Electrostatic twisted modes in multi-component dusty plasmas
Various electrostatic twisted modes are re-investigated with finite orbital angular momentum in an unmagnetized collisionless multi-component dusty plasma, consisting of positive/negative charged dust particles, ions, and electrons. For this purpose, hydrodynamical equations are employed to obtain paraxial equations in terms of density perturbations, while assuming the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Specifically, approximated solutions for potential problem are studied by using the paraxial approximation and expressed the electric field components in terms of LG functions. The energy fluxes associated with these modes are computed and corresponding expressions for orbital angular momenta are derived. Numerical analyses reveal that radial/angular mode numbers as well as dust number density and dust charging states strongly modify the LG potential profiles attributed to different electrostatic modes. Our results are important for understanding particle transport and energy transfer due to wave excitations in multi-component dusty plasmas
Electrostatic twisted modes in multi-component dusty plasmas
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Pohang University of Sciences and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ikram, M. [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300 (Pakistan)
2016-01-15
Various electrostatic twisted modes are re-investigated with finite orbital angular momentum in an unmagnetized collisionless multi-component dusty plasma, consisting of positive/negative charged dust particles, ions, and electrons. For this purpose, hydrodynamical equations are employed to obtain paraxial equations in terms of density perturbations, while assuming the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Specifically, approximated solutions for potential problem are studied by using the paraxial approximation and expressed the electric field components in terms of LG functions. The energy fluxes associated with these modes are computed and corresponding expressions for orbital angular momenta are derived. Numerical analyses reveal that radial/angular mode numbers as well as dust number density and dust charging states strongly modify the LG potential profiles attributed to different electrostatic modes. Our results are important for understanding particle transport and energy transfer due to wave excitations in multi-component dusty plasmas.
Twisted Landau damping rates in multi-component dusty plasmas
Ali, S.; Bukhari, S.; Mendonca, J. T.
2016-03-01
Keeping in view the kinetic treatment for plasma particles, the electrostatic twisted dust-acoustic (DA) and dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) waves are investigated in a collisionless unmagnetized multi-component dusty plasma, whose constituents are the electrons, singly ionized positive ions, and negatively charged massive dust particulates. With this background, the Vlasov-Poisson equations are coupled together to derive a generalized dielectric constant by utilizing the Laguerre-Gaussian perturbed distribution function and electrostatic potential in the paraxial limit. The dispersion and damping rates of twisted DA and DIA waves are analyzed with finite orbital angular momentum states in a multi-component dusty plasma. Significant modifications concerning the real wave frequencies and damping rates appeared with varying twisted dimensionless parameter and dust concentration. In particular, it is shown that dust concentration enhances the phase speed of the DIA waves in contrary to DA waves, whereas the impact of twisted parameter reduces the frequencies of both DA and DIA waves. The results should be useful for the understanding of particle transport and trapping phenomena caused by wave excitation in laboratory dusty plasmas.
Theory of sheath in a collisional multi-component plasma
M K Mahanta; K S Goswami
2001-04-01
The aim of this brief report is to study the behaviour of sheath structure in a multicomponent plasma with dust-neutral collisions. The plasma consists of electrons, ions, micron size negatively charged dust particles and neutrals. The sheath-edge potential and sheath width are calculated for collisionally dominated sheath. Comparison of collisionless and collisionally dominated sheath are made.
Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma
Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e−), hydrogen ions (denoted by H+), helium ions (denoted by He+) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O+)in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region
Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma
Khaira, Vibhooti, E-mail: khaira.vibhuti29@gmail.com; Ahirwar, G., E-mail: ganpat.physics@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M.P.)-456010 (India)
2015-07-31
Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e{sup −}), hydrogen ions (denoted by H{sup +}), helium ions (denoted by He{sup +}) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O{sup +})in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region.
Electron-acoustic solitary pulses and double layers in multi-component plasmas
Mannan, A; Shukla, P K
2013-01-01
We consider the nonlinear propagation of fi?nite amplitude electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) in multi-component plasmas composed of two distinct groups of electrons (cold and hot components), and non-isothermal ions. We use the continuity and momentum equations for cold inertial electrons, Boltzmann law for inertialess hot electrons, non-isothermal density distribution for hot ions, and Poisson's equation to derive an energy integral with a modi?ed Sagdeev potential (MSP) for nonlinear EAWs. The MSP is analyzed to demonstrate the existence of arbitrary amplitude EA solitary pulses (EASPs) and EA double layers (EA-DLs). Small amplitude limits have also been considered and analytical results for EASPs and EA-DLs are presented. The implication of our results to space and laboratory plasmas is briely discussed.
Electrostatic envelope modes in multi-component non-thermal plasmas
Saiful Islam, Md; Sultana, Sharmin; Mamun, A. A.
2016-07-01
A theoretical study of envelope type solitary structures and their modulational instability has been made in a multi-component unmagnetized non-thermal plasma (consisting of negatively charged immobile heavy ions, inertial light ions and non-thermal electrons of two distinct temperatures). The cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (which describes the evolution of a slowly varying wave envelope with space and time) is derived by adopting the multiple scale (in space and time) perturbation technique. It is found that the plasma system under consideration supports two types (bright and dark) envelope solitons. It is also seen that the dark (bright) envelope solitons are modulationally stable (unstable). The variation of the growth rate of the unstable bright envelope solitons with various plasma parameters (e.g. wave number, temperature of plasma non-thermality, etc.) are found to be significant. The modulational instability criterions of the envelope modes are also seen to be influenced due to the variation of the intrinsic plasma parameters. This theoretical study may be useful in understanding the basic features of localized electrostatic structures in some space plasma systems (viz. Saturn's magnetosphere) where high energetic particles are available.
Pulsar emission: Langmuir modes in a relativistic multi-component plasma
Jones, P B
2014-01-01
Ions, protons and possibly a small flux of electrons and positrons are accelerated outward from the polar cap of a normal or millisecond pulsar whose rotational spin is antiparallel with its magnetic moment. The Langmuir modes of this relativistic plasma have several properties of significance for the origin of coherent radio emission. The characteristics of the mode are determined by the sequence of singularities in the dielectric tensor at real angular frequencies, which in turn is fixed by the electron-positron momentum distribution. We find that under a certain condition on its momentum distribution, an electron-positron flux two orders of magnitude smaller than the Goldreich-Julian flux stabilizes the plasma and extinguishes the mode. But more generally, both the growth rate and wavenumber of the multi-component Langmuir mode can be as much as an order of magnitude larger than those of the two-component ion-proton mode. It appears to be a further effective source for the plasma turbulence whose decay is ...
Study of nonlinear ion- and electron-acoustic waves in multi-component space plasmas
G. S. Lakhina
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Large amplitude ion-acoustic and electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized multi-component plasma system consisting of cold background electrons and ions, a hot electron beam and a hot ion beam are studied using Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. Three types of solitary waves, namely, slow ion-acoustic, ion-acoustic and electron-acoustic solitons are found provided the Mach numbers exceed the critical values. The slow ion-acoustic solitons have the smallest critical Mach numbers, whereas the electron-acoustic solitons have the largest critical Mach numbers. For the plasma parameters considered here, both type of ion-acoustic solitons have positive potential whereas the electron-acoustic solitons can have either positive or negative potential depending on the fractional number density of the cold electrons relative to that of the ions (or total electrons number density. For a fixed Mach number, increases in the beam speeds of either hot electrons or hot ions can lead to reduction in the amplitudes of the ion-and electron-acoustic solitons. However, the presence of hot electron and hot ion beams have no effect on the amplitudes of slow ion-acoustic modes. Possible application of this model to the electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed.
Axisymmetric Alfvén resonances in a multi-component plasma at finite ion gyrofrequency
D. Yu. Klimushkin
2006-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the spatial structure of zero azimuthal wave number ULF oscillations in a 1-D inhomogeneous multi-component plasma when a finite ion gyrofrequency is taken into account. Such oscillations may occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere as Pc1-3 waves or in the magnetosphere of the planet Mercury. The wave field was found to have a sharp peak on some magnetic surfaces, an analogy of the Alfvén (field line resonance in one-fluid MHD theory. The resonance can only take place for waves with frequencies in the intervals ω<ω_{ch} or Ω_{0}<ω< ω_{cp}, where ω_{ch} and ω_{cp} are heavy and light ions gyrofrequencies, and Ω_{0} is a kind of hybrid frequency. Contrary to ordinary Alfvén resonance, the wave resonance under consideration takes place even at the zero azimuthal wave number. The radial component of the wave electric field has a pole-type singularity, while the azimuthal component is finite but has a branching point singularity on the resonance surface. The later singularity can disappear at some frequencies. In the region adjacent to the resonant surface the mode is standing across the magnetic shells.
Low-frequency electrostatic shock excitations in a multi-component dusty plasma
Ferdousi, M.; Miah, M.R.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A.A., E-mail: mariyaferdousi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar (Bangladesh)
2015-10-01
Dust-acoustic shock waves are investigated in a four-component plasma consisting of arbitrarily charged inertial dusts, Boltzmann distributed negatively charged heavy ions, positively charged light ions, and electrons. The reductive perturbation technique is employed in order to derive the nonlinear time evolution Burgers-type equation. The properties of dust-acoustic shock waves are analysed via the solution of Burgers equation. It is observed that the basic features of dust-acoustic shock waves are significantly modified due to the influence of arbitrarily charged dusts, Maxwellian electrons, number density and temperatures of heavier and lighter ions, and dust kinematic viscosity. Both polarity (positive and negative potential) shock waves are also found to exists in the plasma under consideration in this manuscript. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the dust-acoustic wave properties in both laboratory and space plasmas. (author)
Numerical simulations of the multi-fluid equations are utilized to study the sheath structure in an acetylene plasma consists of electrons, different species of positive and negative ions, and charged nanosize dust particles. It is found that in the presence of negative ions spatially periodic fluctuations are developed in the profiles of the plasma and dust parameters. The fluctuations are enhanced with increasing the electronegativity, ion Mach number and neutral number density, while they are suppressed with increasing the dust Mach number. As the electronegativity increases, the incident dust flux on the wall decreases, whereas the positive ion flux increases. The sheath width is a descending function of the electronegativity, plasma number density, ion Mach number, and dust radius but increases monotonically with the neutral number density. - Highlights: • Numerical simulations of an acetylene sheath show spatial fluctuations in all plasma profiles. • The fluctuations are enhanced with increasing of the electronegativity α. • The incident dust flux decreases when α is increased. • The sheath width is a descending function of α, but increases with the dust radius
Compressive and rarefactive dust-ion-acoustic Gardner solitons in a multi-component dusty plasma
Ema, S. A.; Ferdousi, M.; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)
2015-04-15
The linear and nonlinear propagations of dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated theoretically. The linear properties are analyzed by using the normal mode analysis and the reductive perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), the modified K-dV (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of Gardner solitons (GS) are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit and these dust-ion-acoustic GS are qualitatively different from the K-dV and mK-dV solitons. It is observed that the basic features of DIASWs are affected by various plasma parameters (viz., electron nonextensivity, negative-to-positive ion number density ratio, electron-to-positive ion number density ratio, electron-to-positive ion temperature ratio, etc.) of the considered plasma system. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the nonlinear structures and the characteristics of DIASWs propagating in both space and laboratory plasmas.
Marvi, Z.; Foroutan, G., E-mail: foroutan@sut.ac.ir
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of the multi-fluid equations are utilized to study the sheath structure in an acetylene plasma consists of electrons, different species of positive and negative ions, and charged nanosize dust particles. It is found that in the presence of negative ions spatially periodic fluctuations are developed in the profiles of the plasma and dust parameters. The fluctuations are enhanced with increasing the electronegativity, ion Mach number and neutral number density, while they are suppressed with increasing the dust Mach number. As the electronegativity increases, the incident dust flux on the wall decreases, whereas the positive ion flux increases. The sheath width is a descending function of the electronegativity, plasma number density, ion Mach number, and dust radius but increases monotonically with the neutral number density. - Highlights: • Numerical simulations of an acetylene sheath show spatial fluctuations in all plasma profiles. • The fluctuations are enhanced with increasing of the electronegativity α. • The incident dust flux decreases when α is increased. • The sheath width is a descending function of α, but increases with the dust radius.
Vlasov Simulation of Electrostatic Solitary Structures in Multi-Component Plasmas
Umeda, Takayuki; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Pickett, Jolene S.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2012-01-01
Electrostatic solitary structures have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath by the Cluster spacecraft. Recent theoretical work has suggested that these solitary structures are modeled by electron acoustic solitary waves existing in a four-component plasma system consisting of core electrons, two counter-streaming electron beams, and one species of background ions. In this paper, the excitation of electron acoustic waves and the formation of solitary structures are studied by means of a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present result first shows that either electron acoustic solitary waves with negative potential or electron phase-space holes with positive potential are excited in four-component plasma systems. However, these electrostatic solitary structures have longer duration times and higher wave amplitudes than the solitary structures observed in the magnetosheath. The result indicates that a high-speed and small free energy source may be needed as a fifth component. An additional simulation of a five-component plasma consisting of a stable four-component plasma and a weak electron beam shows the generation of small and fast electron phase-space holes by the bump-on-tail instability. The physical properties of the small and fast electron phase-space holes are very similar to those obtained by the previous theoretical analysis. The amplitude and duration time of solitary structures in the simulation are also in agreement with the Cluster observation.
Boundary conditions for the ion component fluid velocities at the magnetic presheath entrance in multi-component plasmas with vector E x vector B and diamagnetic drifts are derived from the basic fluid equations. These conditions take into account gradients of the drift velocities and can be incorporated into multi-fluid codes used for modelling tokamak boundary plasmas and other magnetically confined plasmas. (author)
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2015-09-01
Nonthermal and positron effects on the dust acoustic surface waves propagating at the interface between a multi-component Lorentzian dusty plasma and a vacuum are investigated. The dispersion relation is kinetically derived by employing the specular reflection boundary condition and the dielectric permittivity for dusty plasma containing positrons. We found that there exist two modes of the dust acoustic surface wave; high- and low-frequency modes. We observe that both H- and L-modes are enhanced by the increase of the pair annihilation rate. However, the effects of positron density are duplex depending on the ratio of annihilated positrons. The effects of nonthermal plasmas are also investigated on the H- and L-modes of dust acoustic surface waves. We found that the nonthermal plasmas suppress the frequencies both H- and L-modes. This research was supported by Nuclear Fusion Research Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (Grant No. 2015M1A7A1A01002786).
Korotaev, A. D.; Ditenberg, I. A.; Berezovskaya, V. R.; Denisov, K. I.; Pinzhin, Yu. P.; Borisov, D. P.
2015-02-01
Within the concept of formation of multi-component, nanocomposite coatings, which assumes a simultaneous nucleation of islands of mutually insoluble or slightly-soluble phases under conditions of self-assembling microstructure during their synthesis, Al-Cr-Si-Ti-Cu-N coatings are designed and formed. Using the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, a comprehensive investigation is performed of the influence of the operating modes of an ion-plasma synthesis of the resulting coatings on the features of their microstructure, microhardness, and elemental and phase composition. The procedures for optimization of the regimes of formation of multi-component, nanocomposite coatings of the above system are discussed.
Guo, Rui; Tian, Bo; Lü, Xing; Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Xu, Tao
2010-09-01
For the propagation of the ultrashort pulses in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium, a system of coupled equations is analytically studied in this paper. Painlevé analysis shows that this system admits the Painlevé property under some constraints. By means of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur procedure, the Lax pair of this system is derived, and the Darboux transformation (DT) is constructed with the help of the obtained Lax pair. With symbolic computation, the soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the DT algorithm. Figures are plotted to illustrate the dynamical features of the soliton solutions. Characteristics of the solitons propagating in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium are discussed: (i) Propagation of one soliton and two-peak soliton; (ii) Elastic interactions of the parabolic two solitons; (iii) Overlap phenomenon between two solitons; (iv) Collision of two head-on solitons and two head-on two-peak solitons; (v) Two different types of interactions of the three solitons; (vi) Decomposition phenomenon of one soliton into two solitons. The results might be useful in the study on the ultrashort-pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear media.
Multi-component assembly casting
James, Allister W.
2015-10-13
Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.
The classical equation of state of fully ionized plasmas
Dalia Ahmed Eisa
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to calculate the analytical form of the equation of state until the third virial coefficient of a classical system interacting via an effective potential of fully Ionized Plasmas. The excess osmotic pressure is represented in the forms of a convergent series expansions in terms of the plasma Parameter μab=eaebχDKT, where χ2 is the square of the inverse Debye radius. We consider only the thermal equilibrium plasma.
Analogies between 'classical' plasmas and quark gluon plasma
Using characterization methods specific to complex plasmas some information of the new state of the nuclear matter was reported by four major experiments from RHIC BNL (USA), namely the quark-gluon plasma. Additional arguments for the existence of the quark-gluon plasma in liquid phase is done. An equivalent Coulomb coupling parameter is used. Evidences for the liquid phase of the quark-gluon plasma are obtained, in agreement with the other experimental results. (author)
Multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy and its multi-component integrable couplings system
Xia Tie-cheng; You Fu-Cai
2007-01-01
A general scheme for generating a multi-component integrable equation hierarchy is proposed.A simple 3Mdimensional loop algebra (X) is produced.By taking advantage of X,a new isospectral problem is established and then by making use of the Tu scheme the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is obtained.Finally,an expanding loop algebra (F) M of the loop algebra (X) is presented.Based on the FM,the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Dirac equation hierarchy is investigated.The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.
On the scaling of magnetic plasma confinement under classical conditions
Present magnetic confinement schemes based on tokamaks and similar devices are characterized by relatively large losses and low beta values. As a consequence, thermonuclear conditions can only be reached in such devices at large linear dimensions or by means of very strong magnetic fields, in combination with large heating powers. This does not rule out the possibility of realizing the same conditions on a smaller scale, i.e. by finding alternative schemes which provide classical and stable confinement of a pure plasma in a closed magnetic bottle. (author)
Multi component equations of state for electrolytes
Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles
2007-01-01
Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multi component electrolyte solutions at 298.15K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three equat...
Effective binary theory of multi-component nucleation
Classical theory of multi-component nucleation [O. Hirschfelder, J. Chem. Phys. 61, 2690 (1974)] belongs to the class of the so-called intractable problems: it requires computational time which is an exponential function of the number of components N. For a number of systems of practical interest with N > 10, the brute-force use of the classical theory becomes virtually impossible and one has to resort to an effective medium approach. We present an effective binary model which captures important physics of multi-component nucleation. The distinction between two effective species is based on the observation that while all N components contribute to the cluster thermodynamic properties, there is only a part of them which trigger the nucleation process. The proposed 2D-theory takes into account adsorption by means of the Gibbs dividing surface formalism and uses statistical mechanical considerations for the treatment of small clusters. Theoretical predictions for binary-, ternary-, and 14-component mixtures are compared with available experimental data and other models
Spray drying of multi-component suspensions with different density
Brožek, Vlastimil; Domlátil, J.
Praha: Česká společnost chemického inženýrství, 2006 - (Novosad, J.), s. 1395-P5.137 ISBN 80-86059-45-6. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2006/17th./. Praha (CZ), 27.08.2006-31.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma spray ing * spray drying * multi-component powders Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials www.chisa.cz
Generalized Multi-component TC Hierarchy and Its Multi-component Integrable Coupling System
A new 3M-dimensional Lie algebra X is constructed firstly. Then, the corresponding loop algebra X-tilde is produced, whose commutation operation defined by us is as simple and straightforward as that in the loop algebra A1. It follows that a general scheme for generating multi-component integrable hierarchy is proposed. By taking advantage of X-tilde, a new isospectral problem is established, and then well-known multi-component TC hierarchy is obtained. Finally, an expanding loop algebra F-tildeM of the loop algebra X-tilde is presented. Based on the F-tildeM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the generalized multi-component TC hierarchy has been worked out. The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations hierarchies. It is easy to find that we can construct any finite-dimensional Lie algebra by this approach.
Multi-component Levi Hierarchy and Its Multi-component Integrable Coupling System
A simple 3M-dimensional loop algebra X-tilde is produced, whose commutation operation defined by us is as simple and straightforward as that in the loop algebra A1. It follows that a general scheme for generating multi-component integrable hierarchy is proposed. By taking advantage of X-tilde , a new isospectral problem is established, and then by making use of the Tu scheme the well-known multi-component Levi hierarchy is obtained. Finally, an expanding loop algebra F-tildeM of the loop algebra X-tilde is presented, based on the F-tildeM, the multi-component integrable coupling system of the multi-component Levi hierarchy is worked out. The method in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equation hierarchies.
Multi-component optical solitary waves
Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.;
2000-01-01
We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01
The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with degenerate collisionless classical and quantum plasmas is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in degenerate collisionless classical and quantum plasmas are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal current, received at the classical linear analysis. Graphic comparison of density of electric current for classical degenerate Fermi plasmas and Fermi-Dirac plasmas (plasmas with any degree of degeneration of electronic gas) is carried out. Graphic comparison of density of electric current for classical and quantum degenerate plasmas is carried out. Also comparison of dependence of density of electric current of quantum degenerate plasmas from dimensionless wave number at various values of dimensionless frequency of oscillations of electromagnetic field is carried ...
Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies
We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.
