Sample records for city structure lessons

  1. Bounded rationality in policy learning amongst cities: lessons from the transport sector

    Greg Marsden; Karen Trapenberg Frick; Anthony D. May; Elizabeth Deakin


    The internationalization of policy regimes and the reorganization of the state have provided new opportunities for cities to bypass nation-state structures and work with other cities internationally. This provides greater opportunity for cities to learn from each other and could be an important stimulus to the transfer of policies across the globe. Few studies exist however which focus on the processes that shape the search for policy lessons and how they are affected by the institutional con...

  2. Structural Damage in Mexico City

    Hall, John F; Beck, James L.


    This paper describes the structural damage in Mexico City caused by the September 19, 1985 earthquake. Photographs which illustrate various features of structural behavior are included. One explanation is presented as to why buildings with fundamental periods of elastic vibration considerably below the predominant two‐second period of the ground motion were most vulnerable to damage.

  3. Community Policing in Latin America: Lessons from Mexico City

    Markus-Michael Müller


    Community policing programmes are widely perceived and promoted as an important solution for the pressing problems of insecurity in contemporary Latin American cities, and for improving citizen-police relationships. By drawing on the results of empirical fieldwork conducted in Mexico City, the article presents a critical analysis of the local community policing effort. The article demonstrates that this policing effort is overly determined by a local context, characterized by clientelism, pol...

  4. Participation in Community Arts: Lessons from the Inner-City

    Clennon, Ornette D.; Kagan, Carolyn; Lawthom, Rebecca; Swindells, Rachel


    In this paper, we critically reflect, through the lens of liberation psychology, on our experiences of using participative community arts in work with young people and intergenerational groups in inner-city Manchester, UK. We used mixed methods to examine the impact of and engagement with community arts in two projects. One study was quasi…

  5. Universities for Cities and Regions: Lessons from the OECD Reviews

    Ischinger, Barbara; Puukka, Jaana


    Over the years and almost unnoticed, the Norwegian University of Technology (NTNU) had transformed Trondheim, a city 500 kilometers from the Arctic Circle, into Norway's technological capital. As such, high-tech companies like Google, Yahoo, and FAST chose to establish their Norwegian research and development (R&D) base in this far-away part of…

  6. Sustainable city spatial structure research: Quo vadis?

    Tošić Dragutin


    Full Text Available This article contributes, in the form of theoretical discussion, to the review of relevant methods for determination of city's spatial structure through the retrospective of continuity/discontinuity of understanding their spatial structure from the school of classical sociology to the sustainable development paradigm. Particularly, authors underline significance and analyze main theories and their models (social-ecology, economics, system science and geography in the researching of spatial structure of the cities. They conclude that urban settlements spatial structure is resultant of complex dynamically-developing processes between settlements networks and systems on the one, and also between their internal components, on the other side. In their essence, cities are not statistical category, but complex and dynamical system whose structure reflects the relations between economic, social and cultural organization of life, adapted to the geographic environment.

  7. Sustainable city spatial structure research: Quo vadis?

    Tošić Dragutin; Krunić Nikola; Nevenić Marija


    This article contributes, in the form of theoretical discussion, to the review of relevant methods for determination of city's spatial structure through the retrospective of continuity/discontinuity of understanding their spatial structure from the school of classical sociology to the sustainable development paradigm. Particularly, authors underline significance and analyze main theories and their models (social-ecology, economics, system science and geography) in the researching of spatial s...

  8. Structural Seismic Risk at David City, Panama

    Camacho, E.; Battlo, J.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Lindhom, C.


    At the southwest margin of the Isthmus of Panama, the Cocos, Nazca and Panama Microplate join in a triple junction. In this tectonic setting, the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ) which bounds the Nazca and Cocos plate, subducts in an oblique and shallow manner. This zone is one of the most active seismic areas of Central America. On July 18, 1934, the largest earthquake in Panama in historical times (Ms= 7.7) occurred in its northern region. This event caused extensive damage to towns located in the border of Panama and Costa Rica and during the two subsequent days, six aftershocks with magnitude greater than 6.0 were recorded. David City, with 130,000 inhabitants is the most important urban center in southwestern Panama and lies at the northern end of the PFZ. This city was impacted by the strong destructive earthquakes (Ms>7.0) that took place in 1879 and 1934, both with epicenters located on the northern terminus of the PFZ. In this work, we collected and digitized historical seismograms to measure the centroid moment tensor (CMT) from the main 1934 earthquake. Additionally, we gathered new macroseismic information to create improved and more complete isoseismals maps of the 1879 and 1934 events. We determined the probabilistic seismic hazard for David City using records of historical and recent seismicity and the characteristics of local faults. The hazard computation results are presented as peak iso-acceleration curves for rock/hard soil for a recurrence time of 500 years. An elastic response spectrum was obtained with a uniform exceedance probability of 10% in 50 years with one degree of freedom and 5% of damping. Our results indicate maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) in downtown David of 3.8 and 4.5 m/s2 with a probability annual exceedance of 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Structural vulnerability was determined analyzing the quality and construction design of housing, buildings, and critical facilities as well as the type of soil where these structures

  9. Lessons learned from modal testing of aerospace structures

    Hunt, David L.; Brillhart, Ralph D.


    The primary factors affecting the accuracy and the time required to perform modal tests on aerospace structures are discussed, and the lessons learned from modal tests performed over the past 15 yrs are examined. Case histories of modal testing on aerospace structures are reviewed, including the Galileo satellite and the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor and test stand. Currently recommended approaches to the modal testing are addressed.

  10. Transformations of structure and programme in three Slovene coastal cities

    Boštjan Bugarič


    The structural transformations of Slovenian coastal cities are a form of content development strategies that have been dictated by different city actors throughout the history. Because of the process of industrialisation, the coastal region adopted a new structure in the form of industrial structures. Today, these structures are left without appropriate contents and present degraded areas of the city that are subject to the interest of the capital. The post-war period of functionalism attempt...

  11. Lessons from crystal structures of kainate receptors

    Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S;


    structure and how they bind agonists, antagonists and ions. The first structure of the ligand-binding domain of the GluK1 subunit was reported in 2005, seven years after publication of the crystal structure of a soluble construct of the ligand-binding domain of the AMPA-type subunit GluA2. Today, a full......-length structure has been determined of GluK2 by cryo electron microscopy to 7.6 Å resolution as well as 84 high-resolution crystal structures of N-terminal domains and ligand-binding domains, including agonist and antagonist bound structures, modulatory ions and mutations. However, there are still many unanswered...

  12. ERASURES AND AFFECTIONS: photographies and Geography lessons in the outskirts of Campinas city

    Alexsandro Sgobin


    Full Text Available This paper discusses practical lesson in schools on the outskirts of Campinas, with intensive use of digital photographs that are transformed into computer (suffer "erasure". The intent of these images is to provoke thought in search of new ways of looking at the geographical space where these young students living: slums of the city. From the "mental maps" that they already have (maps constructed from the daily experiences in these neighborhoods, we seek a "dating" between these mental maps and “common geography”, resulting perhaps in more unusual geographies. RESUMO: Este texto trata de práticas de aula de Geografia em escolas da periferia de Campinas, com o uso intensivo de fotografias digitais que foram “rasuradas” em computador a partir de programas de edição de imagens. A intenção destas imagens “rasuradas” é de provocar o pensamento, em busca de novas formas de mirar o espaço geográfico, onde os jovens alunos participantes das experiências vivem: bairros pobres da cidade. A partir dos “mapas mentais” que eles já possuem, mapas construídos a partir das vivências cotidianas nestes bairros, buscamos um namoro entre estes mapas mentais e a geografia “formal”, resultando, talvez, em geografias mais inusitadas.

  13. Principles of disaster management lesson. 12: structuring organizations.

    Cuny, F C


    This lesson discusses various structures for organizations that have functional roles in disaster responses, relief, and/or management activities. It distinguishes between pyramidal and matrix structures, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to disasters. Span of control issues are dissected including the impact of the "P" factor on the performance of disaster managers and workers including its relationship to the coordination and control function. The development of a Table of Organization and how it relates to departmentalization within an organization also is provided. PMID:11513284

  14. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City

    Nandi Vijay


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs. Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. Methods During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. Results There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b extant prescription drug laws; c initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d development of participant appropriate training methodology; e challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f evolution of program response to naloxone. Conclusion Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in

  15. From mobile phone data to the spatial structure of cities

    Louail, Thomas; Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu Ros, Oliva G.; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, José J.; Barthelemy, Marc


    Pervasive infrastructures, such as cell phone networks, enable to capture large amounts of human behavioral data but also provide information about the structure of cities and their dynamical properties. In this article, we focus on these last aspects by studying phone data recorded during 55 days in 31 Spanish cities. We first define an urban dilatation index which measures how the average distance between individuals evolves during the day, allowing us to highlight different types of city structure. We then focus on hotspots, the most crowded places in the city. We propose a parameter free method to detect them and to test the robustness of our results. The number of these hotspots scales sublinearly with the population size, a result in agreement with previous theoretical arguments and measures on employment datasets. We study the lifetime of these hotspots and show in particular that the hierarchy of permanent ones, which constitute the `heart' of the city, is very stable whatever the size of the city. The spatial structure of these hotspots is also of interest and allows us to distinguish different categories of cities, from monocentric and ``segregated'' where the spatial distribution is very dependent on land use, to polycentric where the spatial mixing between land uses is much more important. These results point towards the possibility of a new, quantitative classification of cities using high resolution spatio-temporal data.

  16. From mobile phone data to the spatial structure of cities

    Louail, Thomas; Cantú, Oliva García; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Frias-Martinez, Enrique; Ramasco, José J; Barthelemy, Marc


    Pervasive infrastructures, such as cell phone networks, enable to capture large amounts of human behavioral data but also provide information about the structure of cities and their dynamical properties. In this article, we focus on these last aspects by studying phone data recorded during 55 days in 31 Spanish metropolitan areas. We first define an urban dilatation index which measures how the average distance between individuals evolves during the day, allowing us to highlight different types of city structure. We then focus on hotspots, the most crowded places in the city. We propose a parameter free method to detect them and to test the robustness of our results. The number of these hotspots scales sublinearly with the population size, a result in agreement with previous theoretical arguments and measures on employment datasets. We study the lifetime of these hotspots and show in particular that the hierarchy of permanent ones, which constitute the "heart" of the city, is very stable whatever the size of ...

  17. The network structure of city-firm relations

    Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank


    How are economic activities linked to geographic locations? To answer this question, we use a data-driven approach that builds on the information about location, ownership and economic activities of the world's 3,000 largest firms and their almost one million subsidiaries. From this information we generate a bipartite network of cities linked to economic activities. Analysing the structure of this network, we find striking similarities with nested networks observed in ecology, where links represent mutualistic interactions between species. This motivates us to apply ecological indicators to identify the unbalanced deployment of economic activities. Such deployment can lead to an over-representation of specific economic sectors in a given city, and poses a significant thread for the city's future especially in times when the over-represented activities face economic uncertainties. If we compare our analysis with external rankings about the quality of life in a city, we find that the nested structure of the cit...

  18. Urban Structure and Housing Prices: Some Evidence from Australian Cities

    Mariano Kulish; Anthony Richards; Christian Gillitzer


    This paper studies determinants of some aspects of the structure of cities, including density and the price of land and housing. We use a version of the Alonso-Muth-Mills model, calibrated to broadly match some of the features of a representative large city. While the calibrated model omits many real-world features, it can nonetheless be used to explore the impact of factors such as: (i) the provision of transport infrastructure; (ii) zoning policies that limit housing density; (iii) friction...

  19. Six Years in Managing Structural Funds in Romania. Lessons Learned

    Dragoş JALIU


    Full Text Available The absorption of structural and cohesion funds is one of Romania’s top priorities. Nevertheless, with a very weak absorption rate (11.47% as of December 31st 2012, according to official data, the overall situation is particularly alarming, considering the slow pace of effective project implementation and expenditure recovery from the European Commission. This text proceeds to provide an analysis of the realities of managing structural funds in Romania, focusing on the causes and factors that lead to weak absorption and on the experience of the main actors and institutions involved in this process. Our interests are, in particular, connected to the following: (1 to identify and analyze the most important aspects of structural funds management in Romania after six years of accessing and implementing projects; (2 to evaluate the capacity of the institutions involved in the structural funds management system with a focus on the level of turnover of institutions involved in the process; and (3 to identify and present added-value experiences and lessons learned from both institutions and beneficiaries (public authorities involved in this process.

  20. Within-Year Changes of Lesson Structure: An Exploration of Pedagogical Functions of Lessons by Means of Multilevel Growth Curve Modelling in Indonesia

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; den Brok, Perry


    Teaching is undoubtedly complex and the complexity of classroom practice implies that the structure of lessons making up teaching may differ and subject to change over time. The aims of this study were to investigate changes in observed lesson structure, and explore the effects of several teacher and contextual characteristics on differences in…

  1. Hurricane Sandy and Adaptation Pathways in New York: Lessons from a First-Responder City

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William


    Two central issues of climate change have become increasingly evident: Climate change will significantly affect cities; and rapid global urbanization will increase dramatically the number of individuals, amount of critical infrastructure, and means of economic production that are exposed and vulnerable to dynamic climate risks. Simultaneously, cities in many settings have begun to emerge as early adopters of climate change action strategies including greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation. The objective of this paper is to examine and analyze how officials of one city - the City of New York - have integrated a flexible adaptation pathways approach into the municipality's climate action strategy. This approach has been connected with the City's ongoing response to Hurricane Sandy, which struck in the October 2012 and resulted in damages worth more than US$19 billion. A case study narrative methodology utilizing the Wise et al. conceptual framework (see this volume) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the flexible adaptation pathways approach in New York City. The paper finds that Hurricane Sandy serves as a ''tipping point'' leading to transformative adaptation due to the explicit inclusion of increasing climate change risks in the rebuilding effort. The potential for transferability of the approach to cities varying in size and development stage is discussed, with elements useful across cities including the overall concept of flexible adaptation pathways, the inclusion of the full metropolitan region in the planning process, and the co-generation of climate-risk information by stakeholders and scientists.

  2. New Orleans-Style Education Reform: A Guide for Cities--Lessons Learned 2004-2010

    Brinson, Dana; Boast, Lyria; Hassel, Bryan C.; Kingsland, Neerav


    New Schools for New Orleans (NSNO) commissioned this guide, in collaboration with the Louisiana Recovery School District and the Tennessee Achievement School District, to meet the Investing in Innovation (i3) requirement that grantees disseminate the lessons of their work. To create this guide, NSNO worked with Public Impact to build on prior…

  3. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    Zhang, Zhen-Gang; Ding, Zhuo; Fan, Jing-Fang; Meng, Jun; Ding, Yi-Min; Ye, Fang-Fu; Chen, Xiao-Song


    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. Project supported by the Major Projects of the China National Social Science Fund (Grant No. 11 & ZD154).

  4. Production Structure of Agriculture in Huai’an City


    According to the data in 1990-2009 Huai’an Statistical Yearbook and Jiangsu Statistical Yearbook,production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is analyzed.Result shows that economic efficiency of planting industry is significantly lower than that of other industry types of agriculture;and the production structure of agriculture in Huai’an City is unbalanced and needs further optimization.The reasons for the imbalance in industrial structure are various,such as the relatively low quality of agricultural employees,the backward marketing of planting,and the lack of standardization management.Finally,corresponding suggestions are put forward,including developing education,conducting vocational training,improving the human capital stock of Huai’an City,cultivating the leading enterprises for agricultural product processing,and realizing the scale agglomeration effect of agricultural production in planting industry.

  5. Transformations of structure and programme in three Slovene coastal cities

    Boštjan Bugarič


    Full Text Available The structural transformations of Slovenian coastal cities are a form of content development strategies that have been dictated by different city actors throughout the history. Because of the process of industrialisation, the coastal region adopted a new structure in the form of industrial structures. Today, these structures are left without appropriate contents and present degraded areas of the city that are subject to the interest of the capital. The post-war period of functionalism attempted to introduce in the area the conditions for social reformation of the social structure, architects were designing for the needs of the working class, which inhabited the newly built residence areas. In the sixties of the 20th century, a new typology of residential tall buildings, which began to rise vertically, emerged from horizontal industrial structures. At the level of organisation of space, the period after transition brought in the coastal space a widespread state of chaos, as spatial interventions were made on the basis of the interest of capital and to a lesser degree on the basis of expert guidelines. Urbanism as a discipline is not flexible enough to regulate the swift transformations of the forms of capital. As a result, the capital is spreading unrestrictedly across all limits of the city.

