Kirczuk L.; Rymaszewska A.; Czerniawski R.; Pilecka-Rapacz M.; Domagała J.
European cisco (Coregonus albula L.) is one of the most precious species of the European lake ichtyofauna, however, due to progressive eutrophication of water, the range of its occurrence has decreased. Deteriorating ecological conditions are the main cause of this decline in population, and most of the existing populations in lakes are maintained thanks to reintroduction. Thus, it is important to determine the genetic structure of the European cisco. The study involve...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises
Full Text Available Vendace, Coregonus albula L., was reared to commercial size in a recirculating system. Three different feed rations were applied during the ten-month-long experiment. The feed rations impacted fish growth rates, and fish in the different groups achieved body weights of 26.6 g to 57.5 g. The final survival in all groups was similar from 44.3% among the fish fed the smallest feed ration to 53.2% in the group receiving the largest feed ration. No differences were noted in the share of viscera, peritoneal fat, or in the hepatosomatic indexes, but there were differences in the gonadosomatic indexes. After thermal stimulation, only males achieved sexual maturity. The number of mature fish was similar in all groups and ranged from 17.8 to 21.3% of all fish. The results of the present study indicated that vendace can achieve commercial size in an intensive rearing period of ten months in RAS.
Symonová, Radka; Majtánová, Zuzana; Sember, Alexandr; Staaks, G.B.O.; Bohlen, Jörg; Freyhof, J.; Ráb, Petr
Mondsee : Institute for Limnology , 2011. s. 63-63. [11th International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Coregonid Fishes. 26.09.2011-30.09.2011, Mondsee] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/0824; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : C.albula * C.fontanae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.oeaw.ac.at/limno/symcore.html
Reed, Kent M.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Todd, Thomas N.; Phillips, Ruth B.
Sequence variation in the control region (D-loop) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was examined to assess the genetic distinctiveness of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus). Individuals from within the Great Lakes Basin as well as inland lakes outside the basin were sampled. DNA fragments containing the entire D-loop were amplified by PCR from specimens ofC. zenithicus and the related species C. artedi, C. hoyi, C. kiyi, and C. clupeaformis. DNA sequence analysis revealed high similarity within and among species and shared polymorphism for length variants. Based on this analysis, the shortjaw cisco is not genetically distinct from other cisco species.
Zimmerman, Christian E.; Ramey, Andy M.; Turner, S.; Mueter, Franz J.; Murphy, S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.
Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis have a complex anadromous life history, many aspects of which remain poorly understood. Some life history traits of Arctic cisco from the Colville River, Alaska, and Mackenzie River basin, Canada, were investigated using molecular genetics, harvest data, and otolith microchemistry. The Mackenzie hypothesis, which suggests that Arctic cisco found in Alaskan waters originate from the Mackenzie River system, was tested using 11 microsatellite loci and a single mitochondrial DNA gene. No genetic differentiation was found among sample collections from the Colville River and the Mackenzie River system using molecular markers (P > 0.19 in all comparisons). Model-based clustering methods also supported genetic admixture between sample collections from the Colville River and Mackenzie River basin. A reanalysis of recruitment patterns to Alaska, which included data from recent warm periods and suspected changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, still finds that recruitment is correlated to wind conditions. Otolith microchemistry (Sr/Ca ratios) confirmed repeated, annual movements of Arctic cisco between low-salinity habitats in winter and marine waters in summer.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009....
An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...
Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, Michael H.; Gorman, Owen T.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Todd, Thomas N.
Recent reviews have further documented the decline of the shortjaw cisco Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior. This fish was the most abundant deepwater cisco species in Lake Superior in the early 1920s but presently makes up less than 1% of all deepwater ciscoes (i.e., including shortjaw cisco, bloater C. hoyi, and kiyi C. kiyi) captured in biological surveys. Directed overfishing of deepwater cisco species during the 1930s and again during the mid-1960s and 1970s has been suggested as the cause of the shortjaw cisco's demise. In this paper, we re-examined the overfishing hypothesis by using historical and recent survey data to estimate the proportion of the historical commercial fishery landings that comprised shortjaw ciscoes. We developed time series of estimated harvest and relative abundance for all statistical districts in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929–1996, for which aggregate catch and effort data were available but not previously examined. The spatial distribution of the fishery and the relationships of catch to fishing effort were examined for evidence of overfishing. Our analysis suggested that directed overfishing was probably not the cause of shortjaw cisco demise, as this species appeared to be declining in all statistical districts regardless of the intensity of the fishery. A count-based population viability analysis indicated that quasi-extinction of the shortjaw cisco is highly probable in the near future. We propose an alternative hypothesis based on the decline of Lake Superior's keystone predator, the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which resulted in an expansion of the population of its principal prey, the cisco C. artedi, due to release from predation pressure. Competitive or predation interactions between the cisco and shortjaw cisco may be more likely explanations for the demise of the latter species.
An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour
One of the two "ASM/2-32EM" boxes installed in 1988, from "Cisco Systems Inc." - then an unknown 20-employee company in Menlo Park, California (USA). This is one of the first two Cisco boxes to appear in Switzerland, and possibly Europe. The 220v power supply was a special modification made for use at CERN. They supported IP address filtering, which seemed just what CERN needed to help protect the new Cray XMP-48 super computer from network hackers. The two ASM boxes were both routers and terminal servers. They protected a secure private Ethernet segment used by the Cray project, as well as providing secure terminal connections to that segment, including CERN's first dialback terminal service, which allowed Cray and CERN system analysts to work on the machine from home, using another Cisco feature called TACACS. (Kindly offered by B. Segal who discovered this company while at a Usenix Conference in Phoenix, Arizona in June 1987.)
A tutorial-based approach which will help you understand the practical methodologies and deploying of Cisco UCS components.If you are a professional such as a system, network, or storage administrator who is responsible for Cisco UCS deployments, this is the perfect book for you. You should have some basic knowledge of the server's architecture, network, and storage technologies. Familiarity with virtualization technologies is also recommended (though not necessary) as the majority of real-world UCS deployments run virtualized loads. Knowledge of Nexus OS is not necessary as the majority of th
Learn from the Best - Cisco Networking Authority Todd LammleWritten by Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Todd's straightforward style provides lively examples, hands on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that will not only help you prepare for the exam, but also give you a solid foundation as a Cisco networking professional.This Study Guide teaches you how toDescribe how a network worksConfigure, verify and troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch co
This case describes the implementation of an Internet empowered Customer Relationship Management (CRM) at Cisco Systems Inc. After describing the organizational background of Cisco, the case takes the student into the issues that the executives faced after the market crash in 2001. John Chambers, Cisco CEO, and his team decided to strengthen Ciscoâ€™s relationship with the customers so that the company could emerge stronger when the markets recovered. Questions are raised as to the implementa...
A helpful guide on all things Cisco Do you wish that the complex topics of routers, switches, and networking could be presented in a simple, understandable presentation? With Cisco Networking All-in-One For Dummies, they are! This expansive reference is packed with all the information you need to learn to use Cisco routers and switches to develop and manage secure Cisco networks. This straightforward-by-fun guide offers expansive coverage of Cisco and breaks down intricate subjects such as networking, virtualization, and database technologies into easily digestible pieces. Drills down complex
Vuorinen, Pekka J; Keinänen, Marja; Peuranen, Seppo; Tigerstedt, Christina
Vendace were exposed to pHs 4.75 and 5.25 with or without added aluminum (200 microg=7.4 micromol AlL(-1)) from late endogenous vitellogenesis in July through the spawning period. At the normal time of spawning, when 48% of the control females had already released their eggs, 50% of females at pH 4.75+Al had completely unovulated oocytes. The final proportions of completely ovulated females were 14%, 36%, 25%, 61%, and 81% at pH 4.75+Al, pH 4.75, pH 5.25+Al, pH 5.25, and in the control group, respectively. Delayed testes regression was seen in males at pH 4.75+Al. A clear decrease in plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) and an increase in blood glucose concentration was detected only near spawning time, from October to November, coincident with Al accumulation inside the gill tissue. It is concluded that seasonal changes, probably related to reproductive physiology or to the decrease in water temperature, are associated with the increase in Al toxicity in vendace. PMID:12651182
Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Black, J.A.; Cullis, K.I.; Cholwek, G.A.; Myers, J.T.
Systematic underestimation of fish age can impede understanding of recruitment variability and adaptive strategies (like longevity) and can bias estimates of survivorship. We suspected that previous estimates of annual survival (S; range = 0.20-0.44) for Lake Superior ciscoes Coregonus artedi developed from scale ages were biased low. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the total instantaneous mortality rate of adult ciscoes from the Thunder Bay, Ontario, stock by use of cohort-based catch curves developed from commercial gill-net catches and otolith-aged fish. Mean S based on otolith ages was greater for adult females (0.80) than for adult males (0.75), but these differences were not significant. Applying the results of a study of agreement between scale and otolith ages, we modeled a scale age for each otolith-aged fish to reconstruct catch curves. Using modeled scale ages, estimates of S (0.42 for females, 0.36 for males) were comparable with those reported in past studies. We conducted a November 2005 acoustic and midwater trawl survey to estimate the abundance of ciscoes when the fish were being harvested for roe. Estimated exploitation rates were 0.085 for females and 0.025 for males, and the instantaneous rates of fishing mortality were 0.089 for females and 0.025 for males. The instantaneous rates of natural mortality were 0.131 and 0.265 for females and males, respectively. Using otolith ages, we found that strong year-classes at large during November 2005 were caught in high numbers as age-1 fish in previous annual bottom trawl surveys, whereas weak or absent year-classes were not. For decades, large-scale fisheries on the Great Lakes were allowed to operate because ciscoes were assumed to be short lived and to have regular recruitment. We postulate that the collapse of these fisheries was linked in part to a misunderstanding of cisco biology driven by scale-ageing error. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.
Alani, Mohammed M
This work provides a guide to the configuration of Cisco routers, from tasks for beginners to advanced operations. A collection of detailed "how-to" instructions are presented, which will be of use to all professionals and students who engage with Cisco routers in the field or in the lab. The guide starts with the simple step-by-step task of connecting the router and performing basic configuration, before building up to complex and sensitive operations such as router IOS upgrade and Site-to-Site VPNs.
Mohamed E. Khedr
Full Text Available Adhoc wireless networks become one of the most researchable areas in the studying of routing protocols depending on the Open System Interconnection (OSI Model. This paper use Cisco devices as a reference to enhance the performance of the network. This enhancement will be due to high processing, reliability, average cost, power consumption and accessibility. The aim of this research not only to get the cost down, it also to choose a time to time device to process the data as rapid as it can. Using NAT, Access List and DHCP protocols defined in Cisco (Graphical Unit Interface GUI of the (Command Line Interface CLI, the task can be made.
Three exams, two certifications, one complete Cisco training solution for networking professionals! .. .. The CCNA exam is an entry-level IT certification from Cisco Systems for professionals installing and maintaining route and switched networks. The current exam material covers networking concepts along with new and updated content on network security fundamentals and the basics of wireless networking. .. .. This book can be used as a study guide for either track you choose to receive your CCNA – the single exam, 640-802 or the combined 640-822 and 640-816, and for the CCENT certification wh
Cisco Packet Tracer是一款由Cisco公司发布的网络辅助学习工具,它能够给思科课程爱好者提供一个设计、配置网络及排除网络故障的网络模拟环境.根据的实验需求,在Cisco Packet Tracer模拟器上设计了两个实用的CCNA实验拓朴,让思科学习者能够更好地学习网络.
Alizarin red S from 200 to 5000 mg L-1 was used to mark the otoliths of whitefish embryos Coregonus lavaretus (L.) from 5 days after fertilization until shortly before hatching, to develop a method for evaluating the effect of stocking whitefish. Mark quality depended on developmental stage at the time of immersion. The best results were obtained when the otolith primordia had formed and had started aggregating to form the innermost part of the nucleus. This was verified by in vitro staining ...
介绍了防火墙技术以及Cisco PIX防火墙的一些功能和作用,并针对大学图书馆网络安全问题给出了Cisco PIX防火墙在图书馆网络上的一个具体的应用,就如何对Cisco PIX防火墙进行配置,构建一个安全的防火墙系统作了详细的说明.
随着社会的不断发展,我国的各大企业加强了对网络监控管理的研究.本文主要对基于Cisco SLA技术应用的网络管理进行了研究,并且进行了相应的探讨,对Cisco SLA的设置方式进行了相应的研究,并且提出了Cisco SLA技术的优缺点.
Here's the book you need to prepare for Cisco's revised CCNA exam, 640-801. This new edition of the best-selling CCNA Study Guide provides in-depth coverage of every CCNA exam objective, practical information on Cisco internetworking solutions and hundreds of challenging review questions.
Deluxe Edition of Best-Selling CCNA Study GuideThis comprehensive, enhanced version of the Sybex CCNA Study Guide provides certification candidates with the additional tools they need to prepare for this popular exam. With additional bonus exams and flashcards, as well as the exclusive CCNA Virtual Lab, Platinum Edition, this comprehensive guide has been completely updated to reflect the latest CCNA 640-802 exam. Written by Cisco Authority Todd Lammle, whose straightforward style provides lively examples, hands-on and written labs, easy-to-understand analogies, and real-world scenarios that wi
Denikina, Natalia; Nebesnykh, Ivan; Maikova, Olga; Dzyuba, Elena; Belkova, Natalia
Diplomonadida are primitive flagellate protozoa, among which both commensals and pathogens have been recorded. To date, members of the genera Hexamita and Spironucleus have been reported in the digestive system of fish in the Baikal region. We determined the genetic diversity of Diplomonadida in fish of the genus Coregonus from south-eastern Siberia using molecular-genetic methods. Fish for analysis were caught in Lake Baikal and in the Barguzin, Nepa, Chechuy, and Kirenga rivers from 2010 to 2013. Gall bladders, hindguts and foreguts of 120 specimens of Coregonus migratorius representing three morpho-ecological groups, 25 specimens of Coregonus lavaretus baicalensis, 25 specimens of Coregonus tugun and 30 specimens of Coregonus lavaretus pidschian were analysed via amplification with primers specifically designed for eukaryotes. Amplicons positive for Diplomonadida were sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that diplomonad flagellates of whitefish from Southeastern Siberia belong to Spironucleus barkhanus. Positive Diplomonadida DNA samples were analysed with primers designed in the present study for the amplification of small subunits of ribosomal DNA fragments of S. barkhanus (about 1,430 bp) and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed inside the clade of S. barkhanus besides the cosmopolitan genotype from European salmon that was detected earlier in Baikalian grayling, a new genotype unique to the fish of the genus Coregonus from Lake Baikal. PMID:27078653
@@ 随着网络技术的飞速发展,网络上的不安全因素越来越多,为了保证网络安全,许多企业采用了Cisco PIX硬件防火墙.如何正确进行方案设计和配置,在实际应用中显得尤为重要.下面介绍Cisco PIX的冗余配置.
Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506是具有世界水平的Cisco Secure PIX Firewall系列的一员，它提供所有的防火墙级的防护和对IP安全(IPsec)虚拟专网(VPN)的兼容性，使您可以用最严密的方法来保护您的内部网络，阻止外部世界的侵犯。
Olsson, Jens; Florin, Ann-Britt; Mo, Kerstin; Aho, Teija; Ryman, Nils
Stocks of whitefish ( Coregonus maraena) in the northern part of the Baltic Sea have in many areas declined drastically during recent years. Causes for the decline are yet not fully understood, but knowledge on the genetic population structure of the species is pivotal for future conservation measures. In this study we analyse the genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci for whitefish from 18 different sites along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea. We found a strong dependence of isolation by distance ( R = 0.73), and a week but rather fine scaled genetic structure. In addition, there were differences between more northern and southern sites in the population genetic structure, where the degree of differentiation appears to be stronger in the north compared to the south. The results suggest that whitefish is a species suitable for local management with a regional context of the management strategy. In addition, the findings corroborate what is previously known for other coastal fish species in the Baltic Sea, such as perch and pike, suggesting that the majority of gene flow occurs between adjacent areas. Finally, our results highlight the potential for genetic subdivision even when the dependence of isolation by distance is strong.
Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Brandt, Stephen B.
We conducted a preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake whitefish from northern Lake Michigan. We then compared estimates of gross growth efficiency (GGE) from our bioenergetis model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan and for lake whitefish in Quebec. According to our model, the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.075 to 0.02 as age increased from 2 to 5 years. In contrast, the GGE of lake whitefish in Quebec inland waters decreased from 0.12 to 0.05 for the same ages. When our swimming-speed submodel was replaced with a submodel that had been used for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan and an observed predator energy density for Lake Michigan lake whitefish was employed, our model predicted that the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 as age increased from 2 to 5 years.
Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.
We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.
How new species are formed is still a major question in evolutionary biology. In ecological speciation, natural selection drives the evolution of slight distinctions between individuals into extensive differences between species. In this thesis, early stages of an ecologically driven speciation process are addressed using ecological and morphological data from a large number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) populations in northern Fennoscandia. Northern Fennoscandia is an area ...
Motohara, K; Maihara, T; Oya, S; Tsukamoto, H; Imanishi, M; Terada, H; Goto, M; Iwai, J; Tanabe, H; Hata, R; Taguchi, T; Harashima, T
This paper describes a Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO), mounted on the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru telescope. It is primarily designed as a back-end camera of the OH-Airglow Suppressor (OHS), and is also used as an independent, general-purpose near-infrared camera/spectrograph. CISCO is based on a single 1024x1024 format HgCdTe HAWAII array detector, and is capable of either wide-field imaging of 1.8'x1.8' field-of-view or low-resolution spectroscopy from 0.9 to 2.4 um. The limiting magnitudes measured during test observations were found to be J=23.5mag and K'=22.4mag (imaging, 1" aperture, S/N=5, 1 hr exposure).
Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme; Henningsson, Stefan
Value-creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. The case of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced enterprise architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the four phases of the acquisition process: pre-acquisition preparation, acquisition selection, acquisition integration and...... post-integration management. Cisco’s EA capability improves its ability to rapidly capture value from acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition-based growth strategy over time....
文章介绍了VPN虚拟专用网和CISCO PIX硬件防火墙的特点,详细阐述了基于CISCO PIX实现在VPN网络中自动分配客户端固定IP地址的思路和方法,列出了具体的配置程序代码,并举例说明了实际应用的情况.实践证明,该方法易于管理、安全稳定,适用于中小型企事业单位和厂矿院校.
Full Text Available Information systems are the key decision component of a firm’s business strategy. Cisco made use of internet and its information systems to accomplish its following strategies: to create a business ecology market its technology to networking world; to create a virtual organization and outsourcing many operational and customer services and focusing its resources on its own core product innovation strategy; to showcase its own internet use as a marketing tool. Cisco’s strategy enabled it to sustain high growth rates throughout 1990s. In late 2000, however Cisco’s market collapsed and experienced a loss of billions of dollars in unsold inventory.
This study examined the effectiveness of the Cisco Network Technology Program in enhancing students' technology skills as measured by classroom strategies, student motivation, student attitude, and student learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to determine the effectiveness of this program. The study focused on two 11th grade classrooms at Hamtramck High School. Hamtramck, an inner-city community located in Detroit, is racially and ethnically diverse. The majority of students speak English as a second language; more than 20 languages are represented in the school district. More than 70% of the students are considered to be economically at risk. Few students have computers at home, and their access to the few computers at school is limited. Purposive sampling was conducted for this study. The sample consisted of 40 students, all of whom were trained in Cisco Networking Technologies. The researcher examined viable learning strategies in teaching a Cisco Networking class that focused on a web-based approach. Findings revealed that the Cisco Networking Academy Program was an excellent vehicle for teaching networking skills and, therefore, helping to enhance computer skills for the participating students. However, only a limited number of students were able to participate in the program, due to limited computer labs and lack of qualified teaching personnel. In addition, the cumbersome technical language posed an obstacle to students' success in networking. Laboratory assignments were preferred by 90% of the students over lecture and PowerPoint presentations. Practical applications, lab projects, interactive assignments, PowerPoint presentations, lectures, discussions, readings, research, and assessment all helped to increase student learning and proficiency and to enrich the classroom experience. Classroom strategies are crucial to student success in the networking program. Equipment must be updated and utilized to ensure that students are
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... Commission amends the Table of FM Allotments by removing Channel 221C0 at Port Lions, Alaska; Channel 247C3...(b), the Table of FM Allotments, is amended by: 0 a. Under Alaska, removing Port Lions, Channel...
Sympatric occurring fish morphs in postglacial lakes usually exhibit differences in morphology and physiology driven by adaptations to differential trophic niches. The European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly variable fish species, with more than 200 intraspecific forms described in Europe. The morphs usually differ in their number of gill-rakers, therefore this trait has been traditionally used for whitefish classification. According to this taxonomy, three different morphs ...
Charles P. Madenjian
Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.
Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Lundén, Saara; Kaimainen, Mika; Mattila, Saila; Kallio, Heikki; Airaksinen, Susanna
The effect of variation in origin and season on the lipids and sensory quality of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) was studied. The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) of the total phospholipid fatty acids in fillets was considerably higher in spring compared with autumn. Farmed fish contained 3-4 times more lipids than wild fish. Combined, the fillets of farmed fish contained 2-3 times more eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid than the fillets of wild fish. Contents of vitamin D were high both in farmed and wild fish. Aroma of raw farmed whitefish was less algae-like than wild one. Raw farmed whitefish was harder, less springy, and lighter in flesh color than wild whitefish. Cooked, farmed fish had slightly stronger flavor than wild fish. There was no significant difference in pleasantness between whitefish of different origin in any of the evaluated characteristics. Both farmed and wild European whitefish caught in autumn and spring proved to have a high content of n-3 fatty acids and vitamin D, and hence they serve as a good source of nutritionally important lipids. PMID:26675838
Colby, Peter J.; Brooke, L.T.
Embryonic development of lake herring (Coregonus artedii) was observed in the laboratory at 13 constant temperatures from 0.0 to 12.1 C and in Pickerel Lake (Washtenaw County, Michigan) at natural temperature regimes. Rate of development during incubation was based on progression of the embryos through 20 identifiable stages. An equation was derived to predict development stage at constant temperatures, on the general assumption that development stage (DS) is a function of time (days, D) and temperature (T). The equation should also be useful in interpreting estimates from future regressions that include other environmental variables that affect egg development. A second regression model, derived primarily for fluctuating temperatures, related development rate for stage j (DRj), expressed as the reciprocal of time, to temperature (x). The generalized equation for a development stage is: DRj = abx cx2 dx3. In general, time required for embryos to reach each stage of development in Pickerel Lake agreed closely with the time predicted from this equation, derived from our laboratory observations. Hatching time was predicted within 1 day in 1969 and within 2 days in 1970. We used the equations derived with the second model to predict the effect of the superimposition of temperature increases of 1 and 2 C on the measured temperatures in Pickerel Lake. Conceivably, hatching dates could be affected sufficiently to jeopardize the first feeding of lake herring through loss of harmony between hatching date and seasonal food availability.
An integral part of the MBA degree at University of Nottingham is the management project worth 60 credits which marks the completion of the degree. I got a chance to do my management project with Microsoft Corporation Gulf and was working with three other friends of mine. The project was a comparative study of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives of Microsoft with IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems. I was working in the project with three other friends of mine an...
Berlin, William H.; Brooke, L.T.; Stone, Linda J.
Eggs stripped from lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) spawning in Lake Michigan were incubated in the laboratory at temperatures similar to those on whitefish spawning grounds in Lake Michigan during December-April. Observed times from fertilization to attainment of each of 21 developmental stages were used to test a model that predicts the rate of development at daily fluctuating temperatures; the model relates rate of development for any given stage j, expressed as the reciprocal of time (Rj), to temperature (T). The generalized equation for a developmental stage is Rj = abTcT??.
Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.
The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.
Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James
This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.
Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen
One hundred and forty-eight wild whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), were caught by electrofishing and sampled for virological examination in December 1999 and 2000, during migration from the brackish water feeding grounds to the freshwater spawning grounds, where the whitefish may come into...... whitefish in the spread of VHSV in Denmark is probably not significant. The experimental studies, however, showed that whitefish are potential carriers of VHSV as they suffer only low mortality after infection but continue to carry virus....
Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Boase, James; McFee, James; Tallman, Ross F., (Edited By); Howland, Kimberly L.; Rennie, Michael D.; Mills, Kenneth
The Detroit River is part of a channel connecting Lakes Huron and Erie and was once a prolific spawning area for lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis. Large numbers of lake whitefish migrated into the river to spawn where they were harvested by commercial fisheries and for fish culture operations. Prior to our study, the last lake whitefish was landed from the Detroit River in 1925. Loss of spawning habitat during shipping channel construction and over-fishing, likely reduced lake whitefish spawning runs. Because lake whitefish are recovering in Lake Erie, and spawning in the western basin, we suspected they may also be spawning in the Detroit River. We sampled in the Detroit River for lake whitefish adults and eggs in October–December 2005–07 and for larvae during March–May 2006–08. A total of 15 spawning-ready lake whitefish from 4 to 18 years old, were collected. Viable eggs were collected during mid-November 2006–07; highest egg densities were found mid-river. Sac-fry whitefish larvae were collected in the river and near the river mouth. No whitefish larvae were retained in the river. Because high numbers of larvae were collected from mid- and downstream river sites, reproduction of lake whitefish in the Detroit River could contribute substantially to the Lake Erie lake whitefish metapopulation.
Andrew MACPHERSON, John A. HOLMES, Andrew M. MUIR,David L. G. NOAKES
Full Text Available We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum from the main basin of Lake Huron and Georgian Bay in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America to investigate details of diet and feeding tactics of these species in different seasons. Lake whitefish supports important commercial fisheries in Lake Huron and both species make use of habitats near the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron. Most fish of both species showed generalist feeding behavior, but some lake whitefish appeared to show specialist prey selection. The invasive spiny water flea Bythotrephes longimanus was an important component of the diet of both species. There was considerable dietary overlap between the whitefish species, but the ecological implications of these dietary overlaps are mitigated by the fact that dominant prey species differed in most seasons. We conclude that the potential for ecologically significant interactions between lake whitefish and round whitefish resulting from competition for similar benthic food resources in the main basin of Lake Huron is probably low [Current Zoology 56 (1: 109–117 2010].
Eggs of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were incubated in a constant-flow incubator at constant temperatures of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 5.9, 7.8, and 10.0 C. The time from fertilization to median hatch was inversely related to temperature, and ranged from 41.7 days at 10.0 C to 182 days at 0.5 C. The percentage hatch was highest (70.9-73.3%) at 4.0, 5.9, and 7.8 C, and was greatly reduced (6.0-28.4%) at 0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 C. The mortality of embryos was greatest during the early stages of development. Abnormally developed fry were most frequent (85.9% of the hatch) at 10.0 C, and least frequent (2.8%) at 4.0 C. Mean lengths of fry at hatching were shorter at 7.8 and 10.0 C (12.4 and 8.8 mm, respectively) than at lower temperatures (13.1 to 13.5 mm). The optimum temperature range for incubation of lake whitefish eggs was 3.2 to 8.1 C. Equations were derived for predicting development time to 20 successive stages, and to hatching, at constant incubation temperatures and at fluctuating daily mean water temperatures.
Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.
Examination of the branchial cavities of 8347 adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) collected from seven locations in Lake Huron for parasitic copepods yielded only the lernaeopodid Salmincola corpulentus; its distribution was limited to bloaters collected in the southern two-thirds of the lake. The infections were highest off Au Sable Point and on Six Fathom Bank, where 12 and 22%, of the bloaters examined were infected, respectively. All copepods seen were sexually mature females. The dorsal anterior portion of the branchial rim was the preferred site of attachment. The prevalence of S. corpulentus increased with length of the bloaters, reaching a maximum of 40% in fish longer than 330 mm; none were seen in bloaters shorter than 182 mm. The mean intensity of S. corpulentus was unusually low (1.0–1.9) for a lernaeopodid copepod and the maximum number of copepods found on a single bloater was five. Prevalences of copepods differed significantly (P < 0.05) between bloaters collected at different geographic locations, suggesting that S. corpulentus may be of value in bloater stock determination.
Østbye, K; Naesje, T F; Bernatchez, L; Sandlund, O T; Hindar, K
Combining morphological and genetic analysis, we compared patterns of diversification within and between morphs among sympatric European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) populations in Lake Femund, Norway. Seven external populations, from potential colonization routes into Lake Femund were included. We found that deep-, shallow-, river- and bay spawning populations are distinct morphs in Lake Femund. Within morphs, populations range from being similar genetically (Fst=0-0.005) among deep-spawning populations to being highly differentiated (Fst=0.153) between bay-spawning populations. Between morphs, genetic differences ranged from a low (Fst=0.008-0.022) between deep- and shallow-spawning populations to high difference (Fst=0.125-0.143) between shallow- and bay-spawning populations. A higher proportion of molecular variance was seen among (3.9%) than within morphs (2.8%). The adaptive gene combinations behind the four morphs seem to have originated within the lake, although the lake could have been colonized from more than one source population. PMID:15842498
Altmann, Simone; Rebl, Alexander; Kühn, Carsten; Goldammer, Tom
Maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena; synonym Coregonus lavaretus f. balticus) is a high-quality food fish in the Southern Baltic Sea belonging to the group of salmonid fishes. Coregonus sp. is successfully kept in aquaculture throughout northern Europe (e.g. in Finland, Germany, Russia) and North America. In this regard, the molecular and immunological characterisation of stress response in maraena whitefish contributes to the development of robust and fast-growing maraena whitefish breeding strains for aquaculture. Thus, in the present study, the potential housekeeping genes beta actin (ACTB), elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1A1), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein 9 (RPL9), ribosomal protein 32 (RPL32) and ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20) were de novo sequenced and tested concerning their applicability as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in maraena whitefish under different stocking densities. For this purpose, tissue samples of liver, kidney, gills, head kidney, skin, adipose tissue, heart and dorsal fin were investigated. qPCR data were analysed with Normfinder tool to determine gene expression stability. DNA sequencing exposed transcribed paralogous EEF1A1A and EEF1A1B genes differing in their putative protein structure. Normfinder analysis revealed RPL9 and RPL32 as most stable, GAPDH and ACTB as least stable genes for qPCR analyses, respectively. This is the first study that provides a subset of seven de novo sequenced housekeeping genes usable as reference genes in studies of stress response in maraena whitefish. PMID:25249196
Full Text Available In 2000, fishermen reported the appearance of deformed reproductive organs in whitefish (Coregonus spp. from Lake Thun, Switzerland. Despite intensive investigations, the causes of these abnormalities remain unknown. Using gene expression profiling, we sought to identify candidate genes and physiological processes possibly associated with the observed gonadal deformations, in order to gain insights into potential causes. Using in situ-synthesized oligonucleotide arrays, we compared the expression levels at 21,492 unique transcript probes in liver and head kidney tissue of male whitefish with deformed and normally developed gonads, respectively. The fish had been collected on spawning sites of two genetically distinct whitefish forms of Lake Thun. We contrasted the gene expression profiles of 56 individuals, i.e., 14 individuals of each phenotype and of each population. Gene-by-gene analysis revealed weak expression differences between normal and deformed fish, and only one gene, ictacalcin, was found to be up-regulated in head kidney tissue of deformed fish from both whitefish forms, However, this difference could not be confirmed with quantitative real-time qPCR. Enrichment analysis on the level of physiological processes revealed (i the involvement of immune response genes in both tissues, particularly those linked to complement activation in the liver, (ii proteolysis in the liver and (iii GTPase activity and Ras protein signal transduction in the head kidney. In comparison with current literature, this gene expression pattern signals a chronic autoimmune disease in the testes. Based on the recent observations that gonad deformations are induced through feeding of zooplankton from Lake Thun we hypothesize that a xenobiotic accumulated in whitefish via the plankton triggering autoimmunity as the likely cause of gonad deformations. We propose several experimental strategies to verify or reject this hypothesis.
