet of the Bunsen burner for long-duration OH-PLIF measurement. 500 single shot images were averaged to obtain turbulent burning velocity by conventional angel method. The effects of hydrogen addition and turbulence intensity on turbulent burning velocity were analyzed and a power law correlation of turbulent burning velocity was obtained. Results show that turbulent burning velocity increases with the increase of turbulence intensity due to the increase of flame front area. Hydrogen addition increases the flame intrinsic instability and leads to the active response of laminar flame to turbulence, resulting in the much wrinkle flame front structure,larger flame front area and subsequently the increased turbulent burning velocity. A correlation between turbulent burning velocity and turbulence intensity was derived in the form of ST/SL∝a(u′/SL)n,andn remained a constant value of 0.35.%利用OH平面激光诱导荧光技术测量CH4/H2/空气预混湍流火焰前锋面结构,得到湍流燃烧速率.采用不同孔径和开孔比的湍流发生板,产生不同湍流强度和尺度下稳定的预混湍流火焰供OH-PLIF测量.利用500张瞬时火焰结构图片得到湍流火焰前锋面的平均位置,运用角度法得到湍流燃烧速率.分析了掺氢比和湍流强度对湍流燃烧速率的影响,并给出了拟合关系式.实验结果表明,湍流燃烧速率随湍流强度的增加而增加,这是由于流场尺度减小引起火焰锋面面积增加.湍流燃烧速率随掺氢比的升高略有增加,这是由于掺氢引起火焰不稳定性增强,导致火焰对湍流流动的响应增强,增强了湍流火焰前锋

  5. Air

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  6. Air

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  7. Snow-clearing operations

    EN Department


    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  8. Hudson_Clearing.m

    Rigby, S.E.


    This MATLAB code allows the user to generate a series of keyword files for use with LS-DYNA to predict the blast load and evaluate the effects of blast wave clearing on a finite-sized, deformable target. User doccumentation is provided.

  9. Turbulence in Natural Environments

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  10. Time-series measurements of CH concentration in turbulent CH(4) / air flames by use of picosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence.

    Renfro, M W; Klassen, M S; King, G B; Laurendeau, N M


    We report a developing technique capable of making continuous time-series measurements of naturally occurring minor-species concentrations. The high repetition rate of the mode-locked laser used in this technique allows for the study of transient combustion events, such as turbulence, and their effect on minor-species concentrations. The technique is applied to make CH fluorescence time-series measurements and to calculate power spectral densities in a turbulent nonpremixed flame. To our knowledge, the reported time series represents the first such measurement for a naturally occurring minor species in a turbulent flame. PMID:18183140

  11. Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange

  12. High Turbulence

    EuHIT, Collaboration


    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  13. Wave turbulence

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.


    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  14. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Constantin LEVENTIU


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  15. Clear cell sarcoma

    Pinar Ozuguz


    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM of soft tissue, also called clear cell sarcoma (CCS of tendons and aponeuroses, derives from the neural crest. CCS is similar morphologically to MM but has no precursor skin lesion, and instead, has a characteristic chromosomal translocation. Prognosis is related to the tumor size. Early recognition and initial radical surgery is the key to a favorable outcome. The tumor has to be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions of the soft tissues, such as fibrosarcoma. The demonstration of melanin and a positive immunohistochemical reaction for S-100 protein and HMB-45 can assist in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with CCS arising from the soft tissue of her little finger.


    D. Falceta-Gonçalves


    Full Text Available The Interstellar Medium (ISM is a complex, multi-phase system, where the history of the stars occurs. The processes of birth and death of stars are strongly coupled to the dynamics of the ISM. The observed chaotic and diffusive motions of the gas characterize its turbulent nature. Understanding turbulence is crucial for understanding the star-formation process and the energy-mass feedback from evolved stars. Magnetic fields, threading the ISM, are also observed, making this effort even more difficult. In this work, I briefly review the main observations and the characterization of turbulence from these observable quantities. Following on, I provide a review of the physics of magnetized turbulence. Finally, I will show the main results from theoretical and numerical simulations, which can be used to reconstruct observable quantities, and compare these predictions to the observations.

  17. Wave turbulence

    Nazarenko, Sergey


    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  18. Turbulent mixing

    Dimotakis, Paul E.


    The ability of turbulent flows to effectively mix entrained fluids to a molecular scale is a vital part of the dynamics of such flows, with wide-ranging consequences in nature and engineering. It is a considerable experimental, theoretical, modeling, and computational challenge to capture and represent turbulent mixing which, for high Reynolds number (Re) flows, occurs across a spectrum of scales of considerable span. This consideration alone places high-Re mixing phenomena beyond the reach o...


    Trunev A. P.


    Full Text Available In this article we have investigated the solutions of Maxwell's equations, Navier-Stokes equations and the Schrödinger associated with the solutions of Einstein's equations for empty space. It is shown that in some cases the geometric instability leading to turbulence on the mechanism of alternating viscosity, which offered by N.N. Yanenko. The mechanism of generation of matter from dark energy due to the geometric turbulence in the Big Bang has been discussed

  20. Plasma turbulence

    This paper presents an overview of the progress made in understanding plasma turbulence. It has relied heavily on numerical simulations to gain some intuition on the physical processes underlying nonlinear interaction and as a cross check for quantitative estimates derived from weak turbulence theory or DIA-based strong turbulence theory. The mathematical description of plasmas, especially those confined in a magnetic bottle, is far more complex than the Navier-Stokes fluid. Yet because of the dispersion of the plasma eigenmodes, the DIA perhaps has greater validity in a plasma than in a Navier-Stokes fluid. Recent developments in dynamical-systems theory have not yet been implemented in plasma turbulence at the level discussed in other studies for boundary-layer turbulence. This technique has promise for evaluating the behavior of large eddies, which may dominate plasma transport as a low-order system. In the collisionless, kinetic regime, where turbulence in x, v phase space has to be addressed, the new methods involving noneigenmode entities called clumps and holes, need further evolution to gain complete acceptability. For the future, a combination of analytical tools and numerical methods may afford the optimum route. Some examples of this are revireviewed