  6. Transition to a low-carbon city: lessons learned from Suzhou in China

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Wang Can,; Xie Xi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen Jining,


    Climate change has become one of the most serious challenges facing humanity; developing a low-carbon economy provides new opportunities for addressing this issue. Building a low-carbon city has been pursued by people with a high degree of enthusiasm in China. Different from actions at the national

  7. Waste reduction and recycling initiatives in Japanese cities: lessons from Yokohama and Kamakura.

    Hotta, Yasuhiko; Aoki-Suzuki, Chika


    Waste reduction and recycling at the city level will acquire greater significance in the near future due to rising global volumes of waste. This paper seeks to identify policy-relevant drivers for successful promotion of waste reduction and recycling. Factors influencing the success of waste reduction and recycling campaigns are identified. Two case study cities in Japan which depict the successful use of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) at the municipal level are presented. In these cases, the existence of incinerators, which are generally considered as disincentives for recycling, was not functioning as a disincentive but rather as an incentive for waste reduction. Owing to the high cost of incineration facilities, the movement to close incinerators has become a strong incentive for waste reduction and recycling in these two cities. The study suggests that careful consideration is necessary when making decisions concerning high-cost waste treatment facilities with high installation, maintenance and renewal outlays. In addition, intensive source separation and other municipal recycling initiatives have a high potential for producing positive results. PMID:25023986

  8. City structure – the phenomenon of exclusion of space

    Marta Marta Szejnfeld


    Full Text Available A special feature of spaces with urban character is the phenomenon of exclusion, which refers both to the space and the community, causing deformation and the disappearanceof the unity of the urban structure as a whole. Spatial segregation processes – resulting from social polarization – causes low–income or marginalized groups lack of access to a high–quality urban space. Excluded spaces have become a constant component of visual reality in which gated communities, guarded buildings, or corporation complexes have divided the urban fabric, and in opposition to the city, are capturing more and more spaces. The result of the appearance of the excluded spaces is the lack of the right to the city for all its inhabitants. Foresaid lack deprives the participant of the possibility of observation and penetration the urban structure, which further deepens the sense of alienation. In such spatial conditions the longing for re–evoking the idea of a sustainable city is born. Theessence is therefore an insightful diagnosis of the impact of uncontrolled processes shaping the urban structure deepening segregation and exclusion from the urban space.Keywords: urban transformation, exclusion, inhabitants

  9. The Effect of Knowledge Linking Levels in Biology Lessons upon Students' Knowledge Structure

    Wadouh, Julia; Liu, Ning; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    Knowledge structure is an important aspect for defining students' competency in biology learning, but how knowledge structure is influenced by the teaching process in naturalistic biology classroom settings has scarcely been empirically investigated. In this study, 49 biology lessons in the teaching unit "blood and circulatory…

  10. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao


    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  11. Lessons learned during decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    The following examples present some important lessons learned, some brief technical details and a description of problems encountered in the past in various decommissioning projects related to the removal of underground SSCs. Some cases refer to embedded components. The situations described here are typical of the types of difficulty that can arise when planning for or implementing the removal of underground SSCs as an element of the decommissioning process. The information presented here is not intended to be exhaustive and the reader is encouraged to evaluate the applicability of the specific lessons learned to their own particular decommissioning project or activity. It is not the intention of this annex to identify projects for criticism but rather to enhance future operations planning and implementation in order to reduce the likelihood of the recurrence of earlier problems. A short analysis of the root causes of these problems is presented

  12. Urban Efficiency and Sectoral Structure - Empirical Results for German Cities

    Hitzschke, Stephan


    This dissertation investigates different time-variable criteria of German cities within the period between 1998 and 2007. The empirical analysis is based on a data set with 112 larger cities which are classified as independent cities. Efficiency and its improvement are the major economic characteristics in the analysis. The main questions for this dissertation are: What is the effect of city size on industrial efficiency? Is there an optimal city size of the free German cities with respect to...

  13. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City Plant

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP's Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications

  14. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos


    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects. PMID:25710623

  15. Variation of land use structure in Chuzhou City, China: 1996-2005

    Zhang Jian


    Nowadays the fast economic development has brought about serious conflicts between the limited land resources and the increasing land demand in Chuzhou City.The changes of land use structure also restrict economic development and society progress in this area.Because different cities have different functional localization,the city area and each county (city) have formed characteristic land utilization structure.It is of great significance to make rational use of land resources and ensure the sustainable use of land resources by analyzing the variation of land use structure in the city area and each county (city) in Chuzhou City.Based on the data of land use modification of Chuzhou City from 1996 to 2005 and adopting the quantitative analysis of landscape ecology,this paper studies quantitatively the temporal division of regional land use structure and its dynamic changes.The results indicate that: (1) this method can reveal the law of the variation; (2) the variation of land use structure in Chuzhou City: increasing diversification,evenness and heterogeneity; (3) the intensity of change in land use from 1996 to 2005 in the city appeared in the sequence: grass land>traffic land>garden land>virgin land>forest land>industrial and residential land>cultivated land>other agricultural land>water facility land; (4) there were remarkable differences between the city area and each county (city) in the relative change and the land use structure change from 1996 to 2005.This paper analyzes the variation of land use structure in Chuzhou City,and finally proposes related countermeasures and suggestions.

  16. Disaster prevention design criteria for the estuarine cities:New Orleans and Shanghai The lesson from Hurricane Katrina

    LIU Defu; SHI Hongda; PANG Liang


    The accurate prediction of the typhoon (hurricane) induced extreme sea environments is very important for the coastal structure design in areas influenced by typhoon (hurricane). In 2005 Hurricane Katrina brought a severe catastrophe in New Orleans by combined effects of hurricane induced extreme sea environments and upper flood of the Mississippi River. Like the New Orleans City, Shanghai is located at the estuarine area of the Changjiang River and the combined effect of typhoon induced extreme sea environments, flood peak runoff from the Changjiang River coupled with the spring tide is the dominate factor for disaster prevention design criteria. The Poisson-nested logistic trivariate compound extreme value distribution (PNLTCEVD) is a new type of joint probability model which is proposed by compounding a discrete distribution (typhoon occurring frequency) into a continuous multivariate joint distribution (typhoon induced extreme events). The new model gives more reasonable predicted results for New Orleans and Shanghai disaster prevention design criteria.

  17. A Monumental Lesson: What Historical Structures Can Tell Us

    Craven, Jacqueline S.; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou J.; Logan, Kellie


    Historical structures have connected civilization across time as a representation of important events, famous people, or experiences of diverse cultures. The value systems of a society are reflected in these structures and convey political and historical information. Knowledge about historical structures provides understanding of cultures of…

  18. The meaning of alignment: lessons from structural diversity

    Heringa Jaap; Feenstra K Anton; Pirovano Walter


    Abstract Background Protein structural alignment provides a fundamental basis for deriving principles of functional and evolutionary relationships. It is routinely used for structural classification and functional characterization of proteins and for the construction of sequence alignment benchmarks. However, the available techniques do not fully consider the implications of protein structural diversity and typically generate a single alignment between sequences. Results We have taken alterna...

  19. Shallow velocity structure and hidden faults of Kunming city region

    Yu, Geng-Xin; Lou, Hai; Wang, Chun-Yong; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Qin, Jia-Zheng; Yang, Run-Hai; Li, Hai-Ou


    In order to image the 3-D velocity structure of its shallow crust in Kunming region, China, finite-difference seismic tomography is used to invert the seismic data selected carefully from six-shot data. The result lays a foundation for the discussion of the relationship between the obtained velocity structure and the hidden faults, and for the illumination of the depth extents of main active faults surrounding Kunming city. Puduhe-Xishan fault lies on the western margin of the Kunming basin and is just situated on the west edge of the low velocity anomaly zone found at all depth levels. This indicates that this fault is a borderline fault of the Kunming basin. It can be concluded that the fault dips eastwards with a steep angle and its depth extent is large. Puji-Hanjiacun fault and Heilongtan-Guandu fault play a role in controlling the low velocity anomaly zone in middle basin. The depth extents of the two faults are comparatively small, without traversing the interface of basin floor.

  20. The meaning of alignment: lessons from structural diversity

    Heringa Jaap


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural alignment provides a fundamental basis for deriving principles of functional and evolutionary relationships. It is routinely used for structural classification and functional characterization of proteins and for the construction of sequence alignment benchmarks. However, the available techniques do not fully consider the implications of protein structural diversity and typically generate a single alignment between sequences. Results We have taken alternative protein crystal structures and generated simulation snapshots to explicitly investigate the impact of structural changes on the alignments. We show that structural diversity has a significant effect on structural alignment. Moreover, we observe alignment inconsistencies even for modest spatial divergence, implying that the biological interpretation of alignments is less straightforward than commonly assumed. A salient example is the GroES 'mobile loop' where sub-Ångstrom variations give rise to contradictory sequence alignments. Conclusion A comprehensive treatment of ambiguous alignment regions is crucial for further development of structural alignment applications and for the representation of alignments in general. For this purpose we have developed an on-line database containing our data and new ways of visualizing alignment inconsistencies, which can be found at

  1. Lessons Learned from Recent Failure and Incident Investigations of Composite Structures

    Ransom, J. B.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, L. S.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Reeder, J. R.


    During the past few decades, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has supported several large-scale failure and incident investigations and numerous requests for engineering consultations. Although various extenuating circumstances contributed to each of these incidents, in all cases, the failure resulted from accumulation and/or propagation of damage that reduced the load carrying capability of the structure to a level below that which was needed to sustain structural loads. A brief overview of various failure and incident investigations supported by LaRC, including some of the computational and experimental methodologies that have been applied, is presented. An important outcome of many of these failure and incident investigations is the development of an improved understanding of not only the state-of-the-art in experimental and analytical methods but also the state-of-the-art in the design and manufacturing processes that may contribute to such failures. In order to provide insight into such large-scale investigations, a series of lessons learned were captured. Awareness of these lessons learned is highly beneficial to engineers involved in similar investigations. Therefore, it is prudent that the lessons learned are disseminated such that they can be built upon in other investigations and in ensuing research and development activities.

  2. Structural and mechanistic principles of intramembrane proteolysis lessons from rhomboids

    Stříšovský, Kvido


    Roč. 280, č. 7 (2013), s. 1579-1603. ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/1886; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11206 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : crystal structure * enzymatic mechanism * intramembrane protease * presenilin * rhomboid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  3. (Re)Producing a Peaceful Canadian Citizenry: A Lesson on the Free Trade of the Americas Quebec City Summit Protests

    Mahrouse, Gada


    In this article, I argue that despite common assumptions that peace education efforts achieve social change, it is often a normalizing, nation-building project that obscures hierarchies of power. Focussing on a lesson from a popular peace education program currently used in Canadian schools, I have analyzed the convergences between peace and…

  4. Structural models of multi-component nicknames of american cities and towns

    Zosimova O.V.


    The article deals with the structure of informal place names in the USA. The main structural models of multi-component nicknames of American cities and towns include: ‘Adjective + Noun’, ‘Noun + Noun’ and ‘(Attribute) Noun + of + Noun’. The most productive constituent elements of the multi-component nicknames are the words ‘city’ and ‘capital’. Their combinations with different types of modifiers characterize the US cities and towns ...

  5. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City

    Nandi Vijay; Sherman Susan; Stancliff Sharon; Rudenstine Sasha; Piper Tinka; Clear Allan; Galea Sandro


    Abstract Background Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and ...

  6. The public costs of mental health response: Lessons from the New York City post-9/11 needs assessment

    Jack, Kathrine; Glied, Sherry


    There is evidence of increased rates of psychiatric disorder in New York City in the period following September 11th. Public mental health services need to develop plans to respond to these higher rates of disorder. This article describes what we know and do not know with respect to the costs of such response. We examine evidence on the demand for mental health services, the nature of services to be provided, the characteristics of providers, and the likely sources of payment for care in the ...

  7. Role of green structure and ecological services: a case study of bahawalpur city, pakistan

    Cities can make broader contribution to achieve the goals of sustainable development as they are considered major consumers of resources and ecological services. Ecological services provide a range of benefits at local, regional and global levels. Terrestrial ecosystem has different components in urban environment that provides ecological services to its inhabitants. Cities not only benefit from the internal urban ecosystem but also depend upon other ecosystems beyond the city limit. Green structure is an important component in terms of making city more sustainable and habitable. Green structure in urban environment means green infrastructure that is planned and supports sustainable that is planned and supports sustainable urban development. From planning perspective, spatial structure of green space provides a basis for sustainable urban development. In sustainable perspective, green structure more than the sum of green spaces. It is considered as spatial network of open spaces, public and private gardens and parks, sports fields, allotment gardens, woodlands and recreational grounds. Therefore, it is considered as a significant part of built-up environment and major source of ecological services. To structure urban areas of sustainable development, it is necessary to develop a proportion between grey and green cities. Keeping in view, research has been conducted to investigate spatial network of green structure in planned areas of Bahawalpur City of Pakistan. This study analyzes the ecological services generated from the investigated green structures, and helped develop an approach of inter-relation between green environment and urban society. Moreover, strategies for better land-use planning in green and sustainable perspective have been proposed. (author)

  8. NDT with the structural weld overlay program. Recent field experience and lessons learned

    Structural weld overlay (SWOL) has become a predominant mitigation technique within the Alloy 600 program. For the pressurizer nozzles, MRP-139 requires volumetric examination by year end 2007. Many nozzles are un-inspectable due to geometry and material limitations that preclude interrogation of the required examination volume. SWOL therefore is the mitigation technique which overcomes these limitations. SWOL of the pressurizer nozzles has been a challenge for all the vendors. Alloy 52 has proven to be difficult to weld under field conditions. The NDT technique chosen to demonstrate the integrity of the overlay needs to be adapted to the specific repair process and nozzle geometry. The purpose of this paper will be to present Westinghouse's integrated approach for SWOL with the focus on the NDT aspects. Topics will include main repair process steps, NDT qualification, recent field experience and lessons learned. (author)

  9. Cities in the Sahara: spatial structure and generative processes

    Salah-Salah, F.


    The present thesis examines some aspects of the structure of urban space found in particular towns in the Sahara, and the peculiarities in their dual organisation of the circulation systems: the streets and the roof terraces of the houses inter-connected by another system of walkways, which are exclusively reserved for the circulation of women across the settlements or parts of the settlements. The terrace morphology is developed in different forms and at various degre...

  10. Planning Lessons

    Linda Jensen


    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  11. Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from Solar Array Structures and Mechanisms Deployment

    Vipavetz, Kevin; Kraft, Thomas


    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) Risk Management team in close coordination with the Engineering Directorate at LaRC. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of actionable key lessons learned derived from the design project. Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document.

  12. Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow

    Nathan Brent Chancellor


    Full Text Available Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage to the structure can require expensive repairs; significant business downtime; and in some cases building demolition. If damage occurs to many structures within a city or region; the regional and national economy may be severely disrupted. To address these shortcomings with current seismic lateral force resisting systems and to work towards more resilient; sustainable cities; a new class of seismic lateral force resisting systems that sustains little or no damage under severe earthquakes has been developed. These new seismic lateral force resisting systems reduce or prevent structural damage to nonreplaceable structural elements by softening the structural response elastically through gap opening mechanisms. To dissipate seismic energy; friction elements or replaceable yielding energy dissipation elements are also included. Post-tensioning is often used as a part of these systems to return the structure to a plumb; upright position (self-center after the earthquake has passed. This paper summarizes the state-of-the art for self-centering seismic lateral force resisting systems and outlines current research challenges for these systems.

  13. Modeling Fractal Structure of Systems of Cities Using Spatial Correlation Function

    Chen, Yanguang


    This paper proposes a new method to analyze the spatial structure of urban systems using ideas from fractals. Regarding a system of cities as a set of "particles" distributed randomly on a triangular lattice, we construct a spatial correlation function of cities. Suppose that the spatial correlation follows the power law. It can be proved that the correlation exponent is the second order generalized dimension. The spatial correlation model is applied to the system of cities in China. The results show that the Chinese urban system can be described by the correlation dimension ranging from 1.3 to 1.6. The fractality of self-organized network of cities in both the conventional geographic space and the "time" space is revealed with the empirical evidence. The spatial correlation analysis is significant in that it is applicable to both large and small sizes of samples and can be used to link different fractal dimensions in urban study, including box dimension and radial dimension.

