Circularly permuted monomeric red fluorescent proteins with new termini in the beta-sheet.
Carlson, Haley J; Cotton, Darrel W; Campbell, Robert E
2010-08-01
Circularly permuted fluorescent proteins (FPs) have a growing number of uses in live cell fluorescence biosensing applications. Most notably, they enable the construction of single fluorescent protein-based biosensors for Ca(2+) and other analytes of interest. Circularly permuted FPs are also of great utility in the optimization of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors by providing a means for varying the critical dipole-dipole orientation. We have previously reported on our efforts to create circularly permuted variants of a monomeric red FP (RFP) known as mCherry. In our previous work, we had identified six distinct locations within mCherry that tolerated the insertion of a short peptide sequence. Creation of circularly permuted variants with new termini at the locations corresponding to the sites of insertion led to the discovery of three permuted variants that retained no more than 18% of the brightness of mCherry. We now report the extensive directed evolution of the variant with new termini at position 193 of the protein sequence for improved fluorescent brightness. The resulting variant, known as cp193g7, has 61% of the intrinsic brightness of mCherry and was found to be highly tolerant of circular permutation at other locations within the sequence. We have exploited this property to engineer an expanded series of circularly permuted variants with new termini located along the length of the 10th beta-strand of mCherry. These new variants may ultimately prove useful for the creation of single FP-based Ca(2+) biosensors. PMID:20521333
We investigated the mechanical unfolding of single circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecule was stretched from its N- and C-termini by an external force causing an elongation of the polypeptide chain up to its full length. The features of the force-extension (F-E) curves were found to depend on the stretching speed. At fast speeds, we detected one peak in the F-E curves before final rupture of the extended molecule, which we interpreted as the unfolding of two terminal halves within cpGFP. We observed several more force peaks in a sawtooth pattern at much slower speeds, and explained the appearance of such force peaks as cooperative unfolding of the hidden sub-structures inside each terminal half
A Versatile Platform for Nanotechnology Based on Circular Permutation of a Chaperonin Protein
Paavola, Chad; McMillan, Andrew; Trent, Jonathan; Chan, Suzanne; Mazzarella, Kellen; Li, Yi-Fen
2004-01-01
A number of protein complexes have been developed as nanoscale templates. These templates can be functionalized using the peptide sequences that bind inorganic materials. However, it is difficult to integrate peptides into a specific position within a protein template. Integrating intact proteins with desirable binding or catalytic activities is an even greater challenge. We present a general method for modifying protein templates using circular permutation so that additional peptide sequence can be added in a wide variety of specific locations. Circular permutation is a reordering of the polypeptide chain such that the original termini are joined and new termini are created elsewhere in the protein. New sequence can be joined to the protein termini without perturbing the protein structure and with minimal limitation on the size and conformation of the added sequence. We have used this approach to modify a chaperonin protein template, placing termini at five different locations distributed across the surface of the protein complex. These permutants are competent to form the double-ring structures typical of chaperonin proteins. The permuted double-rings also form the same assemblies as the unmodified protein. We fused a fluorescent protein to two representative permutants and demonstrated that it assumes its active structure and does not interfere with assembly of chaperonin double-rings.
High-resolution structure prediction of a circular permutation loop
Correia, Bruno E.; Holmes, Margaret A.; Huang, Po-Ssu; Strong, Roland K.; Schief, William R.
2011-01-01
Methods for rapid and reliable design and structure prediction of linker loops would facilitate a variety of protein engineering applications. Circular permutation, in which the existing termini of a protein are linked by the polypeptide chain and new termini are created, is one such application that has been employed for decreasing proteolytic susceptibility and other functional purposes. The length and sequence of the linker can impact the expression level, solubility, structure and functio...
Decompositions into cycles for random permutations of a large number of elements are very different (in their statistics) from the same decompositions for algebraic permutations (defined by linear or projective transformations of finite sets). This paper presents tables giving both these and other statistics, as well as a comparison of them with the statistics of involutions or permutations with all their cycles of even length. The inclusions of a point in cycles of various lengths turn out to be equiprobable events for random permutations. The number of permutations of 2N elements with all cycles of even length turns out to be the square of an integer (namely, of (2N-1)!!). The number of cycles of projective permutations (over a field with an odd prime number of elements) is always even. These and other empirically discovered theorems are proved in the paper. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Arnold, Vladimir I [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2009-08-31
Decompositions into cycles for random permutations of a large number of elements are very different (in their statistics) from the same decompositions for algebraic permutations (defined by linear or projective transformations of finite sets). This paper presents tables giving both these and other statistics, as well as a comparison of them with the statistics of involutions or permutations with all their cycles of even length. The inclusions of a point in cycles of various lengths turn out to be equiprobable events for random permutations. The number of permutations of 2N elements with all cycles of even length turns out to be the square of an integer (namely, of (2N-1){exclamation_point}{exclamation_point}). The number of cycles of projective permutations (over a field with an odd prime number of elements) is always even. These and other empirically discovered theorems are proved in the paper. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Circular Permutation of a Chaperonin Protein: Biophysics and Application to Nanotechnology
Paavola, Chad; Chan, Suzanne; Li, Yi-Fen; McMillan, R. Andrew; Trent, Jonathan
2004-01-01
We have designed five circular permutants of a chaperonin protein derived from the hyperthermophilic organism Sulfolobus shibatae. These permuted proteins were expressed in E. coli and are well-folded. Furthermore, all the permutants assemble into 18-mer double rings of the same form as the wild-type protein. We characterized the thermodynamics of folding for each permutant by both guanidine denaturation and differential scanning calorimetry. We also examined the assembly of chaperonin rings into higher order structures that may be used as nanoscale templates. The results show that circular permutation can be used to tune the thermodynamic properties of a protein template as well as facilitating the fusion of peptides, binding proteins or enzymes onto nanostructured templates.
Efficiently folding and circularly permuted variants of the Sapphire mutant of GFP
Griesbeck Oliver
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The green fluorescent protein (GFP has been widely used in cell biology as a marker of gene expression, label of cellular structures, fusion tag or as a crucial constituent of genetically encoded biosensors. Mutagenesis of the wildtype gene has yielded a number of improved variants such as EGFP or colour variants suitable for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET. However, folding of some of these mutants is still a problem when targeted to certain organelles or fused to other proteins. Results By directed rational mutagenesis, we have produced a new variant of the Sapphire mutant of GFP with improved folding properties that turns out to be especially beneficial when expressed within organelles or as a fusion tag. Its absorption spectrum is pH-stable and the pKa of its emission is 4.9, making it very resistant to pH perturbation inside cells. Conclusion "T-Sapphire" and its circular permutations can be used as labels of proteins or cellular structures and as FRET donors in combination with red-fluorescent acceptor proteins such as DsRed, making it possible to completely separate donor and acceptor excitation and emission in intensity-based FRET experiments.
Mefford, Melissa A; Zappulla, David C
2015-01-01
Telomerase is a specialized ribonucleoprotein complex that extends the 3' ends of chromosomes to counteract telomere shortening. However, increased telomerase activity is associated with ∼90% of human cancers. The telomerase enzyme minimally requires an RNA (hTR) and a specialized reverse transcriptase protein (TERT) for activity in vitro. Understanding the structure-function relationships within hTR has important implications for human disease. For the first time, we have tested the physical-connectivity requirements in the 451-nucleotide hTR RNA using circular permutations, which reposition the 5' and 3' ends. Our extensive in vitro analysis identified three classes of hTR circular permutants with altered function. First, circularly permuting 3' of the template causes specific defects in repeat-addition processivity, revealing that the template recognition element found in ciliates is conserved in human telomerase RNA. Second, seven circular permutations residing within the catalytically important core and CR4/5 domains completely abolish telomerase activity, unveiling mechanistically critical portions of these domains. Third, several circular permutations between the core and CR4/5 significantly increase telomerase activity. Our extensive circular permutation results provide insights into the architecture and coordination of human telomerase RNA and highlight where the RNA could be targeted for the development of antiaging and anticancer therapeutics. PMID:26503788
Using circular permutation analysis to redefine the R17 coat protein binding site.