  1. Turbulent conductivity in parallel with iso-velocities in a planar established flow

    In this thesis are presented the experimental results obtained during the study of the turbulent diffusion of heat using a wire source in a flat air flow. The Taylor statistical theory laws are well respected in the domain studied. The experiments have made it possible to evaluate the influence of the Reynolds number and of the distance from the wall on the quadratic values of velocity fluctuations and on the Lagrange turbulence scales. In particular, the author has found a correlation between the Lagrange scales and the friction coefficient when the Reynolds number varies. A diffusion law is derived from the Taylor theory; it makes it possible to explain more clearly the idea of turbulent conductivity. (author)

  2. Indicadores de turbulência a partir de previsões do modelo regional ETA Turbulence index from ETA model predictions

    André de Arruda Lyra


    Full Text Available A turbulência em ar claro (Clear Air Turbulence - CAT, que ocorre freqüentemente próximo à região de corrente de jato, geralmente em altitudes entre 10.000 e 12.000 m, pode provocar sérios riscos para a aviação. Desta forma, previsões acuradas desse fenômeno contribuem na prevenção de acidentes aéreos e desconforto durante o vôo. Indicadores capazes de detectar esse fenômeno, como turbulência Brown (fim, Ellrod (ETI e o de número de Richardson (Ri foram calculados a partir das saídas do modelo regional ETA. As previsões de tais indicadores são avaliadas para 2 eventos de 24 de junho de 2003 e de 17 de agosto de 2006, e confrontadas com as informações contidas nas cartas de tempo significativo SIGWX. Os resultados mostram que os três indicadores de turbulência apresentaram boa correlação com as cartas SIGWX. O estudo mostrou a utilidade das previsões do modelo ETA para ajudar a entender o mecanismo da turbulência e para indicar a ocorrência do fenômeno com maior antecedência, por exemplo: 48h ou 72h comparado às 24h de antecedência das cartas SIGWX.The Clear Air Turbulence (CAT which is frequently observed near jet stream regions, usually in the layer between 10,000 and 12,000 m, may cause serious damages to aviation, reaching airplanes without warning. Therefore, predictions of this phenomenon can help to prevent physical damages and discomfort for the crew and passengers. Numerical weather prediction models have been used as powerful tools for operational forecasts of this phenomenon, by application of some indices in the determination of the turbulence areas. In this work, the Brown, Ellrod and Richardson number indices, calculated from ETA model outputs, are used to detect turbulence. The verification was accomplished for 2 events on 24 June 2003 and 17 August 2006 and was based on SIGWX charts. The results show that the three indices correlated well with SIGWX charts. This study showed that the use of ETA

  3. Experiments on the Flow Field and Acoustic Properties of a Mach number 0·75 Turbulent Air Jet at a Low Reynolds Number

    Slot, H.J.; Moore, P.; Delfos, R.; Boersma, B.J.


    In this paper we present the experimental results of a detailed investigation of the flow and acoustic properties of a turbulent jet with Mach number 0·75 and Reynolds number 3·5 103. We describe the methods and experimental procedures followed during the measurements, and subsequently present the f

  4. Soliton turbulence

    Tchen, C. M.


    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  5. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  6. Turbulence modelling

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (Rij-ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)

  7. Cosmic turbulence

    A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)


    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich


    Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish st...

  9. Experiments on the Flow Field and Acoustic Properties of a Mach number 0·75 Turbulent Air Jet at a Low Reynolds Number

    Slot, H J; Moore, P.; Delfos, R.; Boersma, B.J.


    In this paper we present the experimental results of a detailed investigation of the flow and acoustic properties of a turbulent jet with Mach number 0·75 and Reynolds number 3·5 103. We describe the methods and experimental procedures followed during the measurements, and subsequently present the flow field and acoustic field. The experiment presented here is designed to provide accurate and reliable data for validation of Direct Numerical Simulations of the same flow. Mean Mach number surve...

  10. Temperature and velocity measurements in premixed turbulent flames

    Dandekar, K. V.; Gouldin, F. C.


    Turbulent flame speed data for premixed flames of methane-air, propane-air and ethylene-air mixtures stabilized in grid turbulence are reported and discussed. It is shown that turbulence effects on flame speed cannot be fully correlated by the turbulence length scale and r.m.s. velocity in the cold flow. Rather there appear to be significant flame-flow-turbulence interactions affecting both turbulence level in the reaction zone and measured flame speeds. Results of detailed velocity measurements, including autocorrelations, by laser velocimetry are used to elucidate the nature of these interactions. It is concluded that flame speed experiments must be designed and conducted to provide sufficient information (e.g., boundary conditions) to allow for reconstruction of the flow field and these interactions by modelers if the data are to be of value in turbulent combustion model development and evaluation.

  11. To Clear or Not To Clear - That Is the Question

    Downing, Adam; Childs, Corey; Porr, C. A. Shea


    Many options exist if you do decide to clear land. Regardless of the option you choose, the primary goal should be the same: to minimize soil loss and movement during and immediately after the land clearing process.

  12. Burgers turbulence

    The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines

  13. Turbulent combustion

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  14. Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective

    Levich, Eugene


    It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows

  15. Turbulence Model

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens


    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....

  16. Burgers Turbulence

    Bec, Jeremie; Khanin, Konstantin


    The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers mod...

  17. Controlling turbulence

    Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn


    We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.