  14. Spatial Interaction and Network Structure Evolvement of Cities in Terms of China's Rail Passenger Flows

    DAI Teqi; JIN Fengjun


    Cities separated in space are connected together by spatial interaction (SI) between them.But the studies focusing on the SI are relatively few in China mainly because of the scarcity of data.This paper deals with the SI in terms of rail passenger flows,which is an important aspect of the network structure of urban agglomeration.By using a data set consisting of rail O-D (origin-destination) passenger flows among nearly 200 cities,inter-city rail distance O-D matrixes,and some other indices,it is found that the attenuating tendency of rail passenger is obvious.And by the analysis on dominant flows and spatial structure of flows,we find that passenger flows have a trend of polarizing to hubs while the linkages between hubs upgrade.However,the gravity model reveals an overall picture of convergence process over time which is not in our expectation of integration process in the fiamework of globalization and economic integration.Some driven factors for the re-organization process of the structure of urban agglomeration,such as technique advance,glohalization,etc.are discussed further based on the results we obtained.


    LI Li-mei; TAO Wei


    The growing attention on urban tourism was very widespread. There are two angles to study urban tourism: supply-side and demand-side. And the supply-side of the tourism remains very important. The RBD (Recreation Business District) is a useful framework to understand the components of urban tourism and how they fit together. The paper begins with a review on the RBD and the spatial structure of tourism in urban areas and then attempts to develop a more general understanding of the spatial structure evolution of RBDs in a tourist-historic citySuzhou. The spatial structures and functions of the RBDs in Suzhou are examined, based on field observations, interviews with city officials and industry leaders, and a review of available documents. The urban tourism of Suzhou has developed in a range of contexts, that various types of RBDs have emerged as a result of different urban development strategies. The spatial structure has evolved from the past "Single-cored Structure" to "Double-cored Structure"at present, and then to "Chain Structure" in the future. The spatial form and evolution of RBD in Suzhou are closely relative with its urban spatial expansion. Urban area dispersal is the prerequisite of the emergence of the RBD. Planning and constructing the RBD becomes a new impetus to urban growth or renewal. Finally, a number of strategies for planning and developing the RBD in Suzhou are suggested. The different RBDs should adopt different strategies.Intensification can be the possible strategy for the RBDs in the ancient city. Accreting with the urban theme park or engrafting on the Jinji Lake is suggested respectively for the RBD in the Suzhou New District and the Suzhou Industrial Park.

  16. Head/tail Breaks for Visualization of City Structure and Dynamics

    Jiang, Bin


    The things surrounding us vary dramatically, which implies that there are far more small things than large ones, e.g., far more small cities than large ones in the world. This dramatic variation is often referred to as fractal or scaling. To better reveal the fractal or scaling structure, a new classification scheme, namely head/tail breaks, has been developed to recursively derive different classes or hierarchical levels. The head/tail breaks works as such: divide things into a few large ones in the head (those above the average) and many small ones (those below the average) in the tail, and recursively continue the dividing process for the large ones (or the head) until the notion of far more small things than large ones has been violated. This paper attempts to argue that head/tail breaks can be a powerful visualization tool for illustrating structure and dynamics of natural cities. Natural cities refer to naturally or objectively defined human settlements based on a meaningful cutoff averaged from a massi...

  17. Cooperative Societies in Greenland and Nunavik: A Lesson on the Importance of Supporting Structures

    Winther, Gorm; Duhaime, Gerard


    Different co-operatives and constraints to the emergence of co-operatives are presented. Historical financial Data on Nunavik cooperatives suggest, that the co-operatives fared well and have accomplished growth. The lesson of the co-operative success in Nunavik and the failure of Co-operatives in...


    Prokopenko E. V.


    Full Text Available The studies of the species composition and structure of the spider population in the Donetsk City wood planting are given. A total of 109 species from 22 families were recorded. Linyphiidae (26,6% of total species in study sites, Lycosidae (11,1% and Gnaphosidae (13,8% were most species-rich. Lycosidae (55,6% individuals were the more abundant. Linyphiidae (19,6% occupied the second position. Gnaphosidae (4,8% were less abundant than Thomisidae (10,8%. The high spider density and significant species richness are typical for country wood, in city parks these parameters have decreased. The maximal species richness (71 species is recorded in suburban bairak wood (Yasinovataya Town. The minimal species richness is recorded in Lenynkiy Komsomol Park (32 species. The average spider density equal to 65,8 individuals to 100 trap-days. The maximal value of this parameter is recorded in suburban bairak wood (103,8 individuals to 100 trap-days. The minimal value of this parameter is recorded in the city parks (40,4 and 31,6 individuals to 100 trap-days in Scherbakova Park and Lenynkiy Komsomol Park respectively. The total percentage of the most abundant species (eudominants in the parks has increased and the the total percent of the rare species has decreased. Location of the biotops in city space (on fringe, in the centre with the spectrum of antropogenous influence has more determinative significance for the araneocomplex similarity, than generality of the origin (artificial wood, natural bairak oak forest.

  19. Revealing daily travel patterns and city structure with taxi trip data

    Liu, Xi; Gong, Yongxi; Liu, Yu


    Detecting regional spatial structures based on spatial interactions is crucial in applications ranging from urban planning to traffic control. In the big data era, various movement trajectories are available for studying spatial structures. This research uses large scale Shanghai taxi trip data extracted from GPS-enabled taxi trajectories to reveal traffic flow patterns and urban structure of the city. Using the network science methods, 15 temporally stable regions reflecting the scope of people's daily travels are found using community detection method on the network built from short trips, which represent residents' daily intra-urban travels and exhibit a clear pattern. In each region, taxi traffic flows are dominated by a few 'hubs' and 'hubs' in suburbs impact more trips than 'hubs' in urban areas. Land use conditions in urban regions are different from those in suburban areas. Additionally, 'hubs' in urban area associate with office buildings and commercial areas more, whereas residential land use is mor...

  20. An Analysis of the Consumer Demand Structure of Rural Residents in Chongqing City in the Context of New Urbanization

    Xiaomin; JIA


    Using ELES model and econometric methods,in the context of new urbanization,we use the time series data on the consumer spending of rural residents in Chongqing City to perform an empirical analysis of the consumer demand structure of rural residents,reveal the characteristics,differences and changes concerning the consumption structure of rural residents in Chongqing City,and set forth some policy recommendations such as carrying out the new rural construction,optimizing the consumption structure,establishing sound social security system and income growth mechanism,and stabilizing the price level.

  1. Analyzing Landscape Change Through Landscape Structure Indices: Case of the City of Aydin, Turkey

    Hayriye Esbah


    Full Text Available This study analysis the spatial pattern change with regards to landscape connectivity in Aydin by using landscape structure indices and GIS technology. Rectified black and white aerial protographs from 1977 and pan sharpened Ikonos images from 2002 are used in the analysis. A set of class level landscape structure indices are employed: percentage of landscape; patch number; mean patch size; area weighted mean patch size; mean shape index and connectance index. The findings indicate a decrease in the proportion, patch number, mean patch size and connectance of the crop fields, fruit groves and natural areas and an increase of these attributes for open spaces, vacant lots and urban built up areas. The recommendations to improve the spatial structure in relation to landscape connectivity include: increasing the amount of natural patches by restoring the natural attributes of the open space patches; mitigating the conversion of open spaces to urban built up areas by allocating suitable areas as parks and open space corridors for a city wide ecological network; making agricultural patches as main components of the local and regional ecological networks; encouraging ecologically sound agricultural practices for an effective network structure; preserving riparian corridors and improving structure by applying ecologically sound design principles and encouraging finger-like development pattern to implement green wedges penetrating into the urban core areas.

  2. A socio-structural analysis of crime in the city of Tshwane, South Africa

    Gregory D. Breetzke


    Full Text Available High and rising levels of crime plague post-apartheid South Africa. A common explanation for these high crime rates relates the country’s unique socio-political past to a system of ineffective social control mechanisms that suggest high levels of social disorganisation within certain communities. Other explanations emphasise the presence of disaffected youths and deprivation, as well as the rapid immigration of people from neighbouring African countries into South Africa. I examined a number of these socio-structural explanations of crime on contact crime rates in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. The findings are largely consistent with the social disorganisation theory, as well as with what has previously been suggested in local literature. In order to supplement these preliminary findings, the effects of the same socio-structural explanations on contact crime rates were determined for predominantly Black, White, and ‘Mixed’ (containing a mix of both Black and White residents suburbs using spatial regression models. Evidence from these analyses suggests that the effects of the various socio-structural explanations do not appear to traverse racial lines. Rather, the findings suggest non-uniformity in terms of the extent to which the various socio-structural factors impact contact crime rates based on race.

  3. Modeling the self-affine structure and optimization conditions of city systems using the idea from fractals

    This paper demonstrates self-affine fractal structure of city systems by means of theoretical and empirical analyses. A Cobb-Douglas-type function (C-D function) of city systems is derived from a general urban response equation, and the partial scaling exponent of the C-D function proved to be the fractal dimension reflecting the self-affine features of city systems. As a case, the self-affine fractal model is applied to the city of Zhengzhou, China, and the result is satisfying. A fractal parameter equation indicative of structural optimization conditions is then obtained from the C-D function. The equation suggests that priority should be given to the development of the urban element with a lower fractal dimension, or a higher partial scaling exponent, for utility maximization. Moreover, the fractal dimensions of different urban elements tend to become equivalent to each other in the long term. Accordingly, it is self-similar fractals rather than self-affine fractals that represent the optimal structure of city systems under ideal conditions.

  4. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    Muir-Wood, R.


    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area

  5. Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Urban Bus Networks in Indian Cities

    Chatterjee, Atanu


    In recent times, the domain of network science has become extremely useful in understanding the underlying structure of various real-world networks and to answer non-trivial questions regarding them. In this study, we rigourously analyze the statistical properties of the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L- and P-space, using tools from network science. Although public transport networks, such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze their topological structure, and answer some of the basic questions on their evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. We start from an empirical analysis of these networks, and determine their principle characteristics in terms of the complex network theory. The common features of small-world property and heavy tails in degree-distribution ...

  6. Urban scaling and its deviations: revealing the structure of wealth, innovation and crime across cities.

    Luís M A Bettencourt

    Full Text Available With urban population increasing dramatically worldwide, cities are playing an increasingly critical role in human societies and the sustainability of the planet. An obstacle to effective policy is the lack of meaningful urban metrics based on a quantitative understanding of cities. Typically, linear per capita indicators are used to characterize and rank cities. However, these implicitly ignore the fundamental role of nonlinear agglomeration integral to the life history of cities. As such, per capita indicators conflate general nonlinear effects, common to all cities, with local dynamics, specific to each city, failing to provide direct measures of the impact of local events and policy. Agglomeration nonlinearities are explicitly manifested by the superlinear power law scaling of most urban socioeconomic indicators with population size, all with similar exponents (1.15. As a result larger cities are disproportionally the centers of innovation, wealth and crime, all to approximately the same degree. We use these general urban laws to develop new urban metrics that disentangle dynamics at different scales and provide true measures of local urban performance. New rankings of cities and a novel and simpler perspective on urban systems emerge. We find that local urban dynamics display long-term memory, so cities under or outperforming their size expectation maintain such (disadvantage for decades. Spatiotemporal correlation analyses reveal a novel functional taxonomy of U.S. metropolitan areas that is generally not organized geographically but based instead on common local economic models, innovation strategies and patterns of crime.

  7. The Structural Transformation of the Labor Markets in China' s Large Cities


    By means of the data, on the employment in Shanghai in 2003 and 2009, gathered by our investigations, we have, in this paper, made a case study on the structural transformation of the labor markets in large cities. Through the comparison between the people with the registered permanent residence in Shanghai and the people from without (TPFW) in the aspects of the section in which they are employed, of the degree and kind of job flow, of the return rate in educa- tion, of the impact of the job flow on their income, we have discovered some new significant facts, mainly including the rise of the rate of TPFW who work in regular departments, the increase in the educational return for TPFW, the tendency to the equality in the educational return between TPFW and the people with the resisted permanent residence in Shanghai Therefore, we have made the deduction that, according to the relationship between the income and the hu- man capital, the structural transformation from the dual splitting to the integration has been basically completed in the labor market in Shanghai. At present, there are some differences between TPFW and the people with the registered permanent residence in Shanghai in income and professional distribution and other aspects, mainly because of the gap in human resources and other factors, and the institutional discrimination against TPFW in the selection of jobs and the social security and other respects.

  8. Shallow velocity structure and hidden faults of Kunming city region

    YU Geng-xin; LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong; FU Li-yun; ZHANG Jian-guo; QIN Jia-zheng; YANG Run-hai; LI Hai-ou


    In order to image the 3-D velocity structure of its shallow crust in Ktmming region, China, finite-difference seismic tomography is used to invert the seismic data selected carefully from six-shot data. The result lays a founda-tion for the discussion of the relationship between the obtained velocity structure and the hidden faults, and for the illumination of the depth extents of main active faults surrounding Kunming city. Puduhe-Xishan fault lies on the western margin of the Kunming basin and is just situated on the west edge of the low velocity anomaly zone found at all depth levels. This indicates that this fault is a borderline fault of the Kunming basin. It can be concluded that the fault dips eastwards with a steep angle and its depth extent is large. Puji-Hanjiacun fault and Heilong-tan-Guandu fault play a role in controlling the low velocity anomaly zone in middle basin. The depth extents of the two faults arc comparatively small, without traversing the interface of basin floor.

  9. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Xiuji; SHI; Xiaohui


    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  10. Impact of urban structure on personal transportation in the context of a large Danish provincial city

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick


    This paper presents the results from a detailed study of the land use ? transport connection, with special emphasis on the location of residences, in the context of a larger Danish provincial city (the city of Aalborg with approx. 120.000 inhabitants, situated in North Jutland). The study was car...

  11. The Structural Research of the City Image System%结构性城市CIS模式探讨

    张平青; 王洋


    任何系统都是以一定的结构形式存在、运动和变化的,城市形象系统与其他任何系统一样,表现为一定层次上的结构性关系,这个结构性关系的特殊性在于城市形象系统既有一般事物形象系统要素的结构性,又有城市所属的形象系统的特殊性.通过结构的概念人手,运用系统论的观点探讨城市形象系统的结构性认知问题.%Any system is being and changing by the definite structure. So does the City Image System, presenting also holds structural the definite structural relation, which not only has the structure of common image system but the particularity of the city. The essay begins with the concept of the structure and discusses the perceive of the city image system by way of the view of the system theory.


    Taylor, Philip J.


    Transaction costs are a large proportion of the cost structure along the value chains of most industries, especially the food and beverage industries. Competition forces industries to structure their value chains to minimise transaction costs but, in agriculture, this process is commonly impeded by government intervention. In Australia, this has resulted in severe distortions to the structure of most agricultural industries. The wine industry, particularly in South Australia, has avoided or o...

  13. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  14. Resolving the Pu electronic structure enigma: Past lessons and future directions

    The nature and limitations of the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) of Pu is discussed, particularly the absence of detailed fine structure. A novel experiment, Fano Spectroscopy, is suggested as a means to obtain additional fine structure, with which to bench-mark and differentiate theoretical models

  15. Composite chronicles: A study of the lessons learned in the development, production, and service of composite structures

    Vosteen, Louis F.; Hadcock, Richard N.


    A study of past composite aircraft structures programs was conducted to determine the lessons learned during the programs. The study focused on finding major underlying principles and practices that experience showed have significant effects on the development process and should be recognized and understood by those responsible for using of composites. Published information on programs was reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel associated with current and past major development programs. In all, interviews were conducted with about 56 people representing 32 organizations. Most of the people interviewed have been involved in the engineering and manufacturing development of composites for the past 20 to 25 years. Although composites technology has made great advances over the past 30 years, the effective application of composites to aircraft is still a complex problem that requires experienced personnel with special knowledge. All disciplines involved in the development process must work together in real time to minimize risk and assure total product quality and performance at acceptable costs. The most successful programs have made effective use of integrated, collocated, concurrent engineering teams, and most often used well-planned, systematic development efforts wherein the design and manufacturing processes are validated in a step-by-step or 'building block' approach. Such approaches reduce program risk and are cost effective.