Gott, J M; Pan, T; LeCuyer, K A; Uhlenbeck, O C
1993-12-14
The bacteriophage R17 coat protein binding site consists of an RNA hairpin with a single purine nucleotide bulge in the helical stem. Circular permutation analysis (CPA) was used to examine binding effects caused by a single break in the phosphodiester backbone. This method revealed that breakage of all but one phosphodiester bond within a well-defined binding site substantially reduced the binding affinity. This is probably due to destabilization of the hairpin structure upon breaking the ribose phosphates at these positions. One circularly permuted isomer with the 5' and 3' ends at the bulged nucleotide bound with wild-type affinity. However, extending the 5' end of this CP isomer greatly reduces binding, making it unlikely that this circularly permuted binding site will be active when embedded in a larger RNA. CPA also locates the 5' and 3' boundaries of protein binding sites on the RNA. The 5' boundary of the R17 coat protein site as defined by CPA was two nucleotides shorter (nucleotides -15 to +2) than the previously determined site (-17 to +2). The smaller binding site was verified by terminal truncation experiments. A minimal-binding fragment (-14 to +2) was synthesized and was found to bind tightly to the coat protein. The site size determined by 3-ethyl-1-nitrosourea-modification interference was larger at the 5' end (-16 to +1), probably due, however, to steric effects of ethylation of phosphate oxygens. Thus, the apparent site size of a protein binding site is dependent upon the method used. PMID:7504949
Structural consequences of cutting a binding loop: two circularly permuted variants of streptavidin
The crystal structures of two circularly permuted streptavidins probe the role of a flexible loop in the tight binding of biotin. Molecular-dynamics calculations for one of the mutants suggests that increased fluctuations in a hydrogen bond between the protein and biotin are associated with cleavage of the binding loop. Circular permutation of streptavidin was carried out in order to investigate the role of a main-chain amide in stabilizing the high-affinity complex of the protein and biotin. Mutant proteins CP49/48 and CP50/49 were constructed to place new N-termini at residues 49 and 50 in a flexible loop involved in stabilizing the biotin complex. Crystal structures of the two mutants show that half of each loop closes over the binding site, as observed in wild-type streptavidin, while the other half adopts the open conformation found in the unliganded state. The structures are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic data and indicate that the loop plays a role in enthalpic stabilization of the bound state via the Asn49 amide–biotin hydrogen bond. In wild-type streptavidin, the entropic penalties of immobilizing a flexible portion of the protein to enhance binding are kept to a manageable level by using a contiguous loop of medium length (six residues) which is already constrained by its anchorage to strands of the β-barrel protein. A molecular-dynamics simulation for CP50/49 shows that cleavage of the binding loop results in increased structural fluctuations for Ser45 and that these fluctuations destabilize the streptavidin–biotin complex
Structural consequences of cutting a binding loop: two circularly permuted variants of streptavidin
Le Trong, Isolde [University of Washington, Box 357420, Seattle, WA 98195-7420 (United States); University of Washington, Box 357742, Seattle, WA 98195-7742 (United States); Chu, Vano [University of Washington, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States); Xing, Yi [University of Washington, Box 357420, Seattle, WA 98195-7420 (United States); Lybrand, Terry P. [Vanderbilt University, 5142 Medical Research Building III, 465 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232-8725 (United States); Stayton, Patrick S. [University of Washington, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States); Stenkamp, Ronald E., E-mail: stenkamp@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Box 357420, Seattle, WA 98195-7420 (United States); University of Washington, Box 357742, Seattle, WA 98195-7742 (United States); University of Washington, Box 357430, Seattle, WA 98195-7430 (United States)
2013-06-01
The crystal structures of two circularly permuted streptavidins probe the role of a flexible loop in the tight binding of biotin. Molecular-dynamics calculations for one of the mutants suggests that increased fluctuations in a hydrogen bond between the protein and biotin are associated with cleavage of the binding loop. Circular permutation of streptavidin was carried out in order to investigate the role of a main-chain amide in stabilizing the high-affinity complex of the protein and biotin. Mutant proteins CP49/48 and CP50/49 were constructed to place new N-termini at residues 49 and 50 in a flexible loop involved in stabilizing the biotin complex. Crystal structures of the two mutants show that half of each loop closes over the binding site, as observed in wild-type streptavidin, while the other half adopts the open conformation found in the unliganded state. The structures are consistent with kinetic and thermodynamic data and indicate that the loop plays a role in enthalpic stabilization of the bound state via the Asn49 amide–biotin hydrogen bond. In wild-type streptavidin, the entropic penalties of immobilizing a flexible portion of the protein to enhance binding are kept to a manageable level by using a contiguous loop of medium length (six residues) which is already constrained by its anchorage to strands of the β-barrel protein. A molecular-dynamics simulation for CP50/49 shows that cleavage of the binding loop results in increased structural fluctuations for Ser45 and that these fluctuations destabilize the streptavidin–biotin complex.
Crystal Structure of Circular Permuted RoCBM21 (CP90): Dimerisation and Proximity of Binding Sites
Stephen, Preyesh; Cheng, Kuo-Chang; Lyu, Ping-Chiang
2012-01-01
Glucoamylases, containing starch-binding domains (SBD), have a wide range of scientific and industrial applications. Random mutagenesis and DNA shuffling of the gene encoding a starch-binding domain have resulted in only minor improvements in the affinities of the corresponding protein to their ligands, whereas circular permutation of the RoCBM21 substantially improved its binding affinity and selectivity towards longer-chain carbohydrates. For the study reported herein, we used a standard so...
Online inspection of circular fluorescent lamp
Ang, Beng-Hoe
1998-10-01
One step in the manufacture of circular fluorescent lamps is the mercury (Hg) injection process in which a small amount of mercury approximately 20 mg is injected into the fluorescent tube. An on-line detection of mercury is required to ensure that the amount of mercury residual inside the tube is within the acceptable tolerance. This critical operation is to reduce manufacturing overhead by controlling cost and reducing waste of materials. In view of this, an attempt has been made to design and develop an on- line mercury detection system with important benefits to the manufacturers, such as increased throughput, accuracy, reliability and consistency. This paper presents the configuration and development works of the on-line circular fluorescent lamp inspection system developed by Industrial Project Group--Machine Vision Center of Nanyang Polytechnic. The inspection system performs on-line detection of mercury particles (Hg) inside the circular fluorescent lamp. Taking the orientation and translation offsets of the lamp into consideration, it detects the presence/absence as well as the size of the injected mercury. The system has been successfully operating 15 hours per day and inspecting more than 22 thousands lamps in the production plant.
SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.
SUTHERLAND,J.C.
2002-01-19
Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.
Xu, Qingping; Rawlings, Neil D.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A. (SG); (Wellcome)
2012-07-11
NlpC/P60 superfamily papain-like enzymes play important roles in all kingdoms of life. Two members of this superfamily, LRAT-like and YaeF/YiiX-like families, were predicted to contain a catalytic domain that is circularly permuted such that the catalytic cysteine is located near the C-terminus, instead of at the N-terminus. These permuted enzymes are widespread in virus, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of a member of the YaeF/YiiX-like family from Bacillus cereus in complex with lysine. The structure, which adopts a ligand-induced, 'closed' conformation, confirms the circular permutation of catalytic residues. A comparative analysis of other related protein structures within the NlpC/P60 superfamily is presented. Permutated NlpC/P60 enzymes contain a similar conserved core and arrangement of catalytic residues, including a Cys/His-containing triad and an additional conserved tyrosine. More surprisingly, permuted enzymes have a hydrophobic S1 binding pocket that is distinct from previously characterized enzymes in the family, indicative of novel substrate specificity. Further analysis of a structural homolog, YiiX (PDB 2if6) identified a fatty acid in the conserved hydrophobic pocket, thus providing additional insights into possible function of these novel enzymes.
Ericson, Thomas
1993-01-01
Slepians permutation codes are investigated in detail. In particular we optimize the initial vector and derive all dominating codes in dimension n 2 6. With the exception of the simplex and biorthogonal codes - which are always included as special cases of permutation codes - there are probably no further good codes in higher dimensions.
N-fold tensor products of a rational CFT carry an action of the permutation group SN. These automorphisms can be used as gluing conditions in the study of boundary conditions for tensor product theories. We present an ansatz for such permutation boundary states and check that it satisfies the cluster condition and Cardy's constraints. For a particularly simple case, we also investigate associativity of the boundary OPE, and find an intriguing connection with the bulk OPE. In the second part of the paper, the constructions are slightly extended for application to Gepner models. We give permutation branes for the quintic, together with some formulae for their intersections. (author)
Gillespie, Neil I.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Spiga, Pablo
2014-01-01
We introduce twisted permutation codes, which are frequency permutation arrays analogous to repetition permutation codes, namely, codes obtained from the repetition construction applied to a permutation code. In particular, we show that a lower bound for the minimum distance of a twisted permutation code is the minimum distance of a repetition permutation code. We give examples where this bound is tight, but more importantly, we give examples of twisted permutation codes with minimum distance...
A general theory of permutation orbifolds is developed for arbitrary twist groups. Explicit expressions for the number of primaries, the partition function, the genus one characters, the matrix elements of modular transformations and for fusion rule coefficients are presented, together with the relevant mathematical concepts, such as Λ-matrices and twisted dimensions. The arithmetic restrictions implied by the theory for the allowed modular representations in CFT are discussed. The simplest nonabelian example with twist group S3 is described to illustrate the general theory
We consider orientifold actions involving the permutation of two identical factor theories. The corresponding crosscap states are constructed in rational conformal field theory. We study group manifolds, in particular the examples SU(2) x SU(2) and U(1) x U(1) in detail, comparing conformal field theory results with geometry. We then consider orientifolds of tensor products of N = 2 minimal models, which have a description as coset theories in rational conformal field theory and as Landau Ginzburg models. In the Landau Ginzburg language, B-orientifolds and D-branes are described in terms of matrix factorizations of the superpotential. We match the factorizations with the corresponding crosscap states
Passman, Donald S
2012-01-01
This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature
Bántay, P
2002-01-01
A general theory of permutation orbifolds is developed for arbitrary twist groups. Explicit expressions for the number of primaries, the partition function, the genus one characters, the matrix elements of modular transformations and for fusion rule coefficients are presented, together with the relevant mathematical concepts, such as Lambda-matrices and twisted dimensions. The arithmetic restrictions implied by the theory for the allowed modular representations in CFT are discussed. The simplest nonabelian example with twist group S_3 is described to illustrate the general theory.
Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica
2016-01-01
Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity
Baumeister, Barbara; Haase, Christian; Nill, Benjamin; Paffenholz, Andreas
2007-01-01
A permutation polytope is the convex hull of a group of permutation matrices. In this paper we investigate the combinatorics of permutation polytopes and their faces. As applications we completely classify permutation polytopes in dimensions 2,3,4, and the corresponding permutation groups up to a suitable notion of equivalence. We also provide a list of combinatorial types of possibly occuring faces of permutation polytopes up to dimension four.
Rigbi, Meir; Rosinski, Joanne; Siegelman, Harold W.; Sutherland, John Clark
1980-01-01
Phycobilisomes are supramolecular assemblies of phycobiliproteins responsible for photosynthetic light collection in red algae and cyanobacteria. They can be selectively dissociated by reduction of temperature and buffer concentration. Phycobilisomes isolated from Fremyella diplosiphon transfer energy collected by C-phycoerythrin and C-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin. The energy transfer to allophycocyanin is nearly abolished at 2°C, as indicated by a blue shift in fluorescence emission, and i...
Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas
2016-08-19
We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067
Construction of Permutation Snarks
Hägglund, Jonas; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Arthur
2012-01-01
A permutation snark is a snark which has a 2-factor $F_2$ consisting of two chordless circuits; $F_2$ is called the permutation 2-factor of $G$. We construct an infinite family $\\mathcal H$ of cyclically 5-edge connected permutation snarks. Moreover, we prove for every member $G \\in \\mathcal H$ that the permutation 2-factor given by the construction of $G$ is not contained in any circuit double cover of $G$.