Thermochemical modelling of multi-component systems
Computational thermodynamic, also known as the Calphad method, is a standard tool in industry for the development of materials and improving processes and there is an intense scientific development of new models and databases. The calculations are based on thermodynamic models of the Gibbs energy for each phase as a function of temperature, pressure and constitution. Model parameters are stored in databases that are developed in an international scientific collaboration. In this way, consistent and reliable data for many properties like heat capacity, chemical potentials, solubilities etc. can be obtained for multi-component systems. A brief introduction to this technique is given here and references to more extensive documentation are provided. (authors)
Single Pass Multi-component Harvester
Reed Hoskinson; J. Richard Hess
2004-08-01
Abstract. In order to meet the U. S. government’s goal of supplementing the energy available from petroleum by increasing the production of energy from renewable resources, increased production of bioenergy has become one of the new goals of the United States government and our society. U.S. Executive Orders and new Federal Legislation have mandated changes in government procedures and caused reorganizations within the government to support these goals. The Biomass Research and Development Initiative is a multi-agency effort to coordinate and accelerate all U.S. Federal biobased products and bioenergy research and development. The Initiative is managed by the National Biomass Coordination Office, which is staffed by both the DOE and the USDA. One of the most readily available sources of biomass from which to produce bioenergy is an agricultural crop residue, of which straw from small grains is the most feasible residue with which to start. For the straw residue to be used its collection must be energy efficient and its removal must not impact the sustainability of the growing environment. In addition, its collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.
Breakdown of the Brillouin limit and classical fluxes in rotating collisional plasmas
Rax, J. M., E-mail: jean-marcel.rax@polytechnique.edu [Université de Paris XI and LOA, ENSTA–Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Fruchtman, A. [HIT, Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel); Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J. [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2015-09-15
The classical collisionless analysis displaying the occurrence of slow and fast rigid body rotation modes in magnetized plasmas is extended to collisional discharges. Collisions speed up the fast mode, slow down the slow one, and break down the classical Brillouin limit. Rigid body rotation has a strong impact on transport, and a collisional radial transport regime, different from the classical Braginskii collisional flux, is identified and analyzed.
Breakdown of the Brillouin limit and classical fluxes in rotating collisional plasmas
The classical collisionless analysis displaying the occurrence of slow and fast rigid body rotation modes in magnetized plasmas is extended to collisional discharges. Collisions speed up the fast mode, slow down the slow one, and break down the classical Brillouin limit. Rigid body rotation has a strong impact on transport, and a collisional radial transport regime, different from the classical Braginskii collisional flux, is identified and analyzed
The Single Pass Multi-component Harvester
Reed Hoskinson; John R. Hess
2004-08-01
collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.
Fabrication of 2D arrays of multi-component nanoparticles
The paper presents a study of a physical method for fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) arrays composed of multi-component nanoparticles on a dielectric substrate. The method consists of two steps. In the first one, thin films composed of different metals are deposited by a classical PLD technique by using targets consisting of sections of different materials. Thin films composed of mixtures of different metals, as gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, iron, platinum, are thus deposited on a quartz substrate. By changing the area of the different sections in the target, thin films with different concentration of the metals are produced. The films fabricated are then annealed by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by a Nd:YAG laser system operating at its third harmonic. The modification of the films is studied as a function of the parameters of the incident radiation, as number of pulses and laser pulse fluence. It is found that the laser annealing can lead to a decomposition of the film into a monolayer of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. The optical properties of the structures produced are analyzed on the basis of their transmission spectra. The structures can be used in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and magneto-optics.
Advances in the segmentation of multi-component microanalytical images
Segmenting multi-component microanalytical images consists in trying to find zones of the specimen with approximate homogeneous composition, representing different chemical phases. This can be done through pixel clustering. We first highlight some limitations of classical clustering algorithms (C-means and fuzzy C-means). Then, we describe a new algorithm we have contributed to develop: the Parzen-watersheds algorithm. This algorithm is based on the estimation of the probability density function of the whole data set in the feature space (through the Parzen approach) and its partitioning using a method inherited from mathematical morphology: the watersheds method. Next, we introduce a fuzzy version of this approach, where the pixels are characterized by their grades of membership to the different classes. Finally, we show how the definition of the grades of membership can be used to improve the results of clustering, through probabilistic relaxation in the image space. The different methods presented are illustrated through an example in the field of electron energy loss mapping, where four elemental maps are concentrated in a single chemical phase map
Zhou, Wei; Tam, Kin Y; Meng, Minxin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Ju, Wenzheng; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing
2015-01-01
The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetics of multi-components (caffeic acid, quinic acid, genistein, luteolin, quercetin, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, arctigenin, genistin, luteoloside, astragalin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rutin, loganin, pinoresinol-β-d-glucoside, phillyrin, isoforsythoside, forsythoside A and forsythoside B) following oral administration of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple in rats. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS with sequential positive and negative ionization modes was developed to determine the 23 absorbed ingredients using one sample preparation combined with three chromatographic conditions in rat plasma. After mixing with internal standard (IS) (tinidazole and chloramphenicol), samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with n-butyl alcohol/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v). The separations for pinoresinol-β-d-glucoside, phillyrin, isoforsythoside, forsythoside A and forsythoside B were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-water as mobile phase. For analyzing quinic acid, an ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) was applied with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-0.01% formic acid as mobile phase after dilution up to 25-fold. The same column was applied to the other components with acetonitrile/methanol (4:1, v/v)-0.4% formic acid as mobile phase. The method validation results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive, specific and reliable, which was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the multi-components after oral administration of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. PMID:25533397
Zeng, Le; Wang, Meiling; Yuan, Yu; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Jing; Tan, Zhen; Ye, Meiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Bo
2014-09-15
Ying-zhi-huang injection (YZH-I) is an injectable multi-herbal prescription derived from the ancient Chinese remedy "Yin-chen-hao-tang", which is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases. To date, little information is available on the pharmacokinetic properties of this poly-herbal formulation. Herein, we reported a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of eight major ingredients of YZH-I (including baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid) in rat plasma. A fast single-tube multi-impurity precipitation extraction ("SMIPE") procedure was introduced for straightforward plasma preparation, based on one-pot deproteinization precipitation with acidified methanol extraction and in-situ multifunction impurity removal by a solid sorbent mixture (anh. magnesium sulfate plus octadecylsilane). Particularly, the addition of ascorbic acid in methanol (10 mg/mL) was found to exhibit a pronounced protective effect and significantly increase extraction effectiveness of the herbal phenolic components. Some pretreatment variables (protein precipitating solvent, acidifying agent and sorbent) were optimized with acceptable matrix effect (-18 to 7.7%), extraction recovery (65-88%) and process efficiency (62-91%) for the SMIPE-based LC-MRM multi-analyte quantitation using matrix-matched calibration (5-1000 ng/mL) without using internal standard. Mean accuracies were obtained in the range of 83-114% at three different fortification levels, with intra- and inter-day variations within 13%. This validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous measurement and pharmacokinetic investigation of the chemical constituents in rats following an intravenous administration of YZH-I. PMID:25129410
Classical Equation of State for Dilute Relativistic Plasma
Hussein, N. A.; Eisa, D. A.; Sayed, E. G.
2016-06-01
The aim of this paper is to calculate the analytical form of the equation of state for dilute relativistic plasma. We obtained the excess free energy and pressure in the form of a convergent series expansion in terms of the thermal parameter μ where μ = {{m{c^2}} over {KT}}, m is the mass of charge, c is the speed of light, K is the Boltzmann's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The results are discussed and compared with previous work of other authors.
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01
From Vlasov kinetic equation for collisionless plasmas distribution function in square-law approximation on size of electromagnetic field is received. Formulas for calculation electric current at any temperature (any degree of degeneration of electronic gas) are deduced. The case of small values of the wave numbers is considered. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current orthogonal to known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. From the kinetic equation with Wigner integral for collisionless quantum plasma distribution function is received in square-law on vector potential approximation. Formulas for calculation electric current at any temperature are deduced. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that size of a longitudinal current at small values of wave number and for classical plasma and for quantum plasma coincide. Graphic comparison of dim...
In this paper, classical particle transport processes in field-reversed configuration plasma is investigated by particle-tracking calculations. The end-loss rate is found to increase with ion temperature, and the temperature dependence is much stronger than that of the Bohm scaling and the empirical scaling. (author)
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01
Kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional Maxwellian plasmas is used. Collision integral of BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) type is applied. From Vlasov equation we find distribution function of electrons in square-law approximation on size of transversal electric field. The formula for electric current calculation is deduced. This formula contains an one-dimensional quadrature. It is shown, that nonlinearity leads to revealing of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to known so-called transversal classical current. The classical current turns out at the linear analysis. The longitudinal current in case of small values of wave numbers is calculated. When frequency of collisions tends to zero, all received formulas for collisional plasmas pass in the known corresponding results for collisionless plasmas. Graphic research of dimensionless density of a current is carried out.
Calculation and experimental investigation of multi-component ceramic systems
This work shows a way to combine thermodynamic calculations and experiments in order to get useful information on the constitution of metal/non-metal systems. Many data from literature are critically evaluated and used as a basis for experiments and calculations. The following multi-component systems are treated: 1. Multi-component systems of 'ceramic' materials with partially metallic bonding (carbides, nitrides, oxides, borides, carbonitrides, borocarbides, oxinitrides of the 4-8th transition group metals) 2. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant covalent bonding (SiC, Si3N4, SiB6, BN, Al4C3, Be2C) 3. multi-component systems of non-metallic materials with dominant heteropolar bonding (Al2O3, TiO2, BeO, SiO2, ZrO2). The interactions between 1. and 2., 2. and 3., 1. and 3. are also considered. The latest commercially available programmes for the calculation of thermodynamical equilibria and phase diagrams are evaluated and compared considering their facilities and limits. New phase diagrams are presented for many presently unknown multi-component systems; partly known systems are completed on the basis of selected thermodynamic data. The calculations are verified by experimental investigations (metallurgical and powder technology methods). Altogether 690 systems are evaluated, 126 are calculated for the first time and 52 systems are experimentally verified. New data for 60 ternary phases are elaborated by estimating the data limits for the Gibbs energy values. A synthesis of critical evaluation of literature, calculations and experiments leads to new important information about equilibria and reaction behaviour in multi-component systems. This information is necessary to develop new stable and metastable materials. (orig./MM)
Polarization interactions in multi-component defocusing media
We study dark–bright soliton interactions in multi-component media such as nonlinear optical media in the defocusing regime and repulsive Bose–Einstein condensates. This is achieved using the recently developed formalism of the inverse scattering transform for the defocusing multi-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation with non-zero boundary conditions. We show that, generically, these interactions result in a non-trivial polarization shift for the bright components. We compute such polarization shift analytically and compare it to that in focusing two-component nonlinear Schrödinger systems. (paper)
On the Extended Multi-component Toda Hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Ningbo University, Department of Mathematics (China)
2014-12-15
The extended flow equations of the multi-component Toda hierarchy are constructed. We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended multi-component Toda hierarchy(EMTH). Because of logarithmic terms, some extended Vertex operators are constructed in generalized Hirota bilinear equations which might be useful in topological field theory and Gromov-Witten theory. Meanwhile the Darboux transformation and bi-hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy are given. From the hamiltonian tau symmetry, we give another different tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious connections with the one defined from the point of wave functions.
Isocyanide based multi component reactions in combinatorial chemistry.
Dömling, A.
1998-01-01
Although usually regarded as a recent development, the combinatorial approach to the synthesis of libraries of new drug candidates was first described as early as 1961 using the isocyanide-based one-pot multicomponent Ugi reaction. Isocyanide-based multi component reactions (MCR's) markedly differ f
Diffusion of elements and vacancies in multi-component systems
Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří
2014-01-01
Roč. 60, MAR (2014), s. 338-367. ISSN 0079-6425 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : multi-component diffusion * vacancy activity * manning theory * stress-driven diffusion Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 27.417, year: 2014
Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma
The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)
Kinetics of Circulating Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Paediatric Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma
Primerano, Simona; Burnelli, Roberta; Carraro, Elisa; Pillon, Marta; Elia, Caterina; Farruggia, Piero; Sala, Alessandra; Vinti, Luciana; Buffardi, Salvatore; Basso, Giuseppe; Mascarin, Maurizio; Mussolin, Lara
2016-01-01
Levels of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of a large series of children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) were evaluated and analyzed at diagnosis and during chemotherapy treatment in relation with clinical characteristics. CfDNA levels in cHL patients were significantly higher compared with controls (p=0.002). CfDNA at diagnosis was correlated with presence of B symptoms (p=0.027) and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.049). We found that the increasing of plasma cfDNA after first che...
On the internal energy of the classical two-dimensional one-component-plasma
A. G. Khrapak
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We describe a new semi-phenomenological approach to estimate the internal energy of the classical one-component-plasma in two dimensions. This approach reproduces the Debye-Hückel asymptote in the limit of weak coupling, the ion disc asymptote in the limit of strong coupling, and provides reasonable interpolation between these two limits. The present analytic results are compared with those from other approximations as well as with existing data from numerical simulations.
Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma
Dassanayake Rohana P
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats characterized by cellular accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system and the follicles of peripheral lymphoid tissues. Previous studies have shown that the whole blood and buffy coat blood fraction of scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity. Although PrPSc has been detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma, and more recently within a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, the infectivity status of these cells and plasma in sheep remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether circulating PBMCs, B lymphocytes and platelets from classical scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity using a sheep bioassay. Results Serial rectal mucosal biopsy and immunohistochemistry were used to detect preclinical infection in lambs transfused with whole blood or blood cell fractions from preclinical or clinical scrapie infected sheep. PrPSc immunolabeling was detected in antemortem rectal and postmortem lymphoid tissues from recipient lambs receiving PBMCs (15/15, CD72+ B lymphocytes (3/3, CD21+ B lymphocytes (3/3 or platelet-rich plasma (2/3 fractions. As expected, whole blood (11/13 and buffy coat (5/5 recipients showed positive PrPSc labeling in lymphoid follicles. However, at 549 days post-transfusion, PrPSc was not detected in rectal or other lymphoid tissues in three sheep receiving platelet-poor plasma fraction. Conclusions Prion infectivity was detected in circulating PBMCs, CD72+ pan B lymphocytes, the CD21+ subpopulation of B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma of classical scrapie infected sheep using a sheep bioassay. Combining platelets with B lymphocytes might enhance PrPSc detection levels in blood samples.
Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models
The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)
Kinetics of Circulating Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Paediatric Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma
Primerano, Simona; Burnelli, Roberta; Carraro, Elisa; Pillon, Marta; Elia, Caterina; Farruggia, Piero; Sala, Alessandra; Vinti, Luciana; Buffardi, Salvatore; Basso, Giuseppe; Mascarin, Maurizio; Mussolin, Lara
2016-01-01
Levels of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of a large series of children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) were evaluated and analyzed at diagnosis and during chemotherapy treatment in relation with clinical characteristics. CfDNA levels in cHL patients were significantly higher compared with controls (p=0.002). CfDNA at diagnosis was correlated with presence of B symptoms (p=0.027) and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.049). We found that the increasing of plasma cfDNA after first chemotherapy cycle seems to be associated with a worse prognosis (p=0.049). Levels of plasma cfDNA might constitute an interesting non-invasive tool in cHL patients' management. PMID:26918050
Kinetics of Circulating Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Paediatric Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Primerano, Simona; Burnelli, Roberta; Carraro, Elisa; Pillon, Marta; Elia, Caterina; Farruggia, Piero; Sala, Alessandra; Vinti, Luciana; Buffardi, Salvatore; Basso, Giuseppe; Mascarin, Maurizio; Mussolin, Lara
2016-01-01
Levels of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of a large series of children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) were evaluated and analyzed at diagnosis and during chemotherapy treatment in relation with clinical characteristics. CfDNA levels in cHL patients were significantly higher compared with controls (p=0.002). CfDNA at diagnosis was correlated with presence of B symptoms (p=0.027) and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p=0.049). We found that the increasing of plasma cfDNA after first chemotherapy cycle seems to be associated with a worse prognosis (p=0.049). Levels of plasma cfDNA might constitute an interesting non-invasive tool in cHL patients' management. PMID:26918050
Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modelling
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) play an essential role in modern optoelectronic devices through their combination of electrical conductivity and optical transparency. We review recent progress in our understanding of multi-component TCOs formed from solid solutions of ZnO, In2O3, Ga2O3 and Al2O3, with a particular emphasis on the contributions of materials modelling, primarily based on density functional theory. In particular, we highlight three major results from our work: (i) the fundamental principles governing the crystal structures of multi-component oxide structures including (In2O3)(ZnO)n and (In2O3)m(Ga2O3)l(ZnO)n; (ii) the relationship between elemental composition and optical and electrical behaviour, including valence band alignments; (iii) the high performance of amorphous oxide semiconductors. On the basis of these advances, the challenge of the rational design of novel electroceramic materials is discussed. (topical review)
Grinding Characteristics of Multi-component Cement-based Material
LU Difen; TAO Longzhong; LI Ning; HU Haipeng
2005-01-01
The grinding characteristics of two or multi-component material of clinker with limestone, blast furnace slag and fly ash were studied. Investigation was carried out on the particle size distribution, the Blaine fineness and the sieve residue of the separate and interground products. The relative contents of clinker and limestone in different size fractions of the interground product were examined, and the interaction of two components, which have different grindabilities, was analyzed. The results show there exists a selective grinding effect during intergrinding, one component can help or hinder the grinding of the other. Making good use of this interaction appropriately not only enhances the grindabilities of two or multi-component mixtures, which can promote the grinding process of clinker with industrial wastes, but also improves their particle size distribution and properties.
Multi-component transparent conducting oxides: progress in materials modelling
Walsh, Aron; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.; Wei, Su-Huai
2011-08-01
Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) play an essential role in modern optoelectronic devices through their combination of electrical conductivity and optical transparency. We review recent progress in our understanding of multi-component TCOs formed from solid solutions of ZnO, In2O3, Ga2O3 and Al2O3, with a particular emphasis on the contributions of materials modelling, primarily based on density functional theory. In particular, we highlight three major results from our work: (i) the fundamental principles governing the crystal structures of multi-component oxide structures including (In2O3)(ZnO)n and (In2O3)m(Ga2O3)l(ZnO)n; (ii) the relationship between elemental composition and optical and electrical behaviour, including valence band alignments; (iii) the high performance of amorphous oxide semiconductors. On the basis of these advances, the challenge of the rational design of novel electroceramic materials is discussed.
Nonlinear approximation with redundant multi-component dictionaries
Granai, Lorenzo; Vandergheynst, Pierre
2007-01-01
The problem of efficiently representing and approximating digital data is an open challenge and it is of paramount importance for many applications. This dissertation focuses on the approximation of natural signals as an organized combination of mutually connected elements, preserving and at the same time benefiting from their inherent structure. This is done by decomposing a signal onto a multi-component, redundant collection of functions (dictionary), built by the union of several subdictio...
Gamma ray analysis of multi-component material
A method and apparatus is disclosed for analyzing a multi-component material having at least three components using gamma radiation having at least two different energies. Upon irradiation of at least a sample of material, the multi-energy gamma rays which are propagated through the sample are detected. The intensity of the detected gamma rays is measured and the amount of at least one of the components of the material is determined by solving a set of simultaneous equations. (author)
Certain Periodically Correlated Multi-component Locally Stationary Processes
Modarresi, N .; Rezakhah, S.
2010-01-01
By introducing $X^{ls}(t)$ as a random mixture of two stationary processes where the time dependent random weights have exponentially convex covariance, we show that this process has a multi-component locally stationary covariance function in Silverman's sense. We also define $X^p(t)$ as a certain continuous time periodically correlated (PC) process where its covariance function is generated by the covariance function of a discrete time through defining some simple random measure on real line...
Vodolazkaia Alexandra; Bossuyt Xavier; Fassbender Amelie; Kyama Cleophas M; Meuleman Christel; Peeraer Karen; Tomassetti Carla; D'Hooghe Thomas M
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Endometriosis is associated with chronic subclinical inflammation. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, could serve as a biomarker of endometriosis. We tested the hypothesis that a high sensitivity CRP assay (hsCRP) is more accurate than a classical CRP assay in the detection of subclinical inflammation in plasma of women with endometriosis. Methods CRP levels were measured by hsCRP and classical CRP assays in plasma of 204 women with endometriosis and 91 wo...
Current-carrying plasma and the magnetic field ambiguity in classical MHD theory
An ambiguity in the classical theoretical framework used for computing magnetohydrostatic equilibrium is pointed out and analyzed. This inconsistency implies that some proposed solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations may not represent actual magnetic fields of plasma currents in the geometry considered. The root of the inconsistency is that the magnetostatic field equation and the magnetohydrostatic equations are not invariant under the same transformations. There are two types of problems where inconsistencies have arisen in the literature: (a) unphysical magnetic fields are postulated inside a plasma current; and (b) vacuum magnetic fields are postulated that are not gradient fields. In both cases, magnetic fields are obtained which cannot be created in the laboratory. This inconsistency is traced back to a mishandling of the mathematical structure of the magnetic field equation. The magnetic field rvec B is a vector potential for the current density distribution rvec j, just as rvec A is a vector potential for rvec B. Nevertheless, whereas a gauge transformation on rvec A is unobservable (gauge invariant), the analogous gauge transformation in the rvec B vector (gradient field transformation) is indeed observable and changes the Lorentz force. Following Alfven, the authors characterize plasmas mathematically through the field lines of the current density distribution vector. Classical MHD theory, by contrast, is concerned strictly with magnetic field lines. They show here how this magnetic field approach can lead to inconsistencies when applied to plasmas. A resolution of entrenched ambiguities is made possible by using the current fiber description to derive a corrected Grad-Shafranov plasma equilibrium equation
Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics
Kardaun, Otto J W F
2005-01-01
Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...