  16. The lesson of Goiania

    A cesium-137 source used for radiological treatment was left unattended in a private clinic in the city of Goiania in Brazil. On 13 September 1987, the capsule containing the radioactive material was brought to a junk yard and violated, and its content was unintentionally handled by many people. In 1987 the intensity of the source was 50 · 1012 Bq. Four people died and several hundred injured people were treated clinically or monitored. The lessons learned from this accident are evaluated. (R.P.)

  17. Robustness of optimal inter-city railway network structure in Japan against alternative population distributions

    OKUMURA Makoto; Tsukai, Makoto


    It takes long time and huge amount of money to construct inter-city railway network. Careful demand forecasting and rational service planning are therefore required. However, long ranged demand forecasting is always facing to unintended change of regional population or change of the service level of competing transportation modes such as airline and inter-city express bus. Those changes sometimes resulted in severe decrease of demand for the constructed railway lines and discussion of abolish...

  18. Industrial Structure Evolution and Economic Growth in Dingxi City Based on Shift-Share Method and Location Quotient Analysis


    According to the statistical data in the years 2004-2008, both Shift-Share Analysis and Location Quotient Analysis are used to compare the economic development status of counties (districts) in Dingxi City in the years 2004 and 2008. Advantages and disadvantages of industrial structure and competitiveness are analyzed, as well as the impacts of existing industrial structure on economic growth. Development direction and development focus of primary, secondary and tertiary industries are found out. Countermeasures for accelerating the economic development of counties (districts) in Dingxi City are put forward, such as increasing the inputs in characteristic agriculture, promoting the development of primary industry, speeding up the construction of large and medium industrial enterprises, enhancing the development of secondary industry, strengthening comprehensive environmental improvement in tourist area, and actively developing tertiary industry.

  19. Implementing a structured education program for children with diabetes: lessons learnt from an integrated process evaluation

    Sawtell, M.; Jamieson, L; Wiggins, M; Smith, F.; Ingold, A; Hargreaves, K.; Khatwa, M.; Brooks, L; Thompson, R.(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom); Christie, D


    Background There is recognition of an urgent need for clinic-based interventions for young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus that improve glycemic control and quality of life. The Child and Adolescent Structured Competencies Approach to Diabetes Education (CASCADE) is a structured educational group program, using psychological techniques, delivered primarily by diabetes nurses. Composed of four modules, it is designed for children with poor diabetic control and their parents. A mixed metho...

  20. Institutional Structure and Labor Market Outcomes; Western Lessons for European Countries in Transition

    Flanagan, Robert J.


    Changes in economic systems provide a rare opportunity to redesign basic institutional structures in labor markets. This paper attempts to provide guidance for such institutional choice by drawing on the findings of recent labor market research in market economies on the links between institutional structure and labor market performance. After considering the suitability of research from market economies for the labor market problems faced by economies in transition from central planning, the...

  1. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution.

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna


    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB. PMID:27562564

  2. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    Abbaszadegan, M; Mokhtarzadeh, S; R. Bidram


    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe primary spatial patterns and the main structures of cities are now changing, due to the present sprawl development patterns. These factors have deconstructed the unified structure of cities and have caused spatial segregation of different parts of these settlements, especially central and old fabrics and finally resulted in their socio- economic segregation. On the other hand, external urban expansion led to a complicated physical and spatial structure, whic...

  3. The Population Density Gradient and the Spatial Structure of a Third World City: Nairobi, A Case Study

    J A Kahimbaara


    A generalized Newling function to the fourth degree is used as a regionalizing technique to analyze population density data from the 1969 national census of Kenya in order to identify the spatial structure of Nairobi, Kenya's primate city. On the premise that the colonial origins of Nairobi encouraged residential segregation, first, by race during the colonial period and, second, by socio-economic class during the period of political independence, it is hypothesized: (1) that the density grad...

  4. Sex Markets and Sexual Opportunity Structures of Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Urban Metropolis of New York City

    Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard; Wilson, Patrick A.


    Sex markets (the spatially and culturally bounded arenas) that shape bisexual behavior among Latino men have been utilized as a deterministic concept without a sufficient focus on the ability of individuals to make autonomous decisions within such arenas. We nuance the theory of sex markets using the concept of sexual opportunity structures to investigate the ways in which behaviorally bisexual Latino men in the urban metropolis of New York City navigate sexual geographies, cultural meaning s...

  5. Uncertainty about the municipal territorial structure: prospects of the development of the current variants of city districts

    Denis Boykov


    The article is based on the empirical research done during 2008-2010 within the framework of research projects of the Project-academic laboratory of the municipal management at the National Research University High School of Economics on municipal territories of Krasnodar, Tver, Kostroma, Kaliningrad, Rostov, Novosibirsk, Sverdlovsk.The research found that municipal territorial structure is unbalanced especially in city districts. Th e article considers such a phenomenon of the territorial st...

  6. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    XU Xiangde; ZHOU Xiuji; SHI Xiaohui


    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  7. Waterproofing Underground Structures: Lessons from the Past, Systems for the Future

    Martin Smith


    The paper describes some of the key issues that need to be addressed in the design and execution of underground structures to ensure their long term suitability as watertight units and outlines through practical examples of structures that have not achieved their design requirements which situations need to be considered. Waterproofing is not an exact science but a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical experience based on the five key factors: Environment, Design, Materials, Application and Use of the Structure.In conclusion the paper outlines the advances in crack control to date that can provide the necessary long term guarantees.The adoption of re - injectable crack inducers permitted the Client to save over 10% on construction costs and reduced the construction time by six months.

  8. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  9. RNA structure-based ribosome recruitment: lessons from the Dicistroviridae intergenic region IRESes.

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Kieft, Jeffrey S


    In eukaryotes, the canonical process of initiating protein synthesis on an mRNA depends on many large protein factors and the modified nucleotide cap on the 5' end of the mRNA. However, certain RNA sequences can bypass the need for these proteins and cap, using an RNA structure-based mechanism called internal initiation of translation. These RNAs are called internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes), and the cap-independent initiation pathway they support is critical for successful infection by many viruses of medical and economic importance. In this review, we briefly describe and compare mechanistic and structural groups of viral IRES RNAs, focusing on those IRESes that are capable of direct ribosome recruitment using specific RNA structures. We then discuss in greater detail some recent advances in our understanding of the intergenic region IRESes of the Dicistroviridae, which use the most streamlined ribosome-recruitment mechanism yet discovered. By combining these findings with knowledge of canonical translation and the behavior of other IRESes, mechanistic models of this RNA structure-based process are emerging. PMID:18515544

  10. Challenging the Structural Discrimination of Psychiatric Disabilities: Lessons Learned from the American Disability Community

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Lam, Chow


    Stigma is a major barrier to the life opportunities of people with disabilities, including those with psychiatric disabilities. Structural discrimination is stigma that results from social forces that develop over many years to diminish a group's resources and support needed to be successful. Affirmative action is a legal and political remedy to…

  11. City Branding

    Trads, Søren Frimann; Stigel, Jørgen


    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services with...... potential visitors, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of...... - or willingness to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. An Example of City Disaster Plan in the Context of Integrated Disaster Management with Un sufficient Legal Structure

    Disaster management of a city, in coherent, stable and true manner, were realized by understanding and organizing of the disaster plan. When we consider the earthquake hazard of Marmara Region, it was investigated by the scientific studies how -a world city- Istanbul were effected this earthquake. When we consider the scientific data and we take a base the current legal structure of our country, the aim of the disaster plan is to provide the fist and emergency aid for the citizens when the destructive earthquake were occurred and effected the general life. This disaster plan includes base of the coordination and helping each other of the activity which all institution and organizations will do during possible disaster. The aims of making of plan is to provide the cooperation and collaboration between before the disaster and to act urgently during the disaster, and to provide the following necessary activity. This necessary activity as main headlines are; the providing of communication and transportation; regulation of traffic; rescue; emergency medical aid, to transportation patient and injured people to the hospitals; to put out fire; to provide security and public order; eating, dressing, heating and lighting studies; to provide temporary housing; the burial of dead citizens; to remove wreckage; to repair and to re-provide the electrical, water and canalization construction. In this study, it will mainly be presented Istanbul city disaster plan. Disaster plan of this city were produced by the intensive and sacrificial efforts with Turkish legal system. After that, disaster plan must updated as soon as possible. However government must regulate current legal system ( or the body of current law) related disaster plan. City disaster plan, which even construct well, include only the operations after the disaster. Before disaster, methods of preventive precaution against the disaster must add the plan with applicable legal system

  13. Modeling fractal structure of city-size distributions using correlation function

    Chen, Yanguang


    Zipf's law is one the most conspicuous empirical facts for cities, however, there is no convincing explanation for the scaling relation between rank and size and its scaling exponent. Based on the idea from general fractals and scaling, this paper proposes a dual competition hypothesis of city develop to explain the value intervals and the special value, 1, of the power exponent. Zipf's law and Pareto's law can be mathematically transformed into one another. Based on the Pareto distribution, a frequency correlation function can be constructed. By scaling analysis and multifractals spectrum, the parameter interval of Pareto exponent is derived as (0.5, 1]; Based on the Zipf distribution, a size correlation function can be built, and it is opposite to the first one. By the second correlation function and multifractals notion, the Pareto exponent interval is derived as [1, 2). Thus the process of urban evolution falls into two effects: one is Pareto effect indicating city number increase (external complexity), a...

  14. In pursuit of tax equity: lessons from VAT rate structure adjustment in Poland

    Artur Świstak


    Full Text Available In 2011, in the aftermath of the economic crisis, Poland increased its value added tax rates. Despite an already large VAT policy gap, further rate differentiation was used to address distributional concerns and to protect the most vulnerable households. We find that the changes to the VAT rate structure hardly improved the overall progressivity of the VAT and the tax system as a whole. While providing only minimal relief to the poor, taxation of food products at a super reduced rate greatly subsidized the richer households. With a small change to the income tax structure, the government could have secured more progressivity at a lower cost in terms of revenue foregone.

  15. Lessons learned from structures damaged by delayed ettringite formation and the French prevention strategy

    Godart, Bruno; Divet, Loïc


    The sulphate internal reaction due to Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) is a cause of disorders likely to damage concrete structures severely. If the first cases of DEF appeared abroad in some precast concrete elements subjected to a heat treatment unsuited to the composition and the environment of the concrete (like, for example, railway sleepers), this pathology was observed in France, for the first time in 1997, on bridges whose concrete had been cast on site. The bridge parts damaged by ...

  16. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia


    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  17. Old-new Diversity: processes and Structures of Socio-Demographic Change in the Inner City

    Haase, A.; Bierzynski, A.; Grabowska, M.; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Uherek, Zdeněk; Maas, A.

    Surrey : Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2011 - (Haase, A.; Steinfuhrer, A.; Kabisch, S.; Grossmann, K.; Hall, R.), s. 143-183 ISBN 978-0-7546-7934-9 Grant ostatní: Volkswagen Foundation(DE) II/81150 - Social and spatial consequences of demographic change in East Central European cities Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518; CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : demographic change * inner cities * gentrification Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. City 2020+

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.


    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  19. RNA structure-based ribosome recruitment: Lessons from the Dicistroviridae intergenic region IRESes

    Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Kieft, Jeffrey S.


    In eukaryotes, the canonical process of initiating protein synthesis on an mRNA depends on many large protein factors and the modified nucleotide cap on the 5′ end of the mRNA. However, certain RNA sequences can bypass the need for these proteins and cap, using an RNA structure-based mechanism called internal initiation of translation. These RNAs are called internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes), and the cap-independent initiation pathway they support is critical for successful infection by m...

  20. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing

  1. Paradigms of structural safety of AGED plants. Lessons learned from Russian activities

    The study of the effects behind the degradation of components and material is becoming increasingly important for the safe operation of aged plants especially when it comes to life-extension. Since the Russian nuclear community began to examine life extension issues nearly fifteen years ago, there is much to learn from these Russian pioneering studies, a portion of which were performed under the TACIS (Technical Assistance for Commonwealth of Independent States) international collaboration program with EU countries. At the Ninth International Conference, recent data were introduced regarding the ageing effects of mechanical properties of various kinds of steel and the welding joints of Russian NPP components. The full title of the conference was Material Issues in Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants Equipment. The meeting was organized by the Central Research Institute of Structural Materials (CRISM) 'Prometey' in cooperation with the IAEA and JRC-EU. In reviewing the recent data presented at the Ninth Conference, the authors think that the paradigms of structural integrity issues in aged plants are now reasonably well established in (1) fracture mechanics and irradiation hardening of reactor vessels and core internals and (2) thermal ageing and annealing effects. Yet even when considering these well established paradigms, the current direction of study is not adequately addressing the effects of a corrosive environment. The first author believes that the current approach of low cycle fatigue is far from able to prevent and predict environmentally assisted cracks. This fundamental flaw stems from design codes, which do not incorporate the basic knowledge of corrosion mechanisms. Our focus in researching aged plants should be re-directed toward environmentally assisted cracking, typically the film rupture-slip dissolution mechanism of crack propagation under the effect of long cell action on local cells, as discussed by the first author in

  2. Structural characterization and biomedical properties of sulfated polysaccharide from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson, 1831).

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annian


    Sulfated polysaccharide was extracted from the internal shell (gladius) of Sepioteuthis lessoniana. The sulfated polysaccharide contained 61.3% of carbohydrate, 0.8% of protein, 28.2% of ash and 1.33% of moisture respectively. The elemental composition was analyzed using CHNS/O analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide determined through PAGE was found to be as 66kDa. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that sulfated polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose and glucose. The structural features of sulfated polysaccharide were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Further the sulfated polysaccharide was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against selected human clinical pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Streptococcus pyogenes using agar well diffusion method. The polysaccharide has showed good antibacterial activity and MIC and MBC have also been evaluated. The anticancer activity was tested against HeLa cell line by MTT assay. The Cytotoxic Concentration (CC50) was observed as 700μg/ml and the maximum anticancer activity of 62.89% was recorded at 200μg/ml; whereas, the lowest of 9.87% was observed at 25μg/ml. In conclusion, the sulfated polysaccharide is an alternate, non-toxic and cheap source of substance that showed good antibacterial and anticancer acitivity. PMID:26724686

  3. Structuring learning environments: Lessons from the organization of post-literacy programs

    Easton, Peter A.


    New conceptual and historical work on the nature of literacy and information on several bellwether post-literacy efforts in developing countries furnish a basis for diagnosing some of the deficiencies in current approaches to post-literacy programming. The key issue is the design of a `literate environment'. Heretofore attention has been concentrated too exclusively on the reading materials and continuing education side of the problem, and insufficient attention has been given to the more critical and difficult aspect: ensuring adequate opportunities for the application of new literate skills. The availability of these functional opportunities is closely related to the possibilities for accumulation and reinvestment of economic surplus in the environment, and to the way in which the related activities are organized. Literacy programs can unite skills relevant to management of local resources with strategies of cultural, political or religious revitalization that mobilize people to use their human resources. They therefore continue to offer an attractive means of initiating a reinvestment spiral from limited initial capital. To realize these potentials at the post-literacy stage, however, requires planning post-literacy before literacy, broadening programs to address primary school leavers as well, and paying greatly increased attention to the economic and social structure of the learning environment.

  4. Structural diagenesis in Upper Carboniferous tight gas sandstones. Lessons learned from the Piesberg analog study

    Steindorf, P.; Hoehne, M.; Becker, S.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Koehrer, B. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany)


    unconventional reservoir properties at a subseismic scale, considering both the alteration and evolution of pore space during diagenesis and the formation of structures. Combined with well-log and core data, uncertainties in 3D-reservoir modeling parameters and fluid migration pathways from seismic- to micro-scale of analogous subsurface tight gas reservoirs may be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  5. Experiences and Reflections about Teaching Atomic Structure in a Jigsaw Classroom in Lower Secondary School Chemistry Lessons

    Eilks, Ingo


    The study investigates the students opinions on learning in a jigsaw classroom and enquiring on what they think about jigsaw classroom having the potential to make chemistry learning more attractive and whether it can help them to improve their communicative and social skills. The study was carried out using a lesson design for teaching an…

  6. Lessons Learned

    The examples of lessons learned comprise an outline of the problems encountered at the nuclear facilities involved. The situations are typical of the difficulties that can arise when planning or implementing a decommissioning project for a small facility. Although the information is not intended to be exhaustive, the reader is encouraged to evaluate the applicability of the lessons learned to a specific decommissioning project. The general categories of problem and the relevant section in which they are discussed are shown. One should also note that in almost all cases the lack/inadequacy of construction or operational records contributed to the seriousness of the reported occurrences.