Graphical Cyclic Permutation Groups
Grech, Mariusz
2012-01-01
We establish conditions for a permutation group generated by a single permutation of a prime power order to be an automorphism group of a graph or an edge-colored graph. This corrects and generalizes the results of the two papers on cyclic permutation groups published in 1978 and 1981 by S. P. Mohanty, M. R. Sridharan, and S. K. Shukla.
Bona, Miklos
2012-01-01
A Unified Account of Permutations in Modern Combinatorics A 2006 CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title, the first edition of this bestseller was lauded for its detailed yet engaging treatment of permutations. Providing more than enough material for a one-semester course, Combinatorics of Permutations, Second Edition continues to clearly show the usefulness of this subject for both students and researchers. Expanded Chapters Much of the book has been significantly revised and extended. This edition includes a new section on alternating permutations and new material on multivariate applications of t
We give a brief review of recent work on rational boundary states associated with gluing automorphisms from the permutation group. We sketch how the construction can be extended to Gepner models and show that there is a D0-brane among the permutation branes on the quintic. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Key Based Random Permutation (KBRP)
Shakir M. Hussain; Naim M. Ajlouni
2006-01-01
This study introduces a method for generating a particular permutation P of a given size N out of N! permutations from a given key. This method computes a unique permutation for a specific size since it takes the same key; therefore, the same permutation can be computed each time the same key and size are applied. The name of random permutation comes from the fact that the probability of getting this permutation is 1 out of N! possible permutations. Beside that, the permutation can not be gue...
Entangling power of permutations
The notion of entangling power of unitary matrices was introduced by Zanardi et al., [Phys. Rev. A 62, 030301 (2000)]. We study the entangling power of permutations, given in terms of a combinatorial formula. We show that the permutation matrices with zero entangling power are, up to local unitaries, the identity and the swap. We construct the permutations with the minimum nonzero entangling power for every dimension. With the use of orthogonal latin squares, we construct the permutations with the maximum entangling power for every dimension. Moreover, we show that the value obtained is maximum over all unitaries of the same dimension, with a possible exception for 36. Our result enables us to construct generic examples of 4-qudit maximally entangled states for all dimensions except for 2 and 6. We numerically classify, according to their entangling power, the permutation matrices of dimensions 4 and 9, and we give some estimates for higher dimensions
Permutation codes for sources.
Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.
1972-01-01
Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.
Recchia, Gabriel; Sahlgren, Magnus; Kanerva, Pentti; Jones, Michael N
2015-01-01
Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, "noisy" permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. PMID:25954306
Circular dichroism and polarized fluorescence characteristics of blue-green algal allophycocyanins
Canaani, O.D.; Gantt, E.
1980-06-24
Allophycocyanin, the terminal pigment in the phycobiliprotein transfer sequence, isolated from dissociated phycobilisomes of Nostoc sp., was fractionated on calcium phosphate columns into four spectral forms: APC I, II, III, and B. These forms had distinctive isoelectric points of 5.15, 4.68, 4.82, and 4.98, respectively. The APC forms differed in their secondary structure as suggested by the varying percentages of their ..cap alpha.. helix and ..beta..-pleated sheets. APC II and III are short-emitting forms with a fluorescence maximum at 660 nm, while APC I and B are long-emitting forms with a maximum at 681 nm. The maximum of APC I and B at -196/sup 0/C in 0.1 M phosphate and 20% glycerol shifted to 688 nm. Fluorescence polarization spectra suggest that there are at least two groups of chromophores responsible for the absorption of APC I and similarly of APC B. In APC II and III, the fluorescence was mostly depolarized. Circular dichroism revealed extensive positive and negative ellipticity band multiplicities in the chromophore absorption region of APC I and B, but not in APC II and III. Two main CD extrema in APC B, a negative band and a positive band, are probably the result of exciton coupling of phycocyanobilin chromophores absorbing at longer wavelength. In APC I three different peaks are revealed in the absorption spectrum and four ellipticity bands in the CD spectrum at -196/sup 0/C. These can best be explained as being due to the combined interactions of the chromophore with the protein and exciton coupling between chromophores.
Mikel Aickin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumptions. Several lines of argument are presented here to show that the permutation principle itself can be invalid, concentrating on the Fisher-Pitman permutation test for two means. A simple counterfactual example illustrates the general problem, and a slightly more elaborate counterfactual argument is used to explain why the main mathematical proof of the validity of permutation tests is mistaken. Two modifications of the permutation test are suggested to be valid in a very modest simulation. In instances where simulation software is readily available, investigating the validity of a specific permutation test can be done easily, requiring only a minimum understanding of statistical technicalities.
Quantum sign permutation polytopes
Convex polytopes are convex hulls of point sets in the n-dimensional space En that generalize two-dimensional convex polygons and three-dimensional convex polyhedra. We concentrate on the class of n-dimensional polytopes in En called sign permutation polytopes. We characterize sign permutation polytopes before relating their construction to constructions over the space of quantum density matrices. Finally, we consider the problem of state identification and show how sign permutation polytopes may be useful in addressing issues of robustness.
Bona, Miklos
2004-01-01
WINNER of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2006!As linear orders, as elements of the symmetric group, modeled by matrices, modeled by graphs…permutations are omnipresent in modern combinatorics. They are omnipresent but also multifaceted, and while several excellent books explore particular aspects of the subject, no one book has covered them all. Even the classic results are scattered in various resources.Combinatorics of Permutations offers the first comprehensive, up to date treatment of both enumerative and extremal combinatorics and looks at permutation as linear orders and a
Linear models: permutation methods
Cade, B.S.
2005-01-01
Permutation tests (see Permutation Based Inference) for the linear model have applications in behavioral studies when traditional parametric assumptions about the error term in a linear model are not tenable. Improved validity of Type I error rates can be achieved with properly constructed permutation tests. Perhaps more importantly, increased statistical power, improved robustness to effects of outliers, and detection of alternative distributional differences can be achieved by coupling permutation inference with alternative linear model estimators. For example, it is well-known that estimates of the mean in linear model are extremely sensitive to even a single outlying value of the dependent variable compared to estimates of the median [7, 19]. Traditionally, linear modeling focused on estimating changes in the center of distributions (means or medians). However, quantile regression allows distributional changes to be estimated in all or any selected part of a distribution or responses, providing a more complete statistical picture that has relevance to many biological questions [6]...
Permutations of cubical arrays
The structure constants of an algebra determine a cube called the cubical array associated with the algebra. The permuted indices of the cubical array associated with a finite semifield generate new division algebras. We do not not require that the algebra be finite and ask 'Is it possible to choose a basis for the algebra such any permutation of the indices of the structure constants leaves the algebra unchanged?' What are the associated algebras? Author shows that the property 'weakly quadratic' is invariant under all permutations of the indices of the corresponding cubical array and presents two algebras for which the cubical array is invariant under all permutations of the indices.
Mikel Aickin
2010-01-01
Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumpti...
Aztec Diamonds and Baxter Permutations
Canary, Hal
2003-01-01
We present a proof of a conjecture about the relationship between Baxter permutations and pairs of alternating sign matrices that are produced from domino tilings of Aztec diamonds. It is shown that if and only if a tiling corresponds to a pair of ASMs that are both permutation matrices, the larger permutation matrix corresponds to a Baxter permutation. There has been a thriving literature on both pattern-avoiding permutations of various kinds and tilings of regions using dominos or rhombuses...
Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania); Hillebrand, Mihaela, E-mail: mihh@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)
2011-08-15
The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the {alpha}-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: > Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. > Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. > Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. > Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. > TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.
Permutation statistics of products of random permutations
Hultman, Axel
2013-01-01
Given a permutation statistic $s : S_n \\to \\mathbb{R}$, define the mean statistic $\\bar{s}$ as the statistic which computes the mean of $s$ over conjugacy classes. We describe a way to calculate the expected value of $s$ on a product of $t$ independently chosen elements from the uniform distribution on a union of conjugacy classes $\\Gamma \\subseteq S_n$. In order to apply the formula, one needs to express the class function $\\bar{s}$ as a linear combination of irreducible $S_n$-characters. We...
Permutation properties of observables
Relations which characterize the permutation properties of the polarization observables in nuclear reactions are derived. It is shown that the permutation symmetry of the observables in reactions with identical particles in one of the channels is independent of the reaction mechanism. The angular dependence of the vector analyzing power of the reaction d+d→p+t is studied in a model-free manner. It is proved that, contrary to conclusions reached by some authors, the angular-momentum constraints imposed by the direct mechanisms are insufficient for violating the permutation-symmetry properties. It is shown that if the reaction d+d→p+t at a few tens of MeV of energy proceeds via a pure direct mechanism (usually considered as transfer of a nucleon with l = 0) then the character of its vector analyzing power gives evidence for contributions from the l = 2 transitions
Permutation properties of observables
Relations are derived which characterize the permutation properties of the polarization observables in nuclear reactions. It is shown that the permutation symmetry of the observables in reactions with identical particles in one of the channels is independent of the reaction mechanism. The angular dependence of the vector analysing power of the reaction d+d→p+t is studied in a model-free manner. It is prooved that contrary to conclusions made by some authors, the angular momentum constrains imposed by the direct mechanism are insufficient for violating the permutation properties. It is shown that if the reaction d+d→p+t at few tens MeV energy proceeds via a pure direct mechanism (usually considered as l=0 nucleon transfer), then the character of its vector analysing power gives evidence for the contribution from l=2 transitions
Permutations and quantum entanglement
We construct a large class of quantum dxd states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space which is governed by by cyclic permutation from the symmetric group Sd-i. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one corresponding to 'complementary' permutation. This class contains many well known examples of PPT states from the literature and gives rise to a huge family of completely new states
Permutation Polytopes of Cyclic Groups
Baumeister, Barbara; Haase, Christian; Nill, Benjamin; Paffenholz, Andreas
2011-01-01
We investigate the combinatorics and geometry of permutation polytopes associated to cyclic permutation groups, i.e., the convex hulls of cyclic groups of permutation matrices. We give formulas for their dimension and vertex degree. In the situation that the generator of the group consists of at most two orbits, we can give a complete combinatorial description of the associated permutation polytope. In the case of three orbits the facet structure is already quite complex. For a large class of...