Numerical simulation of nonlinear acoustic attenuation of multi-component gas mixture
YAN Shu; WANG Shu
2009-01-01
The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was introduced to model the acoustic propagation in multi-component gas mixtures. And a theoretical predictive model of acoustic attenuation was proposed, which does not rely on experiential parameters. The acoustic attenuation spectra of various multi-component gas mixtures, consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane and water, were estimated by the DSMC method. The sound frequency range of interest is from 8 MHz to 232 MHz. Compared with the result of the relaxation attenuation based on the DL model plus that of the classical attenuation calculated by the Stokes-Kirchhoff formula, the estimations of acoustic attenuation of our model agreed with them. The precision of the model depends upon the understanding of the physical mechanism of molecule collision from which the attenuation arises. In addition, the result of our model shows that the characters of the frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation rely on the composition of the gas mixtures. And this could lead to the development of smart acoustic gas sensors capable of quantitatively determining gas composition in various environments and processes.
Novel High Pressure Multi-Component Diffusion Cell
Muthia Elma; Paul Massarotto; Victor Rudolph
2012-01-01
A novel high pressure multi-component diffusion cell (HPMCDC) apparatus has been designed and built to measure single and binary gas diffusion, including co-current and counter-diffusion, from low to high pressures. The apparatus incorporates capability to investigate scale effects in solid coal specimens, up to 25 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness. Future experiments will be conducted to measure diffusion and counter-diffusion of CH4 and CO2 gases in solid coal, at various temperatures, ...
Cosmic Ray Excesses from Multi-component Dark Matter Decays
Geng, Chao-Qiang; Huang, Da; Tsai, Lu-Hsing
2014-01-01
We use multi-component decaying dark matter (DM) scenario to explain the possible cosmic ray excesses in the positron fraction recently confirmed by AMS-02 and the total $e^+ +e^-$ flux observed by Fermi-LAT. In the two-component DM models, we find an interesting variation of the flavor structure along with the cutoff of the heavy DM. For the three-component DM case, we focus on a particular parameter range in which the best fits prefer to open only 2 DM decay channels with a third DM contrib...
Biosorption of Metals from Multi-Component Bacterial Solutions
Tsertsvadze, L A; Petriashvili, Sh G; Chutkerashvili, D G; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F
2002-01-01
The method of extraction of metals from industrial solutions by means of economical and easy to apply biosorbents in subtropics such as products of tea manufacturing, moss, microorganisms is described. The multi-component solutions obtained in the process of leaching of ores, rocks and industrial wastes by peat suspension were used in the experiments. The element composition of sorbent biomass and solutions was investigated by epithermal neutron activation analysis and by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained evidence that the used biosorbents are applicable for extraction of the whole set of heavy metals and actinides (U, Th, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Li, Rb, Sr, Cd, As, Co and others) from industrial solutions.
Multi-component Dark Matters in Two Loop Neutrino Model
Kajiyama, Yuji; Toma, Takashi
2013-01-01
We construct a loop induced seesaw model in a TeV scale theory with gauged U(1)_{B-L} symmetry. Light neutrino masses are generated at two-loop level and right-handed neutrinos also obtain their masses by one-loop effect. Multi-component Dark Matters (DMs) are included in our model due to the remnant discrete symmetry after the B-L symmetry breaking and the Z_2 parity which is originally imposed to the model. We investigate the multi-component DM properties, in which we have two fermionic DMs with different mass scales, O(10) GeV and O(100-1000) GeV. The former mass corresponds to the lightest right-handed neutrino mass induced by the loop effect, although the latter one to the SM gauge singlet fermion. We show each of the DM annihilation processes and compare to the the observation of relic abundance, together with the constraints of Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) and active neutrino masses. Moreover we show that our model has some parameter region allowed by the direct detection result reported by XENON100, ...
Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy; Moustafa, Moustafa Sherief; Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; Mekheimer, Ramadan Ahmed; Sadek, Kamal Usef
2015-08-01
Developments made since 2010 in the utilization of multi-component reactions as green efficient methodologies for the synthesis of polysubstituted pyrans, thiopyrans, pyridines, and pyrazoles are reviewed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed. Reference is made to classical older synthetic methods developed earlier in our laboratories. PMID:25894364
Kinetic theory of the shear viscosity of a strongly coupled classical one-component plasma
We present an approximation to the linearized collision operator or memory function of the exact kinetic equation obeyed by the correlation function of the phase-space density of a classical one-component plasma. This approximate collision operator generalizes the well known Balescu-Guernsey-Lenard (BGL) operator to finite wavelengths, finite frequencies, and finite coupling constants. It, moreover, satisfies the necessary symmetry relations, leads to appropriate conservation laws, and fulfills its first sum rule exactly. Next we use this operator to compute the shear viscosity eta for a series of coupling constants spanning the whole fluid phase. For weak coupling we make contact with the BGL theory, while for strong coupling we confirm, at least qualitatively, the results of Vieillefosse and Hansen, who predicted a minimum in eta as a function of temperature. We also demonstrate the important role played by the sum rules in the quantitative evaluation of a transport coefficient such as eta
New foundations and unification of basic plasma physics by means of classical mechanics
Escande, Dominique F; Elskens, Yves
2013-01-01
The derivation of Debye shielding and Landau damping from the $N$-body description of plasmas requires many pages of heavy kinetic calculations in classical textbooks and is done in distinct, unrelated chapters. Using Newton's second law for the $N$-body system, we perform this derivation in a few steps with elementary calculations using standard tools of calculus, and no probabilistic setting. Unexpectedly, Debye shielding is encountered on the way to Landau damping. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping or chaos due to Langmuir waves, and to avoid the small amplitude assumption for the electrostatic potential. Using the shielded potential, collisional transport is computed for the first time by a convergent expression including the correct calculation of deflections for all impact parameters. Shielding and collisional transport are found to be two related aspects of the repulsive deflections of electrons.
Synthesis of Multi-component Mass-exchange Networks
LIU Linlin; DU Jian; Mahmoud M.El-Halwagi; José María Ponce-Ortega; YAO Pingjing
2013-01-01
This paper presents a superstructure-based formulation for the synthesis of mass-exchange networks (MENs) considering multiple components.The superstructure is simplified by directly using the mass separation agents (MSA) from their sources,and therefore the automatic synthesis of the multi-component system involved in the MENs can be achieved without choosing a ‘key-component' either for the whole process or the mass exchangers.A mathematical model is proposed to carry out the optimization process.The concentrations,flow rates,matches and unit operation displayed in the obtained network constitute the exact representation of the mass exchange process in terms of all species in the system.An example is used to illustrate and demonstrate the application of the proposed method.
Novel High Pressure Multi-Component Diffusion Cell
Muthia Elma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel high pressure multi-component diffusion cell (HPMCDC apparatus has been designed and built to measure single and binary gas diffusion, including co-current and counter-diffusion, from low to high pressures. The apparatus incorporates capability to investigate scale effects in solid coal specimens, up to 25 mm in diameter and 25 mm in thickness. Future experiments will be conducted to measure diffusion and counter-diffusion of CH4 and CO2 gases in solid coal, at various temperatures, pressures and for three distinct ranks of coal. The experiments will also address the frequent and controversial literature conclusions that the apparent-diffusion of CH4, inconsistent with gas diffusion theory.
Multi-component, rigidly rotating polytropes: improved and extended theory
Caimmi, R
2016-01-01
With respect to earlier investigations, the theory of multi-component, concentric, copolar, axisymmetric, rigidly rotating polytropes is improved and extended, including subsystems with nonzero density on the boundary and subsystems with intersecting boundaries. The formulation is restricted to two subsystems for simplicity but, in principle, can be extended to $N$ subsystems. Equilibrium configurations are independent of the nature of the fluid i.e. collisional or collisionless, provided the polytropic index lies within the range, $1/2\\le n\\le5$, as in one-component systems. The solution of the equilibrium equations is expanded in power series, which can be continued up to the boundary and outside via starting points placed at increasingly larger distance from the centre of mass. A detailed analysis is devoted to special cases where the solution of the equilibrium equations can be expressed analytically. Finally a guidance example is shown, involving homogeneous subsystems with intersecting boundaries, where...
Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, Rui Miguel Marques; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.
2015-08-01
Propagation of surface waves can occur with complex energy distribution amongst the various modes. It is shown that even simple VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles can generate velocity spectra that, because of a complex mode excitation, can be quite difficult to interpret in terms of modal dispersion curves. In some cases, Rayleigh waves show relevant differences depending on the considered component (radial or vertical) and the kind of source (vertical impact or explosive). Contrary to several simplistic assumptions often proposed, it is shown, both via synthetic and field datasets, that the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves can be almost completely absent. This sort of evidence demonstrates the importance of a multi-component analysis capable of providing the necessary elements to properly interpret the data and adequately constrain the subsurface model. It is purposely shown, also through the sole use of horizontal geophones, how it can be possible to efficiently and quickly acquire both Love and Rayleigh (radial-component) waves. The presented field dataset reports a case where Rayleigh waves (both their vertical and radial components) appear largely dominated by higher modes with little or no evidence of the fundamental mode. The joint inversion of the radial and vertical components of Rayleigh waves jointly with Love waves is performed by adopting a multi-objective inversion scheme based on the computation of synthetic seismograms for the three considered components and the minimization of the whole velocity spectra misfits (Full Velocity Spectra - FVS - inversion). Such a FVS multi-component joint inversion can better handle complex velocity spectra thus providing a more robust subsurface model not affected by erroneous velocity spectra interpretations and non-uniqueness of the solution.
Dynamical structure factor and collective modes in classical one-component plasmas
The dynamical structure factor and collective modes in classical one-component plasmas are studied by employing the memory-function formalism. A response function for density fluctuations of ions in the system is treated in a self-consistent manner to express it in terms of that of a free ion system and an effective potential. An exact formal expression for the effective potential is composed of two parts, static and dynamic, the latter originating from an interaction-part of a second order memory function (ISMF). By studying the properties of the effective potential and of dampings of collective modes, the latter of which are separated into Landau damping and collisional damping, a criterion for the appearance of collective modes in intermediate wave number and frequency domains is obtained as a simple inequality. The dynamical structure factor is calculated by evaluating characteristic frequencies associated with several elementary factors of dynamics of ions in the system and by taking the ISMF to be Gaussian. The result so obtained is compared with the computer-experimental data of Hansen et al. Fairly good agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the plasma parameters 0.993 <= GAMMA <= 152.4. (author)
Mithen, James P.; Daligault, Jérôme; Gregori, G.
2011-01-01
The complementarity of the liquid and plasma descriptions of the classical one-component plasma (OCP) is explored by studying wavevector and frequency dependent dynamical quantities: the dynamical structure factor (DSF), and the dynamic local field correction (LFC). Accurate Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to validate/test models of the DSF and LFC. Our simulations, which span the entire fluid regime ($\\Gamma = 0.1 - 175$), show that the DSF is very well represented by a simple a...
After having recalled the formal convergence of the semi-classical multi-species Boltzmann equations toward the multi-species Euler system (i.e. mixture of gases having the same velocity), we generalize to this system the closure relations proposed by B. Despres and by F. Lagoutiere for the multi-components Euler system (i.e. mixture of non miscible fluids having the same velocity). Then, we extend the energy relaxation schemes proposed by F. Coquel and by B. Perthame for the numerical resolution of the mono-species Euler system to the multi-species isothermal Euler system and to the multi-components isobar-isothermal Euler system. This allows to obtain a class of entropic schemes under a CFL criteria. In the multi-components case, this class of entropic schemes is perhaps a way for the treatment of interface problems and, then, for the treatment of the numerical mixture area by using a Lagrange + projection scheme. Nevertheless, we have to find a good projection stage in the multi-components case. At last, in the last chapter, we discuss, through the study of a dynamical system, about a system proposed by R. Abgrall and by R. Saurel for the numerical resolution of the multi-components Euler system
It is shown that scattering of a probe particle in plasma is not always described by diffusion process due to non-Markov nature of pulse transmission. Three are three various states in particle braking by plasma: stages specific for short and long time intervals when scattering is of non-diffusion nature, and the stage of intermediate time intervals when scattering may be described by diffusion process. Mechanism responsible for non-diffusion nature of scattering during long time intervals results in a new term of application of the classical mechanics to describe collisions in plasma
Efficient transfer of sensitivity information in multi-component models
In support of adjoint-based sensitivity analysis, this manuscript presents a new method to efficiently transfer adjoint information between components in a multi-component model, whereas the output of one component is passed as input to the next component. Often, one is interested in evaluating the sensitivities of the responses calculated by the last component to the inputs of the first component in the overall model. The presented method has two advantages over existing methods which may be classified into two broad categories: brute force-type methods and amalgamated-type methods. First, the presented method determines the minimum number of adjoint evaluations for each component as opposed to the brute force-type methods which require full evaluation of all sensitivities for all responses calculated by each component in the overall model, which proves computationally prohibitive for realistic problems. Second, the new method treats each component as a black-box as opposed to amalgamated-type methods which requires explicit knowledge of the system of equations associated with each component in order to reach the minimum number of adjoint evaluations. (author)
Polymer Percolation Threshold in Multi-Component HPMC Matrices Tablets
Maryam Maghsoodi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The percolation theory studies the critical points or percolation thresholds of the system, where onecomponent of the system undergoes a geometrical phase transition, starting to connect the whole system. The application of this theory to study the release rate of hydrophilic matrices allows toexplain the changes in release kinetics of swellable matrix type system and results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: In this study, the percolation theory has been applied to multi-component hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using phenobarbital as drug,magnesium stearate as a lubricant employing different amount of lactose and HPMC K4M as a fillerandmatrix forming material, respectively. Ethylcelullose (EC as a polymeric excipient was also examined. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of HPMC at time zero, was studied. Results: In both HPMC/lactose and HPMC/EC/lactose matrices, from the point of view of the percolation theory, the optimum concentration for HPMC, to obtain a hydrophilic matrix system for the controlled release of phenobarbital is higher than 18.1% (v/v HPMC. Above 18.1% (v/v HPMC, an infinite cluster of HPMC would be formed maintaining integrity of the system and controlling the drug release from the matrices. According to results, EC had no significant influence on the HPMC percolation threshold. Conclusion: This may be related to broad functionality of the swelling hydrophilic matrices.
Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior
Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph
2009-01-01
Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…
Mithen, James P; Gregori, G
2011-01-01
The complementarity of the liquid and plasma descriptions of the classical one-component plasma (OCP) is explored by studying wavevector and frequency dependent dynamical quantities: the dynamical structure factor (DSF), and the dynamic local field correction (LFC). Accurate Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to validate/test models of the DSF and LFC. Our simulations, which span the entire fluid regime ($\\Gamma = 0.1 - 175$), show that the DSF is very well represented by a simple and well known memory function model of generalized hydrodynamics. On the other hand, the LFC, which we have computed using MD for the first time, is not well described by existing models.
A simple and efficient numerical model describing the processes of nucleation, growth and transport of multi-component nanoparticles is developed. The approach is conceptually similar to the classical method of moments but can be applied to co-condensation of several substances. The processes of homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous growth, and coagulations due to Brownian collisions are considered in combination with the convective and diffusive transport of particles and reacting gases within multi-dimensional geometries. The model is applied to the analysis of multi-component co-condensation of TaC nanoparticles within a dc plasma reactor
Advances In Classical Field Theory
Yahalom, Asher
2011-01-01
Classical field theory is employed by physicists to describe a wide variety of physical phenomena. These include electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, gravitation and quantum mechanics. The central entity of field theory is the field which is usually a multi component function of space and time. Those multi component functions are usually grouped together as vector fields as in the case in electromagnetic theory and fluid dynamics, in other cases they are grouped as tensors as in theories of gravitation and yet in other cases they are grouped as complex functions as in the case of quantum mechanic
Energy loss behavior of photo-generated multi-component carriers in GaN
Yi, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Do-Kyun
2014-03-01
Temporal behavior and many-body effect on the energy losses of photo-generated electron-hole plasma in GaN are examined in terms of various carrier-phonon couplings. We report a comprehensive cooling behavior as a function of effective carrier temperature over the temperature range of 10 -1500 K for carrier-phonon couplings via polar and nonpolar optical phonons and piezoelectric and acoustic deformation-potentials. The many-body effect on the multi-component carrier polarizations and phonon spectral function and effect of energy reabsorption via hot phonons are included by employing temperature-dependent dynamic responses in the rpa. We show that, as the carrier temperature decreases, the energy losses via carrier-optical phonon couplings diminish rapidly and the carrier energy relaxation is dominated through the acoustic phonon scattering at low carrier energy. From the energy loss rates, energy cooling curves are obtained as a function of time, and our result shows an initial gentle energy relaxation followed by fast relaxation. Spectral analysis of the dielectric response functions and energy loss rates are also performed and their dynamic and nonlocal behavior will be discussed. This research was supported in part by Basic Science Research Program through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Education (grant number 201306330001).
Direct oxygen injection experiments and investigation of multi-component mass transfer processes
Beckmann, Annika
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of a direct oxygen injection as a potential remediation strategy for contaminated aquifers on a bench scale. The mass transfer between a multi-component trapped gas phase and a mobile water phase was studied. Column experiments with dynamically compressed sediments and a direct gas injection of pure oxygen gas were performed. In addition, a new developed kinetic multi-component model was used to describe the experiments. The amount of gas t...
Sundari, Sivagama M.; Vadhiyar, Sathish S.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.
2012-01-01
Computational grids with multiple batch systems (batch grids) can be powerful infrastructures for executing long-running multi-component parallel applications. In this paper, we evaluate the potential improvements in throughput of long-running multi-component applications when the different components of the applications are executed on multiple batch systems of batch grids. We compare the multiple batch executions with executions of the components on a single batch system without increasing ...
Effective-Medium Approach for Conductivities in Multi-Component Granular Mixtures
We apply the effective-medium theory to a multi-component mixture system, by which the effective longitudinal and Hall conductivities can be calculated. We find that there is more than one threshold in the multi-component mixture, and the maximum number of thresholds is one less than the component number. Further, the thresholds are mainly dependent on the relative volume ratio of the components when the conductivity ratios between any two components are far larger or smaller than one
Do Van, Phuc; Vu, Hai Canh; Barros, Anne; Bérenguer, Christophe
2015-01-01
The paper deals with a maintenance grouping approach for multi-component systems whose components are connected in series. The considered systems are required to serve a sequence of missions with limited breaks/stoppage durations while maintenance teams (repairmen) are limited and may vary over time. The optimization of the maintenance grouping decision for such multi-component systems leads to a NP-complete problem. The aim of the paper is to propose and to optimize a dynamic maintenance dec...
Structural models of multi-component nicknames of american cities and towns
Zosimova O.V.
2015-01-01
The article deals with the structure of informal place names in the USA. The main structural models of multi-component nicknames of American cities and towns include: ‘Adjective + Noun’, ‘Noun + Noun’ and ‘(Attribute) Noun + of + Noun’. The most productive constituent elements of the multi-component nicknames are the words ‘city’ and ‘capital’. Their combinations with different types of modifiers characterize the US cities and towns ...
Pulsar multi-component profiles: a phenomenological model
Pulsar radio emission is suggested to be confined to a number of narrow beams irregularly placed in the vicinity of the pulsar magnetic axis. The beams are assumed to originate from different streams of plasma that flow away from the region close to the polar cap. This requires that the sources responsible for generating these streams operate only at some points of the polar cap. The number of observed components in the pulsar's integrated profile does not depend predictably on the observer's location with respect to the pulsar rotation axis. Due to the radius-to-frequency mapping, the beams of radiation associated with a given stream, but corresponding to different frequency bands, are not coaxial. It may happen, therefore, that components observed at low frequencies disappear at higher frequencies, and vice versa. Finally, it is suggested that narrow, widely spaced components may result from a non-dipolar structure of the magnetic field near the star's surface. 8 references
Costa, G; Peres, G; Argiroffi, C; Bonito, R
2016-01-01
Context. It is generally accepted that, in Classical T Tauri Stars, the plasma from the circumstellar disc accretes onto the stellar surface with free fall velocity, and the impact generates a shock. The impact region is expected to contribute to emission in different spectral bands; many studies have confirmed that the X-rays arise from the post-shock plasma but, otherwise, there are no studies in the literature investigating the origin of the observed UV emission which is apparently correlated to accretion. Aims. We investigated the effect of radiative heating of the infalling material by the post-shock plasma at the base of the accretion stream with the aim to identify in which region a significant part of the UV emission originates. Methods. We developed a 1D hydrodynamic model describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface; the model takes into account the gravity, the radiative cooling of an optically thin plasma, the thermal conduction, and the heating due to absorption of X-ray ...
New Matrix Lie Algebra, a Powerful Tool for Constructing Multi-component C-KdV Equation Hierarchy
A set of new multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devoted to obtaining a new loop algebra A-tilde2M. It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the multi-component Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component C-KdV hierarchy is given. Finally, the multi-component integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy is presented through enlarging matrix spectral problem.
Turrell, A.E., E-mail: a.turrell09@imperial.ac.uk; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.
2015-10-15
Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products.
Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.