  7. Patterns of sustainable mobility and the structure of modality in the Randstad city-region

    Lopes Gil, J.A.; Read, S.A.


    The sustainable mobility vision for city-regions proposes a more integrated and ‘seamless’ multi-modal public transport system around quality neighborhoods, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes and to public transport at various scales. Existing models of sustainable urban form address this challenge focusing on the location, density and diversity of activities, on the composition of the street layout, and on the presence of transport nodes and the quality of the public transport se...

  8. The city around the clock: space - time patterns of urban ecological structure

    Goodchild, M.F.; D G Janelle


    The space - time diaries for more than 1500 respondents in Halifax, Canada are used to generate census-like data for spatial units at six different times during the day. A space - time factorial ecology reveals distinctive diurnal patterns in the city's social geography. Aside from illustrating temporal variations in traditional factors, such as status and family orientation, additional factors relating to activity patterns and their social settings are identified.

  9. Assessment of Geo-Tourism Structure in Bojnoord City Sustainable Tourism Development

    Pegah Kharazian


    Full Text Available Nowadays, issues such as population growth, gradual reduction of natural resources, increasing pollution, unbalanced distribution in resources, the crisis of ecological conservation, urbanization growth and increasing human awareness are as a result of social changes in human life. Even changes in the attitude of people toward the trip phenomenon lead to several changes in this industry. The concept of ecotourism, geo-tourism, geo-park and sustainable tourism represent the evolution of ideas, including new solutions that will meet the modern world's needs with valued targets in its plan. The emphasis of this article is on morphological characteristics in line with sustainable development goals and ecological resources protection of the region to attract certain tourists through the identification and introducing the potential attraction of the area. Analytical and experimental research methods are based on statistical data, quantitative analysis methods and data collection methods in library and field methods. This case study (Bojnoord city presents comprehensive image about geomorphological attractions of Bojnoord city. The results indicated that through the internal and external processes of land phenomena, beautiful landscapes such as anticlines, synclines, straits and erosional forms, springs, waterfalls, peaks and valleys with special and unique effects can attract tourists in different ages and educational levels in different seasons of the year. Keywords:  Geo-tourism, Ecotourism, Geo-parks, Sustainable tourism, Bojnoord city


    Pavel Silviu Ioana


    AimTaking as a particular case the sixth grade, it is imperiously necessary to approach the football themes in the physical education lesson from another angle, with a basis in the use of specific football means. Hypotheses: The study has the following hypotheses: 1. Leading the ball on various distances, and in different combinations of exercises, contributes to the improvement of the sixth grade pupils' technical skills. 2. The movement games under variated conditions contribute to the imp...

  11. Research on risk dodges of industrial structure readjustment in mining industry city

    PENG Lian-hui; LI Fang-wei; LI Nai-wen


    It was mainly research on the causes, manifestations, and risk dodges of the industry risk selection, industry structure risk during the readjustment of the industrial structure and the establishment of the early-warning model of risk aversion.

  12. Research on risk dodges of industrial structure readjustment in mining industry city

    PENG Lian-hui; LI Fang-wei; LI Nai-wen


    It was mainly research on the causes,manifestations,and risk dodges of the industry risk selection,industry structure risk during the readjustment of the industrial structure and the establishment of the early-warning model of risk aversion.


    Yukio NAMBA; Junichi IIJIMA


    Enterprise systems must have the structure to adapt the change of business environment. Whenrebuilding enterprise system to meet the extended operational boundaries, the concept of IT cityplanning is applicable and effective. The aim of this paper is to describe the architectural approachfrom the integrated information infrastructure (In3) standpoint and to propose for applying the "CityPlanning" concept for rebuilding "inter-application spaghetti" enterprise systems. This is mainlybecause the portion of infrastructure has increased with the change of information systems fromcentralized systems to distributed and open systems. As enterprise systems have involvedheterogeneity or architectural black box in them, it may be required the integration framework(meta-architecture) as a discipline based on heterogeneity that can provide comprehensive view of theenterprise systems. This paper proposes "EH Meta-model" as the integration framework that canoptimize the overall enterprise systems from the IT city planning point of view. EH Meta-modelconsists of "Integrated Information Infrastructure Map (In3-Map)", "Service Framework" and "ITScenario". It would be applicable and effective for the viable enterprise, because it has the mechanismto adapt the change. Finally, we illustrate a case of information system in an online securitiescompany and demonstrate applicability and effectiveness of EII Meta-model to meet their businessgoals.

  14. Inductive & Deductive Science Thinking: A Model for Lesson Development

    Bilica, Kim; Flores, Margaret


    Middle school students make great learning gains when they participate in lessons that invite them to practice their developing scientific reasoning skills; however, designing developmentally appropriate, clear, and structured lessons about scientific thinking and reasoning can be difficult. This challenge can be met through lessons that teach…

  15. Structural Health Monitoring Using Wireless Technologies: An Ambient Vibration Test on the Adolphe Bridge, Luxembourg City

    Matteo Picozzi; Adrien Oth


    Major threats to bridges primarily consist of the aging of the structural elements, earthquake-induced shaking and standing waves generated by windstorms. The necessity of information on the state of health of structures in real-time, allowing for timely warnings in the case of damaging events, requires structural health monitoring (SHM) systems that allow the risks of these threats to be mitigated. Here we present the results of a short-duration experiment carried out with low-cost wireless ...

  16. The quality of the lesson plans for online nature study

    Resnik, Tadeja


    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse and evaluate lesson preparations for schoolsubject getting to know the environment, which are available on the following web links:,, The theoretical part, based on literature sources, briefly represents teacher's professional development through lesson planning, the process and the structure of a lesson preparation and the course of a lesson. The theoretical part describes also th...

  17. Education Cities

    Shaked, Haim


    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  18. Image city


    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  19. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Oberhettinger, David


    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  20. Changing Characteristics of the Water Consumption Structure in Nanjing City, Southern China

    Hao Wu; Xiaojun Wang; Shamsuddin Shahid; Mao Ye


    Understanding the changes in water consumption structure in order to take measures for demand control is very important for sustainable water resources management. In this study, using the Southern China area of Nanjing as an example, we employed the information entropy method to analyze the water consumption structure, as well as the grey incidence analysis to analyze synthetic incidence degree of the factors associated with agricultural, industrial, domestic, and ecological water consumptio...

  1. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa


    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  2. The KnowRISK project - Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements

    Sousa Oliveria, Carlos; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Lopez, Mário; Sousa Silva, Delta; Musacchio, Gemma; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Falsaperla, Susanna; Meroni, Fabrizio; Langer, Horst


    Historically, there is a tendency to focus on seismic structural performance of buildings, neglecting the potential for damage of non-structural elements. In particular, non-structural elements of buildings are their architectural parts (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding), electrical and mechanical components (i.e., distribution panels, piping, plumbing), and contents (e.g., furniture, bookcases, computers and desktop equipment). Damage of these elements often contributes significantly to earthquake impacts. In the 1999 Izmit Earthquake, Turkey, 50% of the injuries and 3% of human losses were caused by non-structural failures. In the 2010-2011 Christchurch Earthquakes (New Zealand), 40% of building damage was induced by non-structural malfunctions. Around 70%-85% of construction cost goes into these elements, and their damage can strongly influence the ability of communities to cope with and recover from earthquakes. The project Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements (KnowRISK) aims at facilitating local communities' access to expert knowledge on non-structural seismic protection solutions. The project will study seismic scenarios critical for non-structural damage, produce a portfolio of non-structural protection measures and investigate the level of awareness in specific communities. We will implement risk communication strategies that will take into account the social and cultural background and a participatory approach to raise awareness in local communities. The paradox between the progress of scientific knowledge and the ongoing increase of losses from natural disasters worldwide is a well-identified gap in the UN Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, in which one of the main priorities is the investment on "knowledge use, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience". The KnowRISK is well aligned with these priorities and will contribute to participatory action aimed at: i) transferring expert knowledge

  3. Structural localization and origin of compartmentalized fluid flow, Comstock lode, Virginia City, Nevada

    Berger, B.R.; Tingley, J.V.; Drew, L.J.


    Bonanza-grade orebodies in epithermal-style mineral deposits characteristically occur as discrete zones within spatially more extensive fault and/or fracture systems. Empirically, the segregation of such systems into compartments of higher and lower permeability appears to be a key process necessary for high-grade ore formation and, most commonly, it is such concentrations of metals that make an epithermal vein district world class. In the world-class silver- and gold-producing Comstock mining district, Nevada, several lines of evidence lead to the conclusion that the Comstock lode is localized in an extensional stepover between right-lateral fault zones. This evidence includes fault geometries, kinematic indicators of slip, the hydraulic connectivity of faults as demonstrated by veins and dikes along faults, and the opening of a normal-fault-bounded, asymmetric basin between two parallel and overlapping northwest-striking, lateral- to lateral-oblique-slip fault zones. During basin opening, thick, generally subeconomic, banded quartz-adularia veins were deposited in the normal fault zone, the Comstock fault, and along one of the bounding lateral fault zones, the Silver City fault. As deformation continued, the intrusion of dikes and small plugs into the hanging wall of the Comstock fault zone may have impeded the ability of the stepover to accommodate displacement on the bounding strike-slip faults through extension within the stepover. A transient period of transpressional deformation of the Comstock fault zone ensued, and the early-stage veins were deformed through boudinaging and hydraulic fragmentation, fault-motion inversion, and high- and low-angle axial rotations of segments of the fault planes and some fault-bounded wedges. This deformation led to the formation of spatially restricted compartments of high vertical permeability and hydraulic connectivity and low lateral hydraulic connectivity. Bonanza orebodies were formed in the compartmentalized zones of


    Pavel Silviu Ioana


    Full Text Available AimTaking as a particular case the sixth grade, it is imperiously necessary to approach the football themes in the physical education lesson from another angle, with a basis in the use of specific football means. Hypotheses: The study has the following hypotheses: 1. Leading the ball on various distances, and in different combinations of exercises, contributes to the improvement of the sixth grade pupils' technical skills. 2. The movement games under variated conditions contribute to the improvement of specific football skills in sixth grade pupils. MaterialThe experiment was conducted between February and April 2013 and consisted in applying a technical course to the sixth grade pupils from the "Mihail Sadoveanu" School in Bacau. For a better emphasis of the results, an initial and a final testing were done. The testing consisted in the subjects from the experimental and the witness group completing a technical course. The methods used in this research were: the observation, the experiment, the statistical-mathematical method. Results The analysis of the recorded data allows a few important observations at the end of the study: For the sixth graders, the initial tests were relatively similar, leading to ideas that are well-known by specialists in the field, that the general level of motor skills in middle school pupils is very low. Scoring goals being an action that involves a high degree of CNS decision making abilities, we can understand why puberty has this negative effect on the pupils' concentration and decision-making. Conclusions The novelty of introducing specific football means in the physical education lesson lead to an increase in the diversity of the used elements, which made me observe an improvement in the pupils' attention and involvement during classes. As means of the physical education, the game is of a real importance, due to its effects on the pupils' physical and intellectual development.

  5. Transportation Structure Analysis Using SD-MOP in World Modern Garden City: A Case Study in China

    Jiuping Xu


    Full Text Available The idea of the “garden city” was developed theoretically to offer solutions to serious city development problems such as traffic congestion, population, and environmental pollution, among which the transportation is considered the most important. The question is how to develop balanced transportation in a garden city. Transportation is a complex system, particularly in a garden city. Therefore, we establish a new approach named the transportation multiobjective optimization system dynamics  (SD-MOP model, which firstly calculates the optimal proportion of different transport means with an MOP approach and then applies them to the dynamic transportation system to analyze the results and analyze the influence on the whole system using different transportation means variation. In this paper, we take Chengdu as an example, one of the few cities in the world declared as building a garden city, and then develop some recommendations about world modern garden city transportation system development.

  6. Number Concentration and Modal Structure of Indoor/Outdoor Fine Particles in Four European Cities

    Lazaridis, M.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Wagner, Zdeněk; Ondráček, Jakub; Drossinos, Y.; Glytsos, T.; Vratolis, S.; Torseth, K.; Smolík, Jiří

    Prague: Czech Aerosol Society, 2013, s. 31. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2013). Prague (CZ), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor number concentration * indoor sources * modal structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. Transportation Structure Analysis Using SD-MOP in World Modern Garden City: A Case Study in China

    Jiuping Xu; Jing Yang; Liming Yao


    The idea of the “garden city” was developed theoretically to offer solutions to serious city development problems such as traffic congestion, population, and environmental pollution, among which the transportation is considered the most important. The question is how to develop balanced transportation in a garden city. Transportation is a complex system, particularly in a garden city. Therefore, we establish a new approach named the transportation multiobjective optimization system dynamics  ...

  8. Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan



    Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

  9. A Study into the Impact of Physical Structures on the Runway Velocity Field at the Atlantic City International Airport

    King, David, Jr.; Manson, Russell; Trout, Joseph; Decicco, Nicholas; Rios, Manny


    Wake vortices are generated by airplanes in flight. These vortices decay slowly and may persist for several minutes after their creation. These vortices and associated smaller scale turbulent structures present a hazard to incoming flights. It is for this reason that incoming flights are timed to arrive after these vortices have dissipated. Local weather conditions, mainly prevailing winds, can affect the transport and evolution of these vortices; therefore, there is a need to fully understand localized wind patterns at the airport-sized mircoscale. Here we have undertaken a computational investigation into the impacts of localized wind flows and physical structures on the velocity field at Atlantic City International Airport. The simulations are undertaken in OpenFOAM, an open source computational fluid dynamics software package, using an optimized geometric mesh of the airport. Initial conditions for the simulations are based on historical data with the option to run simulations based on projected weather conditions imported from the Weather Research & Forcasting (WRF) Model. Sub-grid scale turbulence is modeled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. The initial results gathered from the WRF Model simulations and historical weather data analysis are presented elsewhere.

  10. Paleostress reconstructions of Jabal Hafit structures, Southeast of Al Ain City, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    Zaineldeen, Usama F.