Permutation Tableaux and the Dashed Permutation Pattern 32-1
Chen, William Y. C.; Liu, Lewis H.
2010-01-01
We give a solution to a problem posed by Corteel and Nadeau concerning permutation tableaux of length n and the number of occurrences of the dashed pattern 32--1 in permutations on [n]. We introduce the inversion number of a permutation tableau. For a permutation tableau T and the permutation $\\pi$ obtained from T by the bijection of Corteel and Nadeau, we show that the inversion number of T equals the number of occurrences of the dashed pattern 32--1 in the reverse complement of $\\pi$. We al...
Restricted Dumont permutations
Burstein, Alexander
2004-01-01
We analyze the structure and enumerate Dumont permutations of the first and second kinds avoiding certain patterns or sets of patterns of length 3 and 4. Some cardinalities are given by Catalan numbers, powers of 2, little Schroeder numbers, and other known or related sequences.
Generalised permutation branes
We propose a new class of non-factorising D-branes in the product group G x G where the fluxes and metrics on the two factors do not necessarily coincide. They generalise the maximally symmetric permutation branes which are known to exist when the fluxes agree, but break the symmetry down to the diagonal current algebra in the generic case. Evidence for the existence of these branes comes from a lagrangian description for the open string world-sheet and from effective Dirac-Born-Infeld theory. We state the geometry, gauge fields and, in the case of SU(2) x SU(2), tensions and partial results on the open string spectrum. In the latter case the generalised permutation branes provide a natural and complete explanation for the charges predicted by K-theory including their torsion
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
Moroder, Tobias; Toth, Geza; Schwemmer, Christian; Niggebaum, Alexander; Gaile, Stefanie; Gühne, Otfried; Weinfurter, Harald
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, also an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a non-linear large-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed n...
On some properties of permutation tableaux
Burstein, Alexander
2007-01-01
We consider the relation between various permutation statistics and properties of permutation tableaux. We answer some of the questions of Steingrimsson and Williams (math.CO/0507149), in particular, on the distribution of the bistatistic of numbers of rows and essential ones in permutation tableaux. We also consider and enumerate sets of permutation tableaux related to some pattern restrictions on permutations.
Partial transpose of permutation matrices
Hou, Qing-Hu; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone
2007-01-01
The partial transpose of a block matrix M is the matrix obtained by transposing the blocks of M independently. We approach the notion of partial transpose from a combinatorial point of view. In this perspective, we solve some basic enumeration problems concerning the partial transpose of permutation matrices. More specifically, we count the number of permutations matrices which are equal to their partial transpose and the number of permutation matrices whose partial transpose is still a permu...
Gray Code for Cayley Permutations
J.-L. Baril
2003-10-01
Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.
Permutation Tests for Structural Change
Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten
2006-01-01
The supLM test for structural change is embedded into a permutation test framework for a simple location model. The resulting conditional permutation distribution is compared to the usual (unconditional) asymptotic distribution, showing that the power of the test can be clearly improved in small samples. Furthermore, generalizations are discussed for binary and multivariate dependent variables as well as model-based permutation testing for structural change. The procedures suggested are illus...
Permutation Polytopes of Cyclic Groups
Baumeister, Barbara; Nill, Benjamin; Paffenholz, Andreas
2011-01-01
We investigate the combinatorics and geometry of permutation polytopes associated to cyclic permutation groups, i.e., the convex hulls of cyclic groups of permutation matrices. We give formulas for their dimension and vertex degree. In the situation that the generator of the group consists of at most two orbits, we can give a complete combinatorial description of the associated permutation polytope. In the case of three orbits the facet structure is already quite complex. For a large class of examples we show that there exist exponentially many facets.
Yamamoto, Yuki; Sakai, Hayato; Yuasa, Junpei; Araki, Yasuyuki; Wada, Takehiko; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Hasobe, Taku
2016-03-14
A series of fluorescent "push-pull" tetrathia[9]helicenes based on quinoxaline (acceptor) fused with tetrathia[9]helicene (donor) derivatives was synthesized for control of the excited-state dynamics and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) properties. In this work, introduction of a quinoxaline onto the tetrathia[9]helicene skeleton induced the "push-pull" character, which was enhanced by further introduction of an electron-releasing Me2 N group or an electron-withdrawing NC group onto the quinoxaline unit (denoted as Me2 N-QTTH and NC-QTTH, respectively). These trends were successfully discussed in terms of by electrochemical measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As a consequence, significant enhancements in the fluorescence quantum yields (ΦFL ) were achieved. In particular, the maximum ΦFL of Me2 N-QTTH was 0.43 in benzene (NC-QTTH: ΦFL =0.30), which is more than 20 times larger than that of a pristine tetrathia[9]helicene (denoted as TTH; ΦFL =0.02). These enhancements were also explained by kinetic discussion of the excited-state dynamics such as fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) pathways. Such significant enhancements of the ΦFL values thus enabled us to show the excellent CPL properties. The value of anisotropy factor gCPL (normalized difference in emission of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized light) was estimated to be 3.0×10(-3) for NC-QTTH. PMID:26863928
Cyclotomy and permutation polynomials of large indices
WANG Qiang
2012-01-01
We use cyclotomy to design new classes of permutation polynomials over finite fields. This allows us to generate many classes of permutation polynomials in an algorithmic way. Many of them are permutation polynomials of large indices.
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza;
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti......Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...
Generalised N=2 permutation branes
Generalised permutation branes in products of N = 2 minimal models play an important role in accounting for all RR charges of Gepner models. In this paper an explicit conformal field theory construction of these generalised permutation branes for one simple class of examples is given. We also comment on how this may be generalised to the other cases
Tetrachoric Correlation: A Permutation Alternative
Long, Michael A.; Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.
2009-01-01
An exact permutation test is provided for the tetrachoric correlation coefficient. Comparisons with the conventional test employing Student's t distribution demonstrate the necessity of using the permutation approach for small sample sizes and/or disproportionate marginal frequency totals. (Contains 4 tables.)
Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan
2015-01-01
To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.
Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-14
To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.
Permutability degrees of finite groups
Otera, Daniele Ettore; Russo, Francesco G.
2015-01-01
Given a finite group $G$, we introduce the \\textit{permutability degree} of $G$, as $$pd(G)=\\frac{1}{|G| \\ |\\mathcal{L}(G)|} {\\underset{X \\in \\mathcal{L}(G)}\\sum}|P_G(X)|,$$ where $\\mathcal{L}(G)$ is the subgroup lattice of $G$ and $P_G(X)$ the permutizer of the subgroup $X$ in $G$, that is, the subgroup generated by all cyclic subgroups of $G$ that permute with $X\\in \\mathcal{L}(G)$. The number $pd(G)$ allows us to find some structural restrictions on $G$. Successively, we investigate the re...
Hopf algebra of permutation pattern functions
Vargas, Yannic
2014-01-01
We study permutation patterns from an algebraic combinatorics point of view. Using analogues of the classical shuffle and infiltration products for word, we define two new Hopf algebras of permutations related to the notion of permutation pattern. We show several remarkable properties of permutation patterns functions, as well their occurrence in other domains.
Permutation orientifolds of Gepner models
In tensor products of a left-right symmetric CFT, one can define permutation orientifolds by combining orientation reversal with involutive permutation symmetries. We construct the corresponding crosscap states in general rational CFTs and their orbifolds, and study in detail those in products of affine U(1)2 models or N = 2 minimal models. The results are used to construct permutation orientifolds of Gepner models. We list the permutation orientifolds in a few simple Gepner models, and study some of their physical properties - supersymmetry, tension and RR charges. We also study the action of corresponding parity on D-branes, and determine the gauge group on a stack of parity-invariant D-branes. Tadpole cancellation condition and some of its solutions are also presented
Multivariate permutation tests in genetics.
Rosa Arboretti Giancristofaro
2003-01-01
In this paper we provide some new statistical results for hypotheses testing in genetics particularly referred to multivariate allelic association studies. An extensive power simulation study is also provided on permutation solutions.
Permutation symmetry of polyatomic systems
A new method of arranging irreducible representations -symmetrized groups of multiatom system function permutation is proposed. The method was rtested using a simple model - linear chain of hydrogen atoms
Multi-level block permutation.
Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M
2015-12-01
Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) - any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200
Maps, immersions and permutations
Coquereaux, Robert
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of counting and of listing topologically inequivalent "planar" {4-valent} maps with a single component and a given number n of vertices. This enables us to count and to tabulate immersions of a circle in a sphere (spherical curves), extending results by Arnold and followers. Different options where the circle and/or the sphere are/is oriented are considered in turn, following Arnold's classification of the different types of symmetries. We also consider the case of bicolourable and bicoloured maps or immersions, where faces are bicoloured. Our method extends to immersions of a circle in a higher genus Riemann surface. There the bicolourability is no longer automatic and has to be assumed. We thus have two separate countings in non zero genus, that of bicolourable maps and that of general maps. We use a classical method of encoding maps in terms of permutations, on which the constraints of "one-componentness" and of a given genus may be applied. Depending on the orientation issue and on...
Permutation Complexity in Dynamical Systems
Amigo, Jose
2010-01-01
The study of permutation complexity can be envisioned as a new kind of symbolic dynamics whose basic blocks are ordinal patterns, that is, permutations defined by the order relations among points in the orbits of dynamical systems. Since its inception in 2002 the concept of permutation entropy has sparked a new branch of research in particular regarding the time series analysis of dynamical systems that capitalizes on the order structure of the state space. Indeed, on one hand ordinal patterns and periodic points are closely related, yet ordinal patterns are amenable to numerical methods, while periodicity is not. Another interesting feature is that since it can be shown that random (unconstrained) dynamics has no forbidden patterns with probability one, their existence can be used as a fingerprint to identify any deterministic origin of orbit generation. This book is primarily addressed to researchers working in the field of nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, yet will also be suitable for graduate stude...