  18. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  19. Vertical transport of desert particulates by dust devils and clear thermals

    While the vertical and horizontal transport of natural surface material by dust devils is not in itself a critical environmental problem, the transport and downwind fallout of toxic or hazardous materials from dust devil activity may be a contributing factor in the development of future ecological-biological problems. Direct quantitative measurements of the dust particle size distribution near and within the visible dust devil vortex and analyses of the upper level clear thermal plume have been made to provide estimates of the vertical and horizontal transport of long half-life radioactive substances such as plutonium. Preliminary measurements and calculations of dust concentrations within dust devils indicate that over 7 x 103 tons of desert dust and sand may be transported downwind from an area 285 km2 during an average dust devil season (May to August). Near the ground these dust concentrations contain particles in the size range from approximately 1 μm to 250 μm diameter. Since the vertical velocity distribution greatly exceeds the particle(s) fall velocities, the detrainment of particles within the vortex is controlled primarily by the spatial distribution of the radial (v/sub r/) and tangential (v/sub theta/) velocity fields. Above the visible dust devil vortex, a clear thermal plume may extend upward to 15,000 to 18,000 ft MSL. A new airborne sampling and air data system has been developed to provide direct measurements of the dust concentration and air motion near and within the upper thermal plume. The air sampler has been designed to operate isokinetically over a considerable portion of the low-speed flight regime of a light aircraft. A strapped down, gyro-reference platform and a boom-vane system is used to determine the vertical air motions as well as the temperature and turbulence structure within the thermal plume. (U.S.)

  20. Graphic Turbulence Guidance

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  1. Meteorology Associated with Turbulence Encounters During NASA's Fall-2000 Flight Experiments

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.


    Initial flight experiments have been conducted to investigate convectively induced turbulence and to test technologies for its airborne detection. Turbulence encountered during the experiments is described with sources of data measured from in situ sensors, groundbased and airborne Doppler radars, and aircraft video. Turbulence measurements computed from the in situ system were quantified in terms of RMS normal loads (sigma(sub Delta n)), where 0.20 g is less than or equal to sigma(sub Delta n) is less than or equal to 0.30 g is considered moderate and sigma(sub Delta n) is greater than 0.30 g is severe. During two flights, 18 significant turbulence encounters (sigma(sub Delta) is greater than or equal to 0.20 g) occurred in the vicinity of deep convection; 14 moderate and 4 severe. In all cases, the encounters with turbulence occurred along the periphery of cumulus convection. These events were associated with relatively low values of radar reflectivity, i.e. RRF is less than 35 dBz, with most levels being below 20 dBz. The four cases of severe turbulence occurred in precipitation and were centered at the interface between a cumulus updraft turret and a downwind downdraft. Horizontal gradients of vertical velocity at this interface were found to be strongest on the downwind side of the cumulus turrets. Furthermore, the greatest loads to the aircraft occurred while flying along, not orthogonal to, the ambient environmental wind vector. During the two flights, no significant turbulence was encountered in the clear air (visual meteorological conditions), not even in the immediate vicinity of the deep convection.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Montgomery, David C.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  3. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael


    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...

  4. Ribbon Turbulence

    Venaille, Antoine; Vallis, Geoffrey K


    We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel forced by an imposed unstable zonal mean flow, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization on the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these result by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the imposed mean flow appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the...

  5. Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel Facility

    Bewley, Gregory P; Sinhuber, Michael; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    The Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel (VDTT) at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in G\\"ottingen, Germany produces very high turbulence levels at moderate flow velocities, low power consumption and adjustable kinematic viscosity. To reach the highest Reynolds number, the tunnel can be filled and pressurized up to 15 bar with the dense gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF$_6$). The Reynolds number can be varied by changing the pressure or flow rate of the gas or by using different non-flammable gases including air. Turbulence is generated at the upstream ends of two measurement sections with grids, and the evolution of this turbulence is observed as it moves down the length of the sections. We describe the instrumentation presently in operation, which consists of the tunnel itself, classical grid turbulence generators, and state-of-the-art nano-fabricated hot-wire anemometers provided by Princeton University [Vallikivi et al. (2011) Exp. Fluids 51, 1521]. We report measurements of the charact...

  6. U.S. Army ultrahigh-resolution turbulence profiling FM-CW radar: description and data

    McLaughlin, Scott


    The U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, recently received a new frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) turbulence profiling radar. The radar is capable of high temporal (10 s) and spatial (1 to 2 m) resolution profiles of Cn2 up through 2 km above ground level. Data from this system can detect electromagnetic/atmospheric effects such as possible laser blooming/scattering regions, microwave tunneling and multipathing layers, and other clear-air and hydrometeor meteorological phenomena. The radar is superior in performance to previous high-resolution clear-air FM-CWs incorporating newer technologies and real-time processing. A system description and sample data are shown.

  7. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman


    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  8. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne


    Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts where it...... is important for mutual understanding that we be clear and concise. This is true of instructions for electronic equipment and for household appliances. Here, linguistic brevity and clarity may be preferable, but not in other cases. Culture, globalization, and the recognition of ever faster growth in...

  9. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...


    ... for Processing, Clearing, and Transfer of Customer Positions, 76 FR 13101 (Mar. 10, 2011). \\6... (Aug. 1, 2011). \\11\\ See 76 FR 33066 (Jun. 6, 2011). II. Customer Clearing Documentation A... customer when trading with that SD or MSP. \\12\\ See 76 FR 45730 at 45731, Aug. 1, 2011. \\13\\ See...

  10. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse


    The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...... model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics but...

  11. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    Herring, J. R.


    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  12. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)


    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  13. Some Characteristics of the Surface Boundary Layer of a Strong Cold Air Process over Southern China

    LIU Ximing; CHENG Xueling; WU Qiong; FU Minning; ZENG Qingcun


    In southern China,cold air is a common weather process during the winter soason; it can cause strong wind,sharp temperature decreases,and even the snow or freezing rain events.However,the features of the atmospheric boundary layer during cold air passage are not clearly understood due to the lack of comprehensive observation data,especially regarding turbulence.In this study,four-layer gradient meteorological observation data and one-layer.10-Hz ultrasonic anemometer-thermometer monitoring data from the northeru side of Poyang Lake were employed to study the main features of the surface boundary layer during a strong cold-air passagc over southern China.The results show that,with the passage of a cold air front.the wind speed exhibits low-frequency variations and that the wind systematically descends.During the strong wind period,the wind speed increases with height in the surface layer.Regular gust packets arc superimposed on the basic strong wind flow.Before the passage of cold air,the wind gusts exhibit a coherent structure.The wind and turbulent momentum fluxes are small,although the gusty wind momentum flux is slightly larger than the turbulent momentum flux.However,during the invasion of cold air,both the gusty wind and turbulent momentum fluxes increase rapidly with wind speed,and the turbulent momentum flux is larger than the gusty wind momentum flux during the strong wind period.After the cold air invasion,this structure almost disappears.