CISCO Network Academy of the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course system of interactive teaching, perfect training, examination, inspection link and teaching software, at the end of each chapter, the teacher will set up online quiz to conducive to the students timely and accurately find focus and difficult problems and consolidate the contents. The basis of computer network is an important part of talent network technology professional training program. In this paper, taking the CISCO Networking Academy Teaching Practice for example, conducted a preliminary study and exploration for the teaching system of the course design mode.%思科网络学院的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Associate)课程体系有完善的交互式教、练、考、验环节及教学软件，在每个章节结束，教师都会设置在线的测验以利于学生及时准确地发现不足和巩固所学内容的重点和难点。计算机网络基础是网络技术专业人才培养方案的重要组成部分。文中以思科网院教学实践为例，针对该课程的教学系统设计模式进行了初步的研究和探索。
Adams, C E; Bean, C W; Dodd, J A; Down, A; Etheridge, E C; Gowans, A R D; Hooker, O; Knudsen, R; Lyle, A A; Winfield, I J; Præbel, K
This study revealed between-lake genetic structuring between Coregonus lavaretus collected from the only two native populations of this species in Scotland, U.K. (Lochs Eck and Lomond) evidenced by the existence of private alleles (12 in Lomond and four in Eck) and significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0·056) across 10 microsatellite markers. Juvenile C. lavaretus originating from eggs collected from the two lakes and reared in a common-garden experiment showed clear phenotypic differences in trophic morphology (i.e. head and body shape) between these populations indicating that these characteristics were, at least partly, inherited. Microsatellite analysis of adults collected from different geographic regions within Loch Lomond revealed detectable and statistically significant but relatively weak genetic structuring (FST = 0·001-0·024) and evidence of private alleles related to the basin structure of the lake. Within-lake genetic divergence patterns suggest three possibilities for this observed pattern: (1) differential selection pressures causing divergence into separate gene pools, (2) a collapse of two formerly divergent gene pools and (3) a stable state maintained by balancing selection forces resulting from spatial variation in selection and lake heterogeneity. Small estimates of effective population sizes for the populations in both lakes suggest that the capacity of both populations to adapt to future environmental change may be limited. PMID:26748995
Wagner, Tyler; Jones, Michael L.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.; Brenden, Travis O.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Wright, Gregory M.; Faisal, Mohamed
We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of health indicators in four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks located in northern lakes Michigan and Huron from 2003 to 2006. The specific objectives were to (1) quantify spatial and temporal variability in health indicators; (2) examine relationships among nutritional indicators and stock-specific spatial and temporal dynamics of pathogen prevalence and intensity of infection; and (3) examine relationships between indicators measured on individual fish and stock-specific estimates of natural mortality. The percent of the total variation attributed to spatial and temporal sources varied greatly depending on the health indicator examined. The most notable pattern was a downward trend in the concentration of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), observed in all stocks, in the polar lipid fraction of lake whitefish dorsal muscle tissue over the three study years. Variation among stocks and years for some indicators were correlated with the prevalence and intensity of the swimbladder nematode Cystidicola farionis, suggesting that our measures of fish health were related, at some level, with disease dynamics. We did not find relationships between spatial patterns in fish health indicators and estimates of natural mortality rates for the stocks. Our research highlights the complexity of the interactions between fish nutritional status, disease dynamics, and natural mortality in wild fish populations. Additional research that identifies thresholds of health indicators, below (or above) which survival may be reduced, will greatly help in understanding the relationship between indicators measured on individual fish and potential population-level effects.
Lee, Abigail H; Eme, John; Mueller, Casey A; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y
Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2°C, 5°C or 8°C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3°C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2°C, 92d at 5°C, 50d at 8°C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3°C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8°C and 5°C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2°C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change. PMID:27033035
To increase the understanding of freshwater lake ecosystems, I have studied the habitat selection of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), and vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). These fish species use the pelagic and the littoral-benthic habitats in lakes to different extents. Perch and roach are omnivorous, and perch become piscivorous at larger sizes. Vendace is a pelagic species specialized in eating zooplankton. Vendace was expected to affect biotic interactions and ha...
Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C
This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes
Full Text Available A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork. The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.
The Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, a local subspecies of the North Atlantic herring which had reached the Baltic Sea nearly 5,000 years ago, is probably the most important food fish (for salting) both in the coastal regions as well as everywhere else in Estonia. The need to determine the exact time of fishing has inspired nearly 30% of its popular names, mainly on the basis of orientation to phenological phenomena or popular festivals.Vendace/whitefish? Coregonus albula and rudds Rut...
As there is more and more threats on the internet the need for security is more crucial than ever for the companies to look into their solutions to protect their information. To be able to see how an attack works, we discus and show how an attack is progressing in this thesis we compare the difference between traditional and Next Generation firewalls. We also compare three different vendors to compare different functions and security performance. By using Systemair AB as testing ground and ha...
Stockwell, J.D.; Hrabik, T.R.; Jensen, O.P.; Yule, D.L.; Balge, M.
Recent studies on Lake Superior suggest that diel vertical migration (DVM) of prey (generalized Coregonus spp.) may be influenced by the density of predatory siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush). We empirically evaluated this hypothesis using data from acoustic, midwater trawl, and bottom trawl sampling at eight Lake Superior sites during three seasons in 2005 and a subset of sites in 2006. We expected the larger-bodied cisco (Coregonus artedi) to exhibit a shallower DVM compared with the smaller-bodied kiyi (Coregonus kiyi). Although DVM of kiyi and cisco were consistent with expectations of DVM as a size-dependent, predator-mediated process, we found no relationship between siscowet density and the magnitude of DVM of either coregonid. Cisco appear to have a size refuge from siscowet predation. Kiyi and siscowet co-occur in demersal habitat > 150 m during the day, where visual predation is unlikely, suggesting predator avoidance is not a factor in the daytime distribution of kiyi. Seasonal patterns of kiyi DVM were consistent with reported DVM of their primary prey Mysis relicta. Our results suggest that consideration of nonvisual foraging, rather than lightbased foraging theory (i.e., the antipredation window), is necessary to understand the processes driving DVM in deepwater systems.
Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.
Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.
Full Text Available Species are influenced by multiple environmental stressors acting simultaneously. Our objective was to compare the expected effects of climate change and invasion of non-indigenous rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax on cisco (Coregonus artedii population extirpations at a regional level. We assembled a database of over 13,000 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, summarising fish occurrence, lake morphology, water chemistry, and climate. We used A1, A2, and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC of future temperature conditions for 15 general circulation models in 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 totalling 78 projections. Logistic regression indicated that cisco tended to occur in cooler, larger, and deeper lakes. Depending upon the amount of warming, 25-70% of cisco populations are predicted to be extirpated by 2100. In addition, cisco are influenced by the invasion of rainbow smelt, which prey on young cisco. Projecting current estimates of rainbow smelt spread and impact into the future will result in the extirpation of about 1% of cisco populations by 2100 in Wisconsin. Overall, the effect of climate change is expected to overshadow that of species invasion as a driver of coldwater fish population extirpations. Our results highlight the potentially dominant role of climate change as a driver of biotic change.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.
Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.
Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.
An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs
Benson, Angela D.; Bothra, Jashoda; Sharma, Priya
Performance support systems can play an important role in corporations by managing and allowing distribution of information more easily. These systems run the gamut from simple paper job aids to sophisticated computer- and web-based software applications that support the entire corporate supply chain. According to Gery (1991), a performance…
Ankarberg, E.; Bjerselius, R.; Aune, M.; Darnerud, P.O.; Larsson, L.; Andersson, A.; Toernkvist, A.; Glynn, A. [Swedish National Food Administration, Research and Development Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Tysklind, M.; Bergek, S. [Environmental Chemistry, Umea Univ. (Sweden); Lundstedt-Enkel, K. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Karlsson, L. [Inst. of Freshwater Research, National Board of Fisheries, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)
The levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in fatty fish from the Baltic Sea area are still of major concern in Sweden, although the levels have decreased in Baltic Sea biota since the 1970. During later years this decrease seems to have leveled off, and at least dioxin levels in Baltic herring seem to be more or less the same during the last 10 years period. Harmonised EU maximum levels have been established for PCDD/Fs in fish and fishery products for human consumption, and the maximum level is 4 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fresh weight. Certain fatty fish species in the Baltic Sea are shown to have levels of PCDD/Fs exceeding the maximum level. However, because of protective dietary advice, Sweden and Finland have an exemption from the Council regulation that allows national marketing of fish and fishery products that exceed the maximum level for PCDD/F. For dioxin-like PCBs, common EU maximum levels have not yet been established. However, during 2004 the Commission will review the present maximum levels for dioxins in the light of new data, with a particular aim to include dioxin-like PCBs. The Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) has undertaken a survey to analyse the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in fatty fish in the Baltic Sea area. The study presents results from analyses of eel (Anguilla anguilla), salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), cod (Gadus morhua callarias) and vendace (roe) (from Coregonus albula) from several locations in the Baltic Sea. This study reports the fifth part of the results from the analyses. The entire study is available on www.slv.se as interim reports 1-5.
Full Text Available The fish kill in lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia during the extraordinarily hot summer of 2010 evoked an investigation into the effects of environmental extremes and long-term eutrophication on the fish community of the lake. Current data on lake Peipsi indicate that temperature extremes and synergistic interactions with eutrophication have led to a radical restructuring of the fish community. Commercial landings of lake smelt, Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus (Pallas, the previous dominant species of the fish community, have decreased dramatically since the 1930s, these declines being coupled with summer heat waves coinciding with low water levels. Gradual decline in smelt stock and catches was significantly related to a decline of near-bottom oxygen conditions and to a decrease in water transparency. The first documented fish kill in 1959 occurred only in the southern, most shallow and eutrophic lake (lake Pihkva. Recently, summer fish kill have become more frequent, involving larger areas of the lake. In addition to the cold-water species, e.g. smelt and vendace Coregonus albula (L., the abundance of bottom-dwelling fishes such as ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L. and juvenile fish have significantly decreased after the 2010 heat wave probably due to hypoxia and warm water temperatures. This study showed that fish community structure in large shallow lakes may be very vulnerable to water temperature increases, especially temperature extremes in combination with eutrophication.
Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.
Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake
Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today s most anticipated technologies for a broad range of enterprises. Based on the promise of lower operating costs combined with more accurate product and asset information, organizations .Rfrom manufacturers to government agencies, retailers to healthcare providers , Rare introducing RFID technologies in the supply chain, for asset tracking and management, and for security and regulatory purposes.
TALAL AL-KHAROBI; Mohmmed Abduallah Al-Mehdhar
Voice over IP (VoIP), use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN), a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with ...
Odd Terje Sandlund
Full Text Available Invasions of non-native species represent a global problem of great scientific interest. Here we study in detail the response in population and life history characteristics of closely related native species, with divergent habitat preferences, that are impacted by an invading species over a sufficient time period to allow a new stable state to become established. A time series of 20 years starting at the first occurrence of the invader (vendace Coregonus albula (L. allows exploration of the long term population and life history response of two ecologically, morphologically, and genetically different native sympatric morphs (DR- and SR- of congeneric whitefish C. lavaretus (L.. The whitefish morphs are taxonomically equally related to the invading vendace, but only the planktivorous DR-whitefish share its pelagic niche. We would expect that the ecological differences between the whitefish morphs may be used as a predictor of competitive effects. Vendace exhibited an initial boom-and-bust development, and has continued to fluctuate in density. The responses of the pelagic DR-whitefish were: i an immediate habitat shift, ii a subsequent population decline caused by increased annual mortality, and iii a new stable state at a lower density and apparently relaxed competition. The ecologically more distant benthivorous SR-whitefish also showed significant, but a much more limited response during this process, indicating damped indirect interactions through the food-web. This long-term case-study found that in two native eco-species equally related to the invader, only one of the eco-species was highly affected. Direct competition for resources is obviously important for species interactions, whereas the taxonomic relatedness per se seems to offer little predictive power for invasion effects.
Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Berg, Søren
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segments, The endangered North Sea houting (classified as C. oxyrhynchus) differs morphologically and physiologically from other Danish whitefish (C. lavaretus). However, limited divergence of North Sea houting was observed both at the level of mtDNA and microsatellites. The...... implications of these results for the conservation status of North Sea houting are discussed in the light of current definitions of evolutionary significant units. Both mtDNA and microsatellite data indicated that postglacial recolonization by C. lavaretus in Denmark was less likely to have taken place from...... the Baltic Sea. Instead, the data suggested a recent common origin of all Danish whitefish populations, including North Sea houting, probably by recolonization via the postglacial Elbe River system. Estimates of genetic differentiation among populations based on mtDNA and microsatellites were...
Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Schulz, Carsten; Deacon, Michael; Meyer, Knud Erik; Jäger-Kleinicke, Tassilo; Schwarten, Helmut; Svendsen, Jon Christian
. However, areas with slow-flowing water near river banks and river beds could function as nursery habitats. Stream channel experiments showed that cover providing shade caused delayed dispersal in both larvae and juveniles, but the larvae dispersed later and spent less time under cover than the juveniles...
Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Orlando, Ludovic;
the evolutionary history of the endangered Danish North Sea houting (NSH) and other closely related Danish and Baltic European lake whitefish (ELW). Two well-supported clades were found within both ELW and NSH, probably reflecting historical introgression via Baltic migrants. Although ELW and NSH are...
Brazzola, Gregory; Chèvre, Nathalie; Wedekind, Claus
The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen pollution. We also found maternal effects on embryo development to be influenced by EE2, that is, some maternal sib groups were more susceptible to EE2 than others. In conclusion, the toxic effects of EE2 were strong, but both species demonstrated the kind of additive genetic variation that is necessary for an evolutionary response to this type of pollution. PMID:25553069
Ghazinoori, Seyed Amirhossein
As an integral part of our MBA course, we had to attend the final 60 credits of the course which was based on the dissertation. On the other side another option also suggested by the university and that was participating in managerial report related to one organization which was possible to attend as an individual and also it was possible to approach the project as a group and after that each member write the individual report based on his/her participation and contribution to the group repor...
Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.
Studies examining species occurrence often fail to account for false absences in field sampling. We investigate detection probabilities of five gear types for six fish species in a sample of lakes on the North Slope, Alaska. We used an occupancy modeling approach to provide estimates of detection probabilities for each method. Variation in gear- and species-specific detection probability was considerable. For example, detection probabilities for the fyke net ranged from 0.82 (SE = 0.05) for least cisco (Coregonus sardinella) to 0.04 (SE = 0.01) for slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Detection probabilities were also affected by site-specific variables such as depth of the lake, year, day of sampling, and lake connection to a stream. With the exception of the dip net and shore minnow traps, each gear type provided the highest detection probability of at least one species. Results suggest that a multimethod approach may be most effective when attempting to sample the entire fish community of Arctic lakes. Detection probability estimates will be useful for designing optimal fish sampling and monitoring protocols in Arctic lakes.