2016-07-01
We report on a numerical study of real-time dynamics of electromagnetically interacting chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions within the classical statistical field theory approach. Namely, we perform exact simulations of the real-time quantum evolution of fermionic fields coupled to classical electromagnetic fields, which are in turn coupled to the vacuum expectation value of the fermionic electric current. We use Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for fermions, and noncompact action for the gauge field. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, the electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to transform to helicity of the electromagnetic field. By performing simulations on large lattices we show that in most cases this decay process is accompanied by the inverse cascade phenomenon, which transfers energy from short-wavelength to long-wavelength electromagnetic fields. In some simulations, however, we observe a very clear signature of inverse cascade for the helical magnetic fields that is not accompanied by the axial charge decay. This suggests that the relation between the inverse cascade and axial charge decay is not as straightforward as predicted by the simplest form of anomalous Maxwell equations.
Dual Hierarchies of a Multi-Component Camassa-Holm System
Li, Hong-Min; Li, Yu-Qi; Chen, Yong
2015-10-01
In this paper, we derive the bi-Hamiltonian structure of a multi-component Camassa-Holm system, which associates with the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and multi-component KN hierarchy via the tri-Hamiltonian duality method. Furthermore, the spectral problems of the dual hierarchies may be obtained. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11375090, Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under No. 20120076110024, the Innovative Research Team Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61321064, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, Talent Fund and K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University
An Experimental Investigation and Numerical Analysis of Multi-Component Fuel Spray
Myong, Kwang-Jae; Arai, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Senda, Jiro; Fujimoto, Hajime
In this study, droplet atomization and vaporization characteristics with multi-component fuel were investigated by experimental and numerical simulation methods. Spray characteristics of multi-component fuel including spray cone angle, spray angle and spray tip penetration were analyzed from shadowgraph imaging. Numerical simulation to investigate spatial distribution of fuel-vapor concentration of each component within multi-component fuel was implemented in KIVA code. Vaporization process was calculated by a simple two-phase region which was approximated by modified saturated liquid-vapor line. Experimental results show that spray cone angle and spray angle become larger increasing in mass fraction of low boiling point component. And spray tip penetration becomes shorter with increasing in mass fraction of low boiling point component in vaporizing spray during that is same on every mixed fuel in non-vaporizing spray. From numerical simulation results, temporal and spatial distribution of each fuel vapor concentration was found to be stratification.
Multi-component superstructures self-assembled from nanocrystal building blocks
Tan, Rui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Can; Chen, Ou
2016-05-01
More than three decades of intensive study to make high-quality nanocrystals have created a unique toolbox for building multi-component superstructures, which have been recognized as a new generation of metamaterials important to both fundamental sciences and applied technologies. This minireview summarizes recent advances in this exciting field. We will focus our discussion on the synthetic strategies and superstructures of this multi-component metamaterial, and highlight their novel properties and potential applications. Additionally, some perspectives on possible developments in this field are offered at the end of this review. We hope that this minireview will both inform and stimulate research interests for the design and fabrication of these nanocrystal-based multi-component metamaterials for diverse applications in the future.
Multi-Component Integrable Systems and Invariant Curve Flows in Certain Geometries
Changzheng Qu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, multi-component generalizations to the Camassa-Holm equation, the modified Camassa-Holm equation with cubic nonlinearity are introduced. Geometric formulations to the dual version of the Schrödinger equation, the complex Camassa-Holm equation and the multi-component modified Camassa-Holm equation are provided. It is shown that these equations arise from non-streching invariant curve flows respectively in the three-dimensional Euclidean geometry, the two-dimensional Möbius sphere and n-dimensional sphere S^n(1. Integrability to these systems is also studied.
Chen, Jing; Wang, Yang; Sun, Guoxiang; Ma, Yongfu; Guo, Xingjie
2016-07-01
A validated HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality of Lamiophlomis rotata Pill combining the multi-components analysis by single reference standard with HPLC fingerprint analysis. Five bioactive components (shanzhiside methyl ester, loganin, 8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester, forsythoside B and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) were selected as markers to control the quality of L. rotata Pill. The results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint method coupled with multi-components analysis provides an effective and feasible way to determine the components in L. rotata Pill. PMID:26595778
Porous multi-component material for the capture and separation of species of interest
Addleman, Raymond S.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Li, Xiaohong S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A
2016-06-21
A method and porous multi-component material for the capture, separation or chemical reaction of a species of interest is disclosed. The porous multi-component material includes a substrate and a composite thin film. The composite thin film is formed by combining a porous polymer with a nanostructured material. The nanostructured material may include a surface chemistry for the capture of chemicals or particles. The composite thin film is coupled to the support or device surface. The method and material provides a simple, fast, and chemically and physically benign way to integrate nanostructured materials into devices while preserving their chemical activity.
Internal energy of the classical two- and three-dimensional one-component-plasma
Khrapak, S A
2016-01-01
We summarize several semi-phenomenological approaches to estimate the internal energy of one-component-plasma (OCP) in two (2D) and three (3D) dimensions. Particular attention is given to a hybrid approach, which reproduces the Debye-H$\\ddot{\\text{u}}$ckel asymptote in the limit of weak coupling, the ion sphere (3D) and ion disc (2D) asymptotes in the limit of strong coupling, and provides reasonable interpolation between these two limits. More accurate ways to estimate the internal energy of 2D and 3D OCP are also discussed. The accuracy of these analytic results is quantified by comparison with existing data from numerical simulations. The relevance of the KTHNY theory in locating melting transition in 2D OCP is briefly discussed.
On the calculation of crystal lattice periods of multi-component solid solutions
The periods of lattice of multi-component solid solutions are calculated using the concept of bonding electron number. The values of atomic volumes are used in the calculation. A good conformity between experimental and calculated values of lattice periods is obtained, the deviation does not exceed 0.1 %
A New Loop Algebra and Its Corresponding Multi-component Integrable Hierarchy
A type of new loop algebra G-tildeM is constructed by making use of the concept of cycled numbers. As its application, an isospectral problem is designed and a new multi-component integrable hierarchy with multi-potential functions is worked out, which can be reduced to the famous KN hierarchy.
A Multi-Component Intervention Designed To Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior.
Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine
2000-01-01
Describes research that focused on the design of an effective, economical, and easily implemented treatment for disruptive classroom behavior in both general and special education students. Multi-component treatment options included mystery motivators, token economy with response cost, and antecedent strategies delivered within a group contingency…
Degeneracy of Multi-Component Quantum Hall States Satisfying Periodic Boundary Conditions
McDonald, I. A.
1994-01-01
In systems subject to periodic boundary conditions, Haldane has shown that states at arbitrary filling fraction possess a degeneracy with respect to center of mass translations. An analysis is carried out for multi-component electron systems and extra degeneracies are shown to exist. Their application to numerical studies is discussed.
A Multi-Component Model for Assessing Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM)
Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel
2008-01-01
While discussion of the criteria needed to assess learning objects has been extensive, a formal, systematic model for evaluation has yet to be thoroughly tested. The purpose of the following study was to develop and assess a multi-component model for evaluating learning objects. The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM) was developed from a…
A dynamic predictive maintenance policy for complex multi-component systems
The use of prognostic methods in maintenance in order to predict remaining useful life is receiving more attention over the past years. The use of these techniques in maintenance decision making and optimization in multi-component systems is however a still underexplored area. The objective of this paper is to optimally plan maintenance for a multi-component system based on prognostic/predictive information while considering different component dependencies (i.e. economic, structural and stochastic dependence). Consequently, this paper presents a dynamic predictive maintenance policy for multi-component systems that minimizes the long-term mean maintenance cost per unit time. The proposed maintenance policy is a dynamic method as the maintenance schedule is updated when new information on the degradation and remaining useful life of components becomes available. The performance, regarding the objective of minimal long-term mean cost per unit time, of the developed dynamic predictive maintenance policy is compared to five other conventional maintenance policies, these are: block-based maintenance, age-based maintenance, age-based maintenance with grouping, inspection condition-based maintenance and continuous condition-based maintenance. The ability of the predictive maintenance policy to react to changing component deterioration and dependencies within a multi-component system is quantified and the results show significant cost savings
Afsar Ali; Amit P Singh; Rajeev Gupta
2010-05-01
This paper presents the recent developments in designing multi-component structures including metal-organic frameworks containing Lewis acidic metal ions. The emphasis has been given to understand the design elements adopted to synthesize such structures bearing Lewis acidic metal ion. Further, few important Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformation reactions have been discussed demonstrating the importance of such materials for practical purposes.
[Study on high accuracy detection of multi-component gas in oil-immerse power transformer].
Fan, Jie; Chen, Xiao; Huang, Qi-Feng; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Gang
2013-12-01
In order to solve the problem of low accuracy and mutual interference in multi-component gas detection, a kind of multi-component gas detection network with high accuracy was designed. A semiconductor laser with narrow bandwidth was utilized as light source and a novel long-path gas cell was also used in this system. By taking the single sine signal to modulate the spectrum of laser and using space division multiplexing (SDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) technique, the detection of multi-component gas was achieved. The experiments indicate that the linearity relevance coefficient is 0. 99 and the measurement relative error is less than 4%. The system dynamic response time is less than 15 s, by filling a volume of multi-component gas into the gas cell gradually. The system has advantages of high accuracy and quick response, which can be used in the fault gas on-line monitoring for power transformers in real time. PMID:24611396
Many of the essential features of high-power broadcast transmitter technology are equally important for plasma heating equipment, especially for IDRF and NBI devices. The traditional activity therefore represents a suitable basis to develop amplifiers and power supplies with relatively limited risk. The extensive requirements of fusion research on the other hand ask for improved technical solutions, which consequently also accelerate the development of standard products. The experience gathered during several IDRF and NBI projects and the resulting beneficial influence on future developments is described. The paper deals especially with: - improvement of high-power transmitting tubes - new circuit concepts for tunable radio-frequency high-power stages - solid-state technology for adjustable fast-acting high-voltage supplies. As an outlook on future IDRH Systems the use of PSM (pulse-step modulator) power supplies is discussed. This digitally-controllable high-voltage anode supply could improve IDRH operation especially for fast changing impedances of the antenna load. For future longer-pulse or CW-operation automatic, load tuning, as already used in broadcasting, should be applied. This would consequently make better use of the installed power
Lacombe, Caroline; Untereiner, Valérie; Gobinet, Cyril; Zater, Mokhtar; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Garnotel, Roselyne
2015-04-01
Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease involving the galactose pathway, caused by the deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. Galactose accumulation induces in newborns many symptoms, such as liver disease, cataracts, and sepsis leading to death if untreated. Neonatal screening is developed and applied in many countries using several methods to detect galactose or its derived product accumulation in blood or urine. High-throughput FTIR spectroscopy was investigated as a potential tool in the current screening methods. IR spectra were obtained from blood plasma of healthy, diabetic, and galactosemic patients. The major spectral differences were in the carbohydrate region, which was first analysed in an exploratory manner using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA score plots showed a clear discrimination between diabetic and galactosemic patients and this was more marked as a function of the glucose and galactose increased concentration in these patients' plasma respectively. Then, a support vector machine leave-one-out cross-validation (SVM-LOOCV) classifier was built with the PCA scores as the input and the model was tested on median, mean and all spectra from the three population groups. This classifier was able to discriminate healthy/diabetic, healthy/galactosemic, and diabetic/galactosemic patients with sensitivity and specificity rates ranging from 80% to 94%. The total accuracy rate ranged from 87% to 96%. High-throughput FTIR spectroscopy combined with the SVM-LOOCV classification procedure appears to be a promising tool in the screening of galactosemia patients, with good sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, this approach presents the advantages of being cost-effective, fast, and straightforward in the screening of galactosemic patients. PMID:25622686
Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems
无
2008-01-01
Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of polyolefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers' optimizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.
Experimental study on fire extinguishing with a newly prepared multi-component compressed air foam
WANG XiShi; LIAO YaoJian; LIN Lin
2009-01-01
A multi-component compressed air foam system (MCAFS) was developed with newly prepared multi-component foaming agents. Extinguishing of wood crib and oil pool fires was performed under different conditions, such as foam concentration, mixing chamber forepart structure and working pressure. It was found that the foam concentration had sufficient effects on fire extinguishing efficiency, and an optimized concentration value exists. For instance, for diesel oil pool fires, this value is about 2.2% while it is about 4.0% for wood crib fires. The results also show that the system with a coaxial mixing chamber has greater efficiency than a T-shape. The effects of working pressure on fire extin-guishing are evident in experiments, i.e., the higher the working pressure is, the more readily the fire is extinguished.
Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-06-01
Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates.
Basic separative power of multi-component isotopes separation in a gas centrifuge
On condition that the overall separation factor per unit exists in centrifuge for multi-component isotopes separation, the relations between separative power of each component and molecular weight have been investigated in the paper while the value function and the separative power of binary-component separation are adopted. The separative power of each component is proportional to the square of the molecular weight difference between its molecular weight and the average molecular weight of other remnant components. In addition, these relations are independent on the number of the components and feed concentrations. The basic separative power and related expressions, suggested in the paper, can be used for estimating the separative power of each component and analyzing the separation characteristics. The most valuable application of the basic separative power is to evaluate the separative capacity of centrifuge for multi-component isotopes. (author)
Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems
2008-01-01
Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero- geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of poly- olefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers’ op- timizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.
Motion of curves and solutions of two multi-component mKdV equations
Two classes of multi-component mKdV equations have been shown to be integrable. One class called the multi-component geometric mKdV equation is exactly the system for curvatures of curves when the motion of the curves is governed by the mKdV flow. In this paper, exact solutions including solitary wave solutions of the two- and three-component mKdV equations are obtained, the symmetry reductions of the two-component geometric mKdV equation to ODE systems corresponding to it's Lie point symmetry groups are also given. Curves and their behavior corresponding to solitary wave solutions of the two-component geometric mKdV equation are presented
Prediction on the viscosity of multi-component melts with a new geometric model
无
2002-01-01
A geometric model for calculating the viscosity of multi-component melt from related binary physicochemistry properties was derived based on Chou's thermodynamic geometric model. The model derived was employed to predict the viscosity of Au-Ag-Cu alloys. The results show that the calculated viscosity for Au-Ag-Cu alloys meet the experimental data very well. In addition, the viscosity of Bi-Sn-In systems was also predicted with this model.
Non-Isothermal, Multi-phase, Multi-component Flows through Deformable Methane Hydrate Reservoirs
Gupta, Shubhangi; Helmig, Rainer; Wohlmuth, Barbara
2015-01-01
We present a hydro-geomechanical model for subsurface methane hydrate systems. Our model considers kinetic hydrate phase change and non-isothermal, multi-phase, multi-component flow in elastically deforming soils. The model accounts for the effects of hydrate phase change and pore pressure changes on the mechanical properties of the soil, and also for the effect of soil deformation on the fluid-solid interaction properties relevant to reaction and transport processes (e.g., permeability, capi...
Melting and crystallisation behaviour of multi-component Fe-C-Cr-X alloys : microstructural aspects
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack; LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline
2004-01-01
Studied materials are of the Fe-C-Cr-X multi-component system where X represents a group of strong carbides formers as Mo, V, or Nb. These alloys are used for wear components. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) was used to determine the melting and solidification behaviour of these materials. Raw material has a thermomecanical history that involved casting, heat treating and hot forming, which could be investigated by the melting sequence of the DTA trial.
Quantum error correction against photon loss using multi-component cat states
Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter
2016-01-01
We analyse a generalised quantum error correction code against photon loss where a logical qubit is encoded into a subspace of a single oscillator mode that is spanned by distinct multi-component cat states (coherent-state superpositions). We present a systematic code construction that includes the extension of an existing one-photon-loss code to higher numbers of losses. When subject to a photon loss (amplitude damping) channel, the encoded qubits are shown to exhibit a cyclic behaviour wher...
Shell Effects and Phase Separation in a Trapped Multi-Component Fermi System
Salasnich, L.; Parola, A.; Reatto, L.
2000-01-01
Shell effects in the coordinate space can be seen with degenerate Fermi vapors in non-uniform trapping potentials. In particular, below the Fermi temperature, the density profile of a Fermi gas in a confining harmonic potential is characterized by several local maxima. This effect is enhanced for "magic numbers" of particles and in quasi-1D (cigar-shaped) configurations. In the case of a multi-component Fermi vapor, the separation of Fermi components in different spatial shells (phase-separat...
School-based Multi-component Intervention. Symptoms of Iranian ADHD Children
Sepideh Shaban; Maznah Baba; Sidek Mohd Noah; Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar
2015-01-01
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based multi-component intervention that implemented for ADHD school-aged children specially. Participants were 64 school-aged ADHD children that randomly assigned in two study groups including one experimental and one control group. Teachers of these children were invited to participate in the teacher training. Teachers took part in 8 sessions teacher training that involved contingency management, cognitive behavioral strategies and clas...
The Effect of Mixing Time on the Homogeneity of Multi-Component Granular Systems
Krolczyk, Jolanta B.
2016-01-01
Mixing of granular materials is unquestionably important. Mixing solids is common in industrial applications and frequently represents a critical stage of the processes. The effect of mixing determines the quality of products. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mixing time on the quality of multi-component granular mixtures. Experimental studies were conducted at the mixing process line in an industrial feed mill. The applied granular systems are feed mixtures with dif...
Junbao Geng; Michael Azarian; Michael Pecht
2015-01-01
Although opportunistic maintenance strategies are widely used for multi-component systems, al opportunistic mainte-nance strategies only consider economic dependence and do not take structural dependence into account. An opportunistic main-tenance strategy is presented for a multi-component system that considers both structural dependence and economic dependence. The cost relation and time relation among components based on structural dependence are developed. The maintenance strategy for each component of a multi-component system involves one of five maintenance actions, namely, no-maintenance, a minimal maintenance action, an imperfect maintenance action, a perfect maintenance action, and a replacement action. The maintenance action is determined by the virtual age of the component, the life expectancy of the component, and the age threshold values. Monte Carlo simulation is designed to obtain the optimal oppor-tunistic maintenance strategy of the system over its lifetime. The simulation result reveals that the minimum maintenance cost with a strategy that considers structural dependence is less than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence. The availability with a strategy that considers structural dependence is greater than that with a strategy that does not consider structural dependence under the same conditions.
The existed PM (preventive maintenance) efforts on multi-component systems usually ignore the PM opportunities at the component failure moments and the structure dependence among the system components. In this paper, a time window based PM model is proposed for multi-component systems with the stochastic failures and the disassembly sequence involved. Whenever one of the system components stochastically fails or reaches its reliability threshold, PM opportunities arise for other system components. A Monte-Carlo based algorithm is built up to simulate the stochastic failures and then to calculate the cumulative maintenance cost of the system. The optimal PM practice is obtained by minimizing the cumulative maintenance cost throughout the given time horizon. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the calculation process and the availability of the proposed PM model. - Highlights: • We propose an opportunistic PM model for multi-component systems. • PM opportunity at stochastic failure moment is considered. • Disassembly sequence among system components is involved. • A Monte Carlo based algorithm is proposed to obtain the optimal PM practice. • More PM opportunity arises with increase of disassembly cost of intermediate nodes
Chirp-Rate Resolution of Fractional Fourier Transform in Multi-component LFM Signal
LIU Feng; HUANG Yu; TAO Ran; WANG Yue
2009-01-01
Distinguishing close chirp-rates of different linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals under concentrated and complicated signal environment was studied.Firstly,detection and parameter estimation of multi-component LFM signal were used by discrete fast fractional Fourier transform (FrFT).Then the expression of chirp-rate resolution in fractional Fourier domain (FrFD) was deduced from discrete normalize time-frequency distribution,when multi-component LFM signal had only one center frequency.Furthermore,the detail influence of the sampling time,sampling frequeney and chirp-rate upon the resolution was analyzed by partial differential equation.Simulation results and analysis indicate that increasing the sampling time can enhance the resolution,but the influence of the sampling frequency can be omitted.What's more,in multi-component LFM signal,the chirp-rate resolution of FrFT is no less than a minimal value,and it mainly dependent on the biggest value of chirp-rates,with which it has an approximately positive exponential relationship.
Helping boys at-risk of criminal activity: qualitative results of a multi-component intervention
Brennan Erin
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This qualitative study examines parent and child experiences of participation in a multi-component community-based program aimed at reducing offending behaviour, and increasing social competence in boys 6 to 11 years old in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The program builds on the concept of crime prevention through social development, and includes structured groups for the identified boy, parents, and siblings. Methods A sample of 35 families participating in the multi-component program took part in the qualitative study. Individual interviews with the boys, parents and siblings asked about changes in themselves, relationships with family and peers, and school after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Results Parents reported improvement in parenting skills and attainment of more effective communication skills, particularly with their children. Parents also found the relationships they formed with other parents in the program and the advice that they gained to be beneficial. Boys who participated in the program also benefited, with both parents and boys reporting improvements in boys' anger management skills, social skills, impulse control, and ability to recognize potentially volatile situations. Both parents and boys described overall improvement in family relationships and school-related success. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed that parents and boys participating in the multi-component program perceived improvements in a number of specific areas, including social competence of the boys. This has not been demonstrated as clearly in other evaluations of the program.
Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)
School-based Multi-component Intervention. Symptoms of Iranian ADHD Children
Sepideh Shaban
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based multi-component intervention that implemented for ADHD school-aged children specially. Participants were 64 school-aged ADHD children that randomly assigned in two study groups including one experimental and one control group. Teachers of these children were invited to participate in the teacher training. Teachers took part in 8 sessions teacher training that involved contingency management, cognitive behavioral strategies and class management instructions for managing of ADHD children. Members of the control group didn’t receive any program. Dependent measures included parent and teacher`s ratings of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. Information for the study achieved in three pre-test, post-test and follow-up levels. Parents and teachers in experimental group reported significantly less inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in children at home and school respectively rather than before conducting the program. Findings of the study showed similar effect of school-based multi-component intervention on all symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity across home and school. Results of the present study provided some supports for effectiveness of school-based multi-component program on symptoms of ADHD in school-aged children in Iran.