  14. Introduction to quantum turbulence

    Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our ai...

  15. 4th iTi Conference in Turbulence

    Peinke, Joachim; Talamelli, Alessandro; Castillo, Luciano; Hölling, Michael


    This fourth issue on "progress in turbulence" is based on the fourth ITI conference (ITI interdisciplinary turbulence initiative), which took place in Bertinoro, North Italy. Leading researchers from the engineering and physical sciences presented latest results in turbulence research. Basic as well as applied research is driven by the rather notorious difficult and essentially unsolved problem of turbulence. In this collection of contributions clear progress can be seen in different aspects, ranging from new quality of numerical simulations to new concepts of experimental investigations and new theoretical developments. The importance of turbulence is shown for a wide range of applications including: combustion, energy, flow control, urban flows, are few examples found in this volume. A motivation was to bring fundamentals of turbulence in connection with renewable energy. This lead us to add a special topic relevant to the impact of turbulence on the wind energy conversion. The structure of the present book...

  16. Lifecycle of laser-produced air sparks

    We investigated the lifecycle of laser-generated air sparks or plasmas using multiple plasma diagnostic tools. The sparks were generated by focusing the fundamental radiation from an Nd:YAG laser in air, and studies included early and late time spark dynamics, decoupling of the shock wave from the plasma core, emission from the spark kernel, cold gas excitation by UV radiation, shock waves produced by the air spark, and the spark's final decay and turbulence formation. The shadowgraphic and self-emission images showed similar spark morphology at earlier and late times of its lifecycle; however, significant differences are seen in the midlife images. Spectroscopic studies in the visible region showed intense blackbody-type radiation at early times followed by clearly resolved ionic, atomic, and molecular emission. The detected spectrum at late times clearly contained emission from both CN and N2+. Additional spectral features have been identified at late times due to emission from O and N atoms, indicating some degree of molecular dissociation and excitation. Detailed spatially and temporally resolved emission analysis provides insight about various physical mechanisms leading to molecular and atomic emission by air sparks, including spark plasma excitation, heating of cold air by UV radiation emitted by the spark, and shock-heating

  17. CFD analysis on a turbulence generator of medium consistency pump

    Medium concentration paper suspension is a water-air-fibre three phase suspension. It has complicated physical features. When concentration exceeds 7%, it stops flowing and acts like a solid. A generator suspension is installed before the impeller to disturb the flocs and networks to make it start to flow. In this paper, CFD method is adopted to study the effects of the turbulence generator. As there is not a mature model to describe the characteristic of pulp suspension, Newtonian fluid is used to get the general property of the turbulence generator. In the CFD simulation, apparent viscosity of the pulp suspension is used to characterize the mixture. Firstly, numerical method is applied to get the turbulence generator properties in different rotational speed and different viscosity. From another point of view, air contained in the suspension is separate initially by means of centrifugal force. As it is difficult to describe a practical model of pulp suspension, it is simplified to be a water-air two-phase mixture. Several air contents are simulated to study the air distribution in the turbulence generator. The results show that there are three main effects of turbulence generator. Firstly, it has an entrainment effect of the suspension to make it into the pump. Secondly, it stirs the pulp suspension to bring it into flowing. Last, air is centralized in the shaft centre and pre-separated in the turbulence generator. So, the turbulence generator can pre-treat the pulp suspension to make the MC pump transport suspension successfully

  18. Plain Language Clear and Simple.

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Written for Canadian public servants and written with their help, this handbook presents principles and tips to make official writing clear, concise, and well organized. The handbook defines "plain language" writing as a technique of organizing information in ways that make sense to the reader--using familiar, straightforward words. The handbook…

  19. Fossil turbulence revisited

    Gibson, C H


    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  20. Turbulent viscosity and scale laws in turbulent jets with variable density; Viscosite turbulente et lois d`echelles dans les jets turbulents a masse volumique variable

    Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)


    Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  1. Impact of turbulence anisotropy near walls in room airflow

    Schälin, A.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    The influence of different turbulence models used in computational fluid dynamics predictions is studied in connection with room air movement. The turbulence models used are the high Re-number k–e model and the high Re- number Reynolds stress model (RSM). The three-dimensional wall jet is selected f...

  2. The art of thinking clearly

    Dobelli, Rolf


    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  3. In-Service Evaluation of the Turbulence Auto-PIREP System and Enhanced Turbulence Radar Technologies

    Prince, Jason B.; Buck, Bill K.; Robinson, Paul A.; Ryan, Tim


    From August 2003 to December 2006, In-Service Evaluations (ISE) of the Turbulence Auto-PIREP System (TAPS) and Enhanced Turbulence (E-Turb) Radar, technologies developed in NASA's Turbulence Prediction and Warning System (TPAWS) element of its Aviation Safety and Security Program (AvSSP), were conducted. NASA and AeroTech Research established an industry team comprising AeroTech, Delta Air Lines, Rockwell Collins, and ARINC to conduct the ISEs. The technologies were installed on Delta aircraft and their effectiveness was evaluated in day-to-day operations. This report documents the establishment and conduct of the ISEs and presents results and feedback from various users.

  4. Lessons from hydrodynamic turbulence

    Turbulent flows, with their irregular behavior, confound any single attempts to understand them. But physicists have succeeded in identifying some universal properties of turbulence and relating them to broken symmetries. (author)

  5. Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence

    Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.


    Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.

  6. Turbulence and wind turbines

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob


    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  7. Turbulent flow in graphene

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha


    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  8. Lagrangian statistics in laboratory 2D turbulence

    Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael


    Turbulent mixing in liquids and gases is ubiquitous in nature and industrial flows. Understanding statistical properties of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulence is crucial for a range of problems such as spreading of plankton in the ocean, transport of pollutants, etc. Oceanic data on trajectories of the free-drifting instruments, indicate that the trajectory statistics can often be described by a Lagrangian integral scale. Turbulence however is a state of a flow dominated by a hierarchy of scales, and it is not clear which of these scales mostly affect particle dispersion. Moreover, coherent structures often coexist with turbulence in laboratory experiments [1]. The effect of coherent structures on particle dispersion in turbulent flows is not well understood. Recent progress in scientific imaging and computational power made it possible to tackle this problem experimentally. In this talk, we report the analysis of the higher order Lagrangian statistics in laboratory two-dimensional turbulence. Our results show that fluid particle dispersion is diffusive and it is determined by a single measurable Lagrangian scale related to the forcing scale [2]. Higher order moments of the particle dispersion show strong self-similarity in fully developed turbulence [3]. Here we introduce a new dispersion law that describes single particle dispersion during the turbulence development [4]. These results offer a new way of predicting dispersion in turbulent flows in which one of the low energy scales are persistent. It may help better understanding of drifter Lagrangian statistics in the regions of the ocean where small scale coherent eddies are present [5]. Reference: 1. H. Xia, H. Punzmann, G. Falkovich and M. Shats, Physical Review Letters, 101, 194504 (2008) 2. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann, and M. Shats, Nature Communications, 4, 2013 (2013) 3. R. Ferrari, A.J. Manfroi , W.R. Young, Physica D 154 111 (2001) 4. H. Xia, N. Francois, H. Punzmann and M. Shats, submitted (2014

  9. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas


    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...

  10. Nonuniqueness and Turbulence

    Peterson, M A


    The possibility is considered that turbulence is described by differential equations for which uniqueness fails maximally, at least in some limit. The inviscid Burgers equation, in the context of Onsager's suggestion that turbulence should be described by a negative absolute temperature, is such a limit. In this picture, the onset of turbulence coincides with the proliferation of singularities which characterizes the failure of uniqueness.

  11. An introduction to the theory of superfluid turbulence

    In this paper I first describe some aspects of the theory of counterflow turbulence. I then devote most of the paper to grid turbulence, where the theory is less well developed, although I make use of an important experimental result obtained with a more complicated type of flow generated by two counter-rotating discs. My aim is to stimulate interest in the theory of superfluid turbulence, particularly, at this stage, in the simple case of grid turbulence, among both low temperature physicists and those with a background in classical fluid mechanics. I focus on open questions and unsolved problems, questions and problems that are clearly seen in grid turbulence, but which are more widely relevant. My own background is in experimental quantum fluids. I tend to speculate about what I see as the physics of superfluid turbulence. (orig.)

  12. Turbulent Soret Effect

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor


    We show, by direct numerical simulations, that heavy inertial particles (with Stokes number ${\\rm St}$) in inhomogeneously forced statistically stationary turbulent flows cluster at the minima of turbulent kinetic energy. We further show that two turbulent transport processes, turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion together determine the spatial distribution of the particles. The ratio of the corresponding transport coefficient -- the turbulent Soret coefficient -- increases with ${\\rm St}$ for small ${\\rm St}$, reaches a maxima for ${\\rm St}\\approx 10$ and decreases as $\\sim {\\rm St}^{-0.33}$ for large ${\\rm St}$.

  13. Introduction to quantum turbulence.

    Barenghi, Carlo F; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R


    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

  14. Building blocks of turbulence

    Avila, Marc; Roland, Nicolas; Hof, Bjoern


    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature and although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. The nonlinear nature and the large number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom turn this into one of the most challenging problems in mathematics and the physical sciences alike. We here report the discovery of unstable localised solutions for pipe flow that share key spatial characteristics of turbulence in the intermittent regime. While their temporal dynamics are very simple, much of the spatial complexity found in low Reynolds number turbulence is already encoded in them. We furthermore demonstrate how turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch. Our observations shed light on the origin of turbulence and link the localised structures commonly observed in turbulent flows to invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. New trends in turbulence; Turbulence: nouveaux aspects

    Lesieur, M. [Institut National Polytechnique, LEGI/INPG, Institut de Mecanique, UMR 101, 38 - Grenoble (France); Yaglom, A. [Institut of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[MIT, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Cambridge, MA (United States); David, F. [CEA Saclay, SPhT, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    According to a Russian scientist, the flow of fluids actually met both in nature and engineering practice are turbulent in the overwhelmingly majority of cases. This document that reviews all the progress made recently in the understanding of turbulence, is made up of 10 courses. Course 1 ''a century of turbulence'' deals with the linear and non-linear points of views. In course 2 ''measures of anisotropy and the universal properties of turbulence'' the author gives a very complete account of fully developed turbulence experimental data both in the laboratory and in the atmosphere. Course 3 ''large-eddy simulations of turbulence (LES)'', LES are powerful tools to simulate the coherent vortices formation and evolution in a deterministic way. In Course 4 ''statistical turbulence modelling for the computation of physically complex flows'' the author describes methods used for predicting statistical industrial flows, where the geometry is right now too complex to allow the use of LES. In course 5 ''computational aero-acoustics'' an informative review of computational aero-acoustics with many applications to aircraft noise, is made. In course 6 ''the topology of turbulence'' the author presents the basis of topological fluid dynamics and stresses the importance of helicity in neutral and in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flows. In course 7 ''burgulence'' the authors deal with finite-time singularities, but mostly on the basis of Burger equations in one or several dimensions with the formation of multiple shocks. In course 8 ''2-dimensional turbulence'' the author presents numerous examples of 2D turbulence in the laboratory (rotating or MHD flows, plasmas), in the ocean and in the planetary atmosphere. Course 9 ''analysing and computing turbulent flows using wavelets'' is a useful presentation of

  16. Near free-surface turbulent structures in a high-froude number turbulent open-channel flow

    In this study, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of an air-liquid counter current flow induced by a high-speed liquid film at Froude number of 1.8 based on the bulk water mean-velocity and wave velocity of long wave, was conducted. As the results, Air-liquid interaction effects on the water phase were very weak, and present flow field formed so-called ''Super-critical turbulent open-channel flow''. In the supercritical open-channel flow, vertical turbulent confinement effect cannot be observed and vertical turbulent intensity was increased near free-surface caused from surface deformation effects. (author)

  17. Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames


    A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.