Simsun permutations, simsun successions and simsun patterns
Ma, Shi-Mei; Yeh, Yeong-Nan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the definitions of simsun succession, simsun cycle succession and simsun pattern. In particular, the ordinary simsun permutations are permutations avoiding simsun pattern 321. We study the descent and peak statistics on permutations avoiding simsun successions. We give a combinatorial interpretation of the q-Eulerian polynomials introduced by Brenti (J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 91 (2000), 137-170). We also present a bijection between permutations avoiding simsun patte...
A Class of Binomial Permutation Polynomials
Tu, Ziran; Zeng, Xiangyong; Hu, Lei; Li, Chunlei
2013-01-01
In this note, a criterion for a class of binomials to be permutation polynomials is proposed. As a consequence, many classes of binomial permutation polynomials and monomial complete permutation polynomials are obtained. The exponents in these monomials are of Niho type.
Permutation presentations of modules over finite groups
Katsura, Takeshi
2006-01-01
We introduce a notion of permutation presentations of modules over finite groups, and completely determine finite groups over which every module has a permutation presentation. To get this result, we prove that every coflasque module over a cyclic p-group is permutation projective.
Face-subgroups of permutation polytopes
Haase, Christian
2015-01-01
In [Baumeister, H., Nill, Paffenholz, On permutation polytopes, Adv. Math. 222 (2009), 431-452 / arXiv:0709.1615] we conjectured a characterization of subgroups H of a permutation group G so that, on the level of permutation polytopes, P(H) is a face of P(G). Here we present the embarrassingly simple proof of this conjecture.
Cell flipping in permutation diagrams
Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim
Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.
Explorations in Statistics: Permutation Methods
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2012-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental result--to test a null hypothesis--when we are reluctant to trust statistical…
Permutation orbifolds and their applications
Bántay, P
2001-01-01
The theory of permutation orbifolds is reviewed and applied to the study of symmetric product orbifolds and the congruence subgroup problem. The issue of discrete torsion, the combinatorics of symmetric products, the Galois action and questions related to the classification of RCFTs are also discussed.
Improved Bounds for Geometric Permutations
Rubin, Natan; Sharir, Micha
2010-01-01
We show that the number of geometric permutations of an arbitrary collection of $n$ pairwise disjoint convex sets in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, for $d\\geq 3$, is $O(n^{2d-3}\\log n)$, improving Wenger's 20 years old bound of $O(n^{2d-2})$.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.
Matrix factorisations and permutation branes
The description of B-type D-branes on a tensor product of two N = 2 minimal models in terms of matrix factorisations is related to the boundary state description in conformal field theory. As an application we show that the D0- and D2-brane for a number of Gepner models are described by permutation boundary states. In some cases (including the quintic) the images of the D2-brane under the Gepner monodromy generate the full charge lattice
Witt Rings and Permutation Polynomials
Qifan Zhang
2005-01-01
Let p be a prime number. In this paper, the author sets up a canonical correspondence between polynomial functions over Z/p2Z and 3-tuples of polynomial functions over Z/pZ. Based on this correspondence, he proves and reproves some fundamental results on permutation polynomials mod pl. The main new result is the characterization of strong orthogonal systems over Z/p1Z.
Permutation interpretation of quantum mechanics
We analyse quantum concepts in a constructive finite background. Introduction of continuum or other actual infinities into physics leads to non-constructivity without any need for them in description of empirical observations. We argue that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. It is a result of fundamental impossibility to trace identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution — only information about invariant combinations of such objects is available. General mathematical arguments imply that any quantum dynamics can be reduced to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interferences, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of the permutation invariants. We demonstrate that for description of quantum phenomena there is no need to use such non-constructive number system as complex numbers. It is sufficient to employ the cyclotomic numbers — a minimal extension of the natural numbers which is suitable for quantum mechanics.
The permutation testing approach: a review
Fortunato Pesarin; Luigi Salmaso
2013-01-01
In recent years permutation testing methods have increased both in number of applications and in solving complex multivariate problems. A large number of testing problems may also be usefully and effectively solved by traditional parametric or rank-based nonparametric methods, although in relatively mild conditions their permutation counterparts are generally asymptotically as good as the best ones. Permutation tests are essentially of an exact nonparametric nature in a conditional context, w...
Tensor Permutation Matrices in Finite Dimensions
Christian, Rakotonirina
2005-01-01
We have generalised the properties with the tensor product, of one 4x4 matrix which is a permutation matrix, and we call a tensor commutation matrix. Tensor commutation matrices can be constructed with or without calculus. A formula allows us to construct a tensor permutation matrix, which is a generalisation of tensor commutation matrix, has been established. The expression of an element of a tensor commutation matrix has been generalised in the case of any element of a tensor permutation ma...
New Classes of Permutation Binomials and Permutation Trinomials over Finite Fields
Li, Kangquan; Qu, Longjiang; Chen, Xi
2015-01-01
Permutation polynomials over finite fields play important roles in finite fields theory. They also have wide applications in many areas of science and engineering such as coding theory, cryptography, combinatorial design, communication theory and so on. Permutation binomials and trinomials attract people's interest due to their simple algebraic form and additional extraordinary properties. In this paper, several new classes of permutation binomials and permutation trinomials are constructed. ...
Urfer, Jean-Marie
2006-01-01
This dissertation is concerned with the study of a new family of representations of finite groups, the endo-p-permutation modules. Given a prime number p, a finite group G of order divisible by p and an algebraically closed field k of characteristic p, we say that a kG-module M is an endo-p-permutation module if its endomorphism algebra Endk(M) is a p-permutation kG-module, that is a direct summand of a permutation kG-module. This generalizes the notion, first introduced by E. Dade in 1978, o...
Urfer, Jean-Marie; Thévenaz, Jacques
2007-01-01
This dissertation is concerned with the study of a new family of representations of finite groups, the endo-p-permutation modules. Given a prime number p, a finite group G of order divisible by p and an algebraically closed field k of characteristic p, we say that a kG-module M is an endo-p-permutation module if its endomorphism algebra Endk(M) is a p-permutation kG-module, that is a direct summand of a permutation kG-module. This generalizes the notion, first introduced by E. Dade in 1978, o...
Congruence Permutable Symmetric Extended de Morgan Algebras
Jie FANG
2006-01-01
An algebra A is said to be congruence permutable if any two congruences on it are per-mutable. This property has been investigated in several varieties of algebras, for example, de Morgan algebras, p-algebras, Kn,o-algebras. In this paper, we study the class of symmetric extended de Morgan algebras that are congruence permutable. In particular we consider the case where A is finite, and show that A is congruence permutable if and only if it is isomorphic to a direct product of finitely many simple algebras.
Permutation group in light nuclei
From general features of the multiplet scheme, a framework is provided for the application of permutation groups to the structure of light nuclei. It is shown that the description of nuclear states in terms of cluster configurations offers possibilities of finding the best orbital states for a given partition f. The significance of the orbital partition for orbital states is explained in terms of selection rules. Specific methods and results obtained in shell configurations, cluster configurations, and nuclear reactions are discussed. (2 figures, 4 tables, 42 references) (U.S.)
Humpolíčková, Jana; Štěpánek, M.; Kral, Teresa; Benda, Aleš; Procházka, K.; Hof, Martin
2008-01-01
Roč. 18, 3-4 (2008), s. 679-684. ISSN 1053-0509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400621; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : DNA compaction * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * dynamic light scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2008
2001-01-01
In der Komposition von Fugen bezeichnet der Begriff den mehrmaligen Stimmtausch zwischen einem Soggetto und seinen jeweils unverändert auftretenden Kontrasubjekten, wobei sämtliche durch die Stimmenzahl festgelegten Kombinationsmöglichkeiten durchgespielt werden.
The influence that urea has on the conformation of water-soluble globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), exposed directly to the aqueous solution as compared to the condition where the macromolecule is confined in the Aerosol-OT (AOT - sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)/n-hexane/water reverse micelle (RM) is addressed. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of aqueous BSA solution in the absence and in the presence of urea (3M and 5M) confirm the known denaturing effect of urea in proteins. The loss of the globular native structure is observed by the increase in the protein maximum dimension and gyration radius, through the Trp emission increase and maximum red-shift as well as the decrease in helix content. In RMs, the Trp fluorescence and CD spectra show that BSA is mainly located in its interfacial region independently of the micellar size. Addition of urea in this BSA/RM system also causes changes in the Trp fluorescence (emission decrease and maximum red-shift) and in the BSA CD spectra (decrease in helix content), which are compatible with the denaturation of the protein and Trp exposition to a more apolar environment in the RM. The fact that urea causes changes in the protein structure when it is located in the interfacial region (evidenced by CD) is interpreted as an indication that the direct interaction of urea with the protein is the major factor to explain its denaturing effect. (author)
Permutation codes for the Laplacian source
Townes, S. A.; Oneal, J. B., Jr.
1984-01-01
Permutation codes for the Laplacian source are developed. The performance of these codes is evaluated and compared with other quantizers and the rate-distortion function. It is shown that there is a bit-rate region in which the permutation codes outperform certain single-sample quantizers.
Permutation branes and linear matrix factorisations
All the known rational boundary states for Gepner models can be regarded as permutation branes. On general grounds, one expects that topological branes in Gepner models can be encoded as matrix factorisations of the corresponding Landau-Ginzburg potentials. In this paper we identify the matrix factorisations associated to arbitrary B-type permutation branes
Symmetric products, permutation orbifolds and discrete torsion
Bántay, P
2000-01-01
Symmetric product orbifolds, i.e. permutation orbifolds of the full symmetric group S_{n} are considered by applying the general techniques of permutation orbifolds. Generating functions for various quantities, e.g. the torus partition functions and the Klein-bottle amplitudes are presented, as well as a simple expression for the discrete torsion coefficients.
Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms
赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌
2004-01-01
Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms,commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack.In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms.First,a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices.Then,by using probability theory and algebraic principles,the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then,by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices,we improve a specific decryption algorithm.Finally,some simulation results are shown.