The paper deals with a maintenance grouping approach for multi-component systems whose components are connected in series. The considered systems are required to serve a sequence of missions with limited breaks/stoppage durations while maintenance teams (repairmen) are limited and may vary over time. The optimization of the maintenance grouping decision for such multi-component systems leads to a NP-complete problem. The aim of the paper is to propose and to optimize a dynamic maintenance decision rule on a rolling horizon. The heuristic optimization scheme for the maintenance decision is developed by implementing two optimization algorithms (genetic algorithm and MULTIFIT) to find an optimal maintenance planning under both availability and limited repairmen constraints. Thanks to the proposed maintenance approach, impacts of availability constraints or/and limited maintenance teams on the maintenance planning and grouping are highlighted. In addition, the proposed grouping approach allows also updating online the maintenance planning in dynamic contexts such as the change of required availability level and/or the change of repairmen over time. A numerical example of a 20-component system is introduced to illustrate the use and the advantages of the proposed approach in the maintenance optimization framework. - Highlights: • A dynamic maintenance grouping strategy is proposed for multi-component systems. • A grouping approach based on rolling horizon, GA and MULIFIT algorithms is proposed. • Impacts of availability and/or limited repairmen constraints are highlighted. • An optimal planning under availability and/or limited repairmen constraints is given. • The maintenance planning can be dynamically updated in the presence of dynamic contexts
Multi-component based cross correlation beat detection in electrocardiogram analysis
Owens Frank J
2004-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first stage in computerised processing of the electrocardiogram is beat detection. This involves identifying all cardiac cycles and locating the position of the beginning and end of each of the identifiable waveform components. The accuracy at which beat detection is performed has significant impact on the overall classification performance, hence efforts are still being made to improve this process. Methods A new beat detection approach is proposed based on the fundamentals of cross correlation and compared with two benchmarking approaches of non-syntactic and cross correlation beat detection. The new approach can be considered to be a multi-component based variant of traditional cross correlation where each of the individual inter-wave components are sought in isolation as opposed to being sought in one complete process. Each of three techniques were compared based on their performance in detecting the P wave, QRS complex and T wave in addition to onset and offset markers for 3000 cardiac cycles. Results Results indicated that the approach of multi-component based cross correlation exceeded the performance of the two benchmarking techniques by firstly correctly detecting more cardiac cycles and secondly provided the most accurate marker insertion in 7 out of the 8 categories tested. Conclusion The main benefit of the multi-component based cross correlation algorithm is seen to be firstly its ability to successfully detect cardiac cycles and secondly the accurate insertion of the beat markers based on pre-defined values as opposed to performing individual gradient searches for wave onsets and offsets following fiducial point location.
2008-01-01
In this study, experiments are carried out on the effects of magnetic fluids on the crystallization char- acterizations in a multi-component and multiphase system, which contains the liquid and the vapor of HCFC141b, water, water vapor, and gas hydrates. The mass transfer phenomena between the phase interfaces of water-HCFC141b and water-vapor are also researched. The experimental results show that in the presence of a rotary magnetic field, magnetic fluids can remarkably enhance the heat and mass transfer between phase interfaces and, therefore, improve the performance of crystallization, especially in improving the formation temperature and velocity.
Phase equilibrium calculation of multi-component gas separation of supersonic separator
无
2010-01-01
A mathematical model for phase equilibrium prediction of multi-component gas separation process inside a supersonic separator is established and an efficient numerical solution method is designed. The model and the numerical method are then used to predict the phase equilibrium characteristics and the separation performance of a field test natural gas supersonic purification separator. The predicted results are generally in good agreement with the field test measurements, which proves that the phase equilibrium model and the solution method are both reliable and accurate, and can be used for the prediction of the vapor and liquid phase equilibrium and the separation performance and the configuration optimization of supersonic separator.
A semi-discrete integrable multi-component coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system
Zhao, Hai-qiong; Yuan, Jinyun
2016-07-01
A new integrable semi-discrete version is proposed for the multi-component coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The integrability of the semi-discrete system is confirmed by existence of Lax pair and infinite number of conservation laws. With the aid of gauge transformations, explicit formulas for N-fold Darboux transformations are derived whereby some physically important solutions of the system are presented. Furthermore, the theory of the semi-discrete system including Lax pair, Darboux transformations, exact solutions and infinite number of conservation laws are shown for their continuous counterparts in the continuous limit.
Design considerations for multi component molecular-polymeric nonlinear optical materials
Singer, K.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kuzyk, M.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fang, T.; Holland, W.R. (AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (USA)); Cahill, P.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
1990-01-01
We review our work on multi component polymeric nonlinear optical materials. These materials consist of nonlinear optical molecules incorporated in a polymeric host. A cross-linked triazine polymer incorporating a dicyanovinyl terminated azo dye was found to be relatively stable at 85{degree} and posses an electro-optic coefficient of 11pm/V. We have also observed the zero dispersion condition in a new anomalous dispersion dye for phase matched second harmonic generation, and expect efficient conversion to the blue. A squarylium dye, ISQ, has been found to posses a large third order nonlinearity, and may display two-level behavior. 24 refs., 11 figs.
Microbial Ingrowth Around Single- and Multi-Component Adhesives Studied in vitro
Preußker, Susann; Klimm, Wolfgang; Pöschmann, Maria; Koch, Rainer
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro microbial leakage in 4 micro-hybrid composites in combination with 4 single-component dental adhesives (Scotchbond 1/Z100 MP = group 1; Syntac Single-Component/Tetric Flow = group 3; OptiBond Solo/XRV Herculite = group 5; Solobond M/Arabesk Top = group 7) and 4 multi-component dental adhesives (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 MP = group 2; Syntac/Tetric Flow = group 4; OptiBond FL/XRV Herculite = group 6; Solobond Plus/Arabesk Top = group 8). Ni...
Moment matrices and multi-component KP, with applications to random matrix theory
Adler, Mark; Van Moerbeke, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Pol
2006-01-01
Questions on random matrices and on non-intersecting Brownian motions have led to the study of moment matrices with regard to several weights. The purpose of this paper is to show that the determinants of such moment matrices satisfy, upon adding one set of time deformations for each weight, the multi-component KP-hierarchy: these determinants are thus "tau-functions" for these integrable hierarchies. The tau-functions, so obtained, with appropriate shifts of the time-parameters (forward and ...
Influence of Natural Convection and Thermal Radiation Multi-Component Transport in MOCVD Reactors
Lowry, S.; Krishnan, A.; Clark, I.
1999-01-01
The influence of Grashof and Reynolds number in Metal Organic Chemical Vapor (MOCVD) reactors is being investigated under a combined empirical/numerical study. As part of that research, the deposition of Indium Phosphide in an MOCVD reactor is modeled using the computational code CFD-ACE. The model includes the effects of convection, conduction, and radiation as well as multi-component diffusion and multi-step surface/gas phase chemistry. The results of the prediction are compared with experimental data for a commercial reactor and analyzed with respect to the model accuracy.
Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Structures under Multi-component Ground Motion Excitation
无
2001-01-01
An analysis of a base-isolated structure for multi-component random ground motion is presented. The mean square response of the system is obtained under different parametric variations. The effectiveness of main parameters and the torsional component during an earthquake is quantified with the help of the response ratio and the root mean square response with and without base isolation. It is observed that the base isolation has considerable influence on the response and the effect of the torsional component is not ignored.
A new multi-component Lie algebra is constructed, and a type of new loop algebra is presented. A (2+1)-dimensional multi-component DLW integrable hierarchy is obtained by using a (2+1)-dimensional zero curvature equation. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one and a type of integrable coupling system and its corresponding Hamiltonian structure are worked out.
Zhang Ke-Sheng; Wang Shu; Zhu Ming; Ding Yi; Hu Yi
2013-01-01
Decoupling the complicated vibrational-vibrational (V-V) coupling of a multimode vibrational relaxation remains a challenge for analyzing the sound relaxational absorption in multi-component gas mixtures.In our previous work [Acta Phys.Sin.61 174301 (2012)],an analytical model to predict the sound absorption from vibrational relaxation in a gas medium is proposed.In this paper,we develop the model to decouple the V-V coupled energy to each vibrationaltranslational deexcitation path,and analyze how the multimode relaxations form the peaks of sound absorption spectra in gas mixtures.We prove that a multimode relaxation is the sum of its decoupled single-relaxation processes,and only the decoupled process with a significant isochoric-molar-heat can be observed as an absorption peak.The decoupling model clarifies the essential processes behind the peaks in spectra arising from the multimode relaxations in multi-component gas mixtures.The simulation validates the proposed decoupling model.
Multi-component symmetry-projected approach for molecular ground state correlations
Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A. [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Scuseria, Gustavo E. [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)
2013-11-28
The symmetry-projected Hartree–Fock ansatz for the electronic structure problem can efficiently account for static correlation in molecules, yet it is often unable to describe dynamic correlation in a balanced manner. Here, we consider a multi-component, systematically improvable approach, that accounts for all ground state correlations. Our approach is based on linear combinations of symmetry-projected configurations built out of a set of non-orthogonal, variationally optimized determinants. The resulting wavefunction preserves the symmetries of the original Hamiltonian even though it is written as a superposition of deformed (broken-symmetry) determinants. We show how short expansions of this kind can provide a very accurate description of the electronic structure of simple chemical systems such as the nitrogen and the water molecules, along the entire dissociation profile. In addition, we apply this multi-component symmetry-projected approach to provide an accurate interconversion profile among the peroxo and bis(μ-oxo) forms of [Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, comparable to other state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods.
Multi-component symmetry-projected approach for molecular ground state correlations
The symmetry-projected Hartree–Fock ansatz for the electronic structure problem can efficiently account for static correlation in molecules, yet it is often unable to describe dynamic correlation in a balanced manner. Here, we consider a multi-component, systematically improvable approach, that accounts for all ground state correlations. Our approach is based on linear combinations of symmetry-projected configurations built out of a set of non-orthogonal, variationally optimized determinants. The resulting wavefunction preserves the symmetries of the original Hamiltonian even though it is written as a superposition of deformed (broken-symmetry) determinants. We show how short expansions of this kind can provide a very accurate description of the electronic structure of simple chemical systems such as the nitrogen and the water molecules, along the entire dissociation profile. In addition, we apply this multi-component symmetry-projected approach to provide an accurate interconversion profile among the peroxo and bis(μ-oxo) forms of [Cu2O2]2+, comparable to other state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods
A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays
Paulsson Geophysical Services
2008-03-31
The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.
Thermo-Calc based multi-component micro-segregation model and solidification paths calculations
Zhao Guangwei
2012-08-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a multi-length scale modeling, a mixture-averaged multi-component /multiphase micro-segregation model was proposed without pre-set function for the micro-scale solute profile. The model explains the effect of morphologies of solidifying phases and solid back diffusion (SBD on segregation, and covers the two limiting solidification cases of Scheil and Lever-rule models. A commercial Thermo-Calc software package/database was linked to the algorithms via its TQ6-interface for instantaneous determination of the related thermodynamic data of the multi-component alloys. The influences of cooling rate and other parameters on the solidification path and micro-segregation behavior were numerically investigated by sample calculation of the ternary Al-Cu-Mg alloys. A parallel experimental investigation on Al-Cu-Si alloys solidified under different cooling conditions was conducted to validate the theoretical model. Reasonable agreements were gained between the predicted solidification paths and the measured results.
A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.
Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M
2012-04-01
The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C. PMID:22559543
Lattice Boltzmann pore-scale model for multi-component reactive transport
Kang, Qinjun; Lichtner, Peter; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis
2004-11-01
A better understanding of multi-component flow and reaction in natural and man-made porous media is critical to a wide range of fields, including hydrology (groundwater quality), fossil energy (oil, gas, coalbed methane, clathrates), economic geology (mineral processing and development), geologic carbon sequestration (hydrodynamic and mineral trapping of carbon), and materials manufacturing and degradation (polymer composites, concrete, building materials). This problem is notoriously difficult because it usually involves multiple processes (convection, diffusion, and chemical reaction) and complex geometries and boundaries. In this work, we present a multi-component lattice Boltzmann model for simulating reactive transport in porous media at the pore scale. This model takes into account convection, diffusion, homogeneous reactions among multiple aqueous species, heterogeneous reactions between the aqueous solution and the minerals, as well as the resulting geometrical changes in pore space. Homogeneous reactions are described through local equilibrium mass action relations. Mineral reactions are treated kinetically through boundary conditions at the surface. We have applied this model to a hypothetical two-component system in a synthetically constructed medium, and analyzed the effects of convection, diffusion, reaction rate constants, and chemical compositions on mineral alteration of the porous medium.
Directing folding pathways for multi-component DNA origami nanostructures with complex topology
Marras, A. E.; Zhou, L.; Kolliopoulos, V.; Su, H.-J.; Castro, C. E.
2016-05-01
Molecular self-assembly has become a well-established technique to design complex nanostructures and hierarchical mesoscale assemblies. The typical approach is to design binding complementarity into nucleotide or amino acid sequences to achieve the desired final geometry. However, with an increasing interest in dynamic nanodevices, the need to design structures with motion has necessitated the development of multi-component structures. While this has been achieved through hierarchical assembly of similar structural units, here we focus on the assembly of topologically complex structures, specifically with concentric components, where post-folding assembly is not feasible. We exploit the ability to direct folding pathways to program the sequence of assembly and present a novel approach of designing the strand topology of intermediate folding states to program the topology of the final structure, in this case a DNA origami slider structure that functions much like a piston-cylinder assembly in an engine. The ability to program the sequence and control orientation and topology of multi-component DNA origami nanostructures provides a foundation for a new class of structures with internal and external moving parts and complex scaffold topology. Furthermore, this work provides critical insight to guide the design of intermediate states along a DNA origami folding pathway and to further understand the details of DNA origami self-assembly to more broadly control folding states and landscapes.
A finite element method based microwave heat transfer modeling of frozen multi-component foods
Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy
Microwave heating is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform heating in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food products based on "cook-and-look" approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food product design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave heating in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of various heterogeneous foods such as multi-component meal (chicken nuggets and mashed potato), multi-component and multi-layered meal (lasagna), and multi-layered food with active packages (pizza) during microwave heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed by solving electromagnetic and heat transfer equations using finite element method in commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software. The microwave heat transfer model included detailed geometry of the cavity, phase change, and rotation of the food on the turntable. The predicted spatial surface temperature patterns and temporal profiles were validated against the experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The predicted spatial surface temperature profile of different multi-component foods was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles in terms of hot and cold spot patterns. The root mean square error values of temporal profiles ranged from 5.8 °C to 26.2 °C in chicken nuggets as compared 4.3 °C to 4.7 °C in mashed potatoes. In frozen lasagna, root mean square error values at six locations ranged from 6.6 °C to 20.0 °C for 6 min of heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed to include susceptor assisted microwave heating of a
Non-equilibrium phase-transitions in multi-component Rydberg gases
Ding, D S; Shi, B S; Guo, G C
2016-01-01
Highly-excited Rydberg atoms have strong long-range interactions resulting in exotic optical prop erties such as large single photon non-linearities and intrinsic bistability. In this paper we study optical-driven non-equilibrium phase transitions in a thermal Rydberg gas with a sensitivity two order of magnitude higher than in previous work. In this regime we can elucidate the effect of inter actions on the bistable optical response, and exploit different branches in the potential in order to study multi-component Rydberg gases with a rich of phase diagram including overlapping bistable regions. In addition, we study the effect of polarization on the width of the hysteresis loop. Finally, we observe that the medium exhibits a dynamical instability resulting from the competing dynamics of excitation and decay.
Outcomes of a Multi-Component Family Enrichment Project: 12-Month Follow-up
Sara Anne Tompkins
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Previous research has established that family enrichment programs work with a variety of populations (e.g., Hawkins, Stanley, Blanchard, & Albright, 2012. It is unclear if a multi-component program focusing on a variety of family outcomes can lead to lasting change. This study used growth modeling to examine effects of relationship (i.e., Within My Reach, parenting (i.e., Making Parenting a Pleasure, and financial enrichment (i.e., Spend Some, Save Some, Share Some classes over 12 months. Results revealed improvement in family functioning at one year post for all three programs. Program specific improvements included relationship functioning and parenting alliance. Program participants reported overall satisfaction and gaining of valuable skills. Findings suggest these family enrichment programs can have long-lasting effects; potential reasons for sample success and implications are discussed.
Simulation of Multi-component Multi-stage Separation Process--An Improved Algorithm and Application
李春山; 张香平; 张锁江; 谭心舜; 项曙光
2006-01-01
This paper presents a flexible model and a robust algorithm for simulation of multi-stage multi-component separation processes in which multiple feeds, side streams, strippers and/or side heat exchangers are involved. The improved algorithm effectively accelerates the speed of convergence and offers better stability by introducing a damping factor for updating the stripping factor, and also reduces the requirement on the initial estimates by updating the Joacobian matrix directly with the stripping factor and enthalpy. On the other hand, an efficient algorithm was proposed to solve the approximate tri-diagonal matrix (containing the off-band elements) derived from the material balance equations (Mequations)and phase equilibrium equations (E equations), the advantages and simplicity of the "inside-out" technique of the Russell are retained. The present algorithm was demonstrated to be effective in simulating complex separation columns with typical case studies.
Non-Isothermal, Multi-phase, Multi-component Flows through Deformable Methane Hydrate Reservoirs
Gupta, Shubhangi; Wohlmuth, Barbara
2015-01-01
We present a hydro-geomechanical model for subsurface methane hydrate systems. Our model considers kinetic hydrate phase change and non-isothermal, multi-phase, multi-component flow in elastically deforming soils. The model accounts for the effects of hydrate phase change and pore pressure changes on the mechanical properties of the soil, and also for the effect of soil deformation on the fluid-solid interaction properties relevant to reaction and transport processes (e.g., permeability, capillary pressure, reaction surface area). We discuss a 'cause-effect' based decoupling strategy for the model and present our numerical discretization and solution scheme. We then identify the important model components and couplings which are most vital for a hydro-geomechanical hydrate simulator, namely, 1) dissociation kinetics, 2) hydrate phase change coupled with non-isothermal two phase two component flow, 3) two phase flow coupled with linear elasticity (poroelasticity coupling), and finally 4) hydrate phase change c...
Probabilistic techniques using Monte Carlo sampling for multi- component system diagnostics
We outline the structure of a new approach at multi-component system fault diagnostics which utilizes detailed system simulation models, uncertain system observation data, statistical knowledge of system parameters, expert opinion, and component reliability data in an effort to identify incipient component performance degradations of arbitrary number and magnitude. The technique involves the use of multiple adaptive Kalman filters for fault estimation, the results of which are screened using standard hypothesis testing procedures to define a set of component events that could have transpired. Latin Hypercube sample each of these feasible component events in terms of uncertain component reliability data and filter estimates. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated through the analysis of a simulated small magnitude binary component fault in a boiling water reactor balance of plant. The results show that the procedure has the potential to be a very effective tool for incipient component fault diagnosis
S, Savithiri; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K
2015-01-01
Severe contradictions exist between experimental observations and computational predictions regarding natural convective thermal transport in nanosuspensions. The approach treating nanosuspensions as homogeneous fluids in computations has been pin pointed as the major contributor to such contradictions. To fill the void, inter particle and particle fluid interactivities (slip mechanisms), in addition to effective thermophysical properties, have been incorporated within the present formulation. Through thorough scaling analysis, the dominant slip mechanisms have been identified. A Multi Component Lattice Boltzmann Model (MCLBM) approach has been proposed, wherein the suspension has been treated as a non homogeneous twin component mixture with the governing slip mechanisms incorporated. The computations based on the mathematical model can accurately predict and quantify natural convection thermal transport in nanosuspensions. The role of slip mechanisms such as Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, drag, Saffman ...
Numerical code for multi-component galaxies: from N-body to chemistry and magnetic fields
Khoperskov, S A; Khoperskov, A V; Lubimov, V N
2015-01-01
We present a numerical code for multi-component simulation of the galactic evolution. Our code includes the following parts: $N$-body is used to evolve dark matter, stellar dynamics and dust grains, gas dynamics is based on TVD-MUSCL scheme with the extra modules for thermal processes, star formation, magnetic fields, chemical kinetics and multi-species advection. We describe our code in brief, but we give more details for the magneto-gas dynamics. We present several tests for our code and show that our code have passed the tests with a reasonable accuracy. Our code is parallelized using the MPI library. We apply our code to study the large scale dynamics of galactic discs.
Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam
2015-11-01
Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706
Study on a multi-component palladium alloy membrane for the fusion fuel cleanup system
Demonstration Tests with (D,T)2 gas to examine the reported hydrogen embrittlement and helium damage on Pd and Pd-Ag binary alloy are needed for a palladium alloy membrane for its application to a fusion fuel system. T2-gas circulating and T2-gas immersion tests with a multi-component palladium alloy, which had been selected for use of tritum purification, have been performed in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly(TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Japan/US Fusion Cooperation Program. Mechanical tensile tests and metallographic studies have been conducted in these durability tests. Similar tests had been performed on the same material under tritium-free atmospheres(H2, N2) to analyse the data obtained by the T2-gas tests. This report describes the results of the mechanical tensile tests and the test conditions. (author)
Recent advances on multi-component hybrid nanostructures for electrochemical capacitors
Xiong, Pan; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin
2015-10-01
With the continuously growing energy demand and ever-escalating environmental problems, the great energy transition from conventional fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy is under way, and requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices, such as electrochemical capacitors (also called as supercapacitors). In order to achieve high energy and power densities of supercapacitors, numerous efforts are devoted to the development of advanced multi-component hybrid electrode materials for realizing high-performance. This review summarizes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for energy storage, with a particular focus on these nanostructures that integrate carbon materials, metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymers for enhancing energy storage performances via taking advantage of each component's unique functionality and their synergetic effects. Finally, we give some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this intriguing field.
Dispersing multi-component and unstable powders in aqueous media using comb-type anionic polymers
Laarz, E.; Kauppi, A.; Andersson, K.M.;
2006-01-01
We have investigated the effect of polymeric dispersants on the rheological properties and consolidation behavior of concentrated cemented carbide (WC-Co) and magnesia (MgO) suspensions. The relatively novel types of comb-type anionic polymers with grafted non-ionic side chains are effective...... dispersants also in multi-component powder mixtures with a complex solution and surface chemistry and result in more robust suspensions at significantly higher solids loading compared with e.g., a traditional cationic polyelectrolyte. Direct force measurements on comb-type dispersants with different lengths...... of the grafted ethylene oxide side chains showed that the dispersants adsorb onto a MgO surface and infer a repulsion where the range scales with the length of the poly ethylene oxide side chains. The compressibility and the consolidation behavior of MgO particle networks in response to a centrifugal...
Study on multi-component combustible gas explosive characteristics of high gas mine*
ZHOU Xi-hua; WANG Ji-ren; LI Xin; LI Cheng-yu; HU Chun-yan
2008-01-01
Studied on multi-component combustible gas, methane mainly, explosion char-acteristics of high gas mine, obtained the rules of gas explosive limit that influenced by environment temperature, pressure, concentration of oxygen, other combustible gas, coal dust, energy of fire source, and the inert gas, proposed a new method of divide gas explo-sive triangle partition, and gave new partition linear equations. The gas explosive triangle and its new partition has important directive significance in distinguishing if the fire area has a gas explosion when sealing or opening fire area, or fire extinguishing in sealed fire area, and judging if there will be a gas explosion or other trend while fire extinguishing with inert gas.
Study on multi-component combustible gas explosive characteristics of high gas mine
ZHOU Xi-hua; WANG Ji-ren; LI Xin; LI Cheng-yu; HU Chun-yan
2008-01-01
Studied on multi-component combustible gas,methane mainly,explosion characteristics of high gas mine,obtained the rules of gas explosive limit that influenced by environment temperature,pressure,concentration of oxygen,other combustible gas,coaldust,energy of fire source,and the inert gas,proposed a new method of divide gas explosive tdangle partition,and gave new partition linear equations.The gas explosive triangle and its new partition has important directive significance in distinguishing if the fire area has a gas explosion when sealing or opening fire area,or fire extinguishing in sealed firearea,and judging if there will be a gas explosion or other trend while fire extinguishing with inert gas.
Otomo, Hiroshi; Li, Yong; Dressler, Marco; Staroselsky, Ilya; Zhang, Raoyang; Chen, Hudong
2016-01-01
We present recent developments in lattice Boltzmann modeling for multi-component flows, implemented on the platform of a general purpose, arbitrary geometry solver PowerFLOW. Presented benchmark cases demonstrate the method's accuracy and robustness necessary for handling real world engineering applications at practical resolution and computational cost. The key requirements for such approach are that the relevant physical properties and flow characteristics do not strongly depend on numerics. In particular, the strength of surface tension obtained using our new approach is independent of viscosity and resolution, while the spurious currents are significantly suppressed. Using a much improved surface wetting model, undesirable numerical artifacts including thin film and artificial droplet movement on inclined wall are significantly reduced.
A solid-state NMR method to determine domain sizes in multi-component polymer formulations
Schlagnitweit, Judith; Tang, Mingxue; Baias, Maria; Richardson, Sara; Schantz, Staffan; Emsley, Lyndon
2015-12-01
Polymer domain sizes are related to many of the physical properties of polymers. Here we present a solid-state NMR experiment that is capable of measuring domain sizes in multi-component mixtures. The method combines selective excitation of carbon magnetization to isolate a specific component with proton spin diffusion to report on domain size. We demonstrate the method in the context of controlled release formulations, which represents one of today's challenges in pharmaceutical science. We show that we can measure domain sizes of interest in the different components of industrial pharmaceutical formulations at natural isotopic abundance containing various (modified) cellulose derivatives, such as microcrystalline cellulose matrixes that are film-coated with a mixture of ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC).
The main purpose of this work is to model continuously monitored deteriorating systems by using Monte Carlo simulation and embedding the resulting model within an 'on condition' maintenance optimisation scheme that aims at minimising the expected total system cost over a given mission time. The simulation model is first introduced by considering a non-repairable single component subjected to stochastic degradation. The modelling is then generalised to multi-component repairable systems. To find the optimal degradation thresholds of maintenance intervention, the cost optimisation procedure employed is a simple search in the space of the maintenance thresholds. The sensitivity of the results to some of the driving cost parameters has also been examined
Coupling Multi-Component Models with MPH on Distributed MemoryComputer Architectures
He, Yun; Ding, Chris
2005-03-24
A growing trend in developing large and complex applications on today's Teraflop scale computers is to integrate stand-alone and/or semi-independent program components into a comprehensive simulation package. One example is the Community Climate System Model which consists of atmosphere, ocean, land-surface and sea-ice components. Each component is semi-independent and has been developed at a different institution. We study how this multi-component, multi-executable application can run effectively on distributed memory architectures. For the first time, we clearly identify five effective execution modes and develop the MPH library to support application development utilizing these modes. MPH performs component-name registration, resource allocation and initial component handshaking in a flexible way.
Multi-component dark matter in the light of new AMS-02 data
Lai, Chang; Huang, Da; Geng, Chao-Qiang
2015-10-01
We study the possible positron/electron excesses within the multi-component leptonically decaying dark matter (DM) scenario by fitting the most recent AMS-02 data on the positron fraction and total e+ + e- flux. We show that both the single- and two-component DM models are able to fit the two AMS-02 datasets. However, the single-component DM model favors the e+/e- energy cutoff from the DM decay less than 1 TeV through the τ-channel, which is already well constrained by the diffuse γ-ray spectrum measured by Fermi-LAT. For the two-component case with closing the τ-mode for the heavy DM particle, we find that the new AMS-02 data allows the heavy DM cutoff larger than 1 TeV, providing a good description of the high-energy behavior of the total e+ + e- flux and satisfying the diffuse γ-ray constraint.
Maintenance grouping strategy for multi-component systems with dynamic contexts
This paper presents a dynamic maintenance grouping strategy for multi-component systems with both “positive” and “negative” economic dependencies. Positive dependencies are commonly due to setup cost whereas negative dependencies are related to shutdown cost. Actually, grouping maintenance activities can save part of the setup cost, but can also in the same time increase the shutdown cost. Until now, both types of dependencies have been jointly taken into account only for simple system structures as pure series. The first aim of this paper is to investigate the case of systems with any combination of basic structures (series, parallel or k-out-of n structures). A cost model and a heuristic optimization scheme are proposed since the optimization of maintenance grouping strategy for such multi-component systems leads to a NP-complete problem. Then the second objective is to propose a finite horizon (dynamic) model in order to optimize online the maintenance strategy in the presence of dynamic contexts (change of the environment, the working condition, the production process, etc). A numerical example of a 16-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the advantages of the proposed approach in the maintenance optimization framework. - Highlights: • A dynamic grouping maintenance strategy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Impacts of the system structure on grouping maintenance are investigated. • A grouping approach based on the rolling horizon and GA algorithm is proposed. • Different dynamic contexts and their impacts on grouping maintenance are studied. • The proposed approach can help to update the maintenance planning in dynamic contexts
Cremaschini, Claudio; 10.1140/epjp/i2011-11063-3
2012-01-01
A notorious difficulty in the covariant dynamics of classical charged particles subject to non-local electromagnetic (EM) interactions arising in the EM radiation-reaction (RR) phenomena is due to the definition of the related non-local Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The lack of a standard Lagrangian/Hamiltonian formulation in the customary asymptotic approximation for the RR equation may inhibit the construction of consistent kinetic and fluid theories. In this paper the issue is investigated in the framework of Special Relativity. It is shown that, for finite-size spherically-symmetric classical charged particles, non-perturbative Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations in standard form can be obtained, which describe particle dynamics in the presence of the exact EM RR self-force. As a remarkable consequence, based on axiomatic formulation of classical statistical mechanics, the covariant kinetic theory for systems of charged particles subject to the EM RR self-force is formulated in Hamiltonian form....
Takahashi, H.; Asakawa, E.; Hayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T.
2011-12-01
A 2D multi-component seismic survey was carried out in the Nankai Trough using the RSCS (Real-time Seismic Cable System) system in 2006. The RSCS is the newly developed ocean bottom cable system which is usable in more than 2000m water depth. The results of the PP and data PS components gave us much information of the methane hydrates bearing zone. Based on RSCS technology, we are developing a new monitoring system using multi-component seismic sensors to delineate the methane hydrate dissociation zone for the offshore methane hydrate production test scheduled in FY2012. Conventional RSCS is composed of three component gimbaled geophones which require a large volume inside the receiver. We will adopt accelerometers to achieve a small receiver that is 2/3 the size of conventional RSCS. The accelerometer data can be corrected into horizontal or vertical directions based on the gravity acceleration. The receiver case has a protective metallic exterior and the cable is protected with steel-screened armoring, allowing for burial usage using ROV for sub-seabed deployment. It will realize a unique survey style that leaves the system on the seabed between pre-test baseline survey and post-test repeated survey, which might be up to 6 months. The fixed location of the receiver is very important for time-lapse monitoring survey. We name the new system as DSS (Deep-sea Seismic System). A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the area of the dissociation. The first experiment of the DSS performance test in a marine area is planned in November 2011. The main features of DSS are described as follows: (1) Deep-sea /Ultra Deep-sea Operation Methane hydrate exists in equilibrium temperature and pressure holds at water depths greater than 500m. The system water depth resistance target up to 2000m. The receiver case has a protective
Sorption of selenite in a multi-component system using the “dialysis membrane” method
79Se is a potentially mobile long-lived fission product, which may make a dominant contribution to the long-term radiation exposure resulting from deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Its mobility is affected by sorption on minerals. Selenium sorption processes have been studied mainly by considering interaction with a single mineral surface. In the case of multi-component systems (e.g. soils), it is difficult to predict the radioelement behaviour only from the mineral constituents. This study contributes to the understanding of multi-component controls of Se concentrations towards predicting Se behaviour in soils after migration from a disposal site. This goal was approached by measuring selenite sorption on mono and multi-phase systems physically separated by dialysis membranes. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, very few studies have used dialysis membranes to study the sorption competition of selenite between several mineral phases. Other workers have used this method to study the sorption of pesticides on montmorillonite in the presence of dissolved organic matter. Indeed, this method allows measurement of individual Kd in a system composed of several mineral phases. Dialysis membranes allowed (i) determination of the competition of two mineral phases for selenite sorption (ii) and determination of the role of humic acids (HAs) on selenite sorption in oxidising conditions. Experimental results at pH 7.0 show an average Se(IV) sorption distribution coefficient (Kd) of approximately 125 and 9410 L kg−1 for bentonite and goethite, respectively. The average Kd for goethite decreases to 613 L kg−1 or 3215 L kg−1 in the presence of bentonite or HA, respectively. For bentonite, the average Kd decreases slightly in the presence of goethite (60 L kg−1) and remains unchanged in the presence of HA. The experimental data were successfully modelled with a surface complexation model using the PHREEQC geochemical code. The drastic decrease in Se
A new numerical approach to solve the linear integrodifferential Fokker-Planck equation (FPE), which describes a collisional and magnetized plasma, is presented. For this purpose, the FPE is reduced to a simple set of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved, with the use of standard numerical methods. The transport coefficients induced by the first anisotropic distribution function computed by Braginskii [Reviews of Plasma Physics (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1] and improved by Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], have been recovered. The viscosity coefficients are computed for arbitrary atomic numbers and arbitrary magnetic field strength and are compared to the results reported in the literature
Evaporation of multi-component mixtures and shell formation in spray dried droplets
Valente, Pedro; Duarte, Íris; Porfirio, Tiago; Temtem, Márcio
2015-11-01
Drug particles where the active pharmaceutical ingredient (APIs) is dispersed in a polymer matrix forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) is a commonly used strategy to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble APIs. However, the formation and stability of an amorphous solid dispersion depends on the polymer/API combination and process conditions to generate it. The focus of the present work is to further develop a numerical tool to predict the formation of ASDs by spray drying solutions of different polymer/API combinations. Specifically, the evaporation of a multi-component droplet is coupled with a diffusion law within the droplet that minimizes the Gibbs free energy of the polymer/API/solvents system, following the Flory-Huggins model. Prior to the shell formation, the evaporation of the solvents is modelled following the simplified approach proposed by Abramzon & Sirignano (1989) which accounts for the varying relative velocity between the droplet and the drying gas. After shell formation, the diffusion of the solvents across the porous shell starkly modifies the evaporative dynamics.
On the multi-component nonlinear Schrodinger equation with constant boundary conditions
The multi-component nonlinear Schrodinger equation related to C.I ≃ Sp(2p)/U(p) and D.III ≃ SO(2p)/f/(p)-type symmetric spaces with non-vanishing boundary conditions is solvable with the inverse scattering method (ISM). As Lax operator L we use the generalized Zakharov-Shabat operator. We show that the ISM for the Lax operator L(x,λ) is a nonlinear analog of the Fourier-transform method. As appropriate generalizations of the usual Fourier-exponential functions we use the so-called 'squared solutions', which are constructed in terms of the fundamental analytic solutions (FAS) χ±(x'λ) of L(x, λ) and the Cartan-Weyl basis of the Lie algebra, relevant to the symmetric space. We derive the completeness relation for the 'squared solutions' which turns out to provide spectral decomposition of the recursion (generating) operators Λ±, a natural generalizations of 1/i d/dx in the case of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEE). (author)
Solis, Eduardo; Meyn, Larry
2016-01-01
Calibrating the internal, multi-component balance mounted in the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) required photogrammetric measurements to determine the location and orientation of forces applied to the balance. The TTR, with the balance and calibration hardware attached, was mounted in a custom calibration stand. Calibration loads were applied using eleven hydraulic actuators, operating in tension only, that were attached to the forward frame of the calibration stand and the TTR calibration hardware via linkages with in-line load cells. Before the linkages were installed, photogrammetry was used to determine the location of the linkage attachment points on the forward frame and on the TTR calibration hardware. Photogrammetric measurements were used to determine the displacement of the linkage attachment points on the TTR due to deflection of the hardware under applied loads. These measurements represent the first photogrammetric deflection measurements to be made to support 6-component rotor balance calibration. This paper describes the design of the TTR and the calibration hardware, and presents the development, set-up and use of the photogrammetry system, along with some selected measurement results.
Development of a hard nano-structured multi-component ceramic coating by laser cladding
The present paper reports laser-assisted synthesis of a multi-component ceramic composite coating consisting of aluminum oxide, titanium di-boride and titanium carbide (Al2O3-TiB2-TiC). A pre-placed powder mixture of aluminum (Al), titanium oxide (TiO2) and boron carbide (B4C) was made to undergo self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by laser triggering. Laser subsequently effected cladding of the products of SHS on the substrate. The effect of laser scanning speed on the hardness, microstructure and phase composition of the composite coating was investigated. The coating exhibited an increase in hardness and a decrease in grain size with increase in laser scanning speed. A maximum micro-hardness of 2500 HV0.025 was obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the top surface of the coating revealed the presence of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), titanium di-boride (TiB2) and titanium carbide (TiC) along with some non-stoichiometric products of the Ti-Al-B-C-O system. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) analysis revealed some nano-structured TiB2 and Al2O3, which are discussed in detail.
Performances of Multi-Level and Multi-Component Compressed BitmapIndices
Wu, Kesheng; Stockinger, Kurt; Shoshani, Arie
2007-04-30
This paper presents a systematic study of two large subsetsof bitmap indexing methods that use multi-component and multi-levelencodings. Earlier studies on bitmap indexes are either empirical or foruncompressed versions only. Since most of bitmap indexes in use arecompressed, we set out to study the performance characteristics of thesecompressed indexes. To make the analyses manageable, we choose to use aparticularly simple, but efficient, compression method called theWord-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. Using this compression method, a numberof bitmap indexes are shown to be optimal because their worst-case timecomplexities for answering a query is a linear function of the number ofhits. Since compressed bitmap indexes behave drastically different fromuncompressed ones, our analyses also lead to a number of new methods thatare much more efficient than commonly used ones. As a validation for theanalyses, we implement a number of the best methods and measure theirperformance against well-known indexes. The fastest new methods arepredicted and observed to be 5 to 10 times faster than well-knownindexing methods.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Multi-component Mooring Lines Incorporating Line-seabed Interaction
V.J. Kurian
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, a deterministic approach for the dynamic analysis of a multi-component mooring line was formulated. The floater motion responses were considered as the mooring line upper boundary conditions while the anchored point was considered as pinned. Lumped parameter approach was adopted for the mooring line modelling. The forces considered were the submerged weights of mooring/attachment, physical/added inertia, line tension, fluid/line relative drag forces and line/seabed reactive forces. The latter interactions were modelled assuming that the mooring line rested on an elastic dissipative foundation. An iterative procedure for the dynamic analysis was developed and results for various mooring lines partially lying on different soils were obtained and validated by conducting a comparative study against published results. Good agreement between numerical and published experimental results was achieved. The contribution of the soil characteristics of the seabed to the dynamic behaviour of mooring line was investigated for different types of soil and reported.
Computational Design of Multi-component Bio-Inspired Bilayer Membranes
Evan Koufos
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Our investigation is motivated by the need to design bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties for use in a range of applications, such as targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging. We draw inspiration from biological cell membranes and focus on their principal constituents. In this paper, we present our results on the role of molecular architecture on the interfacial, structural and dynamical properties of bio-inspired membranes. We focus on four lipid architectures with variations in the head group shape and the hydrocarbon tail length. Each lipid species is composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. In addition, we study a model of the Cholesterol molecule to understand the interfacial properties of a bilayer membrane composed of rigid, single-tail molecular species. We demonstrate the properties of the bilayer membranes to be determined by the molecular architecture and rigidity of the constituent species. Finally, we demonstrate the formation of a stable mixed bilayer membrane composed of Cholesterol and one of the phospholipid species. Our approach can be adopted to design multi-component bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties. We use a Molecular Dynamics-based mesoscopic simulation technique called Dissipative Particle Dynamics that resolves the molecular details of the components through soft-sphere coarse-grained models and reproduces the hydrodynamic behavior of the system over extended time scales.
NuSTAR Spectroscopy of Multi-Component X-ray Reflection from NGC 1068
Bauer, Franz E; Walton, Dominic J; Koss, Michael J; Puccetti, Simonetta; Gandhi, Poshak; Stern, Daniel; Alexander, David M; Balokovic, Mislav; Boggs, Steve E; Brandt, William N; Brightman, Murray; Christensen, Finn E; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W; Del Moro, Agnese; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Hickox, Ryan; Luo, Bin; Markwardt, Craig B; Marinucci, Andrea; Matt, Giorgio; Rigby, Jane R; Rivers, Elizabeth; Saez, Cristian; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C Megan; Zhang, William W
2014-01-01
We report on observations of NGC1068 with NuSTAR, which provide the best constraints to date on its $>10$~keV spectral shape. We find no strong variability over the past two decades, consistent with its Compton-thick AGN classification. The combined NuSTAR, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT spectral dataset offers new insights into the complex reflected emission. The critical combination of the high signal-to-noise NuSTAR data and a spatial decomposition with Chandra allow us to break several model degeneracies and greatly aid physical interpretation. When modeled as a monolithic (i.e., a single N_H) reflector, none of the common Compton-reflection models are able to match the neutral fluorescence lines and broad spectral shape of the Compton reflection. A multi-component reflector with three distinct column densities (e.g., N_H~1.5e23, 5e24, and 1e25 cm^{-2}) provides a more reasonable fit to the spectral lines and Compton hump, with near-solar Fe abundances. In this model, the higher N_H components provide...
Development of multi-component explosive lenses for arbitrary phase velocity generation
Loiseau, Jason; Huneault, Justin; Petel, Oren; Goroshin, Sam; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew; Zhang, Fan
2013-06-01
The combination of explosives with different detonation velocities and lens-like geometric shaping is a well-established technique for producing structured detonation waves. This technique can be extended to produce nearly arbitrary detonation phase velocities for the purposes of sequentially imploding pressurized tubes or driving Mach disks through high-density metalized explosives. The current study presents the experimental development of accelerating, multi-component lenses designed using simple geometric optics and idealized front curvature. The fast explosive component is either Composition C4 (VOD = 8 km/s) or Primasheet 1000 (VOD = 7 km/s), while the slow component varies from heavily amine-diluted nitromethane (amine mass fraction exceeding 20%) to packed metal and glass particle beds wetted with amine-sensitized nitromethane. The applicability of the geometric optic analog to such highly heterogeneous explosives is also investigated. The multi-layered lens technique is further developed as a means of generating a directed mass and momentum flux of metal particles via Mach-disk formation and jetting in circular and oval planar lenses.