Rennie, Michael D.; Ebener, Mark P.; Wagner, Tyler
Migration can be a behavioural response to poor or declining home range habitat quality and can occur when the costs of migration are overcome by the benefi ts of encountering higher-quality resources elsewhere. Despite dramatic ecosystem-level changes in the benthic food web of the Laurentian Great Lakes since the colonization of dreissenid mussels, coincident changes in condition and growth rates among benthivorous lake whitefi sh populations have been variable. We hypothesized that this variation could be in part mitigated by differences in migratory habits among populations, where increased migration distance can result in an increased probability of encountering high-quality habitat (relative to the home range). Results from four Great Lakes populations support this hypothesis; relative growth rates increased regularly with migration distance. The population with the largest average migration distance also had the least reduction in size-at-age during a period of signifi cant ecosystem change and among the highest estimated consumption and activity rates. In comparison, the population with the greatest declines in size-at-age was among the least mobile, demonstrating only moderate rates of consumption and activity. The least mobile population of lake whitefi sh was supported by a remnant Diporeia population and has experienced only moderate temporal growth declines. Our study provides evidence for the potential role of migration in mitigating the effects of ecosystem change on lake whitefi sh populations.
Skall, Helle Frank; Kjær, Torben Egil; Olesen, Niels Jørgen
contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate...... whitefish in the spread of VHSV in Denmark is probably not significant. The experimental studies, however, showed that whitefish are potential carriers of VHSV as they suffer only low mortality after infection but continue to carry virus....
Brzuzan, Paweł; Florczyk, Maciej; Łakomiak, Alicja; Woźny, Maciej
Molecular analyses show that challenging fish with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) causes perturbations of microRNA (miRNA) signaling. However, the significance and scope of these alterations is currently unknown. To address this issue, we studied miRNA gene expression in the liver of juvenile whitefish, C. lavaretus, during 28 days of exposure to a subacute dose of MC-LR (100 μg·kg-1 body mass). Using genomic resources of Atlantic salmon (AGKD03), the mature miRNA library of Atlantic salmon (miRBase-21) and bioinformatics tools (sRNAbench), we discovered and annotated a total of 377 distinct mature miRNAs belonging to 93 families of evolutionary conserved miRNAs, as well as 24 novel mature miRNA candidates that were mapped to 14 distinct S. salar miRNA precursors. miRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling of liver tissues revealed differential miRNA expression in control and treated fish at 14 days (73 miRNAs were modulated) and at 28 days (83 miRNAs) of the treatment, subsequently validated by qPCR for nine selected differentially expressed miRNAs. Additional qPCR study confirmed the miRNA-Seq data and revealed consistent, aberrant miRNAs expression profile in the later phase of MC-LR hepatotoxicity (7–28 d). Functional annotation analysis revealed that the aberrantly expressed miRNAs have target genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, cell metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis; dysregulation of these processes in liver cells leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. To enable deeper insight into the molecular responses of liver cells in fish exposed to MC-LR, we expanded the miRNAome analysis by inclusion of miRNA variants (isomiRs) profiles, and we showed that the isomiR profiles of liver specific MiR122, and a few other miRNAs, correlated with MC-LR treatment. Given the importance of isomiRs for disease biology in mammals, we believe that further research focused on the miRNA isoforms will bring us closer to better understanding the molecular mechanisms of MC-LR hepatotoxicity. PMID:27391076
V práci je řešena problematika Virtuálních privátních sítí (VPN) na současných i starších protokolech a uvedené různé možnosti jejich využití. Mezi nejzajímavější by mohly patřit části věnované různým způsobům využití VPN technologie, protokolu IPSec, IOS SSLVPN a RSA serveru s HW tokenem pro zajištění dvoufaktorové autentizace uživatele.
Niekerk, J. F. Van; Thomson, K.
Organizational end-user information security end-user education is becoming increasingly more important in the current information society. Without the active co-operation of knowledgeable employees, organizations cannot effectively protect their valuable information resources. Most current information security educational programs lack a theoretical basis. This paper briefly examines the use of Bloom's learning taxonomy to help address this lack of theoretical basis. The paper further invest...
Ivancic, William; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dan; Wood, Lloyd; Paulsen, Phil; Jackson, Chris; Hodgson, Dave; Notham, James; Bean, Neville; Miller, Eric
This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support operations demonstrating the concept of network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets. These demonstrations showcase major elements of the Transformal Communication Architecture (TCA), using Internet Protocol (IP) technology. These demonstrations also rely on IP technology to perform the functions outlined in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) document. A key element of these demonstrations was the ability to securely use networks and infrastructure owned and/or controlled by various parties. This is a sanitized technical report for public release. There is a companion report available to a limited audience. The companion report contains detailed networking addresses and other sensitive material and is available directly from William Ivancic at Glenn Research Center.
Loseto, L. L.; Stern, G. A.; Deibel, D.; Connelly, T. L.; Prokopowicz, A.; Lean, D. R. S.; Fortier, L.; Ferguson, S. H.
Mercury (Hg) levels in the Beaufort Sea beluga population have been increasing since the 1990's. Ultimately, it is the Hg content of prey that determines beluga Hg levels. However, the Beaufort Sea beluga diet is not understood, and little is known about the diet Hg sources in their summer habitat. During the summer, they segregate into social groups based on habitat use leading to the hypothesis that they may feed in different food webs explaining Hg dietary sources. Methyl mercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) levels were measured in the estuarine-shelf, Amundsen Gulf and epibenthic food webs in the western Canadian Arctic collected during the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) to assess their dietary Hg contribution. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report MeHg levels in estuarine fish and epibenthic invertebrates from the Arctic Ocean. Although the Mackenzie River is a large source of Hg, the estuarine-shelf prey items had the lowest MeHg levels, ranging from 0.1 to 0.27 μg/g dry weight (dw) in arctic cisco ( Coregonus autumnalis) and saffron cod ( Eleginus gracilis) respectively. Highest MeHg levels occurred in fourhorn sculpin ( Myoxocephalus quadricornis) (0.5 μg/g dw) from the epibenthic food web. Beluga hypothesized to feed in the epibenthic and Amundsen Gulf food webs had the highest Hg levels matching with high Hg levels in associated food webs, and estuarine-shelf belugas had the lowest Hg levels (2.6 μg/g dw), corresponding with the low food web Hg levels, supporting the variation in dietary Hg uptake. The trophic level transfer of Hg was similar among the food webs, highlighting the importance of Hg sources at the bottom of the food web as well as food web length. We propose that future biomagnification studies incorporate predator behaviour with food web structure to assist in the evaluation of dietary Hg sources.
Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A
Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015. PMID:26980561
Nowadays Cisco routers are mainly configured with CLI (Command Line Interface). However, Cisco offers some GUI (Graphical User Interface) management tools like SDM (Security Device Manager) and CNA (Cisco Network Assistant). Although these are not widely used at this time, it tends to be familiar by all network managers, especially for the use of SDM, which is introduced in great details on CCNP and CCNA Security courses. SDM is a Web-based device-management tool for Cisco routers that can...
Joyce, Peter J.
Ten years ago, Cisco began working with schools on a pilot initiative called the Cisco Networking Academy. Today, the Networking Academy program operates in more than 160 countries, comprising a network of more than 7,600 schools that teach the information technology skills essential in a global economy. Cisco Networking Academy has partnered with…
Full Text Available The Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras, a local subspecies of the North Atlantic herring which had reached the Baltic Sea nearly 5,000 years ago, is probably the most important food fish (for salting both in the coastal regions as well as everywhere else in Estonia. The need to determine the exact time of fishing has inspired nearly 30% of its popular names, mainly on the basis of orientation to phenological phenomena or popular festivals.Vendace/whitefish? Coregonus albula and rudds Rutilus rutilus and Scardinius erythrophthalmus, as common fresh-water fishes, are mentioned mostly in relation to omens. According to a legend the smelt Osmerus eperlanus smelled of horsemeat, as the fish were believed to have been born of drowned horses. According to ichthyologists, reports stating that the freshwater form of this species usually found in Lake Peipus had also been discovered in Estonia's largest inland-lake (Lake Võrtsjärv date back to the 19th century. By the mid-20th century the species had disappeared from Lake Võrtsjärv. A popular belief accuses the competing Russian fishers who had used magic to make the fish disappear (Orthodox peoples ate primarily fish during the Lent.The Baltic cod Gadus morhua callarias was traditionally caught with trawl-lines, as suggest the words of the spelling song in the article. The making of cod line was also associated with magic. Similar to the pike, the Baltic cod was considered a mythological being of the underworld (it has been called a one-eyed hog, piglet, etc.. The outward appearance of the fish has become to be thought as resembling the face of the Evil One (cf. Loorits 1926: US 95.Various long-jawed species of fish have been popularly called 'windfish'. In coastal villages people used to hang the windfish outside and use it as a windsock. The coming of garpike Belone belone to the coastal waters before the Midsummer Day indicates the beginning of the Baltic herring's fishing season
Tomy, Gregg T; Pleskach, Kerri; Ferguson, Steve H; Hare, Jonathon; Stern, Gary; Macinnis, Gordia; Marvin, Chris H; Loseto, Lisa
The trophodynamics of per- and polyfluorinated compounds and bromine-based flame retardants were examined in components of a marine food web from the western Canadian Arctic. The animals studied and their relative trophic status in the food web, established using stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta15N), were beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) > ringed seal (Phoca hispida) > Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) > Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) approximately equal to Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) > pelagic amphipod (Themisto libellula) > Arctic copepod (Calanus hyperboreus). For the brominated diphenyl ethers, the lipid adjusted concentrations of the seven congeners analyzed (Sigma7BDEs: -47, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154, and -209) ranged from 205.4 +/- 52.7 ng/g in Arctic cod to 2.6 +/- 0.4 ng/g in ringed seals. Mean Sigma7BDEs concentrations in Arctic copepods, 16.4 ng/g (n = 2, composite sample), were greater than those in the top trophic level (TL) marine mammals and suggests that (i) Arctic copepods are an important dietary component that delivers BDEs to the food web and (ii) because these compounds are bioaccumulative, metabolism and depletion of BDE congeners in top TL mammals is an important biological process. There were differences in the concentration profiles of the isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the food web. The most notable difference was observed for beluga, where the alpha-isomer was enriched (accounting for approximately 90% of the SigmaHBCD body burden), relative to its primary prey species, Arctic cod, where the alpha-isomer accounted for only 20% of the SigmaHBCD body burden (beta: 4% and gamma: 78%). For the C8-C11 perfluorinated carboxylic acids, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all greater than unity and increased with increasing carbon chain length. PFOS and its neutral precursor, PFOSA, also had TMF values greater than one. There were also pronounced differences in the PFOSA to PFOS ratio in ringed seal (0.04) and in
本文通过探讨IPv4向IPv6过渡的必然性,分析了IPv4向IPv6过渡所需的关键技术,以及IPv6普及所面临的问题;并通过具体案例在Cisco设备上完成了IPv6 over IPv4隧道技术的参考配置.
... rebates for Bank of America Corporation (``BAC''), Citigroup, Inc. (``C''), Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''), Ford Motor Company Common Stock (``F''), Intel Corp (``INTC''), Microsoft Corporation (``MSFT''),...
CISCO 公司将要购买硅谷圣荷西市的寇幽特谷地(Coyote Valley),建立 CISCO 公司一个能容纳两万员工的,该公司最大的工作营地。这个计划要花费十三亿美元,是 CISCO 公司又一大手笔。表面看起来是 CISCO 公司的扩展计划,但实际
Diplomska naloga podaja osnovno razumevanje IPsec VPN protokolov, ki nudijo varno povezavo prek interneta. Predstavi, kako se na Cisco usmerjevalnikih postavi IPsec povezava med vozliščema, za katero uporabimo Cisco IOS ukaze v konzolnem načinu. V nadaljevanju prikaže, kako s pomočjo Cisco programa Security Device Manager postavimo IPsec VPN povezavo med vozliščema in uporabimo »Easy VPN« strežnik. Cisco SDM deluje v grafičnem načinu in omogoča konfiguriranje s pomočjo čarovnika. Če je potreb...
Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.
Full Text Available 011 |BX005011.6 Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-59F19 in linkage group 23. 36 0.81 3 CB483928 |CB483928.1 ccluwtbl001019 Core...gonus clupeaformis head Coregonus clupeaformis cDNA, mRN
Full Text Available 21955.20 Human DNA sequence from clone RP1-62D2 on chromosome 6. 40 8.4 1 CB483546 |CB483546.1 ccluwtbl008005 Coreg...onus clupeaformis head Coregonus clupeaformis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 40 8.4 1 dna update 2004. 2. 3 Hom
...., Dell Computer Corp., EMC Corp., EMC Corp. Total, Cisco Systems Capital Corporation, Microsoft Corp... the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10322). The worker group covered by TA-W-72,933 is..., Cisco Systems Capital Corp., Microsoft Corp., Symantec Corp., Xerox Corp., VMWare, Inc.,...
"My friends tell me I am lucky. When Microsoft became a giant, I was already workingthere. At the time Cisco ranked first in terms of market value, I was marketing general manag-er of Cisco China, and when network fever swept across China, Ijoinedjoyo.com," says WangShutong, her eyes gleaming.
Matson, Annika, 1976-
Ajalehe Business andmetel kaalub Cisco Systems Nokia ostmist. Analüütikute hinnangul on uudis spekulatsioon. Diagramm: Spekulatsioon kergitas Nokia aktsiat. Tabel: Esmaspäeval antud soovitused Nokia aktsiale. Vt. samas Cisco Systemsilt oodati kasumi kasvu 16 protsendi võrra
A complete study guide for the new CCNA Security certification exam. In keeping with its status as the leading publisher of CCNA study guides, Sybex introduces the complete guide to the new CCNA security exam. The CCNA Security certification is the first step towards Cisco's new Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP) and Cisco Certified Internetworking Engineer-Security. With a foreword by CCNA networking authority Todd Lammle, CCNA Security Study Guide fully covers every exam objective. The companion CD includes the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and a PDF of the book.: The CCNA Securit
The latest offering from Cisco Expert Todd Lammle for the New CCENT Certification Written by industry expert and Cisco networking guru, Todd Lammle, CCENT Study Guide improves on the popular Sybex Study Guide approach by providing 100 percent coverage of the ICND1 (#100-101) exam objectives. The book contains detailed information and examples on crucial Cisco networking topics, and provides practical examples and insights drawn from Todd's almost 30 years of real-world experience. You'll also have access to dozens of hands-on labs to get the necessary experience needed to pass
Võrguseadmeid ja kommunikatsioonilahendusi pakkuva Cisco Eesti juht räägib IT-müügimehe tööst, konkurentsist ja koolitusest, infotehnoloogia tulevikust, oma perekonnast ja hobidest. Kommenteerib sõber Tarmo Katmuk
Full Text Available This paper deals with techniques of measuring and assessment of the voice transmitted in IP networks and describes design of quality measurement, which can be used for Cisco Gateways. Cisco gateways send Calculated Planning Impairment Factor in every CDR (Call Detail Record. Our design is based on collection of CDR's, their storing into SQL database and their visualization through web page. This design was implemented and successfully tested in CESNET network.
Lawrence, Elaine; Szewcow, Ury; Navarro, Karla Felix
This paper reports on a radical and ongoing learning and teaching experiment in which a private multinational organization (Cisco) and traditional learning institutions (schools, colleges and universities) have combined to deliver a form of global co-operative education. From 1998, the Cisco Network Academy Program (CNAP) has been integrated into both undergraduate and postgraduate Internetworking courses in the Faculty of Information Technology at the University of Technology Syd...