Engineering and Characterization of a Superfolder Green Fluorescent Protein
Existing variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) often misfold when expressed as fusions with other proteins. We have generated a robustly folded version of GFP, called 'superfolder' GFP, that folds well even when fused to poorly folded polypeptides. Compared to 'folding reporter' GFP, a folding-enhanced GFP containing the 'cycle-3' mutations and the 'enhanced GFP' mutations F64L and S65T, superfolder GFP shows improved tolerance of circular permutation, greater resistance to chemical denaturants and improved folding kinetics. The fluorescence of Escherichia coli cells expressing each of eighteen proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum as fusions with superfolder GFP was proportional to total protein expression. In contrast, fluorescence of folding reporter GFP fusion proteins was strongly correlated with the productive folding yield of the passenger protein. X-ray crystallographic structural analyses helped explain the enhanced folding of superfolder GFP relative to folding reporter GFP
Permutation symmetry of polyatomic systems
The Pauli principle can be taken into account if a many-electron wavefunction is written in determinantal form. A new method is suggested of constructing wavefunctions for a polyatomic system that are symmetrized with respect to the irreducible representations of the permutation groups. The method is tested on a simple model of a linear chain of hydrogen atoms. The strategy of this study is to construct symmetrized basis functions for the irreducible representations of the πN(N=26) group using the Young-operator method, to find the essential properties of these functions, then to specify a procedure for constructing the basis functions for arbitrary N, and finally to test it on a linear HN molecule. 12 refs., 3 figs
Lower bounding edit distances between permutations
Labarre, Anthony
2012-01-01
A number of fields, including the study of genome rearrangements and the design of interconnection networks, deal with the connected problems of sorting permutations in "as few moves as possible", using a given set of allowed operations, or computing the number of moves the sorting process requires, often referred to as the \\emph{distance} of the permutation. These operations often act on just one or two segments of the permutation, e.g. by reversing one segment or exchanging two segments. The \\emph{cycle graph} of the permutation to sort is a fundamental tool in the theory of genome rearrangements, and has proved useful in settling the complexity of many variants of the above problems. In this paper, we present an algebraic reinterpretation of the cycle graph of a permutation $\\pi$ as an even permutation $\\bar{\\pi}$, and show how to reformulate our sorting problems in terms of particular factorisations of the latter permutation. Using our framework, we recover known results in a simple and unified way, and o...
Département des Ressources humaines
2004-01-01
Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...
Counting Fixed-Length Permutation Patterns
Cheyne Homberger
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of packing fixed-length patterns into a permutation, and develop a connection between the number of large patterns and the number of bonds in a permutation. Improving upon a result of Kaplansky and Wolfowitz, we obtain exact values for the expectation and variance for the number of large patterns in a random permutation. Finally, we are able to generalize the idea of bonds to obtain results on fixed-length patterns of any size, and present a construction that maximizes...
On permutation polynomials over finite fields
C. Small; R. A. Mollin
1987-01-01
A polynomial f over a finite field F is called a permutation polynomial if the mapping FÃ¢Â†Â’F defined by f is one-to-one. In this paper we consider the problem of characterizing permutation polynomials; that is, we seek conditions on the coefficients of a polynomial which are necessary and sufficient for it to represent a permutation. We also give some results bearing on a conjecture of Carlitz which says essentially that for any even integer m, the cardinality of finite fields admitting pe...
Permutation parity machines for neural synchronization
Synchronization of neural networks has been studied in recent years as an alternative to cryptographic applications such as the realization of symmetric key exchange protocols. This paper presents a first view of the so-called permutation parity machine, an artificial neural network proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machine. The dynamics of the synchronization process by mutual learning between permutation parity machines is analytically studied and the results are compared with those of tree parity machines. It will turn out that for neural synchronization, permutation parity machines form a viable alternative to tree parity machines
Extending The Range of Application of Permutation Tests: the Expected Permutation p-value Approach
Commenges, Daniel
2010-01-01
The limitation of permutation tests is that they assume exchangeability. It is shown that in generalized linear models one can construct permutation tests from score statistics in particular cases. When under the null hypothesis the observations are not exchangeable, a representation in terms of Cox-Snell residuals allows to develop an approach based on an expected permutation p-value (Eppv); this is applied to the logistic regression model. A small simulation study and an illustration with r...
EPC: A Provably Secure Permutation Based Compression Function
Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Naderi, Majid; Sadeghiyan, Babak
The security of permutation-based hash functions in the ideal permutation model has been studied when the input-length of compression function is larger than the input-length of the permutation function. In this paper, we consider permutation based compression functions that have input lengths...... shorter than that of the permutation. Under this assumption, we propose a permutation based compression function and prove its security with respect to collision and (second) preimage attacks in the ideal permutation model. The proposed compression function can be seen as a generalization of the...
Permutation Orbifolds in the large N Limit
Belin, Alexandre; Maloney, Alexander
2015-01-01
The space of permutation orbifolds is a simple landscape of two dimensional CFTs, generalizing the well-known symmetric orbifolds. We consider constraints which a permutation orbifold with large central charge must obey in order to be holographically dual to a weakly coupled (but possibly stringy) theory of gravity in AdS. We then construct explicit examples of permutation orbifolds which obey these constraints. In our constructions the spectrum remains finite at large N, but differs qualitatively from that of symmetric orbifolds. We also discuss under what conditions the correlation functions factorize at large N and thus reduce to those of a generalized free field in AdS. We show that this happens not just for symmetric orbifolds, but also for permutation groups which act "democratically" in a sense which we define.
On solvable minimally transitive permutation groups
Dalla Volta, Francesca; Siemons, Johannes
2007-01-01
We investigate properties of finite transitive permutation groups $(G, \\Omega)$ in which all proper subgroups of $G$ act intransitively on $\\Omega.$ In particular, we are interested in reduction theorems for minimally transitive representations of solvable groups.
An interesting new Mahonian permutation statistic
Wilson, Mark C.
2010-01-01
The standard algorithm for generating a random permutation gives rise to an obvious permutation statistic $\\stat$ that is readily seen to be Mahonian. We give evidence showing that it is not equal to any previously published statistic. Nor does its joint distribution with the standard Eulerian statistics $\\des$ and $\\exc$ appear to coincide with any known Euler-Mahonian pair. A general construction of Skandera yields an Eulerian partner $\\ska$ such that $(\\ska, \\stat)$ is equidistributed with...
Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography
Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.
On the Sign-imbalance of Permutation Tableaux
Chen, Joanna N.; Zhou, Robin D. P.
2016-01-01
Permutation tableaux were introduced by Steingr\\'{\\i}msson and Williams. Corteel and Kim defined the sign of a permutation tableau in terms of the number of unrestricted columns. The sign-imbalance of permutation tableaux of length $n$ is the sum of signs over permutation tableaux of length $n$. They have btained a formula for the sign-imbalance of permutation tableaux of length $n$ by using generating functions and asked for a combinatorial proof. Moreover, they raised the question of findin...
The permutation testing approach: a review
Fortunato Pesarin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In recent years permutation testing methods have increased both in number of applications and in solving complex multivariate problems. A large number of testing problems may also be usefully and effectively solved by traditional parametric or rank-based nonparametric methods, although in relatively mild conditions their permutation counterparts are generally asymptotically as good as the best ones. Permutation tests are essentially of an exact nonparametric nature in a conditional context, where conditioning is on the pooled observed data as a set of sufficient statistics in the null hypothesis. Instead, the reference null distribution of most parametric tests is only known asymptotically. Thus, for most sample sizes of practical interest, the possible lack of efficiency of permutation solutions may be compensated by the lack of approximation of parametric counterparts. There are many complex multivariate problems (quite common in biostatistics, clinical trials, engineering, the environment, epidemiology, experimental data, industrial statistics, pharmacology, psychology, social sciences, etc. which are difficult to solve outside the conditional framework and outside the nonparametric combination (NPC method for dependent permutation tests. In this paper we review this method along with a number of applications in different experimental and observational situations (e.g. multi-sided alternatives, zero-inflated data and testing for a stochastic ordering and we present properties specific to this methodology, such as: for a given number of subjects, when the number of variables diverges and the noncentrality of the combined test diverges accordingly, then the power of combination-based permutation tests converges to one.
Interfaces in sequence permutated multilayers
Balogh, J; Bujdoso, L; Kaptas, D; Kiss, L F; Kemeny, T; Vincze, I, E-mail: baloghj@szfki.h [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, 1525 Budapest PO Box 49 (Hungary)
2010-03-01
Sequence permutation of three building block multilayers was recently suggested as a new approach in studying bottom and top interfaces formed of a given layer with either of the other two elements. It was applied to Fe-B-Ag multilayers with 5 nm Ag layers separating the Fe and the B layers. Now we examine the dependence of the chemical mixing and the consequent amorphous phase formation on the nominal thickness of the Ag layers in [2 nm B / 2nm Fe / x nm Ag]{sub 4}, 0.2{<=}x{<=}10, multilayers. The ratio of the non-alloyed Fe layer and the amorphous Fe-B interface compound changes only below x=5 nm. It is attributed to discontinuities of the Ag layer due to its three dimensional island growth over the bcc-Fe layer. The results obtained on the variation of the hyperfine field distribution of the amorhous Fe-B layers also confirm that the top interfaces of Fe with B are more B-rich than the bottom ones.
Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Kancı Bozoğlan, Bahar
2013-07-01
The interactions of metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and guaifenesin (GF) drugs with human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (HMG) proteins at pH 7.4 were studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Drugs quenched the fluorescence spectra of HSA and HMG proteins through a static quenching mechanism. For each protein-drug system, the values of Stern-Volmer quenching constant, bimolecular quenching constant, binding constant and number of binding site on the protein molecules were determined at 288.15, 298.15, 310.15 and 318.15 K. It was found that the binding constants of HSA-MPT and HSA-GF systems were smaller than those of HMG-MPT and HMG-GF systems. For both drugs, the affinity of HMG was much higher than that of HSA. An increase in temperature caused a negative effect on the binding reactions. The number of binding site on blood proteins for MPT and GF drugs was approximately one. Thermodynamic parameters showed that MPT interacted with HSA through electrostatic attraction forces. However, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were the main interaction forces in the formation of HSA-GF, HMG-MPT and HMG-GF complexes. The binding processes between protein and drug molecules were exothermic and spontaneous owing to negative ∆H and ∆G values, respectively. The values of binding distance between protein and drug molecules were calculated from Förster resonance energy transfer theory. It was found from CD analysis that the bindings of MPT and GF drugs to HSA and HMG proteins altered the secondary structure of HSA and HMG proteins. PMID:23471625
Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach
Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E
2016-01-01
This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...