Preventive maintenance optimization for a multi-component system under changing job shop schedule
Variability and small lot size is a common feature for many discrete manufacturing processes designed to meet a wide array of customer needs. Because of this, job shop schedule often has to be continuously updated in reaction to changes in production plan. Generally, the aim of preventive maintenance is to ensure production effectiveness and therefore the preventive maintenance models must have the ability to be adaptive to changes in job shop schedule. In this paper, a dynamic opportunistic preventive maintenance model is developed for a multi-component system with considering changes in job shop schedule. Whenever a job is completed, preventive maintenance opportunities arise for all the components in the system. An optimal maintenance practice is dynamically determined by maximizing the short-term cumulative opportunistic maintenance cost savings for the system. The numerical example shows that the scheme obtained by the proposed model can effectively address the preventive maintenance scheduling problem caused by the changes in job shop schedule and is more efficient than the ones based on two other commonly used preventive maintenance models.
REVIEW ARTICLE: Multi-component force balances for conventional and cryogenic wind tunnels
Ewald, Bernd F. R.
2000-06-01
The measurement of the total forces acting on the surface of a wind tunnel model is still the most important wind tunnel measurement technology. Either the model is mounted by struts to a balance, which is located outside the test section (an `external balance'), or the balance is located inside the model and connects the model structure to the mounting sting, which in the case of aeroplane configurations protrudes from the rear fuselage (an `internal balance'). This review concerns internal balances only. The functional principle is described and some comments on the demand for high accuracy are given. The optimization of designs for strain gauge balances, the fabrication methods and the selection of materials are commented on. The calibration theory of multi-component balances is outlined and the calibration equipment is described. Examples for conventional manual calibration equipment and for an automatic calibration machine are given. Finally the specific design features of cryogenic balances and half model balances are given. This review presents the author's experiences and developments. Since there is hardly any general literature on the subject of strain gauge balances and since the balance engineers in the world have not that much contact with each other, there may be different points of view at other institutions.
Phase relationship of complex multi-component system in chromate cleaner production
Ge Xinlei; Wang Xidong; Zheng Shili; Zhang Mei; Zhang Yi
2007-01-01
The phase relationships of the complex multi-component systems in the liquid-phase oxidization and separation process related with the chromate cleaner production are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phase diagram of main system Fe-Cr2O4-KOH-O2 of oxidization process and the relationship of its standard Gibbs free energy change with temperature are calculated. A series of phase diagrams of the separation process at different temperatures, such as K(Na)OH-K (Na)2CrO4-H2O, KOH-KAlO2-H2O,K(Na)OH- K(Na)2CO3-H2O, K(Na)OH-K(Na)HCO3-H2O and K(Na)HCO3-K(Na)2CrO4-H2O have also been calculated. Some experiments are carried out to verify the calculated results. Our results showed that the sub-molten salt media are suitable for the oxidization and separation processes; FeCr2O4 can be oxidized across a wide range of temperature; K (Na)2CrO4 can be separated from K(Na) AlO2 system at appropriate temperature and proper concentration; the crystallization of carbonate is easier than that of K(Na)2CrO4.
Hygroscopicity of internally mixed multi-component aerosol particles of atmospheric relevance
Liu, Qifan; Jing, Bo; Peng, Chao; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa
2016-01-01
The hygroscopic properties of two water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) relevant to urban haze pollution (phthalic acid and levoglucosan) and their internally mixtures with inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate) are investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA) system. The multi-component particles uptake water gradually in the range 5-90% relative humidity (RH). The experimental results are compared with the thermodynamic model predictions. For most mixtures, Extended Aerosol Inorganic Model (E-AIM) predictions agree well with the measured growth factors. The hygroscopic growth of mixed particles can be well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation as long as the mixed particles are completely liquid. ZSR calculations underestimate the water uptake of mixed particles at moderate RH due to the partial dissolution of ammonium sulfate in the organic and ammonium nitrate solution in this RH region. The phase of ammonium nitrate in the initial dry particles changes dramatically with the composition of mixtures. The presence of organics in the mixed particles can inhibit the crystallization of ammonium nitrate during the drying process and results in water uptake at low RH (RH water uptake of particles.
New approaches to the modelling of multi-component fuel droplet heating and evaporation
Sazhin, Sergei S
2015-02-25
The previously suggested quasi-discrete model for heating and evaporation of complex multi-component hydrocarbon fuel droplets is described. The dependence of density, viscosity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of liquid components on carbon numbers n and temperatures is taken into account. The effects of temperature gradient and quasi-component diffusion inside droplets are taken into account. The analysis is based on the Effective Thermal Conductivity/Effective Diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. This model is applied to the analysis of Diesel and gasoline fuel droplet heating and evaporation. The components with relatively close n are replaced by quasi-components with properties calculated as average properties of the a priori defined groups of actual components. Thus the analysis of the heating and evaporation of droplets consisting of many components is replaced with the analysis of the heating and evaporation of droplets consisting of relatively few quasi-components. It is demonstrated that for Diesel and gasoline fuel droplets the predictions of the model based on five quasi-components are almost indistinguishable from the predictions of the model based on twenty quasi-components for Diesel fuel droplets and are very close to the predictions of the model based on thirteen quasi-components for gasoline fuel droplets. It is recommended that in the cases of both Diesel and gasoline spray combustion modelling, the analysis of droplet heating and evaporation is based on as little as five quasi-components.
Data quality of a low fold seismic survey employing a buried multi-component array at Ketzin
Meekes, J.A.C.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Arts, R.J.
2011-01-01
To monitor the migration of the injected CO2 in the Ketzin project (Germany) a permanently buried multi-component seismic array has been installed in August 2009. Besides passive seismic recordings, this monitoring system was used to record data for an active survey carried out in 2009, resulting in
Prakasam Thirumurugan; S Mahalaxmi; Paramasivan T Perumal
2010-11-01
A simple protocol for the efficient preparation of 2-(1-Indol-3-yl)-6-methoxy-4-arylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile has been achieved through one-pot multi-component reaction under reflux condition. These compounds showed a good anti-inflammatory activity. Also a series of bis-Hantzsch dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and they exhibit analgesic activity.
Xiao-Wei Hong
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An efficient multi-component reaction to synthesize multi-substituted 1,3-oxazolidine compounds of high optical purity was described. All the products were well-characterized and the absolute configuration of one chiral center was determined. The plausible mechanism was proposed and a kinetic resolution of epoxides process was confirmed.
Huang, T.; Larsen, K. T.; Moller, N. C.;
2015-01-01
Objective. To examine the effects of a multi-component camp-based intervention on inflammatory markers and adipokines in children. Methods. One hundred and fifteen children were recruited in Odense, Denmark (2012-2014). The participants were randomly allocated to either the day camp intervention ...
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.
1997-03-01
We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors). 13 refs., 1 tab.
B. M. Khroustalev
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper
Krysiak, R; Kowalcze, K; Bednarska-Czerwińska, A; Okopień, B
2016-04-01
Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), one of the most common genetic disorders, is often associated with the presence of hyperandrogenism. Recently both simvastatin and metformin were found to reduce plasma steroid hormone levels in this disorder. This study included 8 women with NC-CAH and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as 12 matched women with similar glucose metabolism abnormalities but normal adrenal function. Both groups of women, receiving metformin for at least 6 months, were then treated with simvastatin (20 mg daily) for the following 12 weeks. Compared to patients with normal adrenal function, metformin-treated women with NC-CAH showed increased plasma levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA-S. Simvastatin reduced total and LDL cholesterol levels in both patients with NC-CAH and normal adrenal function. Moreover, in the former group of women, statin therapy decreased plasma levels of testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and tended to reduce 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Our results suggest that metformin-statin combination therapy may be useful in the management of symptomatic women with NC-CAH. PMID:26824284
Highlights: • Multi-component oxides had a good wetting on stainless substrates with pretreatments. • Various substrates surface roughness caused the difference of final contact angles. • The wetting rate was slow on polished substrate due to the slow surface oxidation. - Abstract: A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S
Wang, Jin, E-mail: wangjinustb@gmail.com [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Matsuda, Nozomu [Bar and Wire Product Unit, Nippon steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Fukuoka, 802-8686 (Japan); Shinozaki, Nobuya [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Miyoshi, Noriko [The Center for Instrumental Analysis, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 804-8550 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takanobu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8588 (Japan)
2015-02-01
Highlights: • Multi-component oxides had a good wetting on stainless substrates with pretreatments. • Various substrates surface roughness caused the difference of final contact angles. • The wetting rate was slow on polished substrate due to the slow surface oxidation. - Abstract: A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.
Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.
2015-12-01
We present a new S-wave velocity model for the Yellowstone magmatic system derived from the inversion of Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity measurements from periods from 6 to 35 s. All available data from 2007-2014 within and near the Yellowstone region was downloaded for the USArray TA network (TA), the Yellowstone Seismic Network (WY), the NOISY array (Z2), the USGS Intermountain West network (IW), the Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network (PB), and the USGS National Seismic Network (US). For each station, we perform daily noise pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectrum whitening) simultaneously for all three components before multi-component noise cross-correlations are calculated. Results for both Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocity inversions clearly show the low velocity anomaly associated with the upper-crustal magma reservoir seen previously using body wave tomography. In addition, low-velocity anomalies associated with sediment-filled basins are visible in Wyoming. Short period low Love-wave velocities are seen along the Snake River Plain, the track of the Yellowstone hotspot likely related to the shallow sediment layer. Based on the surface wave phase velocity maps, we invert for a 3D S-wave crustal model. The resulting model will be compared to previous, but spatially limited, body wave S-wave models as well as recent body wave P-wave velocity models to better constrain Vp/Vs ratios as well as the melt fraction of the magma chamber. Preliminary results using amplitude information of noise cross-correlations to calculate Rayleigh-wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh-wave H/V (horizontal to vertical) amplitude ratios to better constrain the shallow velocity structure will also be discussed.
A Study on the Simultaneous Multi-Components Analysis of Soil Pollution
Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Kun-Han; Choi, Byung-In [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)
1999-12-01
Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS and LA-ICP/MS for 14 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for BTEX, TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds, PCBs in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extracting procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils had a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of oils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study, we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc.. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides
Keith B Godfrey
2009-12-01
Full Text Available During development, neurons extend axons to different brain areas and produce stereotypical patterns of connections. The mechanisms underlying this process have been intensively studied in the visual system, where retinal neurons form retinotopic maps in the thalamus and superior colliculus. The mechanisms active in map formation include molecular guidance cues, trophic factor release, spontaneous neural activity, spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP, synapse creation and retraction, and axon growth, branching and retraction. To investigate how these mechanisms interact, a multi-component model of the developing retinocollicular pathway was produced based on phenomenological approximations of each of these mechanisms. Core assumptions of the model were that the probabilities of axonal branching and synaptic growth are highest where the combined influences of chemoaffinity and trophic factor cues are highest, and that activity-dependent release of trophic factors acts to stabilize synapses. Based on these behaviors, model axons produced morphologically realistic growth patterns and projected to retinotopically correct locations in the colliculus. Findings of the model include that STDP, gradient detection by axonal growth cones and lateral connectivity among collicular neurons were not necessary for refinement, and that the instructive cues for axonal growth appear to be mediated first by molecular guidance and then by neural activity. Although complex, the model appears to be insensitive to variations in how the component developmental mechanisms are implemented. Activity, molecular guidance and the growth and retraction of axons and synapses are common features of neural development, and the findings of this study may have relevance beyond organization in the retinocollicular pathway.
High Performance Multi-GPU SpMV for Multi-component PDE-Based Applications
Abdelfattah, Ahmad
2015-07-25
Leveraging optimization techniques (e.g., register blocking and double buffering) introduced in the context of KBLAS, a Level 2 BLAS high performance library on GPUs, the authors implement dense matrix-vector multiplications within a sparse-block structure. While these optimizations are important for high performance dense kernel executions, they are even more critical when dealing with sparse linear algebra operations. The most time-consuming phase of many multicomponent applications, such as models of reacting flows or petroleum reservoirs, is the solution at each implicit time step of large, sparse spatially structured or unstructured linear systems. The standard method is a preconditioned Krylov solver. The Sparse Matrix-Vector multiplication (SpMV) is, in turn, one of the most time-consuming operations in such solvers. Because there is no data reuse of the elements of the matrix within a single SpMV, kernel performance is limited by the speed at which data can be transferred from memory to registers, making the bus bandwidth the major bottleneck. On the other hand, in case of a multi-species model, the resulting Jacobian has a dense block structure. For contemporary petroleum reservoir simulations, the block size typically ranges from three to a few dozen among different models, and still larger blocks are relevant within adaptively model-refined regions of the domain, though generally the size of the blocks, related to the number of conserved species, is constant over large regions within a given model. This structure can be exploited beyond the convenience of a block compressed row data format, because it offers opportunities to hide the data motion with useful computations. The new SpMV kernel outperforms existing state-of-the-art implementations on single and multi-GPUs using matrices with dense block structure representative of porous media applications with both structured and unstructured multi-component grids.
Research on the simultaneous multi-components analytical method for polluted soil
Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Duk Young; Choi, Byung In; Kim, Kun Han; Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Lee, Jung Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)
1998-12-01
Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS for 13 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extraction procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils has a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of soils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study , we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides in soil at high and low
DeArmond, Patrick D.; West, Graham M.; Huang, Hai-Tsang; Fitzgerald, Michael C.
2011-03-01
Described here is a stable isotope labeling protocol that can be used with a chemical modification- and mass spectrometry-based protein-ligand binding assay for detecting and quantifying both the direct and indirect binding events that result from protein-ligand binding interactions. The protocol utilizes an H{2/16}O2 and H{2/18}O2 labeling strategy to evaluate the chemical denaturant dependence of methionine oxidation in proteins both in the presence and absence of a target ligand. The differential denaturant dependence to the oxidation reactions performed in the presence and absence of ligand provides a measure of the protein stability changes that occur as a result of direct interactions of proteins with the target ligand and/or as a result of indirect interactions involving other protein-ligand interactions that are either induced or disrupted by the ligand. The described protocol utilizes the 18O/16O ratio in the oxidized protein samples to quantify the ligand-induced protein stability changes. The ratio is determined using the isotopic distributions observed for the methionine-containing peptides used for protein identification in the LC-MS-based proteomics readout. The strategy is applied to a multi-component protein mixture in this proof-of-principle experiment, which was designed to evaluate the technique's ability to detect and quantify the direct binding interaction between cyclosporin A and cyclophilin A and to detect the indirect binding interaction between cyclosporin A and calcineurin (i.e., the protein-protein interaction between cyclophilin A and calcineurin that is induced by cyclosporin A binding to cyclophilin A).
A critical analysis is given of the well-known expression for the electron-impact ionization rate constant αi of neutral atoms and ions, derived by linearization of the ionization cross section σi(ε) as a function of the electron energy near the threshold I and containing the characteristic factor (I + 2kT). Using the classical Thomson expression for the ionization cross section, it is shown that in addition to the linear slope of σi(ε), it is also necessary to take into account the large negative curvature of this function near the threshold. In this case, the second term in parentheses changes its sign, which means that the commonly used expression for αi (∼4kT/I) already at moderate values of the temperature (kT/I ∼ 0.1). The source of this error lies in a mathematical mistake in the original approach and is related to the incorrect choice of the sequential orders of terms small in the parameter kT/I. On the basis of a large amount of experimental data and considerations similar to the Gryzinski theory, a universal two-parameter modification of the Thomson formula (as well as the Bethe—Born formula) is proposed and a new simple expression for the ionization rate constant for arbitrary values of kT/I is derived
A self-consistent approximation scheme is formulated for the calculation of the dynamical linear polarizability of classical electron monolayers. The derivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the authors formulate a simple response function relation linking linear and quadratic polarizabilities; the dynamical coupling function is expressed entirely in terms of the latter. The basic elements in the derivation are the first BBGKY kinetic equation (prepared in the velocity average approximation) and the non-linear fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The new response function relation is exact at zero frequency and exactly satisfies the third frequency moment sum rule. In the second stage, self-consistency is guaranteed by approximating the quadratic polarizability in terms of linear ones. The theory is examined in the weak coupling limit where it is found that a dominant γ-independent non-RPA contribution to the damping is missing. The structure of the missing term is identified at arbitrary coupling strengths. Work is in progress to see how it can be incorporated into the approximation scheme. (author)
The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies
Direct laser induced fluorescence measurements are shown of cross-field ion flows normal to an absorbing boundary that is aligned parallel to the axial magnetic field in a helicon plasma. We show Langmuir and emissive probe measurements of local density and plasma potential in the same region, as well as floating probe spectra near the boundary. With these measurements, we investigate the influence of ion-neutral collisionality on radial ion transport by varying the ratio of the ion gyro-radius, ρi, to the ion-neutral collision length, λ, over the range 0.34 ≤ ρiλ−1 ≤ 1.60. Classical drift-diffusion transport along density and potential gradients is sufficient to describe flow profiles for most cases. For two parameter regimes (ρiλ−1 = 0.65 and 0.44), low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations (f < 10 kHz) and enhanced cross-field bulk ion flow to the boundary are observed
Siddiqui, M. Umair, E-mail: musiddiqui@mail.wvu.edu; Thompson, Derek S.; McIlvain, Julianne M.; Short, Zachary D.; Scime, Earl E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)
2015-12-15
Direct laser induced fluorescence measurements are shown of cross-field ion flows normal to an absorbing boundary that is aligned parallel to the axial magnetic field in a helicon plasma. We show Langmuir and emissive probe measurements of local density and plasma potential in the same region, as well as floating probe spectra near the boundary. With these measurements, we investigate the influence of ion-neutral collisionality on radial ion transport by varying the ratio of the ion gyro-radius, ρ{sub i}, to the ion-neutral collision length, λ, over the range 0.34 ≤ ρ{sub i}λ{sup −1} ≤ 1.60. Classical drift-diffusion transport along density and potential gradients is sufficient to describe flow profiles for most cases. For two parameter regimes (ρ{sub i}λ{sup −1} = 0.65 and 0.44), low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations (f < 10 kHz) and enhanced cross-field bulk ion flow to the boundary are observed.
Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris;
. However, the accuracy of such calculations are generally unknown that often leads to overdesign of the operational units and results in significant additional cost. TDE provides a tool for the analysis of uncertainty of property calculations for multi-component streams. A process stream in TDE can be......ThermoData Engine (TDE, NIST Standard Reference Databases 103a and 103b) is the first product that implements the concept of Dynamic Data Evaluation in the fields of thermophysics and thermochemistry, which includes maintaining the comprehensive and up-to-date database of experimentally measured...... variations). Predictions can be compared to the available experimental data, and uncertainties are estimated for all efficiency criteria. Calculations of the properties of multi-component streams including composition at phase equilibria (flash calculations) are at the heart of process simulation engines...
Lei, Wang; Yanzhong, Li; Zhan, Liu; Kang, Zhu
An improved CFD model involving a multi-component gas mixturein the ullage is constructed to predict the pressurization behavior of a cryogenic tank considering the existence of pressurizing helium.A temperature difference between the local fluid and its saturation temperature corresponding to the vapor partial pressure is taken as the phase change driving force. As practical application of the model, hydrogen and oxygen tanks with helium pressurization arenumerically simulated by using themulti-component gas model. The results presentthat the improved model produce higher ullage temperature and pressure and lower wall temperaturethan those without multi-component consideration. The phase change has a slight influence on thepressurization performance due to the small quantities involved.
Development of multi-component filter metal with low melting point for joining Ti-Super STS metals
We report the development of multi-component filler metal with low melting point for joining Ti-Super STS metals based on the followings. - Design of filler metal alloys with low melting point - Design of filler metal alloys based on understanding of dissimilar joining - Effect of addition elements on the melting point of filter metals - Optimization of process parameters for fabrication of powder/ribbon type filler metal
Spanos, D.; Boyle, S.; Hankey, C.; Melville, C.
2013-01-01
Background: The prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is rising, although the evidence base for its treatment in this population group is minimal. Weight management interventions that are accessible to adults with ID will reduce the inequalities that they frequently experience in health services. This short report compared the effectiveness of weight management in those with and without ID who completed nine sessions of a multi-component weight management program...
Villareal, Dennis T.; Smith, Gordon I.; Sinacore, David R.; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina
2010-01-01
Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multi-component (strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance) exercise program to maintain physical fitness. However, the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness in frail, obese older adults is not known. We therefore determined the effect of a 3 month-...
Middleton, Geoff; Keegan, Richard; Henderson, Hannah
2012-01-01
Background: Food for Fitness is an on-going multi-component health promotion programme, delivered in primary and secondary schools by community nutrition assistants. The programme uses nutritional interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating practices for children. This service evaluation investigated the receipt and delivery of the programme, as perceived by local stakeholders who had experienced and administered the service. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups we...
Smith, Amos B.; Wuest, William M.
2008-01-01
Efficient construction of architecturally complex natural and unnatural products is the hallmark of organic chemistry. Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) - a multi-component coupling protocol - has the potential to provide the chemist with a powerful synthetic tactic, enabling efficient, rapid elaboration of structurally complex scaffolds in a single operation with precise stereochemical control. The ARC tactic can be subdivided into two main classes, comprising the relay of negative charge either t...