本文通过对 Cisco无线网络 AP的实验和应用,参照 Cisco的相关技术标准,对 Cisco Aironet 1100和 Cisco Aironet 350系列无线网卡做了性能,安全性和可扩展性评价,提出了在医院实现无线网络的可行方法.
Pavanelliella pavanellii Kritsky e Boeger, 1998 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae parasito das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus Lac., 1803, "mandi", das bacias do Rio São Francisco e do Rio Paraná, Brasil Pavanelliella pavanellii KRITSKY & BOEGER, 1998 (MONOGENEA: DACTYLOGYRIDAE PARASITE OF THE NASAL CAVITIES OF Pimelodus maculatus LAC., 1803, FROM THE BASINS OF THE SAO FRAN- CISCO AND PARANÁ RIVERS, BRAZIL
MARILIA DE C. BRASIL-SATO
Full Text Available Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura é mais alta. Pavanelliella pavanellii é o primeiro registro de monogenóideos das cavidades nasais de P. maculatus e é pela primei-ra vez encontrada no rio São Francisco, Brasil.Specimens of monogeneans parasites found in the nasal cavities of Pimelodus maculatus from the São Francisco and Paraná rivers were identified as Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance this species are presented. An ecological analysis of the results related to the drought periods and full of the river Paraná evidences that P. pavanellii is more abundant in the rainy station, whose temperature is higher. Pavanelliella pavanellii from P. maculatus is for the first time registered to São Francisco river, southeast Brazil.
Pavanelliella pavanellii Kritsky e Boeger, 1998 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasito das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus Lac., 1803, "mandi", das bacias do Rio São Francisco e do Rio Paraná, Brasil Pavanelliella pavanellii KRITSKY & BOEGER, 1998 (MONOGENEA: DACTYLOGYRIDAE) PARASITE OF THE NASAL CAVITIES OF Pimelodus maculatus LAC., 1803, FROM THE BASINS OF THE SAO FRAN- CISCO AND PARANÁ RIVERS, BRAZIL
Marilia C. Brasil-Sato; Gilberto C. Pavanelli
Espécimes de monogenóideos parasitos das cavidades nasais de Pimelodus maculatus dos rios São Francisco e Paraná foram encontrados e identificados como Pavanelliella pavanellii. Prevalência, intensidade média e abundância média de P. pavanellii em P. maculatus são apresentadas para os dois sistemas hídricos. Resultados da análise ecológica relacionados à períodos de seca e cheia do rio Paraná evidenciaram elevação da abundância média de P. pavanelli no período de cheia, no qual a temperatura ...
Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F
The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana. PMID:23220241
The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Tämän työn tarkoituksena on ollut tutkia Cisco ASA -palomuurien IPv6-ominaisuuksia ja sitä, mitä pitää ottaa huomioon IPv6-osoitteisiin siirtyessä, erityisesti Cisco ASA 5510 -palomuureissa. Työssä selvitettiin, miten saatiin käytössä olevaan IPv4-palomuuriin lisättyä IPv6-liikenne ja mitä eri IPv6-tunneleita voitiin toteuttaa eri Cisco ASA –käyttöjärjestelmäversioilla. Työssä selvitettiin myös miten natiivi IPv6-palomuuri liitettiin verkkoon. Työ on tehty Optimiratkaisut Oy:n toimeksiantona ...
Your Guide to CCENT and CCNA IOS Commands This book is an ideal supplement to Todd Lammle's CCENT and CCNA Study Guides, and a great quick reference for any Cisco networking administrator. Covering IOS version 15, each chapter begins with a short introduction, explaining what tasks will be discussed, followed by detailed explanations of and examples of the commands. The book includes an easy-to-navigate table of commands broken into the following topic areas: Internetworking and TCP/IP Cisco command line interface (CLI) and Security Device Manager (SDM) Router Configuration LAN Switch Conf
Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An
Carvalho, Gustavo José Ramos de
The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept introduced by Cisco as the succeeding phase of the Internet of Things (IoT), consisting in creating a network connection of objects, people, processes and data (Cisco 2013). The novelty in this concept is that instead of referring simply to the network connection of physical objects, the IoE allows for connected ‘things’ to send higher-level information back to machines, computers, and people for further evaluation and decision maki...
Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent
Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.
Dion-Cote, A. M.; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Bernatchez, L.
Roč. 282, č. 1802 (2015). ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Coregonus * salmonid * speciation * cytogenetics * genome stability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014
Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.
This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…
... FR 13189 (March 18, 2010) (SR-Phlx-2010-33). NASDAQ currently assesses a $0.30 per contract routing... (``AMR''); Caterpillar, Inc. (``CAT''); Cisco Systems, Inc. (``CSCO''); Ford Motor Company (``F... Gold Trust (``GLD''); Intel Corporation (``INTC''); JPMorgan Chase & Co. (``JPM''), Las Vegas...
Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. sept. lk. 14. Oxfordi ülikooli ja Cisco Systems uuringust, mille tulemusena reastati maailma kvaliteetsemat internetiühendust pakkuvad riigid, Eestit esimese kümne hulgas pole. Tabel: Esikümme
This teaching tip discusses an approach to educating MBA students regarding strategies to select, design, and implement enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The teaching approach presented here discusses how to teach students about different strategies based success stories from three different organizations, namely Cisco, Tektronix, and…
J. Semeniuk (Joanna)
textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to
... Tien, Taiwan. Cisco Systems, Inc., 170 West Tasman Drive, San Jose, CA 95134-1706. Elitegroup Computer.... 6, Bau Chiang Road, Hsin-Tien, Taipei 231, Taiwan. Gracom Technologies LLC, 1214 John Reed Ct., City..., Taipei County 221, Taiwan. Zotac International (MCO) Ltd., 19/F., Shatin Galleria, 18-24 Shan Mei...
It's becoming common for schools and community colleges to join with leaders of the business and industry community to create public-private partnerships to create new and enhanced opportunities for both parties. By creating a public-private partnership between schools, the local business community, and organizations like Cisco, Florida State…
..., Ontario, CANADA; Cinegy, Munich, GERMANY; Cisco, San Jose, CA; Cobalt Digital Inc., Urbana, IL; Coral Sea..., Porter Ranch, CA; James Donahue (Individual), Plainville, MA; DVBLink, Inc., Mount Vernon, IA; Bob Edge..., Ontario, CANADA; European Broadcasting Union, Le Grand-Saconnex, Geneva, SWITZERLAND; EVS...
Cisco Systemsi poolt 31 Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopa riigis tehtud uuringu kohaselt on Eesti IT-spetsialistidega varustatuse paremusjärjestuses alles 28. kohal. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud e-Riigi Akadeemia direktori Ivar Talloga
Dabbagh, Nada; Beattie, Mark
Skill shortages in the area of computer network troubleshooting are becoming increasingly acute. According to research sponsored by Cisco's Learning Institute, the demand for professionals with computer networking skills in the United States and Canada will outpace the supply of workers with those skills by an average of eight percent per year…
This paper first analyzes the basic concepts of Cisco router user certification, XTACACS certification protocol and describes the data architecture of user data protocol, then defines a kind of doubly temporal databases and log-in transaction processing based on network management property, at last, introduces implementation technology and method.
Ryan Ari Setyawan
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network. Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest delay is produced in indoor testing with distance of 11-15 meters, which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.
Strauss, Harald; Chmiel, Hannah; Christ, Andreas; Fugmann, Artur; Hanselmann, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas; Königer, Paul; Lutter, Andreas; Siedenberg, Katharina; Teichert, Barbara M A
Highly mineralized springs in the Scuol-Tarasp area of the Lower Engadin and in the Albula Valley near Alvaneu, Switzerland, display distinct differences with respect to the source and fate of their dissolved sulphur species. High sulphate concentrations and positive sulphur (δ(34)S) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopic compositions argue for the subsurface dissolution of Mesozoic evaporitic sulphate. In contrast, low sulphate concentrations and less positive or even negative δ(34)S and δ(18)O values indicate a substantial contribution of sulphate sulphur from the oxidation of sulphides in the crystalline basement rocks or the Jurassic sedimentary cover rocks. Furthermore, multiple sulphur (δ(34)S, Δ(33)S) isotopes support the identification of microbial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation in the subsurface, the latter is also evident through the presence of thick aggregates of sulphide-oxidizing Thiothrix bacteria. PMID:25922968
Hudson, Alan G; Vonlanthen, Pascal; Seehausen, Ole
The Alpine lake whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) species complex is a classic example of a recent radiation, associated with colonization of the Alpine lakes following the glacial retreat (less than 15 kyr BP). They have formed a unique array of endemic lake flocks, each with one to six described sympatric species differing in morphology, diet and reproductive ecology. Here, we present a genomic investigation of the relationships between and within the lake flocks. Comparing the signal between...
Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Eckmann, Reiner; Oppelt, Claus; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca
Human-induced nutrient input can change the selection regime and lead to the loss of biodiversity. For example, eutrophication caused speciation reversal in polymorphic whitefish populations through a flattening of littoral–pelagic selection gradients. We investigated the current state of phenotypic and genetic diversity in whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus) in a newly restored lake whose nutrient load has returned to pre-eutrophication levels and found that whitefish spawning at different ...
In resource polymorphism, ecological opportunity and selective predatory pressure can be considered key factors in phenotypic divergence. In post-glacial lakes of Scandinavia, the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) is a common species and has repeatedly diverged along the benthic - pelagic resource axis. Recent studies suggest that predation by northern pike (Esox lucius L.) induces rapid divergence in whitefish, leading to two reproductively isolated ecotypes: a dwarf planktivore an...
Moreno Vicente, Clara Enedina
Concentrations of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been investigated in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus, n = 41), European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus, n = 29), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n = 27), perch (Perca fluviatilis, n = 26), brown trout (Salmo trutta, n = 22), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, n = 14), northern pike (Esox lucius, n = 11), tench (Tinca tinca, n = 4) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius, n = 2), in Lake Norsjø, southern Norway. In addition, the stable isotope...
Bernatchez, Louis; Renaut, Sébastien; Whiteley, Andrew R; Derome, Nicolas; Jeukens, Julie; Landry, Lysandre; Lu, Guoqing; Nolte, Arne W; Østbye, Kjartan; Rogers, Sean M; St-Cyr, Jérôme
In contrast to the large amount of ecological information supporting the role of natural selection as a main cause of population divergence and speciation, an understanding of the genomic basis underlying those processes is in its infancy. In this paper, we review the main findings of a long-term research programme that we have been conducting on the ecological genomics of sympatric forms of whitefish (Coregonus spp.) engaged in the process of speciation. We present this system as an example ...
The predation of the northern pike (Esox lucius) has recently been found to initiate divergence in the size structuration of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) in Scandinavian lakes. The whitefish community responds to the predation with two different strategies: avoiding the pike by feeding in the pelagic zone with the cost of limited growth, or feeding in the littoral zone, delaying maturation to reach a size which is less subject to predation (Öhlund 2012). Brown trout (Salmo trutta) is an op...
结合自身教学经验和行业CCAI国际认证讲师资质,将网络技术专业必修课课程内容融入目前行业认可的技术含量极高的Cisco Academy的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assitant)课程体系,开展双语教学改革.通过延伸和扩展双语教学,使教学环节与全球行业标准相接轨,旨在使学生能够了解全球相关行业内最新的前沿技术和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后国际化的学习能力、拓展能力及竞争能力.
Tato diplomová práce se zabývá rozborem protokolů zajišťujících redundanci síťové brány. Jsou zde popsány protokoly Hot standby router protocol, Virtual router redundancy protocol a Gateway load balancing protocol. Zároveň jsou u jednotlivých protokolů uvedeny možnosti konfigurace na zařízeních Cisco s uvedením podporované verze Cisco IOS. Dále je součástí práce návrh a implementace dvou těchto protokolů Hot standby router protocol a Gateway load balancing protocol do simulačního prostředí OM...
Full Text Available The article looks into the current state of the art of dynamic routing protocols with respect to their possibilities to react to changes in the Quality of Service when selecting the best route towards a destination network. New options that could leverage information about the ever changing QoS parameters for data communication are analysed and a Cisco Performance Routing solution is described more in detail. The practical part of this work focuses on a design and implementation of a test bed that provides ascalable laboratory architecture to manipulate QoS parameters of different data communications flowing through it. The test bed is used in various use cases that were used to evaluate Cisco Performance Routing optimization capabilities in different scenarios.
Richard John Whitfield
Full Text Available As the Internet slowly transitions towards IPv6, the routing protocols that are used to forward traffic across this global network must adapt to support this gradual transition. Two of the most frequently discussed interior dynamic routing protocols today are the IETF’s OSPF and Cisco’s EIGRP routing protocol. A wealth of papers have compared OSPF and EIGRP in terms of converge times and resource usage, however few papers have assessed the performance of each when implementing their respective security mechanisms. Therefore a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 will be conducted using dedicated Cisco hardware. This paper will firstly introduce each protocol and its security mechanisms, before conducting a comparison of OSPFv3 and EIGRPv6 using Cisco equipment. After discussing the simulation results, a conclusion will be drawn to reveal the findings of this paper and which protocol performs the best upon implementing their respective security mechanisms within a small IPv6 enterprise network.
Wood, Lloyd; Eddy, Wes; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris
The Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) was launched into space as an experimental secondary payload onboard the UK Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite in September 2003. The UK-DMC satellite is one of an increasing number of DMC satellites in orbit that rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) for command and control and for delivery of data from payloads. The DMC satellites, built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), have imaged the effects of Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean Tsunami, and other events for disaster relief under the International Space and Major Disasters Charter. It was possible to integrate the Cisco mobile access router into the UK-DMC satellite as a result of the DMC satellites' adoption of existing commercial networking standards, using IP over Frame Relay over standard High-Level Data Link Control, or HDLC (ISO 13239) on standard serial interfaces. This approach came from work onboard SSTL's earlier UoSAT-12 satellite
Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.
Full Text Available In this paper different aspects of value-at-risk estimation are considered. Daily returns of CISCO, INTEL and NASDAQ stock indices are analyzed for period: September 1996 - September 2006. Methods that incorporate time varying variability and heavy tails of the empirical distributions of returns are implemented. The main finding of the paper is that standard econometric methods underestimate the value-at-risk parameter if heavy tails of the empirical distribution are not explicitly taken into account. .
Corporate America has decided to stop bellyaching about the cost and quality of the health care it helps buy for its employees. Now it's taking concrete action. Large employers such as Wal-Mart, Oracle, Cisco, BP America and many, many others are pressuring providers to meet performance standards, adopt information technology and transform the efficiency of their operations. Big Business wants value for its buck, and it's now putting money where its mouth is. PMID:17302135
Simpson, B; Bhatti, S. N.
We are grateful to Cisco for their University Research Programmme (URP) in supporting this work. Date of Acceptance: 24/01/2014 Host multihoming allows individual hosts to be multiply connected to the network, e.g. by concurrent use of two network prefixes, each network prefix tied to a separate network interface. Such multihoming capability improves the host's ability to implement such features as load-balancing, fail-over and multi-path transport protocols. However, IP does not directly ...
The purpose of this paper is to describe the features and functionality of LISP protocol (Locator / ID Separation Protocol), its possible use in the network infrastructure and description of the requirements necessary for its successful implementation. Part of this thesis is also the setting of modules to support the network protocol on FreeBSD and then connecting the station to the experimental network, operated by Cisco Systems. The reachability of the test station in the experimental netwo...
Gee, Bryan M.; Jane Strickland; Lisa Salazar
Out of early research, Cisco Systems (1999) have built an impressive foundation that advocates for reusable learning objects (RLOs). As the need for online methods for delivering both formal and informal educational content has increased, the prospect of greater influence through carefully constructed RLOs has grown. RLOs are any digital resource that can be used and reused to enhance online learning. RLOs typically are small, discrete, self-contained digital objects that may be sequenced, co...