Toric CFTs, Permutation Triples and Belyi Pairs
Jejjala, Vishnu; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego
2010-01-01
Four-dimensional CFTs dual to branes transverse to toric Calabi--Yau threefolds have been described by bipartite graphs on a torus (dimer models). We use the theory of dessins d'enfants to describe these in terms of triples of permutations which multiply to one. These permutations yield an elegant description of zig-zag paths, which have appeared in characterizing the toroidal dimers that lead to consistent SCFTs. The dessins are also related to Belyi pairs, consisting of a curve equipped with a map to P^1, branched over three points on the P^1. We construct explicit examples of Belyi pairs associated to some CFTs, including C^3 and the conifold. Permutation symmetries of the superpotential are related to the geometry of the Belyi pair. The Artin braid group action and a variation thereof play an interesting role. We make a conjecture relating the complex structure of the Belyi curve to R-charges in the conformal field theory.
Isometries and Construction of Permutation Arrays
Bogaerts, Mathieu
2009-01-01
An (n,d)-permutation code is a subset C of Sym(n) such that the Hamming distance dH between any two distinct elements of C is at least equal to d. In this paper, we use the characterization of the isometry group of the metric space (Sym(n),dH) in order to develop generating algorithms with rejection of isomorphic objects. To classify the (n,d) -permutation codes up to isometry, we construct invariants and study their efficiency. We give the numbers of nonisometric (4,3) - and (5,4)- permutati...
Measure permutation formulas in Feynman's operational calculi
Chang, K. S.; Kim, B. S.; Park, Y. H.
2010-03-01
In Jefferies-Johnson’s theory of Feynman’s operational calculi for noncommuting operators, the two operators T µ 1,µ 2 f( Ã, tilde B ) and T µ 2,µ1 f( Ã, tilde B ) are not equal. Relationships between these two operators are given, i.e., “measure permutation formulas” in Feynman’s operational calculi are developed; they correspond to the “index permutation formula” in Maslov’s discretized version of Feynman’s operational calculus.
Complete permutation polynomials over finite fields of odd characteristic
Xu, Guangkui; Cao, Xiwang; Tu, Ziran; Zeng, Xiangyong; Hu, Lei
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present three classes of complete permutation monomials over finite fields of odd characteristic. Meanwhile, the compositional inverses of these complete permutation polynomials are also proposed.
Defects and permutation branes in the Liouville field theory
The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families.
Defects and permutation branes in the Liouville field theory
Sarkissian, Gor
2009-01-01
The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families....
A classification of primitive permutation groups with finite stabilizers
Smith, Simon M.
2011-01-01
We classify all infinite primitive permutation groups possessing a finite point stabilizer, thus extending the seminal Aschbacher-O'Nan-Scott Theorem to all primitive permutation groups with finite point stabilizers.
Defects and Permutation branes in the Liouville field theory
Sarkissian, Gor
2009-01-01
The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families.
Permutation Tests for Common Locations among Samples with Unequal Variances.
Mielke, Paul W., Jr.; Berry, Kenneth J.
1994-01-01
Presents permutation procedures that jointly test for differences in location and scale among treatments in a completely randomized experimental design. Also considers extensions to multivariate data and provides efficient alternative permutation tests. (SLD)
On Young tableau involutions and patterns in permutations
Ouchterlony, Erik
2005-01-01
This thesis deals with three different aspects of the combinatorics of permutations. In the first two papers, two flavours of pattern avoiding permutations are examined; and in the third paper Young tableaux, which are closely related to permutations via representation theory, are studied. In the first paper we give solutations to several interesting problems regarding pattern avoiding doubly alternating permutations, such as finding a bijection between 1234-avoiding permutations and 1234-avoiding doubly alternating permutations of twice the size. In the second paper partial permutations which can be extended to pattern avoiding permutations are examined. A general algorithm is presented which is subsequently used to solve many different problems. The third paper deals with involutions on Young tableaux. There is a surprisingly large collection of relations among these involutions and in the paper we make the effort to study them systematically in order to create a coherent theory. The most interesting result...
New results on permutation polynomials over finite fields
Ma, Jingxue; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tao; Ge, Gennian
2015-01-01
Permutation polynomials over finite fields constitute an active research area and have applications in many areas of science and engineering. In this paper, four classes of monomial complete permutation polynomials and one class of trinomial complete permutation polynomials are presented, one of which confirms a conjecture proposed by Wu et al. (Sci. China Math., to appear. Doi: 10.1007/s11425-014-4964-2). Furthermore, we give two classes of trinomial permutation polynomials, and make some pr...
Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine
Li Peng
2014-09-01
Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.
A bijection to count (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations
Callan, David
2010-01-01
A permutation is (1-23-4)-avoiding if it contains no four entries, increasing left to right, with the middle two adjacent in the permutation. Here we give a 2-variable recurrence for the number of such permutations, improving on the previously known 4-variable recurrence. At the heart of the proof is a bijection from (1-23-4)-avoiding permutations to increasing ordered trees whose leaves, taken in preorder, are also increasing.
Demonstration of quantum permutation algorithm with a single photon ququart
Feiran Wang; Yunlong Wang; Ruifeng Liu; Dongxu Chen; Pei Zhang; Hong Gao; Fuli Li
2015-01-01
We report an experiment to demonstrate a quantum permutation determining algorithm with linear optical system. By employing photon's polarization and spatial mode, we realize the quantum ququart states and all the essential permutation transformations. The quantum permutation determining algorithm displays the speedup of quantum algorithm by determining the parity of the permutation in only one step of evaluation compared with two for classical algorithm. This experiment is accomplished in si...
Xie, Xiaoyun [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhaowei [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Ximin; Wang, Xiaoru [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2011-09-15
Highlights: {center_dot} Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. {center_dot} HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. {center_dot} Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. {center_dot} The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. {center_dot} The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 10{sup 3}, 3.97 x 10{sup 3}, 3.45 x 10{sup 3}, and 3.20 x 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) were measured, and they indicated the presences
Highlights: · Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. · HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. · Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. · The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. · The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 103, 3.97 x 103, 3.45 x 103, and 3.20 x 103 L mol-1 at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions (ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo) were measured, and they indicated the presences of hydrophobic forces and hydrogen interactions in the PAEs-HSA interactions, which agreed well with the results
A SAS/IML algorithm for an exact permutation test
Neuhäuser, Markus
2009-03-01
Full Text Available An algorithm written in SAS/IML is presented that can perform an exact permutation test for a two-sample comparison. All possible permutations are considered. The Baumgartner-Weiß-Schindler statistic is exemplarily used as the test statistic for the permutation test.
Permutation-invariant codes encoding more than one qubit
Ouyang, Yingkai; Fitzsimons, Joseph
2015-01-01
A permutation-invariant code on m qubits is a subspace of the symmetric subspace of the m qubits. We derive permutation-invariant codes that can encode an increasing amount of quantum information while suppressing leading order spontaneous decay errors. To prove the result, we use elementary number theory with prior theory on permutation invariant codes and quantum error correction.
The Parameterized Complexity of some Permutation Group Problems
Arvind, Vikraman
2013-01-01
In this paper we study the parameterized complexity of two well-known permutation group problems which are NP-complete. 1. Given a permutation group G=, subgroup of $S_n$, and a parameter $k$, find a permutation $\\pi$ in G such that $|{i\\in [n]\\mid \\pi(i)\
More Classes of Complete Permutation Polynomials over $\\F_q$
Wu, Gaofei; Li, Nian; Helleseth, Tor; Zhang, Yuqing
2013-01-01
In this paper, by using a powerful criterion for permutation polynomials given by Zieve, we give several classes of complete permutation monomials over $\\F_{q^r}$. In addition, we present a class of complete permutation multinomials, which is a generalization of recent work.
Factoring Permutation Matrices Into a Product of Tridiagonal Matrices
Samson, Michael Daniel; Ezerman, Martianus Frederic
2010-01-01
Gilbert Strang posited that a permutation matrix of bandwidth $w$ can be written as a product of $N < 2w$ permutation matrices of bandwidth 1. A proof employing a greedy ``parallel bubblesort'' algorithm on the rows of the permutation matrix is detailed and further points of interest are elaborated.
Further Results on Permutation Polynomials over Finite Fields
Yuan, Pingzhi; Ding, Cunsheng
2013-01-01
Permutation polynomials are an interesting subject of mathematics and have applications in other areas of mathematics and engineering. In this paper, we develop general theorems on permutation polynomials over finite fields. As a demonstration of the theorems, we present a number of classes of explicit permutation polynomials on $\\gf_q$.
Permutation trinomials over finite fields with even characteristic
Ding, Cunsheng; Qu, Longjiang; WANG Qiang; Yuan, Jin; Yuan, Pingzhi
2014-01-01
Permutation polynomials have been a subject of study for a long time and have applications in many areas of science and engineering. However, only a small number of specific classes of permutation polynomials are described in the literature so far. In this paper we present a number of permutation trinomials over finite fields, which are of different forms.
Permutation-invariant codes encoding more than one qubit
Ouyang, Yingkai; Fitzsimons, Joseph
2016-04-01
A permutation-invariant code on m qubits is a subspace of the symmetric subspace of the m qubits. We derive permutation-invariant codes that can encode an increasing amount of quantum information while suppressing leading-order spontaneous decay errors. To prove the result, we use elementary number theory with prior theory on permutation-invariant codes and quantum error correction.