    This paper presents the first paleostress results obtained from displacement and fracture systems within the Lower Eocene sediments at Jabal Hafit, Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. Detailed investigation of Paleogene structures at Jabal Hafit reveal the existence of both extensional structures (normal faults) and compressional structures (strike-slip and reverse faults). Structural analysis and paleostress reconstructions show that the Paleogene kinematic history is characterized by the succession of four paleostress stages. Orientation of principal stresses was found from fault-slip data using an improved right-dihedra method, followed by rotational optimisation (TENSOR program). The paleostress results confirm four transtensional tectonic stages (T1-T4) which affected the study area. The first tectonic stage (T1) is characterized by SHmax NW-SE σ2-orientation. This stage produced NW-SE striking joints (tension veins) and E-W to ENE-WSW striking dextral strike-slip faults. The proposed age of this stage is Early Eocene. The second stage (T2) had SHmax N-S σ2-orientation. N-S striking joints and NNE-SSW striking sinistral strike-slip faults, E-W striking reverse faults and N-S striking normal faults were created during this stage. The T2 stage is interpreted to be post-Early Eocene in age. The third stage (T3) is characterized by SHmax E-W σ2-orientation. This stage reactivated the E-W reverse faults as sinistral strike-slip faults and created E-W striking joints and NE-SW reverse faults. The proposed age for T3 is post-Middle Eocene. During the T3 ( SHmax E-W σ2-orientation) stage the NNW-plunging Hafit anticline was formed. The last tectonic stage that affected the study area (T4) is characterized by SHmax NE-SW σ2-orientation. During this stage, the ENE-WSW faults were reactivated as sinistral strike-slip and reverse faults. NE-SW oriented joints were also created during the T4 ( SHmax NE-SW σ2-orientation) stage. The interpreted age of this stage is post

  11. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Massive Structure: Case Study for Sofia City

    An advanced modeling technique, which allows us to compute realistic synthetic seismograms, is used to create a database of synthetic accelerograms in a set of selected sites located within Sofia urban area. The accelerograms can be used for the assessment of the local site response, represented in terms of Response Spectra Ratio (RSR). The result of this study, i.e. time histories, response spectra and other ground motion parameters, can be used for different earthquake engineering analyses. Finally, with the help of 3D finite elements modeling, the building structural performance is assessed

  12. Seismic isolation retrofitting of the Salt Lake City and County Building

    The City and County Building, a massive unreinforced masonry structure completed in 1894, has been seismically retrofitted using base isolation. The isolation system consists of 443 lead-rubber isolators installed underneath the building on top of existing spread footings. The building is isolated from the surrounding ground by a perimeter moat wall, permitting lateral movement to take place during an earthquake. It is believed that this is the first historic structure in the world to be retrofitted against possible seismic damage using base isolation. Lessons learned in this design effort are potentially applicable to seismic base isolation for nuclear power plants

  13. Structural classification of clay soils and its application in classifying Tehran City clays

    The behaviour of all reconstituted and natural clays is determined by their fabric and bonding. A new classification of clays is proposed in this paper on the basis of standard penetration test (Spt), the geological history and the one-dimensional compression of the clay in the 1v-σv plane. Although the eighth clay types defined in the classification have different origins, fabric and bonding, they all have either a syn-sedimentation or a post-sedimentation structure. The definition of these clay types is taken as a starting point for the construction of a general framework of behaviour of clays. In this research results of laboratory and field investigations of a very stiff Tehran silty clay in the natural and reconstituted states including Spt, Odometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy and polarizing microscopy are presented. The structure of the Tehran silty clay is strongly influenced by bonding, calcium carbonate content and weathering intensity. This soil is a very stiff to hard clay which geologically is over-consolidated. Consolidation curve of soils lies close to the Icl line. Hence the Tehran silty clay is a type 4 clay but, at certain depths where the yield stress ratio is greater than 1, the Tehran silty clay becomes a type 7 clay

  14. Beer City


    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  15. Ideal Cities

    Meitner, Erika


    Erika Meitner discusses her new book: Ideal Cities. This collection of autobiographical narrative and lyric poems explores the relationship between body and place—specifically the pleasures and dangers of women’s corporeal experiences. Ideal Cities is guided by an epigraph from Song of Songs, and the metaphorical idea of bodies as cities, and cities as bodies. How do women’s bodies become sites of inscription via sex, childbirth, and other highly physical acts? These poems also investigate ur...

  16. Sin City?

    Gautier, Pieter A; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.


    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? Weinvestigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners bymoving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danishcouples. We find that of the couples who married in the city, the ones who stay inthe city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who marriedoutside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. Thiscorrelation ...

  17. Structural Determinants of Client Perpetrated Violence Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities.

    Conners, Erin E; Silverman, Jay G; Ulibarri, Monica; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L; Brouwer, Kimberly C


    Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by both HIV and gender-based violence, such as that perpetrated by clients (CPV). We used a structural determinants framework to assess correlates of physical or sexual CPV in the past 6 months among FSWs in the Mexico/U.S. border cities of Ciudad Juárez and Tijuana. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified individual, client, interpersonal, work environment and macrostructural factors associated with recent CPV. Among 496 FSWs, 5 % experienced recent CPV. Witnessing violence towards other FSWs in one's neighborhood (aOR 5.6, 95 % CI 1.8-17.2), having a majority of foreign (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.4-8.4) or substance using (aOR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5-10.4) clients, and being a street worker (aOR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.7) were independently associated with recent CPV. Our findings underscore the vulnerability of FSWs and the need to design policies and interventions addressing macro-level influences on CPV rather than exclusively targeting individual behaviors. PMID:26111732

  18. Eurasian Cities : New Realities along the Silk Road

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Deichmann, Uwe; Dillinger, William R.; Heroiu, Marcel Ionescu; Kessides, Ioannis N.; Kunaka, Charles; Saslavsky, Daniel


    Eurasian cities, unique in the global spatial landscape, were part of the world's largest experiment in urban development. The challenges they now face because of their history offer valuable lessons to urban planners and policy makers across the world from places that are still urbanizing to those already urbanized. More than three-quarters of the built environment in Eurasian cities was ...

  19. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)


    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  20. City PLANTastic

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...... urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  1. 浅谈尼日利亚Minna games city体育场结构设计%On Structural Design of Minna Games City Stadium in Nigeria



    以尼日利亚Minna Games City体育场结构设计为例,介绍该体育场看台Y型柱设计、空间复杂屋盖选型、建模、抗风设计、钢屋盖支撑墩设计等关键问题的处理思路和方法,以供同类工程参考。%This paper discusses on structural design of Minna Games City Stadium in Nigeria by stand foundation, steel roof buttress, concrete frame structure and steel-structure canopy for reference.

  2. Flood Control Structures, City of Hutchinson and Reno County leeve system polyline layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Control Structures dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as...

  3. Price Level Convergence, Purchasing Power Parity and Multiple Structural Breaks in Panel Data Analysis: An Application to U.S. Cities

    Basher Syed A.; Carrion-i-Silvestre Josep Lluís


    This article provides a methodological and empirical approach for assessing price level convergence and its relation to purchasing power parity (PPP) using annual price data for seventeen U.S. cities during the period 1918 to 2005. We suggest a new panel data procedure that can handle a wide range of PPP concepts in the presence of multiple structural breaks using all possible pairs of real exchange rates. Testing for PPP requires the definition of parametric restrictions (parity restrictions...

  4. Territorial Politics and formal structures of governance in spatial planning: insights from the Dublin city-region (NIRSA) Working Paper Series 64

    Walsh, Cormac


    This paper presents the argument that the contents of spatial plans and the discursive framing of processes of spatial strategy-making are structured by the political geography of the formal institutions of governance through which spatial plans derive their legitimacy. At the same time spatial planning processes and strategies themselves may be active in the social construction of particular spatial (territorial and scalar) configurations. Spatial planning strategies for cities a...


    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans


    This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...... emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban...

  6. Block Diagram of a Black and White TV. Lesson Plan No. 1, Electronic Tech 1.

    Hollandsworth, Donald S.

    This lesson, which is part of a course in electronics technology, explains the workings of a black-and-white television. It covers the structure and function of the 18 structural blocks of black-and-white television sets. The following materials are included: a lesson plan, transparency masters, and student handouts. The lesson plan includes lists…

  7. Student teachers learning to plan mathematics lessons

    Jones, K; Smith, K.


    Most educational professionals would agree that planning is an essential component of teaching. Such planning, educational texts and reports often stress, must focus on the specifying of clear objectives and a clear lesson structure. As a result, a common framework used to introduce student teachers to the complexities of lesson planning is premised on starting the planning process with specifying objectives. Yet there is considerable evidence that experienced teachers do not plan in this way...

  8. Analysis of Macro-Structure of Why Historians DisagreeLesson 3 of Contemporary College English Book4

    Wang Li


    With the development of the study of text analysis and ihnctional grammar,text teaching has gradually become an important method in foreign language teaching.In the field of text analysis,textual structure has always been linguists' focus.After introducing researches on macro-structure of text,this paper gives a brief introduction to the text Why Historians Disagree,and then discusses how different macro-structure patterns are adopted in the text,at last draws implications for the teaching of intensive reading course.

  9. Lessons learned bulletin

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  10. Limerick City


    Postcard. Colour photograph of River Shannon with Limerick City in background. Number 2/LK-018. Printed on reverse "Limerick city, where the Shannon river meets the sea is one of the most progressive of Irish cities, where the past and present mingle pleasantly. That part of the city called Newtown Pery was designed and planned in 1767, and is the Limerick of wide streets crossing at right angles, and the pleasantly tree-sprinkled People's Park. The tall column in the park commemorates Thomas...

  11. A Tailored Approach to Launch Community Coalitions Focused on Achieving Structural Changes: Lessons Learned From a HIV Prevention Mobilization Study.

    Chutuape, Kate S; Willard, Nancy; Walker, Bendu C; Boyer, Cherrie B; Ellen, Jonathan


    Public health HIV prevention efforts have begun to focus on addressing social and structural factors contributing to HIV risk, such as unstable housing, unemployment, and access to health care. With a limited body of evidence-based structural interventions for HIV, communities tasked with developing structural changes need a defined process to clarify their purpose and goals. This article describes the adaptations made to a coalition development model with the purpose of improving the start-up phase for a second group of coalitions. Modifications focused on preparing coalitions to more efficiently apply structural change concepts to their strategic planning activities, create more objectives that met study goals, and enhance coalition procedures such as building distributed coalition leadership to better support the mobilization process. We report on primary modifications to the process, findings for the coalitions, and recommendations for public health practitioners who are seeking to start a similar coalition. PMID:26785397

  12. Evolutionary mechanisms shaping the genetic population structure of marine fishes; lessons from the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus L.)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Grønkjær, P.; Loeschcke, V.


    A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating low but significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations. We used nine microsatellite loci and recently developed methods in landscape genetics and coalescence-based estimation of historical gene flow and effective...... Atlantic and western Baltic Sea samples. Alternative factors, such as dispersal potential and/or environmental gradients, could be important for generating genetic divergence in this region. The results show that the magnitude and scale of structuring generated by a specific mechanism depend critically on...

  13. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Rojas, Jesús


    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  14. Lessons Learned in Engineering

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.


    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations.

  15. Comparison of avian assemblage structures in two upper montane forests of the Cameroon volcanic line: lessons for bird conservation

    Djomo Nana, E.; Sedláček, O.; Bayly, N.; Ferenc, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Reif, J.; Motombi, F. N.; Hořák, D.


    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2014), s. 1469-1484. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Abundance-range size relationship * Assemblage structure * Range-restricted species * Species richness * West-Central Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  16. Sinking coastal cities

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.


    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  17. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Luca Salvati


    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  18. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    Wirgin, Armand


    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  19. NASA Engineering Network Lessons Learned

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Lessons Learned system provides access to official, reviewed lessons learned from NASA programs and projects. These lessons have been made available to the...

  20. Unexpected Realities: Lessons from China’s New English Textbook Implementation

    Rui Niu


    Full Text Available Although studies have been done in China’s large cities on education policy issues, research is lacking on China’s smaller towns, which are more indicative of the situations throughout China. This article presents lessons learned from studying Chinese English teachers at four different schools that were adopting new English textbooks, in accordance with revised national education policy. Using conflict theory and social action theory as an analytical lens, and combining ethnographic and naturalistic inquiry as research methods, the article reports on the conflicts that the Chinese English teachers confronted as they were adopting the new English textbooks at the classroom level. Analysis of the implementation conflict resulted in lessons learned related to the influence of the traditional cultural and education structures, the impact of policy implementation contexts, and the availability of support systems for teachers. The lessons indicate that future education policymakers in both China and the United States need to be mindful of obstacles that teachers struggle to overcome when implementing new policies.

  1. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Tkáč, Štefan


    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  2. Lessons Learned from TOPOFF 4

    The Top Officials (TOPOFF) National Domestic Counter-terrorism Exercise Series mandated by Public Law 106-553 established through the Department of Homeland Security National Exercise Program (NEP) conducted the fourth nationwide exercise, TOPOFF 4, October 15-20, 2007. The exercise simulated a terrorist attack using radiological dispersion devices (RDD) in multiple locations in US cities and a US territory. Roughly 15,000 individuals participated in the exercise with the goal of determining the readiness of our emergency responders to implement the National Response Plan, Incident Command Systems, and National Incident Management Systems to handle a terrorist attack using unconventional weapons. This paper will address the publicly available 'lessons learned' from the latest of the nationwide exercises through a review of the 'after action reports' prepared by participating agencies and related documentation. (authors)

  3. Flying Cities

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan


    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  4. Drone City

    Jensen, Ole B.


    design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... on the block” that will potentially be a game-changer for urban governance, economics and everyday life. Here we are thinking of the unmanned aerial vehicle or drone as the popular term has it. Therefore, the paper asks how life in “drone city” may play out. Drones may alter the notion of surveillance by means...

  5. The Joint Cities

    Romano Fistola


    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  6. Computing the Image of the City

    Jiang, Bin


    Kevin Lynch proposed a theory of the image of the city identifying five elements that make the city legible or imageable. The resulting mental map of the city was conventionally derived through some qualitative processes, relying on interactions with city residents to ask them to recall city elements from their minds. This paper proposes a process by which the image of the city can be quantitatively derived automatically using computer technology and geospatial databases of the city. This method is substantially based on and inspired by Christopher Alexander's living structure and Nikos Salingaros' structural order, as a city with the living structure or structural order tends to be legible and imageable. With the increasing availability of geographic information of urban environments at very fine scales or resolutions (for example, trajectories data about human activities), the proposal or solution described in this paper is particularly timely and relevant for urban studies and architectural design. Keyword...

  7. City Streets

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  8. Potential Cities_

    Budzynski, Scott


    Buildings and urban construction are understood in this paper as representations of the city. Their meanings, however, are often invisible, positing unrealized urban visions, which are both imbedded in and which call up chains of associations expressing desires and fears. Narratives of what the city should be often contain the rejection of the existing urban situation. Understanding architectural objects as potential underscores their imaginary nature. Freud, for example, uses the Roman ruins...

  9. Beautiful city

    Gerald A. Carlino


    Proponents of the City Beautiful movement advocated for sizable public investments in monumental spaces, street beautification, and classical architecture. Today, economists and policymakers see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract people and jobs to cities. But past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisure amenities for urban growth and development. In this article, Jerry Carlino uses a new data set on the number of leisure tourist ...

  10. City Beautiful

    Gerald A. Carlino; Saiz, Albert


    The City Beautiful movement, which in the early 20th century advocated city beautification as a way to improve the living conditions and civic virtues of the urban dweller, had languished by the Great Depression. Today, new urban economic theorists and policymakers are coming to see the provision of consumer leisure amenities as a way to attract population, especially the highly skilled and their employers. However, past studies have provided only indirect evidence of the importance of leisur...

  11. Model cities

    M Batty


    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  12. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    M. Abbaszadegan


    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe primary spatial patterns and the main structures of cities are now changing, due to the present sprawl development patterns. These factors have deconstructed the unified structure of cities and have caused spatial segregation of different parts of these settlements, especially central and old fabrics and finally resulted in their socio- economic segregation. On the other hand, external urban expansion led to a complicated physical and spatial structure, which is impossible to perceive its morphology in its totality. One of the theories and methods for exploring urban spatial structure is space syntax. Space syntax theory and technique is able to analyze urban spatial structure in relation to all spatial characteristic of the city. Also, the main purpose of this research is to answer this question that is there a meaningful relation between changes in value of spatial integration (resulting from space syntax analysis and changes in value of development quality (socio-economical, physical and environmental development of neighborhoods?2- Theoretical basesAccording to David Harvey's theories, there is a meaningful relation between socio-economic processes and the spatial form of a city; therefore, in order to comprehend socio-economic processes, understanding the spatial form of the city is essential. This theory also, believes that urban spaces are productions of social relationship and the connection between urban spaces follow social goals. Therefore, understanding the relation between urban spaces can help to perceive behavioral patterns and also quality and quantity analysis.Integration is the main concept of space syntax theory. This indicator is defined based on the connections and depth, not based on metric distance. Indeed, the integration degree of an urban area shows the integrity of that area with the entire city. Integration map of a city is an important tool in understanding the behavior of

  13. Structural Mechanism of the Pan-BCR-ABL Inhibitor Ponatinib (AP24534): Lessons for Overcoming Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Wang, Yihan; Thomas, Mathew; Keats, Jeff; Xu, Qihong; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Clackson, Tim; Dalgarno, David C.; Zhu, Xiaotian (ARIAD)


    The BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. However, drug resistance caused by kinase domain mutations has necessitated the development of new mutation-resistant inhibitors, most recently against the T315I gatekeeper residue mutation. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits both native and mutant BCR-ABL, including T315I, acting as a pan-BCR-ABL inhibitor. Here, we undertook a combined crystallographic and structure-activity relationship analysis on ponatinib to understand this unique profile. While the ethynyl linker is a key inhibitor functionality that interacts with the gatekeeper, virtually all other components of ponatinib play an essential role in its T315I inhibitory activity. The extensive network of optimized molecular contacts found in the DFG-out binding mode leads to high potency and renders binding less susceptible to disruption by single point mutations. The inhibitory mechanism exemplified by ponatinib may have broad relevance to designing inhibitors against other kinases with mutated gatekeeper residues.