This book identifies the current role and effectiveness of e-learning and its key issues in an industrial context. The first objective is to identify the role of e-learning, particularly in staff training and executive education, where e-learning (online, computer-based or videoconferencing learning) has made significant impacts and contributions to several organisations such as the Royal Bank of Scotland, Cisco and Cap Gemini Earnst and Young. The second objective of this research is to unde...
The business communications market has been deeply transformed by technological and product convergence, due to the progressive substitution of traditional TDM-based voice products and services by ToIP (Telephony over IP) based products and services. The adoption of IP and the management of voice applications in the same way as data application has given rise to convergence offerings under the name of Unified Communications, and allowed the entry of data communications vendors, such as Cisco,...
目前，MPLS网络已经是下一代核心网络的发展方向，在各类MPLS技术的VPN方式中最具有竞争力的是MPLS的二层VPN和MPLS三层VPN。本文阐述了MPLS二层VPN的基本原理，对Cisco Ethernet Over MPLS技术进行分析并给出了配置实例。
Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan
This paper deals with an analysis of the relation between the codec that is used, the QoS method, and the final voice transmission quality. The Cisco 2811 router is used for adjusting QoS. VoIP client Linphone is used for adjusting the codec. The criterion for transmission quality is the MOS parameter investigated with the ITU-T P.862 PESQ and P.863 POLQA algorithms.
This paper deals with an analysis of the relation between the codec that is used, the QoS method, and the final voice transmission quality. The Cisco 2811 router is used for adjusting QoS. VoIP client Linphone is used for adjusting the codec. The criterion for transmission quality is the MOS parameter investigated with the ITU-T P.862 PESQ and P.863 POLQA algorithms
In early 2008, viewers of UK prime-time television saw corporate advertisements identifying Cisco Systems as synonymous with the internet. This compelling campaign by an established and dominant company was a response to the emergence of a significant Chinese competitor, Huawei–founded in 1988 as a private domestic telecoms equipment manufacturer. Since its foundation, Huawei's entrepreneurial flare had flourished across the globe. It employees more than 80,000 people, but China's new colossu...
This paper identifies the current role and effectiveness of e-learning and its key issues in an industrial context. The first objective is to identify the role of e-learning, particularly in staff training and executive education, where e-learning (online, computer-based or videoconferencing learning) has made significant impacts and contributions to several organisations such as the Royal Bank of Scotland, Cisco and Cap Gemini Earnst Young. With e-learning, staff train-ing and executive educ...
A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.
Ph. D Student Mihai Logofatu Alexandru Constantin
This paper aims to present the steps taken and solutions implemented at the Cisco Networking Academy of the University of Bucharest in order to increase the process-management efficiency and the student satisfaction degree, mainly via the implementation of an own e-learning learning platform.The results are a significant improvement of work relationships, due to the fact that everyone's responsibilities are clearly defined together with the expectations for each employee. Furthermore, product...
Streaming of videos has become the major traffic generator in today's Internet and the video traffic share is still increasing. According to Cisco's annual Visual Networking Index report, in 2012, 60% of the global Internet IP traffic was generated by video streaming services. Furthermore, the study predicts further increase to 73% by 2017. At the same time, advances in the fields of mobile communications and embedded devices lead to a widespread adoption of Internet video enabled mobile and ...
Wu, Maomao; Mitchell, Keith; McCaffery, Duncan; Finney, Joe; Friday, Adrian
Traditional networked multiplayer games are typically confined to be played on desktop computers. With the recent advances in mobile networking, context-aware computing, and sensor-based computing, researchers and game designers are able to explore the potential of combining these new technologies together to develop mobile networked, context-aware, augmented reality multiplayer games. As part of the new research collaboration between Lancaster University, Cisco Systems, Microsoft Research an...
Full Text Available This paper presents a fully computerized method to backup the router configuration file. The method consists of a friendly graphical interface programmed by Java programming language The proposed method is compared with the two existing methods, namely: TFTP server method and Copy/Paste method. The comparison reveals that the proposed method has many advantages over the existing ones. The proposed method has been implemented on Cisco routers (series 2500, 2600 and 2800
By comparing Lucent Technologies and Cisco Systems over twenty years, one illustrates that a firm that outsources exploration through an Acquisition and Development (A&D) strategy of start-ups and exploitation specialization can be more innovative and competitive than an ambidextrous organization. The success of an A&D strategy depends on the embeddedness of the firm in the network of organizations comprised of an open innovation system and supported by an inter-organizational process of inno...
The excitement and hype surrounding the emerging technology market known as the Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted a great deal of attention from industry, business leaders, and governments alike. According to Cisco estimates1, the IoT will create a $14 Trillion global opportunity, and Business Insider predict it will be the largest market for technology hardware ever 2. If these are correct, the impact on traditional business models through the adoption of new technology with...
Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per; Jensen, Henrik M.
In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki...
Full Text Available In the past decade cloud computing has become the buzzword in IT world. The implementation of cloud based computing and storage technology changed the way of how network infrastructure is built inside an enterprise. As technology has improved and the cloud based storage systems become more affordable, a number of enterprises started outsourcing their data management due to a number of reasons. But still a majority of large enterprises and SMB (small medium businesses prefer to manage their own in-house data centers and storage area networks. The reason being is the control, security and integrity of stored data on cloud storage servers. In this paper, we will discuss the most commonly implemented SAN technology, fibre channel (FC in comparison with the new technology called Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE. These results will help SAN engineers and designers select the best technology between the two in terms of performance, scalability, cost, maintenance, space, cooling, equipment, cabling, management, adapters, labor cost and manpower. Implementation of FC and FCoE has been done to explore the different features of both technologies. Furthermore, how to build a reliable, scalable and secure storage area network has been demonstrated. This study has been carried out on Cisco Nexus, Cisco MDS and Cisco UCS platform.
Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph
The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.
Stewart, David H.; Ivancic, William D.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent
Cisco Systems and NASA Glenn Research Center under a NASA Space Act Agreement have been performing joint networking research to apply Internet technologies and protocols to space-based communications. During this time, Cisco Systems developed the mobile-router which NASA and Cisco jointly tested. The early field trials of this technology have been successfully completed. The mobile-router is software code that resides in a network router. A Mobile-Router allows entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both the government and commercial sectors. This technology will be applied to the wireless battlefield. NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is the enabling technology for communication via the Internet or Intranets to aircraft. Information such as weather, air traffic control, voice and video can be easily and inexpensively transmitted to the aircraft using Internet protocols. The mobile router can be incorporated into emergency vehicles particularly ambulances and life-flight aircraft to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and healthcare experts. Commercial applications include entertainment services, IP telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour busses, aircraft, and eventually cars. This paper will briefly describe the mobile router operation. An upcoming wide area network field test with application to US Coast Guard communications will be described. The paper will also highlight military and government networks that will benefit from the deployment of mobile router and the associated applications.
Moore, Geoffrey A
When a mature company fails to endure over the long term, it's often due to the "Horizon 2 vacuum," argues Moore, author of Crossing the Chasm and several other books on innovation strategy, and managing director of the consulting firm TCG Advisors. The reference is to the strategic horizons outlined by McKinsey's Mehrdad Baghai and colleagues in The Alchemy of Growth: Horizon 1 is today's cash-generating business, Horizon 2 is the set of innovations just being commercialized, and Horizon 3 consists of forward-thinking R&D. Most companies understand they must invest in their future, so the funding and management of Horizon 3 is not the problem. The trouble starts when those innovations are brought to market and must compete with the mainstay business for company resources. They disappear from top management's radar screen and suffer a level of neglect few ventures could survive. Cisco Systems is one company that has recognized the problem and tried to address it. To begin with, CEO John Chambers has insulated Horizon 2 projects from many of the pressures of Horizon 1--for example, by reorchestrating sales coverage so that emerging markets won't be neglected. He has also kick-started some Horizon 2 businesses by augmenting them with acquisitions, increasing their scale, and giving them more management attention. For the same reason, he has challenged his head of product development to think in terms of new businesses, not simply new products--knowing that the latter tend to get lost in salespeople's bags. Most important, Cisco is handicapping its Horizon 2 projects so that they need not compete head-to-head with established businesses. Their success is judged by metrics that are appropriate to new businesses, and they are given the benefit of Cisco's best managerial talent. PMID:17642127
Let Todd Lammle prepare you to ace the CCNA ICND2 exam If you already have your CCENT, the ICND2 exam is all you need to earn the CCNA certification. This new study guide from Cisco networking authority Todd Lammle covers 100 percent of the objectives for the exam. Topics include operating IP data networks, understanding switching and routing technologies, working with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, and troubleshooting. A robust set of study tools, including a network simulator that can be used with the book's hands-on labs and practice exams, gives you added confidence as you prepare. Written by
A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification
A complete preparation guide for the entry-level networking CCNA certification. If you're planning to advance your career by taking the all-important Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), this is the study guide you need! Seven minibooks cover all the concepts and topics on which you'll be tested, covering the latest version of the exam. Each part of the exam is covered thoroughly in its own section, so you can readily find the information you want to study. Plenty of review questions help you prepare, and the companion CD-ROM includes the highly rated Dummies Test Engine so you can test y
Lammle, Todd; Lancaster, Tom
Wade Edwards, CCIE, has over 15 years of networking experience and has been actively involved in the computer industry for over 24 years. Todd Lammle, CCNP is CEO and Chief Scientist of RouterSim, LLC and President of GlobalNet Training, Inc., and is the author of the best-selling CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide from Sybex. Tom Lancaster, CCIE, is a consultant with IBM Global Services. Justin Menga, CCIE, is a Network Solutions Architect in the wireless and e-infrastructure field in New Zealand. Eric Quinn, CCSI, CCNP + Voice is an Arizona-based instructor and secur
Prepare for the new CCNA exams with this Todd Lammle study guide Cisco author, speaker, and trainer Todd Lammle is considered the authority on all things networking, and his books have sold almost a million copies worldwide. This all-purpose CCNA study guide methodically covers all the objectives of the ICND1 (100-101) and ICND2 (200-101) exams as well as providing additional insight for those taking CCNA Composite (200-120) exam. It thoroughly examines operation of IP data networks, LAN switching technologies, IP addressing (IPv4/IPv6), IP routing technologies, IP services, network device s
The ultimate guide to the new CCNA voice network administrator certification exam. The new CCNA Voice exam tests candidates on their ability to implement a Cisco VoIP solution. Network administrators of voice systems will appreciate that the CCNA Voice Study Guide focuses completely on the information required by the exam. Along with hands-on labs and an objective map showing where each objective is covered, this guide includes a CD with the Sybex Test Engine, flashcards, and entire book in PDF format.: The new CCNA Voice certification will be valuable for administrators of voice network syste
Sandqvist, Mattias; Johansson, Robert
This examination work is about implementation of Cisco Systems Network Admission Control (NAC) within a leading IT-company in region of Jönköping. NAC is a technique that is used for securing the internal network from the inside. NAC can verify that the client who connects to the network has the latest antivirus updates and latest operative system hotfixes. Clients who don’t meet the criteria can be placed in quarantine VLAN where they only have access to the update servers. There are also fu...
Full Text Available The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF has proposednew protocols for highly secured wireless networking. Thepurpose of this paper is to implement one such proposedsecurity protocol - PEAP (Protected ExtensibleAuthentication Protocol . PEAP was jointly developedby Microsoft, Cisco and RSA security. The protocolimplementation is done on the server end of a Client/Servernetwork model on a RADIUS server (RemoteAuthentication Dial-in User Service. The proposedprotocol - PEAP provides for Client identity protection andkey generation thus preventing unauthorized user accessand protecting or encrypting the data against maliciousactivities.
Kajisawa, Masaru; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamada, Toru; Bower, Richard
We report a discovery of proto-cluster candidates around high redshift radio galaxies at z~2.5 on the basis of clear statistical excess of colour-selected galaxies around them seen in the deep near-infrared imaging data obtained with CISCO on Subaru Telescope. We have observed six targets, all at similar redshifts at z~2.5, and our data reach to J=23.5, H=22.6 and K=21.8 (5 sigma) and cover a 1.6' x 1.6' field centered on each radio galaxy. We apply colour cuts in JHKs in order to exclusively...
textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to the community and balance their impact on the environment. Why do they do that? There is a long tradition of moral considerations for commerce. In the early days of capitalism, the goal of the bus...
Ryan Ari Setyawan
Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network). Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan ...
Gracia López, Rubén
El proyecto consistiría en crear una aplicación LDAP capaz de contener la agenda corporativa de las diferentes empresas que tienen contratados los servicios del proveedor de servicios. El proyecto pretende pues, que los diferentes usuarios sean capaces de acceder de forma rápida a sus contactos. La agenda debe de poder ser consultada desde diferentes medios y dispositvos: - Terminales físicos (teléfonos Grangstrem y CISCO) - Teléfonos software (Softphone): teléfonos virtuales instalados en el...
Albuquerque, António Pedro Baptista Soares de
Esta dissertação apresenta o estudo para a gravação e monitorização de chamadas VoIP. A solução PhoneRecord funciona junto com o CallManager da Cisco e faz uso de Java Telephony Application Programming Interface (JTAPI) na gestão de chamadas e da framework Java Media Framework (JMF) para o processamento de áudio. O acesso às configurações do sistema e à lista das chamadas gravadas é conseguido através de um browser web. ABSTRACT: This dissertation presents the study to re...
Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme
Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource...... complementarity, c) directing and governing the integration process, and d) post-acquisition evaluation of the achieved integration and proposing ways forward. Using the EA capability in the acquisition process improves Cisco’s ability to rapidly capture value from its acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition...
Dr. K. R. R. Mohan Rao; Saiteja Kanneganti
This paper is focused on the Translator strategy for migration of IPv4 to Ipv6 implemented in Cisco packet tracer. It describes the design and configuration of network devices and packet transfer between devices of IPv4 and IPv6 networks using NAT-PT as transition mechanism. First major version of IP, IPv4 is the dominant protocol of internet.IPv6 is developed to deal with long anticipated problem of IPv4 running out of addresses. The migration from IPv4 to IPv6 must be implemente...
Verkonvalvonnalla on tärkeä rooli varsinkin suurten verkkojen ylläpidossa. Verkossa voi liikkua paljon erilaista dataa, joten verkonvalvojan on hyödyllistä ymmärtää, millainen verkkoliikenne kuormittaa verkkoa eniten. Perinteinen SNMP:llä toteutettu verkonvalvontajärjestelmä ei tarjoa yksityiskohtaista tietoa verkkoliikenteen sisällöstä. Cisco Systemsin kehittämällä NetFlowlla on mahdollista päästä tarkemmin käsiksi verkossa liikkuvien pakettien tietoihin ja näin ollen saada selville erilaisi...
汉诺威博览会今后也将仍然是工业自动化技术方面的领军者，博览会主任Sepp Heckmann在介绍IT工业自动化的新倡议时也这样说。其后面隐藏着的是目前盛行的从办公层面到生产层面的以太网基础上的联网。该项倡议的发起者是Cisco Europe公司与Harting KGaA公司。
Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin
There are 13 species of fish found in the waters of Bear Lake. Of those 13, 4 are endemic (found only in Bear Lake). The 4 endemics species are Bonneville cisco, Bonneville whitefish, Bear Lake whitefish, and Bear Lake sculpin. Five of the remaining 9 fish species are native to the region, and 4 are exotic introductions. These native fishes are the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah sucker, redside shiner, speckled dace and Utah chub. The exotic fishes are lake trout, common carp, yellow p...