  18. Thin air

    Jasanoff, Sheila


    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  19. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    Murty, S. S. R.


    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  20. Laminar Turbulent Transition in a Boundary Layer Subjected to Weak Free Stream Turbulence

    Kenchi, Toshiaki; Matsubara, Masaharu; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    For revealing the transition process in a flat plate boundary layer subjected to a weak free stream turbulence, flow visualization and hot-wire measurements were performed. A weak free stream turbulence was generated by a turbulence grid mounted upstream of the contraction. The flow visualization clearly displayed a transition scenario in which a local two-dimensional wave packet rapidly forms a Λ shape structure and then breaks down to turbulence, resulting in the generation of a turbulent spot. Quantitative measurements performed by using a hot-wire anemometer also confirmed the existence of local Tollmien-Schlichting waves that agreed with the parallel linear theory in terms of their frequency, phase velocity, and the wall-normal distribution of band-pass-filtered fluctuations. For comparison, a boundary layer subjected to a moderate-intensity free stream turbulence was investigated. This investigation showed that streaky structures play an important role in the boundary layer transition, as shown by Matsubara et al. [J. Fluid Mech., 430, (2001), 149-168.] A drastic change occurred in the transition process and this change could be sensitively determined by employing the intensity and/or spectra of the free stream turbulence.

  1. Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet

    Westerweel, J.; Fukushima, C.; Pedersen, Jakob Martin;


    Conditionally sampled measurements with particle image velocimetry (PIV) of a turbulent round submerged liquid jet in a laboratory have been taken at Re = 2 x 10(3) between 60 and 100 nozzle diameters from the nozzle in order to investigate the dynamics and transport processes at the continuous...... and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence...... the mean outward 'boundary entrainment' velocity is derived and shown to be a constant fraction (about 0.07) of the the mean jet velocity on the centreline. Profiles of the conditional mean velocity, mean scalar and momentum flux show that at the interface there are clear discontinuities in the mean axial...

  2. The ClearPET project

    The Crystal Clear Collaboration has designed and is building a high-resolution small animal PET scanner. The design is based on the use of the Hamamatsu R7600-M64 multi-anode photomultiplier tube and a LSO/LuYAP phoswich matrix with one to one coupling between the crystals and the photo-detector. The complete system will have 80 PM tubes in four rings with an inner diameter of 137 mm and an axial field of view of 110 mm. The PM pulses are digitized by free-running ADCs and digital data processing determines the gamma energy, the phoswich layer and even the pulse arrival time. Single gamma interactions are recorded and coincidences are found by software. The gantry allows rotation of the detector modules around the field of view. Simulations, and measurements a 2x4 module test set-up predict a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm in the centre of the field of view and a sensitivity of 5.9% for a point source in the centre of the field of view

  3. Deduction and Validation of an Eulerian-Eulerian Model for Turbulent Dilute Two-Phase Flows by Means of the Phase Indicator Function Disperse Elements Probability Density Function

    SantiagoLain; RicardoAliod


    A statistical formalism overcoming some conceptual and practical difficulties arising in existing two-phase flow (2PHF) mathematical modelling has been applied to propose a model for dilute 2PHF turbulent flows.Phase interaction terms with a clear physical meaning enter the equations and the formalism provides some guidelines for the avoidance of closure assumptions or the rational approximation of these terms. Continuous phase averaged continuity, momentum, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate equations have been rigorously and systematically obtained in a single step. These equations display a structure similar to that for single-phase flows.It is also assumed that dispersed phase dynamics is well described by a probability density function (pdf) equation and Eulerian continuity, momentum and fluctuating kinetic energy equations for the dispersed phase are deduced.An extension of the standard k-c turbulence model for the continuous phase is used. A gradient transport model is adopted for the dispersed phase fluctuating fluxes of momentum and kinetic energy at the non-colliding, large inertia limit. This model is then used to predict the behaviour of three axisymmetric turbulent jets of air laden with solid particles varying in size and concentration. Qualitative and quantitative numerical predictions compare reasonably well with the three different sets of experimental results, studying the influence of particle size, loading ratio and flow confinement velocity.

  4. Turbulent conductivity in parallel with iso-velocities in a planar established flow; Conductibilite turbulente parallelement aux isovitesses dans un ecoulement plan en regime etabli

    Jullien, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Direction des piles atomiques


    In this thesis are presented the experimental results obtained during the study of the turbulent diffusion of heat using a wire source in a flat air flow. The Taylor statistical theory laws are well respected in the domain studied. The experiments have made it possible to evaluate the influence of the Reynolds number and of the distance from the wall on the quadratic values of velocity fluctuations and on the Lagrange turbulence scales. In particular, the author has found a correlation between the Lagrange scales and the friction coefficient when the Reynolds number varies. A diffusion law is derived from the Taylor theory; it makes it possible to explain more clearly the idea of turbulent conductivity. (author) [French] Cette these presente les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de la diffusion turbulente de la chaleur a partir d'un fil source dans un ecoulement d'air plan. Les lois de la theorie statistique de Taylor sont bien verifiees dans le domaine d'etude. Les experiences ont permis d'evaluer l'influence du nombre de Reynolds et de la distance a la paroi sur les valeurs quadratiques des fluctuations de vitesse et les echelles lagrangiennes de turbulence. En particulier, l'auteur a trouve une correlation entre les echelles lagrangiennes et le coefficient de frottement lorsque le nombre de Reynolds varie. Comme consequences de la theorie de Taylor, une loi de diffusion est etablie et permet de preciser la notion de conductibilite turbulente. (auteur)

  5. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    Kupka, Friedrich


    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  6. One-dimensional turbulence

    Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  7. Turbulence generation by waves

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  8. String Theory and Turbulence

    Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung

    We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.