  14. Structural and functional responses of extremity veins to long-term gravitational loading or unloading—lessons from animal systems

    Monos, Emil; Raffai, Gábor; Dörnyei, Gabriella; Nádasy, György L.; Fehér, Erzsébet


    Long, transparent tubular tilt-cages were developed to maintain experimental rats either in 45∘ head-up (orthostasis model), or in 45∘ head-down body position (antiorthostasis model) for several weeks. In order to study the functional and structural changes in extremity blood vessels, also novel pressure angiograph systems, as well as special quantitative electron microscopic methods were applied. It was found that several adaptive mechanisms are activated in the lower limb superficial veins and microvessels of muscles when an organism is exposed to long-term (1-2 weeks) orthostatic-type gravitational load including a reversible amplification of the pressure-dependent myogenic response, tuning of the myogenic tone by Ca++- and voltage-sensitive K+ channels in humans, augmentation of the intramural sympathetic innervation involving an increased nerve terminal density and synaptic vesicle count with functional remodeling, reorganization of vascular network properties (microvascular rarefaction in muscles, decreased branching angles in superficial veins), and responses of an endothelin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) containing vesicle system in the endothelium. On the other hand, when applying long-term head-down tilting, the effects are dichotomous, e.g. it suppresses significantly the pressure-induced myogenic response, however does not diminish the adventitial sympathetic innervation density.

  15. Sustainable cities

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  16. Lessons in Everyday Leadership

    Boesch, Kit


    In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the lessons she has learned in everyday leadership. It's the kind of leadership one learns when he or she doesn't expect it--and the kind of lessons one teaches when he or she doesn't even know he or she is doing it.

  17. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun


    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  18. Don Quixote. [Lesson Plan].

    Rooks, Kristen

    Based on Miguel de Cervantes' novel "Don Quixote," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Quixote's misperceptions are understandable; writers often describe one object to sound as if it were something else; and metaphors help readers see with new eyes. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  19. Shrinking Cities and the Need for a Reinvented Understanding of the City

    Laursen, Lea Louise holst

    With the coming of the Shrinking Cities phenomenon several questions appear in relation to the influences of shrinkage on the city and how we are to understand and work with the Shrinking Cities. The Shrinking Cities phenomenon has to be incorporated into the general assumptions about the...... contemporary city and maybe the understanding of the city needs to be updated in some areas, before we are able to do so. In this paper, the focus will be directed towards two themes which become present with the Shrinking Cities phenomenon and therefore seems important to discuss in order to understand the...... concept of Shrinking Cities. These two themes may affect the understanding of the existing city theory. The first theme is concerned with the physical understanding of the city where the traditional assumption about the city as a high density area, with buildings as the dominant structure, is questioned...

  20. An inquiry-based programming lesson

    Douglas, Stephanie; Rice, Emily; Derdzinski, Andrea


    We designed a 2-day inquiry activity where students learned about error analysis and coding practices in Python. Inquiry-based lessons provide students with opportunities to independently investigate scientific concepts and tools. A general structure is developed ahead of time and minimal, careful guidance provided during the activity, but students are given as much freedom as possible to explore the concepts at their own pace. We designed our activity to help students learn to write flexible, re-usable, and readable code. I will describe the lesson structure we initially designed, as well as what aspects worked for our students (or didn't) and our experience leading the activity.

  1. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].


    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  2. "数字城市"框架结构建设的初探%Exploration on the Construction of "Digital City" Frame Structure



    "数字城市"是一个比较复杂的系统,由于其构成的数据来源不同,因此需建立由基础地理信息管理和发布单位为总结点及其他行业示范单位为分节点的、互联互通的各级基础地理信息网GIS业务化系统,从而最大限度地支持本系统各部门用户间的信息资源和设施共享.%Digital City is a complex system owing to there is dissimilarity in the origin of data that structure Digital City (distributed mass data resources).So it highly demands to establish the professional GIS system based upon interrelating all levels basic geography which chief crunodes that structured based on basic geography information system and promulgator, along with subentry crunodes which constitute by else calling.As a result, it can farthest sustain communion in communication resource and establishment of this economy branches.

  3. Urban Heat Island and Boundary Layer Structures under Hot Weather Synoptic Conditions: A Case Study of Suzhou City, China

    ZHANG Ning; ZHU Lianfang; ZHU Yan


    A strong urban heat island (UHI) appeared in a hot weather episode in Suzhou City during the period from 25 July to 1 August 2007. This paper analyzes the urban heat island characteristics of Suzhou City under this hot weather episode. Both meteorological station observations and MODIS satellite observations show a strong urban heat island in this area. The maximum UHI intensity in this hot weather episode is 2.2℃, which is much greater than the summer average of 1.0℃ in this year and the 37-year (from 1970 to 2006) average of 0.35℃. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation results demonstrate that the rapid urbanization processes in this area will enhance the UHI in intensity, horizontal distribution, and vertical extension. The UHI spatial distribution expands as the urban size increases. The vertical extension of UHI in the afternoon increases about 50 m higher under the year 2006 urban land cover than that under the 1986 urban land cover. The conversion from rural land use to urban land type also strengthens the local lake-land breeze circulations in this area and modifies the vertical wind speed field.

  4. 生态视角下的三亚市空间结构规划%Spatial Structure Planning of Sanya City from Ecological Perspective

    王胜男; 杨丹


    三亚市作为我国唯一的热带滨海旅游城市,在建设国际旅游岛空前繁荣的背景下,大量的城市移民和游客涌入,导致市区内部交通拥堵、环境恶化,城市空间向周边腹地快速无序扩展.为解决城市发展与环境的矛盾,遵循景观生态规划原则,提出从市域、市区两个层次入手,规划未来三亚市的空间结构.市域空间结构组织采用复合指状模式,旨在完善三亚市景观生态安全格局。高效发挥自然资源的生态效应;市区空间外拓采用网络组团模式,以期打造各个组团特色,增加组团间联系,强化不同分区的生态功能.%As the only tropical seashore tourist city of China, Sanya is trying to become an international tourist destination. Meanwhile, the city experiences large flux of urban immigrants and tourists, causing urban issues such as traffic congestion, environment deterioration, and rapid urban sprawl. In order to solve the contradiction between urban development and environment, following the principles of landscape ecologycal planning, this paper puts forward the idea of spatial structure planning of Sanya from the level of city territory and urban district. City territory spatial structure uses an enhanced palm model, aiming at improving the threshold landscape pattern and boosting the ecological effect of natural resources. Urban district space expansion design is based on the network grouping model, so that distinctive ecological functions can be expressed explicitly.

  5. City Bug Report

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin


    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  6. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz


    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  7. Soft Cities

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi


    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision of a...... sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  8. Lessons in Structuring Derivatives Exchanges.

    Tsetsekos, George; Varangis, Panos


    The global deregulation of financial markets has created new investment opportunities, which in turn require the development of new instruments to deal with the increased risks. Institutional investors who are actively engaged in industrial and emerging markets need to hedge their risks from these cross-border transactions. Agents in liberalized market economies who are exposed to volatile commodity price and interest rate changes require appropriate hedging products to deal with them. And th...

  9. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.


    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in

  10. Fun City

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  11. City Geology.

    Markle, Sandra


    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  12. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

    Ivelin A. Mollov


    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  13. Lessons from the Sun

    Robitaille P.-M.


    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  14. Music lessons enhance IQ.

    Schellenberg, E Glenn


    The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons. Compared with children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ. The effect was relatively small, but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Unexpectedly, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to post-test improvements in adaptive social behavior that were not evident in the music groups. PMID:15270994

  15. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Boyle, Julie


    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific ( The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water


    Prokhnenko V. V.


    Full Text Available In this article we present the analysis of all the theoretic approaches for modernization and maintenance of historical centers of the cities by the design sources in the point of view of systemic approach to the investigation of the problems. It is revealed that in the concerning area there is a wide experience of investigations and also a big number of various attempts of creation and development of methodological apparatus, which determines the strategy of application of the design products to urban environment in general and to historical environment in particular. However, the complex of scientifically-based solution of the problems in indicated sphere has not developed yet, and as a consequence, the common strategy of maintenance and modernization of historical centers by the design sources are not determined yet. These results of carried out investigations can become a basis for the development of systemic approach for conflict-free penetration into natural historically formed context of the design objects and the saturation of the existing environment

  17. Sustainable Cities

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  18. Experiences in a capital city: How we market our services

    Boateng Wiafe


    Lusaka Eye Hospital, in the capital city of Zambia, was established in 2001. We had to work hard to ensure that people knew about it and were coming forward for the eye care they needed. Here are the lessons we learnt.

  19. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons



    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  20. Smart cities of the future

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.


    , Mobility and Travel Behaviour, Modelling Urban Land Use, Transport and Economic Interactions, Modelling Urban Transactional Activities in Labour and Housing Markets, Decision Support as Urban Intelligence, Participatory Governance and Planning Structures for the Smart City. Finally we anticipate the paradigm shifts that will occur in this research and define a series of key demonstrators which we believe are important to progressing a science of smart cities.

  1. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson



    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  2. Sustainable cities and energy policies

    This book starts out with the optimistic perspective that modern cities can indeed play a strategic role in the necessary pathway to sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the opportunities offered by local energy and environmental initiatives. Our study aims to demonstrate that an urban sustainability policy has many socio-economic benefits, while it also seeks to identify the critical success and failure factors of sustainable city innovations. After a comprehensive review of various opportunities and experiences, attention is focused particularly on renewable energy resources which may offer new potential for the active involvement of local authorities. The study also highlights major impediments regarding the adoption and implementation of renewable energies, in particular, the development of advanced energy-environmental technology in a world dominated by natural (public) monopolies and/or monopolistic competition elements. In this context both theoretical and empirical elements are discussed, as well as institutional aspects. The theory and methodology is tested by a thorough empirical investigation into local renewable energy initiatives in three European countries, viz. Greece, Italy and The Netherlands. Based on an extensive data base, various statistical models are estimated in order to identify the key elements and major driving forces of sustainable development at the city level. And finally, the study is concluded with a long list of applicable and operational policy guidelines for urban sustainability. These lessons are largely based on meta-analytic comparative studies of the various initiatives investigated. (orig.)

  3. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Ayat Ismail


    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  4. Lessons Learned and Challenges in Building a Filipino Health Coalition

    Aguilar, David E.; Abesamis-Mendoza, Noilyn; Ursua, Rhodora; Divino, Lily Ann M.; Cadag, Kara; Gavin, Nicholas P.


    In recent years, community-based coalitions have become an effective channel to addressing various health problems within specific ethnic communities. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe the process involved in building the Kalusugan Coalition (KC), a Filipino American health coalition based in New York City, and (b) to highlight the lessons learned and the challenges from this collaborative venture. The challenges described also offer insights on how the coalition develop...

  5. Flying Cities

    Ciger, Jan


    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  6. Effect of Class Size and Teaching Methods on Pupil's Academic Achievement : Application of Structural Equation Models and Multilevel Models

    Yamasaki, Hirotoshi; Fujii, Nobuaki; Mizuno, Ko


    Effects of the class size and teaching methods on academic achievement of Japanese pupils of thirty four elementary schools at three cities are analyzed by using generalized linear model, structural equation models and multilevel models. It was found that class size, team-teaching and small group teaching had no or very small effects on pupil's achievement. But, some teaching methods, such as reading book activity in the morning before formal lesson, and not-one-way teaching found to have a s...

  7. The lessons learned from the UK radioactive waste management programme

    The present paper reviews the history leading up to the rejection of the proposal to build a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF) in 1997 and discuss the lessons learned by its promoter, United Kingdom Nirex, from analysis of past approaches. The lessons are considered under the following headings: process (policy development and implementation), structure (an independent organization responsible for long term radioactive waste management), and behaviour (the need for openness, transparency and accountability in future processes). On the basis of these lessons, the paper points the way forward for resolving the problem of radioactive waste management in the UK. (author)

  8. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit


    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  9. The lessons learned

    What happened at TMI-2 and to the United States Nuclear Industry since the accident to that plant is recounted. Four main points are made: commercial use of nuclear power evolved so rapidly that neither industry nor society generally, was able to assimilate this dramatically new technology fast enough; accidents like TMI-2, and now, the much more damaging Chernobyl, are a part of the price paid; we must take every possible step so that the risks from nuclear power are reduced by learning from accidents and putting that knowledge into practice; the lessons learned and applied after TMI-2 have tended to be the readily achievable, shorter term ones. The most drastic changes will take more time. The organizational and institutional lessons are considered first, then the technical ones. The sequence and status of the TMI-2 cleanup is discussed. The design lessons are summarized. (author)

  10. GIS modelling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran city using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM techniques

    F. Rezaie


    Full Text Available The main issue in determining the seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view to all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking factors such as peak ground acceleration (PGA in the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education, the physical distance to a hospitals (or medical care centers, etc. into account and categorized under four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and distance from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end in this paper using analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the amount of importance of criteria or alternatives are determined and using geographical information system (GIS, the vulnerability of Tehran metropolitan as a result of an earthquake, is studied. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults of the Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran city is analysed and classified into four levels including high, medium, low and safe. The results show that regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey respectively make 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran area highly vulnerable and also 34, 14 and 27% are safe.

  11. Lessons that Bear Repeating and Repeating that Bears Lessons: An Interdisciplinary Unit on Principles of Minimalism in Modern Music, Art, and Poetry (Grades 4-8)

    Smigel, Eric; McDonald, Nan L.


    This theory-to-practice article focuses on interdisciplinary classroom activities based on principles of minimalism in modern music, art, and poetry. A lesson sequence was designed for an inner-city Grades 4 and 5 general classroom of English language learners, where the unit was taught, assessed, and documented by the authors. Included in the…

  12. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  13. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Kearns, Peter


    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  14. The history of a lesson

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby


    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson...... is thus one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western...

  15. The Role of Fracture Structure in Leachate Pollution at Landfills: A Case Study of a Landfill in Chongqing City

    LUO Yunju; LIU Dongyan; LI Xiulan; ZHU Zhengwei


    This paper studies a landfill where there are three faults running through. As serious pollution has occurred to the geological environment, the landfill is to be closed up and renovated. The paper aims to explore the role of fracture structure in leachate pollution at the landfill. The research was carried out in several stages. First, mathematical models of the pre-renovation landfill with three faults running through and the landfill after renovation were established. And then, the boundary conditions and parameters of the two mathematical models were determined. The groundwater level of the landfills was simulated in order to modify the two mathematical models. As a result, a feasiblema the matical model was achieved. Based on this model, a comparison was made of the COD concentration variations in the inside leachate and outside ieachate between the two landfills. Accordingly, the impacts of the fracture structure on the pollution of leachate at the landfills could be identified. The study results show that while faults contribute to the migration of leachate, they also serve as a confluence of leachate, thus further deteriorating the environment. The COD concentrations of the inside leachate and the outside leachate of the pre-renovation landfill are respectively 800 mg/Land 220 mg/L higher than those of the post-renovation landfill. Therefore, measures must be taken to handle the leachate seepage in areas where there are faults as well as the neighboring areas so as to get the environmental pollution under control.

  16. Approaches of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-Funded Intermediary Organizations to Structuring and Supporting Small High Schools in New York City. Executive Summary

    Foley, Eileen


    In 2003, a few years after the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began implementing its small schools reform agenda, the Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (DOE) announced a plan to replace large failing high schools in New York City with 200 small schools. In short order, the foundation and the Chancellor became partners with…

  17. Approaches of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-Funded Intermediary Organizations to Structuring and Supporting Small High Schools in New York City

    Foley, Eileen


    In 2003, a few years after the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began implementing its small schools reform agenda, the Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (DOE) announced a plan to replace large failing high schools in New York City with 200 small schools. In short order, the foundation and the Chancellor became partners with…

  18. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Chorologic structure and comparison with the floras of Rome, Patras, and Salonika

    Stešević Danijela


    Full Text Available Research on the geographical structure of the flora of Podgorica revealed that 85.9% of the species are native, while 14.1% are non-native. This ratio is typical of Mediterranean settlements, where even the most urbanized region reflects the overall character of the surrounding flora. In terms of chorologic groups, the three largest are: eury-Mediterranean (18.2%, cosmopolitan (12.6%, and steno-Mediterranean (8.3%. The percentage of endemic and subendemic plants is also significant (6.8%. Within the group of aliens, species of Asian origin prevail. Comparative analysis of the chorologic spectra of Podgorica, Rome, Patras, and Salonika revealed some similarities.