Cohen, Edith; Duffield, Nick; Kaplan, Haim;
Abstract Statistical summaries of IP traffic are at the heart of network operation and are used to recover aggregate information on subpopulations of flows. It is therefore of great importance to collect the most accurate and informative summaries given the router's resource constraints. A...... summarization algorithm, such as Cisco's sampled NetFlow, is applied to IP packet streams that consist of multiple interleaving IP flows. We develop sampling algorithms and unbiased estimators which address sources of inefficiency in current methods. First, we design tunable algorithms whereas currently a...
Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.
Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.
Modhar Modhar A. Hammoudi
Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a model in OPNET (Optimized Network Engineering Tool simulator for the University of Mosul computer network. The proposed network model was made up of two routers (Cisco 2600, core switch (Cisco6509, two servers, ip 32 cloud and 37 VLANs. These VLANs were connected to the core switch using fiber optic cables (1000BaseX. Three applications were added to test the network model. These applications were FTP (File Transfer Protocol, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol. The results showed that the proposed model had a positive efficiency on designing and managing the targeted network and can be used to view the data flow in it. Also, the simulation results showed that the maximum number of VoIP service users could be raised upto 5000 users when working under IP Telephony. This means that the ability to utilize VoIP service in this network can be maintained and is better when subjected to IP telephony scheme.
Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá novou proprietární technologií od Cisco Systems zvanou OnePK (One Platform Kit). Soustřeďuje se na možnosti použití v oblasti zberu statistických dat o VoIP provozu. Používá DataPath service set, ktorý zabezpečuje sběr paketů ze síťových zařízení firmy Cisco. DataPath service set posílá pakety na vstup aplikace, která tvoří VoIP statistiku z příchozích SIP paketů. Tato aplikace a provedené testy na technologii OnePK jsou výsledky této práce....
Andy will discuss the architectural evolution of Ethernet networks and switch architectures as they are being designed to address much larger cloud networking applications that require predictable throughput and latency.About the speakerAs Chief Development Officer, Andy Bechtolsheim is responsible for the overall product development and technical direction of Arista Networks.Previously Andy was a Founder and Chief System Architect at Sun Microsystems, where most recently he was responsible for industry standard server architecture. Andy was also a Founder and President of Granite Systems, a Gigabit Ethernet startup acquired by Cisco Systems in 1996. From 1996 until 2003 Andy served as VP/GM of the Gigabit Systems Business Unit at Cisco that developed the very successful Catalyst 4500 family of switches. Andy was also a Founder and President of Kealia, a next generation server company acquired by Sun in 2004.Andy received an M.S. in Computer Engineering from Carnegie Mellon University in 1976 and was a Ph.D. ...
针对当前数字图书馆网络系统设备中普遍存在的安全隐患问题,提出在各网络设备中使用基于AAA(认证、授权、记账)的方法,在管理和控制端,使用一套Cisco Secure ACS(思科安全访问控制服务器)软件, 用TACACS+或RADIUS协议与ACS进行通信认证.AAA安全管理系统部署后,成功地解决了这一难题,实验证明本方法行之有效.%In order to overcome the common obstacle of secure and peril problems of the switchs in digital library networks, this paper develops the method based on AAA(Authentication、Authorization、Accounting) in client switchs of networks and Cisco Secure ACS(Access Control Server)in management server,by communication between switchs and ACS through protocol of TACACS+ or RADIUS.The method is tested successfully and proved effectively in our ditital library.
Network laboratory requires a lot of network equipment, simulator often be used to simulate the network equipment. Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3, Web Iou, proposed virtual network laboratory based on Web Iou and Vmware,it shows that using Web IOU and Vmware to construct the virtual network laboratory is feasible,and test the Web IOU and Vmware resources occupancy.%网络实验室需要大量的网络设备，在教学实验中往往采用模拟器模拟网络设备。在分析了Cisco Packet Tracer、GNS3、Web Iou网络设备模拟器的优缺点后，提出了基于Web Iou和Vmware的虚拟网络实验室，用案例证实了Web IOU和Vmware构建虚拟网络实验室的可行性，并测试了Web IOU和Vmware的资源占用情况。
Full Text Available The ontogenetic changes in the diet of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus larvae were investigated during three consecutive years in a deep peri-alpine lake. Identification of the feeding habits of larvae in relation to their larval stage was performed using a PCA% in order to take into account the individual variability in larval diet. Although whitefish larvae are planktivorous, the present study points out ontogenetic changes in diet. While young larval stages are opportunistic feeders on small copepods, older stages feed preferentially on Daphnia sp.. Strong inter-annual variability has been observed in the dietary overlap between the successive larval stages. We show that the density and availability of the potential prey will affect the dynamics of the ontogenetic changes in the diet. Furthermore, it could probably alter the intra-specific competition between larval stages.
Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija; Jounela, Pekka; Lundström, Karl; Köster, Fritz
The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals on...
Jepsen, Niels; Deacon, Michael; Koed, Anders
Once an abundant fish species in the rivers of the Wadden Sea in northwest Europe, the North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrinchus (NSH) was at the brink of extinction 25 yr ago. The very last stronghold for this species was in the small Danish River Vidaa. In an attempt to preserve this anadromous...... solved. Since a national management plan was issued in Denmark in 2003, large-scale river restoration measures have been undertaken, including the removal of 13 large obstacles in 3 NSH rivers and reestablishment of meanders in the lower river reaches. These measures were all intended to increase the...... reach sexual maturity, NSH grow relatively slowly (mean: 2.55 cm yr−1, ranging from 0 to 13.8 cm yr−1) and can reach an age of 10 to 12 yr. The number of repeated recaptures year after year indicates low mortality for adult fish. Six individuals were recaptured in rivers other than the one in which they...
根据目前社会上职业资格证书的企业需求度和认证及培训机构不够完善的现状,将教学必修课程内容融入全球认可的、技术含量极高的CCNA(Cisco Certified Network Assistant)职业资格认证当中,通过延伸校内相应必修课程的考核工作,使教学环节和行业标准接轨,可使在校学生了解全球产业成熟的技术标准和管理规范,增强学生进入企业后的技术应用能力和竞争能力.
Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.
Hasan Çakır, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Thomas Duffy, Alan Dennis, JoAnne Bunnage
Full Text Available Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.
Full Text Available PIM-SM is the most commonly used IP multicast routing protocol in IPTV systems. Its fault tolerance is examined by experimenting on a mesh topology multicast test network built up by Cisco routers under GNS3. Different fault scenarios are played and different parameters of the PIM-SM and of the OSPF protocols are examined if they influence and how they influence the outage time of an IPTV service. The failure of the Rendezvous Point (RP of the given IP multicast group as well as the complete failure of a router in the media forwarding path of the multicast stream are examined. A method is given how the service outage time caused by the complete failure of a router can be limited by an appropriate choice of the Dead Interval parameter of OSPF.
Asmaa Fowzi Alotaibi
Full Text Available Global software development (GSD is one of modern trends in software engineering. The last years has witnessed a significant increase in the adoption of Agile in GSD .This paper considers the issue by examining whether Scrum practices used in mitigation of temporal distance-based GSD coordination challenges. We were used Cisco TelePresence tool in Synchronization communication for simulation of face to face meetings. We were designed a simple algorithm to help project managers in determining the appropriate strategies. This algorithm is based on the temporal difference between the sites. This is may be great or simple. Through temporal difference, we calculated number of working hours overlapping. Which are classified in the three cases and each case has number of strategies are sufficient to overcome this challenges.
Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave
After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.
Tässä opinnäytetyössä oli tarkoituksena testata Cisco ASA-palomuurin tarjoama SSL VPN-yhteys ja määrittää sen soveltuvuus Profimill Oy:n Mill-Planner-ohjelman ja SQL-palvelimen etäyhteyksiin. Opinnäytetyön ensimmäisessä vaiheessa piti rakentaa toimiva testiympäristö, josta pääsi myös tuotantoverkkoon. Yhteyden muodostamisen jälkeen ohjelmalla tehtiin hakuja SQL-palvelimen tietokantaan ja mitattiin tiedonsiirron määrä. Tuloksia tutkittiin ja pääteltiin, kuinka suuri ohjelman kaistan käyttö...
I M.O. Widyantara
Full Text Available In this globalization era, the state of the user who no longer occupies in a single place, but always moving, it is necessary to continuity of communication that will cause a handover. This paper intends to analyze the effect of 802.11 WLAN horizontal handover to the QoS of streaming e-learning. Methods of data collection process using the Cisco 3500 series access point that supports handover with existing network systems, ad-hoc network and type of hard handover. The results of the data analysis showed that the handover process is able to improve the QoS by gradually restored gradually, to get back to normal QoS
Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan; Eaton, Ben
acquisition and integration of companies presenting innovative technologies of relevance to the platform core. Using a revelatory case study of Cisco Systems, we develop the explanatory notion of ‘coring acquisition’. In this type of acquisition value is created through the acquisition of companies that......Digital platform leaders need to continuously innovate the platform core to drive the technological trajectory of the overall architecture and business system, of which the platform is a core element. This papers analyses the potential of and challenges to completing this task through the...... provide products external to the acquirer that can be assimilated into the platform core. This creates value through the transformational process that we term ‘coring’. We also analyze how the benefits of coring acquisitions are contingent on challenges concerning the integration of acquisitions offering...
Full Text Available This article presents analysis and possible reactions of MPLS network on unauthorized access and on device’s failure. Five Cisco routers joined into a core network were used to conduct the project. The devices were connected into a classic reliability model with envelope shape. The key aspects of the research were incidents’ simulation in line with previously prepared scenarios as well as diagnosis of network’s reactions to a particular type of a device failure. These effects were modelled using special devices such as analysers and generators of data traffic. Additionally, the range of the project included measuring convergence time of the routing protocols acting inside the network combined with analysis of reactions to forced changes of route.
Network monitoring provides different types of view on the network traffic. It's output enables computing centre staff to make qualified decisions about changes in the organization of computing centre network and to spot possible problems. In this paper we present network monitoring framework used at Tier-2 in Prague in Institute of Physics (FZU). The framework consists of standard software and custom tools. We discuss our system for hardware failures detection using syslog logging and Nagios active checks, bandwidth monitoring of physical links and analysis of NetFlow exports from Cisco routers. We present tool for automatic detection of network layout based on SNMP. This tool also records topology changes into SVN repository. Adapted weathermap4rrd is used to visualize recorded data to get fast overview showing current bandwidth usage of links in network.
Eliáš, Marek; Fiala, Lukáš; Horký, Jiří; Chudoba, Jiří; Kouba, Tomáš; Kundrát, Jan; Švec, Jan
Network monitoring provides different types of view on the network traffic. It's output enables computing centre staff to make qualified decisions about changes in the organization of computing centre network and to spot possible problems. In this paper we present network monitoring framework used at Tier-2 in Prague in Institute of Physics (FZU). The framework consists of standard software and custom tools. We discuss our system for hardware failures detection using syslog logging and Nagios active checks, bandwidth monitoring of physical links and analysis of NetFlow exports from Cisco routers. We present tool for automatic detection of network layout based on SNMP. This tool also records topology changes into SVN repository. Adapted weathermap4rrd is used to visualize recorded data to get fast overview showing current bandwidth usage of links in network.
THE NASDAQ Representative Office in Shanghai was established in October 2002, just at the time NASDAQ announced it was pulling out of Japan. The implications of these events are clear.The establishment of the NASDAQ Shanghai Representative Office is an important link in the company’s overseas expansion. When NASDAQ first opened for business in early 1971, it was merely an automated system of quotations. After 30 years’ development, its scale approaches that of the 100-year-old New York Stock Exchange, having produced giants such as Microsoft, Intel and Cisco. When the IT bubble burst at the end of the 20th century NASDAQ weathered some unprecedented setbacks, causing it to drop from 5,000 to less than
Tässä työssä tutustuttiin mobiili-IP:hen. Mobiili-IP tarkoittaa sitä, että sama IP-osoite on käytössä kotiverkkoon, oli käyttäjän yhteys tai sijainti sitten mikä tahansa. Tavoitteena oli tuoda esille mitä mobiili-IP tarkoittaa ja mitkä ovat sen eri kom-ponentit. Tässä työssä oli myös esimerkkinä mobiili-IP:n käyttöönotto Cisco 1841-reitittimellä. Eri komennot esitettiin listauksena ja lopussa oli selitys mitä tehtiin. Opinnäytetyö aloitettiin keräämällä tietoja internetistä ja Ciscon julka...
Rozvoj technologie VoIP je neodmyslitelně spojen s faktory rychlého růstu kvality a rychlosti připojení k Internetu. Nasazení technologie VoIP se stalo jednou z klíčových oblastí konvergence komunikačních a informačních systémů. Mezi cíle diplomové práce patřilo prostudovat problematiku IP telefonie, přenosu hlasu v datových sítích, podle architektur H.323, SIP a Cisco. Dále navrhnout a zprovoznit experimentální pracoviště zmíněných architektur a podle možností vybavení laboratoře zajistit je...
Diego Rocha; Hector C. Manta; Carlos A. Junca; Danilo E. Rodriguez
Uno de los aspectos más importantes dentro de las networking se relaciona con la protección de la información. Este trabajo permite identificar los aspectos más importantes a considerar en la definición de un modelo de seguridad para la red de investigación de tecnología avanzada de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas RITA-UD basado en la aplicación de las normas ISO27001 y NTC-ISO/IEC17799.El diseño final obtenido es una propuesta para la implementación de un Firewall Cisco ASA...
Full Text Available Un estudio sistemático experimental se lleva a cabo para determinar las propiedades fluido-dinámicas como la distribución del tamaño de partícula, la densidad de bulto, la velocidad de fluidización, etc. para mezclas de carbón ripio, residuo de las minas de Colombia, y residuos agrícolas como la cascarilla de arroz, aserrín y cisco de café. A partir de los resultados se recomendaron las mezclas que mejores condiciones fluido dinámicas presentaron en frio para su posterior evaluación en el proceso de co-gasificación.
Sarirete, Akila; Noble, Elizabeth; Chikh, Azeddine
Contemporary students are characterized by having very applied learning styles and methods of acquiring knowledge. This behavior is consistent with the constructivist models where students are co-partners in the learning process. In the present work the authors developed a new model of learning based on the constructivist theory coupled with the cognitive development theory of Piaget. The model considers the level of learning based on several stages and the move from one stage to another requires learners' challenge. At each time a new concept is introduced creates a disequilibrium that needs to be worked out to return back to its equilibrium stage. This process of "disequilibrium/equilibrium" has been analyzed and validated using a course in computer networking as part of Cisco Networking Academy Program at Effat College, a women college in Saudi Arabia. The model provides a theoretical foundation for teaching especially in a complex knowledge domain such as engineering and can be used in a knowledge economy.
Full Text Available The most recent technology release Forbes, Cisco reveals adoption of cloud computing in a global scale. As for storage estimated the average data storage consumed per average household grow from 464 gigabytes. One of the cloud key effects the benefit of digital marketing is that is has provided marketers to approach potential customers at the same time example who is watching TV and texting on the couch used to be out of reach of digital marketers. Organizations deploying infrastructure into remote virtualized environments hosted by third parties significant implications for forensic investigators vendors’ enforcement corporate compliance and audit departments. Digital forensic assumes control and management assets during the conduct of an investigation and overviews the cloud computing how establishes digital procedures will be validated in investigation
Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Hansen, Per;
In this report we have presented the network architecture of the long-range WindScanner system that allows utilization of mobile network connections without the use of static public IP addresses. The architecture mitigates the issues of additional fees and contractual obligations that are linked...... to the acquisition of the mobile network connections with static public IP addresses. The architecture consists of a hardware VPN solution based on the network appliances Z1 and MX60 from Cisco Meraki with additional 3G or 4G dongles. With the presented network architecture and appropriate configuration, we fulfill...... the requirements of running the long-range WindScanner system using a mobile network such as 3G. This architecture allows us to have the WindScanners and the master computer in different geographical locations, and in general facilitates deployments of the long-range WindScanner system....