  9. String Theory and Turbulence

    Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje(Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA); Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung


    We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.

  10. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J


    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  11. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    Gibson, Carl H.


    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbu...

  12. Inhomogeneous turbulence in magnetic reconnection

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu


    Turbulence is expected to play an essential role in enhancing magnetic reconnection. Turbulence associated with magnetic reconnection is highly inhomogeneous: it is generated by inhomogeneities of the field configuration such as the velocity shear, temperature gradient, density stratification, magnetic shear, etc. This self-generated turbulence affects the reconnection through the turbulent transport. In this reconnection--turbulence interaction, localization of turbulent transport due to dynamic balance between several turbulence effects plays an essential role. For investigating inhomogeneous turbulence in a strongly nonlinear regime, closure or turbulence modeling approaches provide a powerful tool. A turbulence modeling approach for the magnetic reconnection is introduced. In the model, the mean-field equations with turbulence effects incorporated are solved simultaneously with the equations of turbulent statistical quantities that represent spatiotemporal properties of turbulence under the effect of large-scale field inhomogeneities. Numerical simulations of this Reynolds-averaged turbulence model showed that self-generated turbulence enhances magnetic reconnection. It was pointed out that reconnection states may be divided into three category depending on the turbulence level: (i) laminar reconnection; (ii) turbulent reconnection, and (iii) turbulent diffusion. Recent developments in this direction are also briefly introduced, which includes the magnetic Prandtl number dependence, spectral evolution, and guide-field effects. Also relationship of this fully nonlinear turbulence approach with other important approaches such as plasmoid instability reconnection will be discussed.

  13. Statistical models for spatial patterns of inertial particles in turbulence

    Gustavsson, K


    The dynamics of particles suspended in turbulent flows is of fundamental importance for a wide range of questions in astrophysics, cloud physics, oceanography, and in technology. Laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations have demonstrated that heavy particles respond in intricate ways to turbulent fluctuations of the carrying fluid: independent particles may cluster together and form spatial patterns even though the fluid is incompressible, and the relative speeds of nearby particles may fluctuate strongly. Both phenomena depend sensitively on the parameters of the system, affect collision rates and outcomes, and thus the long-term fate of the system. This is a hard problem to describe theoretically: the turbulence determines the particle paths, but at the same time the turbulent fluctuations encountered by a particle depend sensitively upon its path through the medium. In recent years it has become clear that important aspects of the particle dynamics in turbulence can be understood in terms of...

  14. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    Munroe, James R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada); Sutherland, Bruce R., E-mail: [Departments of Physics and Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)


    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  15. Deterministic and stochastic aspects of the transition to turbulence

    Song, Baofang


    The purpose of this contribution is to summarize and discuss recent advances regarding the onset of turbulence in shear flows. The absence of a clear cut instability mechanism, the spatio-temporal intermittent character and extremely long lived transients are some of the major difficulties encountered in these flows and have hindered progress towards understanding the transition process. We will show for the case of pipe flow that concepts from nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics can help to explain the onset of turbulence. In particular the turbulent structures ('puffs') observed close to onset are spatially localized chaotic transients and their lifetimes increase super exponentially with Reynolds number. At the same time fluctuations of individual turbulent puffs can (although very rarely) lead to the nucleation of new puffs. The competition between these two stochastic processes gives rise to a non-equilibrium phase transition where turbulence changes from a super-transient to a sustained state.

  16. The Inherently Three-Dimensional Nature of Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    Howes, Gregory G


    It is often asserted or implicitly assumed, without justification, that the results of two-dimensional investigations of plasma turbulence are applicable to the three-dimensional plasma environments of interest. A projection method is applied to derive two scalar equations that govern the nonlinear evolution of the Alfvenic and pseudo-Alfvenic components of ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma turbulence. The mathematical form of these equations makes clear the inherently three-dimensional nature of plasma turbulence, enabling an analysis of the nonlinear properties of two-dimensional limits often used to study plasma turbulence. In the anisotropic limit k_perp >>k_parallel that naturally arises in magnetized plasma systems, the perpendicular 2D limit retains the dominant nonlinearities that are mediated only by the Alfvenic fluctuations but lacks the wave physics associated with the linear term that is necessary to capture the anisotropic cascade of turbulent energy. In the in-plane 2D limit...

  17. Turbulence compensation: an overview

    van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Schutte, Klamer; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.; van Iersel, Miranda; Doelman, Niek J.


    In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO's turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.

  18. Airfoils in Turbulent Inflow

    Gilling, Lasse

    Wind turbines operate in inflow turbulence whether it originates from the shear in the atmospheric boundary layer or from the wake of other wind turbines. Consequently, the airfoils of the wings experience turbulence in the inflow. The main topic of this thesis is to investigate the effect of...