  19. Sustainable urban development of metropolitan Johannesburg: The lessons learned from international practice

    Mosha A.C.; Cavrić Branko I.


    This paper consists of an overview of programmes supporting sustainable planning and management in the City of Johannesburg one of the most important social and economic hubs of the transitional Republic of South Africa. Following from this is an analysis of the experience identified as most appropriate for Johannesburg City and its metropolitan region (Gauteng). This case study is used to highlight efforts and lessons learned from the international project "Designing, Implementing and Measur...

  20. 地理(双语)——Lesson Topic:Urbanization and Urban Life



    We respond daily to situations that are accompanied with today's urbanized societies. Such topics as population explosion,urbanization, and the preservation of environment are commonly concerned and debated. Knowledge and experience influence the content of our understanding to our living habitat. This lesson helps students use their perceptions of cities to better understand urbanization and critically think over the question that how we can make our city better to live in.

  1. Lessons From The Crisis


    The current worldwide economic recession is not the first of its kind and will not likely be the last. But what should we learn from it? Vinod Thomas, Director General of Independent Evaluation Group at the World Bank Group, discussed the lessons from the crisis during a speech at Peking University in Beijing on February 18. Edited excerpts follow.

  2. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.


    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing k

  3. School Violence. Web Lessons.

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In answer to the concerns about school violence in the United States (especially since the tragedy in 1999 at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado), this Internet curriculum offers lessons and resources that address the topic of school violence and its causes, as well as the search for solutions. The curriculum presents four world wide web…

  4. A Lesson from Mangroves.

    Davis, Stephen


    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  5. The First Lesson

    Fowler, Keith


    A lesson plan using visual arts and reading skills to introduce the concept of delodomatic creativity (thinking “in the box” and “out of the box”) to children. Designed for 1st or 2nd graders it can be adapted to all grade levels.

  6. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  7. 昆明世博生态城半山邻里植物群落结构分析%Analysis of plant community structure of Mid-levels neighborhood in Kunming expoeco-city

    董素君; 赵林森


    以世博生态城半山邻里居住区为研究对象,从园林植物群落的物种结构、水平结构、垂直结构和时间结构4方面对该居住区的绿化环境进行分析和评价。%Taking Mid-levels neighborhood housing estate in the Expo eco-city as study object, this paper analyzed and evaluated its green environment from the four aspects of species structure, horizontal structures, vertical structure and temporal structure of gardening plant communities.

  8. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  9. Structural and qualitative evaluation of microscopy and directly observed treatment centers under revised national tuberculosis control programme in Nanded city of Maharashtra

    Vijay Manohar Bhagat


    Full Text Available Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.

  10. Sister Cities Flourish


    @@ Building sister city relation,also known as friendsh ip city,is a common channel for cities in different countries to keep a closer tie and communication.According to the statistics from China International Friendship Cities Association,up to the end of 2007,1087 provinces and states and 314 cities from 120 countries in the world have found their sister cities in China.Among them,Japan has the largest amount of Chinese sister cities,that is 200 provinces and 33 cities,and takes up almost 17 percent of the total number.

  11. Topography Restoration of Historic City Research

    ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong


    The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present topography. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present topography is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient topography of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.

  12. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Xinquan; Zhu


    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  13. Integrated GPR and ERT as Enhanced Detection for Subsurface Historical Structures Inside Babylonian Houses Site, Uruk City, Southern Iraq

    Al-Khersan, Emad H.; Al-Ani, Jassim M. T.; Abrahem, Salah N.


    Uruk archaeological site, which located in Al-Muthanna Governorate southern Iraq, was investigated by integrated geophysical methods, ground penetration radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the historical buried structures. The GPR images show large radar attributes characterized by its continuous reflections having different widths. GPR attributes at shallower depth are mainly representing the upper part of Babylonian Houses that can often be found throughout the study area. In addition, radargrams characterized objects such as buried items, buried trenches and pits which were mainly concentrated near the surface. The ERT results show the presence of several anomalies at different depths generally having low resistivities. It is clear that the first upper zone can be found throughout the whole area and it may represent the top zone of the Babylonian houses. This zone is characterized by its dry clay and sandy soil containing surface broken bricks and slag mixed with core boulders. The second one underneath the top shows a prominent lower resistivity zone. It is probably caused by the moisture content that reduces the resistivity. The thickness of this zone is not equal at all parts of the site. The third deeper zone typically represents the archaeological walls. Most of the main anomalies perhaps referred to the buried clay brick walls. The map of the archaeological anomalies distribution and 3D view of the foundations at the study area using GPR and ERT techniques clearly show the characteristics of the Babylonian remains. A contour map and 3D view of Uruk show that the archaeological anomalies are concentrated mainly at the NE part of the district with higher values of wall height that range between 6 and 8 m and reach to more than 10 m. At the other directions, there are fewer walls with lower heights of 4-6 m and reach in some places the wall foot.

  14. The Spatial Structures and Town Planning of Industrial Cities in Modern Britain(1848-1939)%近代英国工业城市的空间结构与城市规划(1848-1939)

    梁远; 刘金源


    以曼彻斯特、伯明翰和利兹为代表的新型工业城市在空间结构方面体现出鲜明特征:随着新型工业建筑的出现,土地功能实现区分;各类建筑交叉林立,城市布局混乱;新的社会阶层居所分离形成。这种空间结构特征,使得工业城市中的“城市病”问题尤为突出。在英国19世纪中叶兴起的近代城市规划运动中,工业城市积极开展规划实践,空间结构得到合理重组,“城市病”得以缓解,城市面貌显著改观。%As the new type of cities,industrial cities,represented by Manchester,Birmingham and Leeds,embodied unique spatial structures:the land’ s functional classification was formed with the appearance of new industrial buildings,the architec-tural layout took on a chaotic look because of the mixture of various kinds of buildings and the new residential segregation of different classes emerged as well. These structural features resulted in especially serious“urban diseases” in industrial cities. During the modern town planning movement since the mid-19th century,industrial cities actively carried out planning prac-tices. As the achievement of town planning,the spatial structures of industrial cities have been reasonably re-organized,“ur-ban diseases” have been relieved and cities’ appearance has been remarkably improved as well.

  15. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk - Universal Scaling Laws from Cells to Cities; A Physicist's Search for Quantitative, Unified Theories of Biological and Social Structure and Dynamics

    West, Geoffrey


    Many of the most challenging, exciting and profound questions facing science and society, from the origins of life to global sustainability, fall under the banner of ``complex adaptive systems.'' This talk explores how scaling can be used to begin to develop physics-inspired quantitative, predictive, coarse-grained theories for understanding their structure, dynamics and organization based on underlying mathematisable principles. Remarkably, most physiological, organisational and life history phenomena in biology and socio-economic systems scale in a simple and ``universal'' fashion: metabolic rate scales approximately as the 3/4-power of mass over 27 orders of magnitude from complex molecules to the largest organisms. Time-scales (such as lifespans and growth-rates) and sizes (such as genome lengths and RNA densities) scale with exponents which are typically simple multiples of 1/4, suggesting that fundamental constraints underlie much of the generic structure and dynamics of living systems. These scaling laws follow from dynamical and geometrical properties of space-filling, fractal-like, hierarchical branching networks, presumed optimised by natural selection. This leads to a general framework that potentially captures essential features of diverse systems including vasculature, ontogenetic growth, cancer, aging and mortality, sleep, cell size, and DNA nucleotide substitution rates. Cities and companies also scale: wages, profits, patents, crime, disease, pollution, road lengths scale similarly across the globe, reflecting underlying universal social network dynamics which point to general principles of organization transcending their individuality. These have dramatic implications for global sustainability: innovation and wealth creation that fuel social systems, left unchecked, potentially sow the seeds for their inevitable collapse.

  16. Strategic Urban Narratives: Beyond conventional city branding

    Thomas Sevcik


    City branding and marketing have become key success factors for cities worldwide. But the results are mixed. One possible reason is that conventional branding tools have been used. But cities are not companies or products. They are complex, dynamic and living entities with a diverse stakeholdership. What is needed is a more comprehensive, inclusive approach. Thomas Sevcik suggests that one solutions could be the strategic use of ‘narrative’ as an overall guiding structure including key implem...

  17. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Willem Van Vliet


    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  18. Study Abroad and the City: Bringing the Lessons Home

    Brewer, Elizabeth


    Study abroad's purpose, once conceived primarily as a means for acquiring knowledge in a content area as well as language acquisition, began in the 1980s to be considered a vehicle for helping American students become less "parochial" and better prepared to live and work in a globalized world. To achieve these goals, students must be able to…

  19. Culturally Responsive Education: Developing Lesson Plans for Vietnamese Students in the American Diaspora

    Douglas, Cynthia M.


    This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…

  20. Summary of Planned Implementation for the HTGR Lessons Learned Applicable to the NGNP

    Ian Mckirdy


    This document presents a reconciliation of the lessons learned during a 2010 comprehensive evaluation of pertinent lessons learned from past and present high temperature gas-cooled reactors that apply to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project along with current and planned activities. The data used are from the latest Idaho National Laboratory research and development plans, the conceptual design report from General Atomics, and the pebble bed reactor technology readiness study from AREVA. Only those lessons related to the structures, systems, and components of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), as documented in the recently updated lessons learned report are addressed. These reconciliations are ordered according to plant area, followed by the affected system, subsystem, or component; lesson learned; and finally an NGNP implementation statement. This report (1) provides cross references to the original lessons learned document, (2) describes the lesson learned, (3) provides the current NGNP implementation status with design data needs associated with the lesson learned, (4) identifies the research and development being performed related to the lesson learned, and (5) summarizes with a status of how the lesson learned has been addressed by the NGNP Project.

  1. Lessons from Goiania

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  2. A Regular City

    Arina Sharavina


    The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  3. Water changed the cities

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  4. Lesson study, deel 1

    Verhoef, Nellie


    Nellie Verhoef schreef in het Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde al over de Lesson Study. Een handreiking om denkactiviteiten te ontwerpen in een samenwerkingsverband. Het onderwerp is echter zo veelzijdig dat ze er in Euclides ook aandacht aan besteedt, we publiceren haar artikel in twee delen. Dit eerste deel geeft een overzicht van de methode en een voorbeeld van denkactiviteiten. Het tweede deel gaat concreet in op het samenwerkingsverband en de resultaten daarvan

  5. Aztecs Meet the Spanish. Grade 7 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Otto, Gina

    Spanish explorer Hernan Cortes encountered the Aztecs in 1519 and conquered them in 1521, claiming their empire for Spain. He then destroyed the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan and rebuilt a Spanish city in its ruins. In this lesson plan, it is the year 1527 and an Independent Counsel has been chosen by the College of Cardinals of the Catholic…

  6. 创新型城市评价指标体系与国内重点城市创新能力结构研究%Research on Evaluation Index System of Innovative City and Innovation Capacity Structure of China' Key Cities



    创新型城市是由众多要素组成的复杂系统。利用多层次的评价指标体系反映创新型城市建设的进程以及建设中存在的问题,对于指导创新型城市建设的实践十分关键。本文将分类测评和结构分析相结合,以创新型城市的内涵为基础构建了创新型城市评价指标体系,运用主成分分析法对国内23个重点城市的创新能力进行分类测评,并结合聚类分析结果解析比较这些城市的创新能力结构,根据不同城市的创新能力结构类型对其未来发展战略提出政策建议。%Innovative city is a complex system composed of many elements,so it's important to use an evaluation index system to reflect the progress and problems of innovative city construction.This paper designs an evaluation index system of innovative city based on the connotation of innovative city,using principal component analysis and cluster analysis to carry out an empirical study on 23 sample cities,comparing their innovation capacity structures,and putting forward some policy proposals based on the comparison.

  7. Project WISH: The Emerald City

    Oz, Hayrani; Dunne, Jim; Butchar, Stan; George, Tommy; Hellstrom, Rob; Kringen, Tricia; Owens, George; Perrea, Mike; Semeraro, Paul; Thorndike, Phil


    Phase 3 of Project WISH saw the evolution of the Emerald City (E-City) from a collection of specialized independent analyses and ideas to a working structural design integrated with major support systems and analyses. Emphasis was placed on comparing and contrasting the closed and open cycle gas core nuclear rocket engines to further determine the optimum propulsive system for the E-City. Power and thermal control requirements were then defined and the question of how to meet these requirements was addressed. Software was developed to automate the mission/system/configuration analysis so changes dictated by various subsystem constraints could be managed efficiently and analyzed interactively. In addition, the liquid hydrogen propellant tank was statically designed for minimum mass and shape optimization using a finite element modeling package called SDRC I-DEAS. Spoke and shaft cross-sectional areas were optimized on ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) for mass minimization. A structural dynamic analysis of the optimal structure also conducted using ASTROS enabled a study of the modes, frequencies, displacements, and accelerations of the E-City. Finally, the attitude control system design began with an initial mass moment of inertia analysis and was then designed and optimized using linear quadratic regulator control theory.

  8. 故宫灵沼轩钢结构抗震性能分析%Seismic Performance of Steel Structures at Lingzhao Veranda in the Forbidden City

    周乾; 闫维明; 纪金豹


    基于钢结点的半刚性特征及退化现状,建立结构有限元模型。通过模态分析,研究结构基频和主振型;通过谱分析,研究Ⅷ度常遇地震作用下钢结构的内力及变形分布特征;通过时程分析,研究Ⅷ度罕遇地震作用下钢结构的抗倒塌能力。结果表明:灵沼轩钢结构基频为5.31 Hz,主振型以钢框架顶部的八角亭水平向弯曲为主。Ⅷ度常遇地震作用下,由于钢框架2层顶部结点刚度退化严重,其变形和内力普遍较大,但满足容许值要求。Ⅷ度罕遇地震作用下,钢结构薄弱层的变形峰值在容许范围内,结构不会产生倒塌。%Lingzhao Veranda (also called Crystal Palace)is located in the eastern part of the Pal-ace Museum (the Forbidden City),which was planned for the amusement of the royal family in 20 th century.However,construction of the building lasted only three years,and the building has lain idle until the present.The building is composed of a center bearing frame and four surround-ing white marble verandas.The frame is composed of I-section steel beams and a ring of iron col-umns.In addition,on top of the bearing frame and verandas,there are five iron booths.Because the building has been idle for nearly 100 years,structural problems have appeared on the frame due to a number of factors,such as shortage of bolts,slack in joint connections,and cracks in the iron columns.The National Center for Quality Supervision and Testing of Building Engineering has conducted on-site inspections of the steel structure,and concluded that the beams and columns are structurally sound.However,the joints need to be strengthened.As a historic building,the Ling-zhao Veranda is worth protection for its artistic,historical,cultural,and architectural values.To effectively protect this historic building,it is necessary to assess its current structural safety.Such an assessment may provide a direction for future maintenance and restoration of the building

  9. "Hamlet" and the Elizabethan Revenge Ethic in Text and Film. [Lesson Plan].


    This lesson seeks to sensitize students to the complex nature of revenge as it is portrayed in William Shakespeare's "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark." In the lesson, students learn how Shakespeare's play interprets Elizabethan attitudes toward revenge, as reflected in the structure of the Elizabethan revenge tragedy, one of the most…

  10. Compact and resource efficient cities? Synergies and trade-offs in European cities

    Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane


    Cities are the main consumers of energy and resources but at the same time considered as centres for innovation which can provide solutions to unsustainable development. An important concept regarding energy and resource efficiency on the scale of the city and city-region is the idea of the compact...... reviews aspects of resource and energy efficiency in compact city development in a European context. We conclude that, if the idea of the compact city should have any effect on resource and energy efficiency accompanying measures have to be implemented, as e.g. efficient public transport systems to offer...... city. Compact cities and compact urban development are thought to decrease energy and resource demand per capita and increase efficiency. At the same time trade-offs and potential rebound effects of increased resource efficiency question certain achievements of a dense urban structure. This paper...