Fish passage through a standard Denil fishway under low tailwater conditions was studied at Cowan Dam in Saskatchewan in 1990. In 1991 and 1992, fish passage through an experimental two-level Denil fishway was studied at the same location under similar flow conditions. Six species of fish used the Cowan Dam Denil fishway in 1990: northern pike, walleye, white sucker, longnose sucker, cisco, and lake whitefish. Tag returns suggest that most fish that congregate below Cowan Dam in the spring originate in Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse 150-200 km downstream. Northern pike waited until spawning had been completed before ascending the fishway. Only 12.1% of the pike congregated below the dam are estimated to have ascended the fishway. During 1990 and 1991, the number of pike ascending the fishway appeared to decline as water velocities in the standard and two-level Denil fishways increased. Mean pike length also declined over the period of fish movement, and as water velocities in the standard Denil declined. Walleye did not appear to have any difficulty ascending the standard Denil in 1990, but they did appear to have difficulty ascending the two-level Denil in 1991. Only 29% of the white suckers that ascended the fishway did so prior to spawning. According to recaptures of tagged fish, 58.8% of white suckers present in the tailwater pool ascended the standard Denil in 1990. White suckers also appeared to be able to ascend the two-level Denil without difficulty. Of the longnose suckers, 98% ascended the fishway prior to spawning in 1990, and appeared to ascend both the standard and two-level fishways without obvious delay or difficulty. Only small numbers of cisco and lake whitefish utilized the standard Denil fishway in 1990. 68 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs
王平; 彭杰; 严冬
Based on RF technology, embedded technology, and wireless network technology, a development platform of internet of things that works in 780 MHz is designed. The wireless transceiver module, sensor measure module, embedded gateway module and other various function module of the platform are introduced in detail. The 6L0WPAN protocol stack is integrated in the platform which accomplished the end-to-end all IPv6 test in Cisco and realized the interconnection of wireless sensor network and 3G network. Then we can exploit many application systems more conveniently with the platform, such as smart home, environmental monitoring, and intelligent transportation application system and so on.%利用射频技术、嵌入式技术和无线网络技术,设计了一种基于780 MHz频段的物联网(Internet of Things,IoT)开发平台.对平台的无线收发模块,传感器测量模块,嵌入式网关核心模块及各个功能模块进行了详细介绍.平台集成了6LoWPAN协议栈,在思科系统中国研发中心(CISCO)通过了端到端的全IPv6测试,实现了无线传感网(wire-less sensor network,WSN)与3G网络的互联.利用平台能够方便地开发智能家居、环境监测,智能交通等应用系统.
Burns, Clare L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda
A small number of studies have examined the feasibility of conducting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) via telepractice. While the results have confirmed this potential, the systems tested to date have either reported issues that impacted the ability to analyze/interpret the VFSS recordings in real time, or they were not designed to enable real-time interpretation. Further system design is needed to establish a telepractice model that enables the VFSS assessment to be both guided and interpreted live in real time. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of using a telepractice system to enable live VFSS assessment. Twenty adult patients underwent a VFSS assessment directed by a telepractice SLP with competency in VFSS located in another room of the hospital. The telepractice clinician led the sessions using a C20 Cisco TelePresence System. This was linked in real time via a secure telehealth network (at 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s)) to a C60 Cisco TelePresence System located in a fluoroscopy suite, connected to the digital fluoroscopy system. Levels of agreement were calculated between the telepractice clinician and a face-to-face clinician who simultaneously rated the VFSS in real time. High levels of agreement for swallowing parameters (range = 75-100 %; k = -0.34 to 1.0) and management decisions (range = 70-100 %, k = 0.64-1.0) were found. A post-session questionnaire revealed clinicians agreed that the telepractice system enabled successful remote assessment of VFSS. The findings support the potential to conduct live VFSS assessment via a telepractice model. PMID:26979971
Javier José Rodríguez Barrios
Full Text Available El objetivo general de ésta investigación, fue proponer un modelo de auditoria, para la instalación, operación y mantenimiento de switches y routers. Esto tiene como propósito proporcionar un manual de procedimientos para garantizar la eficacia y eficiencia en la instalación, operación y mantenimiento de dispositivos de interconexión de redes como lo son los switches y routers. . El estudio se considera de tipo descriptivo y de campo. En cuanto al diseño es de tipo no experimental. El instrumento aplicado fue un cuestionario, determinando la validez mediante consulta a expertos y la confiabilidad a través del método prueba contra prueba. Arrojando un valor de 0.92. Como resultado se obtuvo que las características técnicas y operativas de los switches y routers son: marca Cisco, con 48 puertos RJ-45, velocidad de transmisión 100 Mbps, medio de transmisión Store and forward, protocolos de ruteo RIP., también se determinó que los diferentes esquemas y criterios a la hora de realizar una instalación y mantenimiento de los switches y routers, la topología de red fue estrella, por otro lado, uno de los aspectos más resaltantes de estos dispositivos de interconexión es la escalabilidad. Una vez obtenido los resultados del estudio se procedió a diseñar el modelo de gestión auditable. Entre las recomendaciones de esta investigación están el uso de productos Cisco, diseñar nuevos modelos de auditoria para servicios telemáticos, colocar a disposición de las empresas el modelo.
Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith
The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli
Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Dubrovský, Martin; Spurný, Petr; Žalud, Zděněk
Freshwater fish production is significantly correlated with water temperature which is expected to increase under the climate change. This study is dealing with the estimation of the change of water temperature in productive ponds and its impact on the fishery in the Czech Republic. Calculation of surface-water temperature which was based on three-day mean of the air temperature was developed and tested in several ponds in three main fish production areas. Output of surface-water temperature model was compared with measured data and showed that the lower range of model accuracy is surface-water temperature 3°C, under this temperature threshold the model loses its predictive competence. In the expecting of surface-water temperature above the temperature 3°C the model has proved the well consistence between observed and modelled surface-water temperature (R 0.79 - 0.96). Verified model was applied in the conditions of climate change determined by the pattern scaling method, in which standardised scenarios were derived from five global circulation models MPEH5, CSMK3, IPCM4, GFCM21 and HADGEM. Results were evaluated with regard to thresholds which characterise the fish species requirements on water temperature. Used thresholds involved the upper temperature threshold for fish survival and the tolerable number of days in continual period with mentioned threshold surface-water temperature. Target fish species were Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Maraene whitefish (Coregonus maraena), Northern whitefish (Coregonus peled) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykis). Results indicated the limitation of the Czech fish-farming in terms of i) the increase of the length of continual periods with surface-water temperature above the threshold appropriate to given fish species toleration, ii) the increase of the number of continual periods with surface-water temperature above the threshold, both appropriate to given fish species toleration, and iii) the increase of overall number of
Ivancic, William D.
The NASA Glenn Research Center, under a NASA Space Act Agreement with Cisco Systems, has been performing joint networking research to apply Internet-based technologies and protocols to space-based communications. As a result of this research, NASA performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and the transport-level protocol. In addition, Cisco Systems developed the mobile router for both commercial and Government markets. The code has become part of the Cisco Systems Internetworking Operating System (IOS) as of release 12.2 (4) T--which will make this capability available to the community at large. The mobile router is software code that resides in a network router and enables entire networks to roam while maintaining connectivity to the Internet. This router code is pertinent to a myriad of applications for both Government and commercial sectors, including the "wireless battlefield." NASA and the Department of Defense will utilize this technology for near-planetary observation and sensing spacecraft. It is also a key enabling technology for aviation-based information applications. Mobile routing will make it possible for information such as weather, air traffic control, voice, and video to be transmitted to aircraft using Internet-based protocols. This technology shows great promise in reducing congested airways and mitigating aviation disasters due to bad weather. The mobile router can also be incorporated into emergency vehicles (such as ambulances and life-flight aircraft) to provide real-time connectivity back to the hospital and health-care experts, enabling the timely application of emergency care. Commercial applications include entertainment services, Internet protocol (IP) telephone, and Internet connectivity for cruise ships, commercial shipping, tour buses, aircraft, and eventually cars. A mobile router, which is based on mobile IP, allows hosts (mobile nodes) to seamlessly "roam" among various IP
Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.
A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Bronte, Charles R.; Fleischer, G.W.; Maistrenko, S.G.; Pronin, N.M.
In Lake Baikal, three morphotypes of omul Coregonus autumnalis migratorius are recognized; the littoral, pelagic, and deep-water forms. Morphotype assignment is difficult, and similar to that encountered in pelagic and deep-water coregonines in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Principal component analysis revealed separation of all three morphotypes based on caudal peduncle length and depth, length and depth of the body between the dorsal and anal fin, and distance between the pectoral and the pelvic fins. Strong negative loadings were associated with head measurements. Omul of the same morphotype captured at different locations were classified to location of capture using step-wise discriminant function analysis. Jackknife correct classifications ranged from 43 to 78% for littoral omul from five locations, and 45–86% for pelagic omul from four locations. Patterns of location misclassification of littoral omul suggested that the sub-population structure, hence stock affinity, may be influenced by movements and intermixing of individuals among areas that are joined bathymetrically. Pelagic omul were more distinguishable by site and may support a previous hypothesis of a spawning-based rather than a foraging-based sub-population structure. Omul morphotypes may reflect adaptations to both ecological and local environmental conditions, and may have a genetic basis.
Haynes, T B; Schmutz, Joel A.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Iverson, S J; Padula, V M; Rosenberger, A E
Understanding the dietary habits of yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) can give important insights into their ecology, however, studying the diet of loons is difficult when direct observation or specimen collection is impractical. We investigate the diet of yellow-billed loons nesting on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Tissue analysis from 26 yellow-billed loons and eleven prey groups (nine fish species and two invertebrate groups) from Arctic lakes suggests that yellow-billed loons are eating high proportions of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) during late spring and early summer. The prominence of blackfish in diets highlights the widespread availability of blackfish during the early stages of loon nesting, soon after spring thaw. The high proportions of broad whitefish and three-spined stickleback may reflect a residual signal from the coastal staging period prior to establishing nesting territories on lakes, when loons are more likely to encounter these species. Our analyses were sensitive to the choice of calibration coefficient based on data from three different species, indicating the need for development of loon-specific coefficients for future study and confirmation of our results. Regardless, fish that are coastally distributed and that successfully overwinter in lakes are likely key food items for yellow-billed loons early in the nesting season.
Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.
We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.
Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Eckmann, Reiner; Oppelt, Claus; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca
Human-induced nutrient input can change the selection regime and lead to the loss of biodiversity. For example, eutrophication caused speciation reversal in polymorphic whitefish populations through a flattening of littoral-pelagic selection gradients. We investigated the current state of phenotypic and genetic diversity in whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus) in a newly restored lake whose nutrient load has returned to pre-eutrophication levels and found that whitefish spawning at different depths varied phenotypically and genetically: individuals spawning at shallower depth had fewer gill rakers, faster growth, and a morphology adapted to benthic feeding, and they showed higher degrees of diet specialization than deeper spawning individuals. Microsatellite analyses complemented the phenotype analyses by demonstrating reproductive isolation along different spawning depths. Our results indicate that whitefish still retain or currently regain phenotypic and genetic diversity, which was lost during eutrophication. Hence, the population documented here has a potential for future divergence because natural selection can target phenotypes specialized along re-established littoral-pelagic selection gradients. The biodiversity, however, will have better chances to return if managers acknowledge the evolutionary potential within the local whitefish and adapt fishing and stocking measures. PMID:24478795
Collingsworth, Paris D.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Riley, Stephen C.
The predictive power of recruitment models often relies on the identification and quantification of external variables, in addition to stock size. In theory, the identification of climatic, biotic, or demographic influences on reproductive success assists fisheries management by identifying factors that have a direct and reproducible influence on the population dynamics of a target species. More often, models are constructed as one-time studies of a single population whose results are not revisited when further data become available. Here, we present results from stock recruitment models for Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The factors that explain variation in Bloater recruitment were remarkably consistent across populations and with previous studies that found Bloater recruitment to be linked to population demographic patterns in Lake Michigan. Conversely, our models were poor predictors of Alewife recruitment in Lake Huron but did show some agreement with previously published models from Lake Michigan. Overall, our results suggest that external predictors of fish recruitment are difficult to discern using traditional fisheries models, and reproducing the results from previous studies may be difficult particularly at low population sizes.
Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N
Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability. PMID:18850284
The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.
Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu
Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594
Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.
Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.
The sediment-water interactions and biological uptake of 226Ra are described for four small Canadian Shield lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, Kenora, Ontario. A single addition of 226Ra was made to each lake between 1970 and 1976. Approximately 90 percent of the added 226Ra initially sorbed to the sediments. Outflow from the lakes showed losses of only 5-11 percent 226Ra per year. Models are proposed for adsorption and outflow of 226Ra from lakes. Biological uptake and long-term 226Ra concentrations were measured in three species of macrophytes, crayfish, and five species of fish. Bioaccumulation ranged from 1100 to 5000 in macrophytes, 705 in crayfish, from 30 to 80 in large trout (Salvelinus namaycush), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and from 230 to 1200 in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), pearl dace (Semotilus margarita), and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). The concept of Ra/Ca ratio in organisms versus water and food is used to explain the differences in bioaccumulation. 226Ra is discriminated against versus calcium by fish but favoured by macrophytes and crayfish
Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.
Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.
Kelly A Harrington
Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.
Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich
We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.
Bernatchez, Louis; Renaut, Sébastien; Whiteley, Andrew R; Derome, Nicolas; Jeukens, Julie; Landry, Lysandre; Lu, Guoqing; Nolte, Arne W; Ostbye, Kjartan; Rogers, Sean M; St-Cyr, Jérôme
In contrast to the large amount of ecological information supporting the role of natural selection as a main cause of population divergence and speciation, an understanding of the genomic basis underlying those processes is in its infancy. In this paper, we review the main findings of a long-term research programme that we have been conducting on the ecological genomics of sympatric forms of whitefish (Coregonus spp.) engaged in the process of speciation. We present this system as an example of how applying a combination of approaches under the conceptual framework of the theory of adaptive radiation has yielded substantial insight into evolutionary processes in a non-model species. We also discuss how the joint use of recent biotechnological developments will provide a powerful means to address issues raised by observations made to date. Namely, we present data illustrating the potential offered by combining next generation sequencing technologies with other genomic approaches to reveal the genomic bases of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation. Given increasing access to these new genomic tools, we argue that non-model species studied in their ecological context such as whitefish will play an increasingly important role in generalizing knowledge of speciation. PMID:20439281
Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Carvan, Michael J.; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.
We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ199Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.
Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun
Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.
Lill, J.-O., E-mail: email@example.com [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Himberg, M. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L.; Ek, P. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Wiklund, T. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Hägerstrand, H. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)
Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.
A train derailment in August 2005 resulted in the release of about 149,500 litres of bunker C oil into Wabamun Lake, a lake which has been subject to ongoing contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from multiple sources for decades. This study compared the pattern, frequency and severity of deformity in larvae of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) incubated in-situ in areas of Wabamun Lake exposed only to background PAH contamination as well as in areas exposed to PAHs from the oil spill. All sites in the lake had higher than normal incidences of deformity as observed in laboratory studies. At a small number of oil-exposed sites, lake whitefish showed higher incidences of some deformities and a tendency to exhibit deformities of higher severity than sites not exposed to oil. However, deformities in northern pike larvae were few and with relatively small differences among sites, and none that could be attributed to PAH exposure. Semipermeable membrane devices that were deployed with the eggs showed that northern pike embryos were exposed to higher concentrations of dissolved PAHs compared to lake whitefish, suggesting that uptake or sensitivity to PAHs is different between the 2 species.