In the present study, adsorption of three metal ions Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cd(II) on carbon aerogel a new form of activated carbon has been investigated in mono- and multi-component (binary and tertiary) system. Batch experiments were also carried out for mono- and multi-component systems with varying metal ion concentration (mg/l) to investigate the competitive adsorption characteristics. Many adsorbents have been studied for their adsorption properties pertaining to mono-component solutions of metal ions. However, to treat wastewater with new materials, their performance needs to be ascertained in multi-component system. The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and EDAX spectrum of carbon aerogel surfaces before and after the adsorbent was equilibrated with the metal ion solution clearly establishes the presence of the metal ions and some surface modifications can be observed on the carbon aerogel particles adsorption with (i) surface chemistry of the pellets on the surface of carbon aerogel and (ii) inside layers of the carbon aerogel. Applicability of the isotherm models namely Freundlich and Langmuir to predict the equilibrium uptake of Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cd(II) in mono-component, binary and tertiary system has also been tested. Langmuir and Freundlich models are found to generally represent the experimental though but not consistently
Torrielli, Alessandro
2016-08-01
We review some essential aspects of classically integrable systems. The detailed outline of the sections consists of: 1. Introduction and motivation, with historical remarks; 2. Liouville theorem and action-angle variables, with examples (harmonic oscillator, Kepler problem); 3. Algebraic tools: Lax pairs, monodromy and transfer matrices, classical r-matrices and exchange relations, non-ultralocal Poisson brackets, with examples (non-linear Schrödinger model, principal chiral field); 4. Features of classical r-matrices: Belavin–Drinfeld theorems, analyticity properties, and lift of the classical structures to quantum groups; 5. Classical inverse scattering method to solve integrable differential equations: soliton solutions, spectral properties and the Gel’fand–Levitan–Marchenko equation, with examples (KdV equation, Sine-Gordon model). Prepared for the Durham Young Researchers Integrability School, organised by the GATIS network. This is part of a collection of lecture notes.
Cohn, A G; Rabinowitz, Mario
2003-01-01
A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission coefficient.
Cohn, Arthur; Rabinowitz, Mario
2003-01-01
A classical representation of an extended body over barriers of height greater than the energy of the incident body is shown to have many features in common with quantum tunneling as the center-of-mass literally goes through the barrier. It is even classically possible to penetrate any finite barrier with a body of arbitrarily low energy if the body is sufficiently long. A distribution of body lengths around the de Broglie wavelength leads to reasonable agreement with the quantum transmission...
Mould, Richard A
2003-01-01
Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previous...
Multi-component ground-based observation of ULF waves: goals and methods
Fedorov, E. N.; De Lauretis, M.; Anisimov, S.; Vellante, M.; V. A. Pilipenko; U. Villante
1998-01-01
A revival of the combined magnetic and telluric electric measurements at magnetic observatories is suggested.A number of problems, where such observations might be very helpful, are outlined: 1) the account for the resonance structure of the ULF field during the magnetotelluric probing of low-conductive geoelectrical structures; 2) the hydromagnetic diagnostics of the magnetospheric plasma distribution; 3) the discrimination of ionospheric and seismic contributions in anomalous ULF signa...
Carry, Béatrice; Zhang, Liang; Nishiura, Masayoshi; Hou, Zhaomin
2016-05-17
The catalytic selective multi-component coupling of CO2 , bis(pinacolato)diboron, LiOtBu, and a wide range of aldehydes has been achieved for the first time by using an NHC-copper catalyst. This transformation has efficiently afforded a series of novel lithium cyclic boracarbonate ion pair compounds in high yields from readily available starting materials. This protocol has not only provided a new catalytic process for the utilization of CO2 , but it has also constituted a novel route for the efficient synthesis of a new class of lithium borate compounds that might be of interest as potential electrolyte candidates for lithium ion batteries. PMID:27061244
Yamasaki, Hisatsugu; Natsume, Yuhei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro
2005-01-01
To show a mechanism leading to the breakdown of a particle picture for the multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates(BECs) with a harmonic trap in high dimensions, we investigate the corresponding 2-$d$ nonlinear Schr{\\"o}dinger equation (Gross-Pitaevskii equation) with use of a modified variational principle. A molecule of two identical Gaussian wavepackets has two degrees of freedom(DFs), the separation of center-of-masses and the wavepacket width. Without the inter-component interaction(IC...
The quasistatic dissipation of thermically induced cracks in brittle multi-components material with plane boundary areas is studied. The distribution of Eigentension, which is causing the dissipation of cracks, is produced by cooling the composite material from the production temperature to room temperature. Tension distributions, respectively of the fracture-mechanical coefficients were determined by solving of the boundary value problems of the theory of plane thermoelasticity, a based on existence of a plane distortion state, respectively of a plane state of tension. Because of the complicated shape of the free surface one adopted a numerical solution, the finite-element method, to solve the corresponding mixed boundary value problems. (orig.)
Multi-component ground-based observation of ULF waves: goals and methods
E. N. Fedorov
1998-06-01
Full Text Available A revival of the combined magnetic and telluric electric measurements at magnetic observatories is suggested.A number of problems, where such observations might be very helpful, are outlined: 1 the account for the resonance structure of the ULF field during the magnetotelluric probing of low-conductive geoelectrical structures; 2 the hydromagnetic diagnostics of the magnetospheric plasma distribution; 3 the discrimination of ionospheric and seismic contributions in anomalous ULF signals possibly related with earthquakes. The experimental apparatus for telluric current measurements, which has recently been installed at the observatories of Borok (Russia and L'Aquila (Italy, is described.
Mould, R A
2003-01-01
Preciously given rules allow conscious systems to be included in quantum mechanical systems. There rules are derived from the empirical experience of an observer who witnesses a quantum mechanical interaction leading to the capture of a single particle. In the present paper it is shown that purely classical changes experienced by an observer are consistent with these rules. Three different interactions are considered, two of which combine classical and quantum mechanical changes. The previously given rules support all of these cases. Key Words: brain states, conscious observer, detector, measurement, probability current, state reduction, von Neumann, wave collapse.
The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundred femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons, and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasmas. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case, expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma, are obtained. With this model, we complete the two-step approach to simulate x-ray created nanoplasmas, enabling computationally efficient simulations of their picosecond dynamics. Moreover, the hydrodynamic framework including collisional processes can be easily extended for other source terms and then applied to follow relaxation of any finite non-isothermal multi-component nanoplasma with its components relaxed into local thermodynamic equilibrium
Fanood, Mohammad M Rafiee; Ram, N Bhargava; Lehmann, C Stefan; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H M
2015-01-01
Simultaneous, enantiomer-specific identification of chiral molecules in multi-component mixtures is extremely challenging. Many established techniques for single-component analysis fail to provide selectivity in multi-component mixtures and lack sensitivity for dilute samples. Here we show how enantiomers may be differentiated by mass-selected photoelectron circular dichroism using an electron-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer. As proof of concept, vapours containing ∼1% of two chiral monoterpene molecules, limonene and camphor, are irradiated by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser, resulting in multiphoton near-threshold ionization with little molecular fragmentation. Large chiral asymmetries (2-4%) are observed in the mass-tagged photoelectron angular distributions. These asymmetries switch sign according to the handedness (R- or S-) of the enantiomer in the mixture and scale with enantiomeric excess of a component. The results demonstrate that mass spectrometric identification of mixtures of chiral molecules and quantitative determination of enantiomeric excess can be achieved in a table-top instrument. PMID:26104140
Fanood, Mohammad M Rafiee; Ram, N. Bhargava; Lehmann, C. Stefan; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H. M.
2015-01-01
Simultaneous, enantiomer-specific identification of chiral molecules in multi-component mixtures is extremely challenging. Many established techniques for single-component analysis fail to provide selectivity in multi-component mixtures and lack sensitivity for dilute samples. Here we show how enantiomers may be differentiated by mass-selected photoelectron circular dichroism using an electron–ion coincidence imaging spectrometer. As proof of concept, vapours containing ∼1% of two chiral monoterpene molecules, limonene and camphor, are irradiated by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser, resulting in multiphoton near-threshold ionization with little molecular fragmentation. Large chiral asymmetries (2–4%) are observed in the mass-tagged photoelectron angular distributions. These asymmetries switch sign according to the handedness (R- or S-) of the enantiomer in the mixture and scale with enantiomeric excess of a component. The results demonstrate that mass spectrometric identification of mixtures of chiral molecules and quantitative determination of enantiomeric excess can be achieved in a table-top instrument. PMID:26104140
Saxena, Vikrant, E-mail: vikrant.saxena@desy.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata, E-mail: ziaja@mail.desy.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2016-01-15
The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundred femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons, and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasmas. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case, expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma, are obtained. With this model, we complete the two-step approach to simulate x-ray created nanoplasmas, enabling computationally efficient simulations of their picosecond dynamics. Moreover, the hydrodynamic framework including collisional processes can be easily extended for other source terms and then applied to follow relaxation of any finite non-isothermal multi-component nanoplasma with its components relaxed into local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Ambikasaran, Sivaram
2015-01-01
Using accurate multi-component diffusion treatment in numerical combustion studies remains formidable due to the computational cost associated with solving for diffusion velocities. To obtain the diffusion velocities, for low density gases, one needs to solve the Stefan-Maxwell equations along with the zero diffusion flux criteria, which scales as $\\mathcal{O}(N^3)$, when solved exactly. In this article, we propose an accurate, fast, direct and robust algorithm to compute multi-component diffusion velocities. To our knowledge, this is the first provably accurate algorithm (the solution can be obtained up to an arbitrary degree of precision) scaling at a computational complexity of $\\mathcal{O}(N)$ in finite precision. The key idea involves leveraging the fact that the matrix of the reciprocal of the binary diffusivities, $V$, is low rank, with its rank being independent of the number of species involved. The low rank representation of matrix $V$ is computed in a fast manner at a computational complexity of $\\...
Danforth, Douglas G.
2001-01-01
Classical systems can be entangled. Entanglement is defined by coincidence correlations. Quantum entanglement experiments can be mimicked by a mechanical system with a single conserved variable and 77.8% conditional efficiency. Experiments are replicated for four particle entanglement swapping and GHZ entanglement.
Gallavotti, Giovanni
1999-01-01
This is the English version of a friendly graduate course on Classical Mechanics, containing about 80% of the material I covered during the January-June 1999 semester at IFUG in the Mexican city of Leon. For the Spanish version, see physics/9906066
Laser-induced periodic surface structures of thin, complex multi-component films
Reif, Juergen; Varlamova, Olga; Ratzke, Markus; Uhlig, Sebastian
2016-04-01
Femtosecond laser-induced regular nanostructures are generated on a complex multilayer target, namely a piece of a commercial, used hard disk memory. It is shown that after single-shot 800-nm irradiation at 0.26 J/cm2 only the polymer cover layer and—in the center—a portion of the magnetic multilayer are ablated. A regular array of linearly aligned spherical 450-nm features at the uncovered interface between cover and magnetic layers appears not to be produced by the irradiation. Only after about 10 pulses on one spot, classical ripples perpendicular to the laser polarization with a period of ≈700 nm are observed, with a modulation between 40 nm above and 40 nm below the pristine surface and an ablation depth only slightly larger than the thickness of the multilayer magnetic film. Further increase of the pulse number does not result in deeper ablation. However, 770-nm ripples become parallel to the polarization and are swelling to more than 120 nm above zero, much more than the full multilayer film thickness. In the spot periphery, much shallower 300-nm ripples are perpendicular to the strong modulation and the laser polarization. Irradiation with 0.49-J/cm2 pulses from an ultrafast white-light continuum results—in the spot periphery—in the formation of 200-nm ripples, only swelling above zero after removal of the polymer cover, without digging into the magnetic film.
Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna
2015-01-01
We present a new phenomenological treatment of phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids driven by free energy density functions that are non-convex in mechanical and chemical variables. We identify the mechano-chemical spinodal as the region in strain-composition space where the free energy density function is non-convex. Our treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell due to mechanical instabilities in the mechano-chemical spinodal. This approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. Furthermore, for physical consistency and mathematical well-posedness, we regularize the free energy density functions by interf...
Saxena, Vikrant
2016-01-01
The irradiation of an atomic cluster with a femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulse results in a nanoplasma formation. This typically occurs within a few hundreds femtoseconds. By this time the x-ray pulse is over, and the direct photoinduced processes no longer contributing. All created electrons within the nanoplasma are thermalized. The nanoplasma thus formed is a mixture of atoms, electrons and ions of various charges. While expanding, it is undergoing electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. Below we present a hydrodynamic model to describe the dynamics of such multi-component nanoplasma. The model equations are derived by taking the moments of the corresponding Boltzmann kinetic equations. We include the equations obtained, together with the source terms due to electron impact ionization and three-body recombination, in our hydrodynamic solver. Model predictions for a test case: expanding spherical Ar nanoplasma are obtained. With this model we complete the two-step approach to simul...
Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Buta, Ron; Sheth, Kartik; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ho, Luis; Knapen, Johan; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Laine, Seppo; Cisternas, Mauricio; Kim, Taehyun; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Regan, Michael; Hinz, Joannah L.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Meidt, Sharon E.; Querejeta, Miguel
2015-07-01
The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 2352 nearby (web page (www.oulu.fi/astronomy/S4G_PIPELINE4/MAIN). These products include all the input data and decomposition files in electronic form, making it easy to extend the decompositions to suit specific science purposes. We also provide our IDL-based visualization tools (GALFIDL) developed for displaying/running GALFIT-decompositions, as well as our mask editing procedure (MASK_EDIT) used in data preparation. A detailed analysis of the bulge, disk, and bar parameters derived from multi-component decompositions will be published separately.
Dervishi, Enkeleda; Hategekimana, Festus; Boyer, Laurent; Watanabe, Fumiya; Mustafa, Thikra; Biswas, Abhijit; Biris, Alexandru R.; Biris, Alexandru S.
2013-12-01
Two types of nano-materials (nanotubes and graphene) were incorporated at different concentrations into a bio-compatible polymer matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composite films were studied. Although both nanomaterials improved the mechanical attributes of the polymer, it was found that the composites containing the nanotube-graphene mixture exhibited significantly superior elasto-plastic properties. This work presents a facile technique of fabricating nano-composites that could be scaled up and applied to various types of polymers. These multi-component films have the potential to be used in a wide range of applications including bio-medicine and photovoltaics, as well as the military and automotive industry.
Smith, Amos B; Wuest, William M
2008-12-01
Efficient construction of architecturally complex natural and unnatural products is the hallmark of organic chemistry. Anion relay chemistry (ARC)-a multi-component coupling protocol-has the potential to provide the chemist with a powerful synthetic tactic, enabling efficient, rapid elaboration of structurally complex scaffolds in a single operation with precise stereochemical control. The ARC tactic can be subdivided into two main classes, comprising the relay of negative charge either through bonds or through space, the latter with aid of a transfer agent. This review will present the current state of through-space anion relay, in conjunction with examples of natural and unnatural product syntheses that illustrate the utility of this synthetic method. PMID:19030533
Zabkova, Katerina; Hatesuer, Florian; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). FG Technische Thermodynamik
2011-07-01
Multicomponent conveyor systems are used especially in petroleum and natural gas production. The contribution describes a multi-component screw-spindle pump which is compact and efficient and can even convey fluids with a high gas concentrations and will also operate dry-running for a short period of time. Various types and their functions are explained, and a multi-component screw-spindle pump is integrated in an experimental plant for the purpose of investigating its conveying characteristics. The pumping circuit and its components are described in detail, and the results of experiments carried out with it are presented. It was found that the production rate depends on the pump speed, on the pressure gradient between the pump inlet and outlet, and on the gas volume. The volume flow will get slower at higher pressure gradients and with high gas volumes. [German] Mehrphasenfoerdersysteme werden in der Industrie immer mehr verwendet, vor allem bei der Erdoel- und Erdgasgewinnung. In diesem Bereich ist die doppelflutige Variante der zweispindeligen Mehrphasen-Schraubenspindelpumpe aufgrund ihrer kompakten Bauweise und Foerdercharakteristik besonders geeignet. Sogar die Foerderung von Fluiden mit sehr hohem Gasanteil und auch ein kurzfristiger Trockenlauf sind moeglich. In dieser Arbeit werden verschiedene Typen von Mehrphasenpumpen (MPP) vorgestellt und deren Funktionsweise naeher erlaeutert. Zur Untersuchung des Foerderverhaltens unter unterschiedlichen Randbedingungen wird eine MPP in eine Versuchsanlage integriert. Der Foerderkreislauf mit seinen Komponenten wird ausfuehrlich beschrieben und im Anschluss werden die Ergebnisse der durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen diskutiert. Es zeigt sich, dass die MPP-Foerderrate von der Drehzahl der MPP, von der Druckdifferenz zwischen Einlass und Auslass der MPP und vom Gasanteil beeinflusst wird. Bei hoeheren Druckdifferenzen sowie bei hohen Gasanteilen nimmt der Volumenstrom ab.
Multi-scale diffuse interface modeling of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility
Kou, Jisheng
2016-05-10
In this paper, we introduce a diffuse interface model to simulate multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility based on a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state). Because of partial miscibility, thermodynamic relations are used to model not only interfacial properties but also bulk properties, including density, composition, pressure, and realistic viscosity. As far as we know, this effort is the first time to use diffuse interface modeling based on equation of state for modeling of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility. In numerical simulation, the key issue is to resolve the high contrast of scales from the microscopic interface composition to macroscale bulk fluid motion since the interface has a nanoscale thickness only. To efficiently solve this challenging problem, we develop a multi-scale simulation method. At the microscopic scale, we deduce a reduced interfacial equation under reasonable assumptions, and then we propose a formulation of capillary pressure, which is consistent with macroscale flow equations. Moreover, we show that Young-Laplace equation is an approximation of this capillarity formulation, and this formulation is also consistent with the concept of Tolman length, which is a correction of Young-Laplace equation. At the macroscopical scale, the interfaces are treated as discontinuous surfaces separating two phases of fluids. Our approach differs from conventional sharp-interface two-phase flow model in that we use the capillary pressure directly instead of a combination of surface tension and Young-Laplace equation because capillarity can be calculated from our proposed capillarity formulation. A compatible condition is also derived for the pressure in flow equations. Furthermore, based on the proposed capillarity formulation, we design an efficient numerical method for directly computing the capillary pressure between two fluids composed of multiple components. Finally, numerical tests
Multi-scale diffuse interface modeling of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2016-08-01
In this paper, we introduce a diffuse interface model to simulate multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility based on a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state). Because of partial miscibility, thermodynamic relations are used to model not only interfacial properties but also bulk properties, including density, composition, pressure, and realistic viscosity. As far as we know, this effort is the first time to use diffuse interface modeling based on equation of state for modeling of multi-component two-phase flow with partial miscibility. In numerical simulation, the key issue is to resolve the high contrast of scales from the microscopic interface composition to macroscale bulk fluid motion since the interface has a nanoscale thickness only. To efficiently solve this challenging problem, we develop a multi-scale simulation method. At the microscopic scale, we deduce a reduced interfacial equation under reasonable assumptions, and then we propose a formulation of capillary pressure, which is consistent with macroscale flow equations. Moreover, we show that Young-Laplace equation is an approximation of this capillarity formulation, and this formulation is also consistent with the concept of Tolman length, which is a correction of Young-Laplace equation. At the macroscopical scale, the interfaces are treated as discontinuous surfaces separating two phases of fluids. Our approach differs from conventional sharp-interface two-phase flow model in that we use the capillary pressure directly instead of a combination of surface tension and Young-Laplace equation because capillarity can be calculated from our proposed capillarity formulation. A compatible condition is also derived for the pressure in flow equations. Furthermore, based on the proposed capillarity formulation, we design an efficient numerical method for directly computing the capillary pressure between two fluids composed of multiple components. Finally, numerical tests
Greiner, Maximilian; Sonnleitner, Bettina; Mailänder, Markus; Briesen, Heiko
2014-02-01
Additional benefits of foods are an increasing factor in the consumer's purchase. To produce foods with the properties the consumer demands, understanding the micro- and nanostructure is becoming more important in food research today. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a tool to study complex and multi-component food systems on the example of chocolate conching. The process of conching is chosen because of the interesting challenges it provides: the components (fats, emulsifiers and carbohydrates) contain diverse functional groups, are naturally fluctuating in their chemical composition, and have a high number of internal degrees of freedom. Further, slow diffusion in the non-aqueous medium is expected. All of these challenges are typical to food systems in general. Simulation results show the suitability of present force fields to correctly model the liquid and crystal density of cocoa butter and sucrose, respectively. Amphiphilic properties of emulsifiers are observed by micelle formation in water. For non-aqueous media, pulling simulations reveal high energy barriers for motion in the viscous cocoa butter. The work for detachment of an emulsifier from the sucrose crystal is calculated and matched with detachment of the head and tail groups separately. Hydrogen bonding is shown to be the dominant interaction between the emulsifier and the crystal surface. Thus, MD simulations are suited to model the interaction between the emulsifier and sugar crystal interface in non-aqueous media, revealing detailed information about the structuring and interactions on a molecular level. With interaction parameters being available for a wide variety of chemical groups, MD simulations are a valuable tool to understand complex and multi-component food systems in general. MD simulations provide a substantial benefit to researchers to verify their hypothesis in dynamic simulations with an atomistic resolution. Rapid rise of computational resources successively
A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author)