  19. Seesaw mechanism in turbulence and turbulent transport

    Full text: Theory of nonlocal transport has been developed, based upon the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Essence is that fluctuations (with long radial correlation length) can be excited by nonlinear processes, although they are linearly stable. Experiments have reported the non-diffusive mechanisms in rapid response of transport between distant radii. Simulations have demonstrated that transport barrier can be established while increasing linear growth rate of local instabilities. These await application of theory of nonlocal transport. Example of such nonlinearly-driven, meso-scale fluctuations is the zonal flow (ZF). ZFs grow extracting energy from microscopic fluctuations so as to reduce the turbulence and turbulent transport. Because the radial correlation length of ZF is longer than those for microscopic fluctuations, which are inducing turbulent transport, ZF, which is driven fluctuations at one radius, can suppress fluctuations at distant radii. Thus, the fluctuations exchange energy over the distance that is much longer than autocorrelation length of microscopic fluctuations. This mechanism induces new nonlocal interactions in turbulent transport. That is, strong fluctuations at particular radius can suppress fluctuations at different radius, via induction of ZFs. Stronger fluctuations suppress weaker fluctuations. This is called the seesaw mechanism via ZFs. Owing to this mechanism, the turbulence transport is not determined by local parameters alone, but by parameters at far distance. The transient response is much faster than the process governed by diffusive processes. [This work is partly supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Specially-Promoted Research (16002005), the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (19360418) and collaboration programme of NIFS.] (author)

  20. Elasto-inertial turbulence.

    Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn


    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called "maximum drag reduction" asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498

  1. Sound generation by turbulence

    Dowling, A.P.; Hynes, T.P. [Cambridge Univ., Dept. of Engineering (United Kingdom)


    Sound is a weak by-product of a subsonic turbulent flow. The main convective elements of the turbulence are silent and it is only spectral components with supersonic phase speeds that couple to the far-field sound. This paper reviews recent work on sound generation by turbulence. Just as there is a hierarchy of numerical models for turbulence (scaling, RANS, LES and DNS), there are different approaches for relating the near-field turbulence to the far-field sound. Kirchhoff approaches give the far-field sound in a straightforward way, but provide little insight into the sources of sound. Acoustic analogies can be used with different base flows to describe the propagation effects and to highlight the major noise producing regions. (authors)

  2. Turbulent Black Holes

    Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis


    We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.

  3. Stochastic modelling of turbulence

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    stochastic turbulence model based on ambit processes is proposed. It is shown how a prescribed isotropic covariance structure can be reproduced. Non-Gaussian turbulence models are obtained through non-Gaussian Lévy bases or through volatility modulation of Lévy bases. As opposed to spectral models operating......This thesis addresses stochastic modelling of turbulence with applications to wind energy in mind. The primary tool is ambit processes, a recently developed class of computationally tractable stochastic processes based on integration with respect to Lévy bases. The subject of ambit processes is...... still undergoing rapid development. Turbulence and wind energy are vast and complicated subjects. Turbulence has structures across a wide range of length and time scales, structures which cannot be captured by a Gaussian process that relies on only second order properties. Concerning wind energy, a wind...

  4. NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

  5. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a cyclonic separator

    Bogdanov, Dmitry; Poniaev, Sergey


    Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow of air with dispersed particles through a cyclonic separator is presented. Because of a high streamline curvature in the separator it is difficult to simulate the flow by using the conventional turbulent models. In this work the curvature correction term was included into the k - ω - SST turbulence model implemented in the OpenFOAM® software. Experimental data and results of numerical simulation by the commercial ANSYS Fluent® solver for a turbulent flow in a U-duct were used to validate the model. The numerical simulation of the flow in the cyclonic separator demonstrates that the implemented turbulence model successfully predicts the cyclonic separator efficiency.

  6. Wave turbulent diffusion due to the Doppler shift

    Balk, A. M.


    Turbulent diffusion of a passive tracer caused by a random wavefield is believed to be quadratic with respect to the energy spectrum ɛk of the velocity field (i.e. proportional to epsi4, where epsi is the order of the wave amplitudes). So, the wave turbulent diffusion (say, on the ocean surface or in the air) is often believed to be dominated by the turbulent diffusion due to the incompressible flow. In this paper, we show that the wave turbulent diffusion can be associated with the Doppler shift and find that the wave turbulent diffusion can be more significant than previously thought. This mechanism works if the velocity field is compressible and statistically anisotropic, with the result that the wave system has a significant Stokes drift. The contribution of this mechanism has a lower order in epsi. We confirm our results with numerical simulations. To derive these results, we develop the statistical near-identity transformation.

  7. Turbulent Combustion Modeling Advances, New Trends and Perspectives

    Echekki, Tarek


    Turbulent combustion sits at the interface of two important nonlinear, multiscale phenomena: chemistry and turbulence. Its study is extremely timely in view of the need to develop new combustion technologies in order to address challenges associated with climate change, energy source uncertainty, and air pollution. Despite the fact that modeling of turbulent combustion is a subject that has been researched for a number of years, its complexity implies that key issues are still eluding, and a theoretical description that is accurate enough to make turbulent combustion models rigorous and quantitative for industrial use is still lacking. In this book, prominent experts review most of the available approaches in modeling turbulent combustion, with particular focus on the exploding increase in computational resources that has allowed the simulation of increasingly detailed phenomena. The relevant algorithms are presented, the theoretical methods are explained, and various application examples are given. The book ...

  8. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Takashi


    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    Nagata, Kouji; Suzuki, Hiroki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayase, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent mixing in grid-generated turbulence

    Turbulent mixing of passive scalar (heat) in grid-generated turbulence (GGT) is simulated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). A turbulence-generating grid, on which the velocity components are set to zero, is located downstream of the channel entrance, and it is numerically constructed on the staggered mesh arrangement using the immersed boundary method. The grid types constructed are: (a) square-mesh biplane grid, (b) square-mesh single-plane grid, (c) composite grid consisting of parallel square-bars and (d) fractal grid. Two fluids with different temperatures are provided separately in the upper and lower streams upstream of the turbulence-generating grids, generating the thermal mixing layer behind the grids. For the grid (a), simulations for two different Prandtl numbers of 0.71 and 7.1, corresponding to air and water flows, are conducted to investigate the effect of the Prandtl number. The results show that the typical grid turbulence and shearless mixing layer are generated downstream of the grids. The results of the scalar field show that a typical thermal mixing layer is generated as well, and the effects of the Prandtl numbers on turbulent heat transfer are observed.