Flavour singlets in gauge theory as Permutations
Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ryo
2016-01-01
Gauge-invariant operators can be specified by equivalence classes of permutations. We develop this idea concretely for the singlets of the flavour group $SO(N_f)$ in $U(N_c)$ gauge theory by using Gelfand pairs and Schur-Weyl duality. The singlet operators, when specialised at $N_f =6$, belong to the scalar sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. A simple formula is given for the two-point functions in the free field limit of $g_{YM}^2 =0$. The free two-point functions are shown to be equal to the partition function on a 2-complex with boundaries and a defect, in a topological field theory of permutations. The permutation equivalence classes are Fourier transformed to a representation basis which is orthogonal for the two-point functions at finite $N_c , N_f$. Counting formulae for the gauge-invariant operators are described. The one-loop mixing matrix is derived as a linear operator on the permutation equivalence classes.
Simple current extensions and the permutation orbifold
We review extensions by integer spin simple currents in two-dimensional conformal field theories and their application in string theory. In particular, we study the problem of resolving the fixed points of a simple current and apply the formalism to the permutation orbifold.
Weak mixing matrix under permutation symmetry breaking
The two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model is considered. A permutation symmetry-breaking scheme is proposed and used to calculate the weak mixing matrix up to second order. The CP-violation factor J and the correction to Bjorken's approximation are then given. A special case is considered
Permutation orbifolds of heterotic Gepner models
We study orbifolds by permutations of two identical N=2 minimal models within the Gepner construction of four-dimensional heterotic strings. This is done using the new N=2 supersymmetric permutation orbifold building blocks we have recently developed. We compare our results with the old method of modding out the full string partition function. The overlap between these two approaches is surprisingly small, but whenever a comparison can be made we find complete agreement. The use of permutation building blocks allows us to use the complete arsenal of simple current techniques that is available for standard Gepner models, vastly extending what could previously be done for permutation orbifolds. In particular, we consider (0,2) models, breaking of SO(10) to subgroups, weight-lifting for the minimal models and B-L lifting. Some previously observed phenomena, for example concerning family number quantization, extend to this new class as well, and in the lifted models three-family models occur with abundance comparable to two or four.
The L-sharp permutation groups
李炯生
2000-01-01
An answer is given to a problem proposed by Bannai and Ito for { l, l + s, l + s + t} -sharp permutation group, and the result is used to determine L-sharp groups for L = { l, l + 1, l + 3} and{l,l+2,l+3}.
Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA
Basso, Dario; Salmaso, Luigi; Solari, Aldo
2009-01-01
Permutation testing for multivariate stochastic ordering and ANOVA designs is a fundamental issue in many scientific fields such as medicine, biology, pharmaceutical studies, engineering, economics, psychology, and social sciences. This book presents advanced methods and related R codes to perform complex multivariate analyses
LucY: A Versatile New Fluorescent Reporter Protein.
Michele E Auldridge
Full Text Available We report on the discovery, isolation, and use of a novel yellow fluorescent protein. Lucigen Yellow (LucY binds one FAD molecule within its core, thus shielding it from water and maintaining its structure so that fluorescence is 10-fold higher than freely soluble FAD. LucY displays excitation and emission spectra characteristic of FAD, with 3 excitation peaks at 276 nm, 377 nm, and 460 nm and a single emission peak at 530 nm. These excitation and emission maxima provide the large Stokes shift beneficial to fluorescence experimentation. LucY belongs to the MurB family of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductases. The high resolution crystal structure shows that in contrast to other structurally resolved MurB enzymes, LucY does not contain a potentially quenching aromatic residue near the FAD isoalloxazine ring, which may explain its increased fluorescence over related proteins. Using E. coli as a system in which to develop LucY as a reporter, we show that it is amenable to circular permutation and use as a reporter of protein-protein interaction. Fragmentation between its distinct domains renders LucY non-fluorescent, but fluorescence can be partially restored by fusion of the fragments to interacting protein domains. Thus, LucY may find application in Protein-fragment Complementation Assays for evaluating protein-protein interactions.
Five Constructions of Permutation Polynomials over $\\gf(q^2)$
Ding, Cunsheng; Yuan, Pingzhi
2015-01-01
Four recursive constructions of permutation polynomials over $\\gf(q^2)$ with those over $\\gf(q)$ are developed and applied to a few famous classes of permutation polynomials. They produce infinitely many new permutation polynomials over $\\gf(q^{2^\\ell})$ for any positive integer $\\ell$ with any given permutation polynomial over $\\gf(q)$. A generic construction of permutation polynomials over $\\gf(2^{2m})$ with o-polynomials over $\\gf(2^m)$ is also presented, and a number of new classes of per...
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.
Permutation Analysis of Track and Column Braiding
李毓陵; 丁辛; 胡良剑
2004-01-01
The positions of braiding carrier in track and column braiding are represented by a diagrammatic braiding plan and a corresponding lattice-array is defined. A set is then formed so that the permutation analysis can be performed to represent the movement of carriers in a braiding process. The process of 4-step braiding is analyzed as an example to describe the application of the proposed method by expressing a braiding cycle as a product of disjoint cycles. As a result, a mapping relation between the disjoint cycles and the movement of carriers is deduced. Following the same analysis principles, a process of 8-step braiding and the corresponding initial state of the lattice-array is developed. A successful permutation analysis to the process manifests the general suitability of the proposed method.
High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms
Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi
2004-01-01
We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.
High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms
Ran, Qi-Wen; Yuan, Lin; Tan, Li-Ying; Ma, Jing; Wang, Qi
2004-02-01
We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT), is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +infty, M = 4k (k is a natural number) and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.
Commutative Hopf algebras of permutations and trees
Hivert, F.; Novelli, J. -C.; Thibon, J. -Y.
2005-01-01
We propose several constructions of commutative or cocommutative Hopf algebras based on various combinatorial structures, and investigate the relations between them. A commutative Hopf algebra of permutations is obtained by a general construction based on graphs, and its non-commutative dual is realized in three different ways, in particular as the Grossman-Larson algebra of heap ordered trees. Extensions to endofunctions, parking functions, set partitions, planar binary trees and rooted fore...
Charge quantum numbers and permutation symmetry
An introduction to the N identical particles problem for two classes of particle types, e.g., bosons and fermions, is made. Particles indistinguishability is discussed, inserting the unitary representation of the permutation group concept. Others possibilities for classes of particles in terms of parastatistics, are discussed. A relation between charge quantum numbers and gauge groups in lagrangean field theory, is made. Structural analysis of the superselection rules in elementary particle physics, are also discussed
Faster permutation inference in brain imaging.
Winkler, AM; Ridgway, GR; Douaud, G; Nichols, TE; Smith, SM
2016-01-01
Permutation tests are increasingly being used as a reliable method for inference in neuroimaging analysis. However, they are computationally intensive. For small, non-imaging datasets, recomputing a model thousands of times is seldom a problem, but for large, complex models this can be prohibitively slow, even with the availability of inexpensive computing power. Here we exploit properties of statistics used with the general linear model (GLM) and their distributions to obtain accelerations i...
The topology of the permutation pattern poset
McNamara, Peter; Steingrımsson, Einar
2014-01-01
International audience The set of all permutations, ordered by pattern containment, forms a poset. This extended abstract presents the first explicit major results on the topology of intervals in this poset. We show that almost all (open) intervals in this poset have a disconnected subinterval and are thus not shellable. Nevertheless, there seem to be large classes of intervals that are shellable and thus have the homotopy type of a wedge of spheres. We prove this to be the case for all in...
Using Permutation Tests in Multiple Correlation Investigation
Stelmach, Jacek
2012-01-01
An indication of correlation between dependent variable and predictors is a crucial point in building statistical regression model. The test of Pearson correlation coefficient – with relatively good power – needs to fulfill the assumption about normal distribution. In other cases only non-parametric tests can be used. This article presents a possibility and advantages of permutation tests with the discussion about proposed test statistics. The power of proposed tests was estima...
The Shard Intersection Order on Permutations
Bancroft, Erin
2011-01-01
The shard intersection order is a new lattice structure on a finite Coxeter group W which encodes the geometry of the reflection arrangement and the lattice theory of the weak order. In the case where W is the symmetric group, we characterize shard intersections as certain pre-orders which we call permutation pre-orders. We use this combinatorial characterization to determine properties of the shard intersection order. In particular, we give an EL-labeling.
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
On Straight Words and Minimal Permutators in Finite Transformation Semigroups
Egri-Nagy, Attila
2010-01-01
Motivated by issues arising in computer science, we investigate the loop-free paths from the identity transformation and corresponding straight words in the Cayley graph of a finite transformation semigroup with a fixed generator set. Of special interest are words that permute a given subset of the state set. Certain such words, called minimal permutators, are shown to comprise a code, and the straight ones comprise a finite code. Thus, words that permute a given subset are uniquely factorizable as products of the subset's minimal permutators, and these can be further reduced to straight minimal permutators. This leads to insight into structure of local pools of reversibility in transformation semigroups in terms of the set of words permuting a given subset. These findings can be exploited in practical calculations for hierarchical decompositions of finite automata. As an example we consider groups arising in biological systems.
On Straight Words and Minimal Permutators in Finite Transformation Semigroups
Egri-Nagy, Attila; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.
Motivated by issues arising in computer science, we investigate the loop-free paths from the identity transformation and corresponding straight words in the Cayley graph of a finite transformation semigroup with a fixed generator set. Of special interest are words that permute a given subset of the state set. Certain such words, called minimal permutators, are shown to comprise a code, and the straight ones comprise a finite code. Thus, words that permute a given subset are uniquely factorizable as products of the subset's minimal permutators, and these can be further reduced to straight minimal permutators. This leads to insight into structure of local pools of reversibility in transformation semigroups in terms of the set of words permuting a given subset. These findings can be exploited in practical calculations for hierarchical decompositions of finite automata. As an example we consider groups arising in biological systems.
Analysis of cubic permutation polynomials for turbo codes
Trifina, Lucian
2011-01-01
Quadratic permutation polynomials (QPPs) have been widely studied and used as interleavers in turbo codes. However, less attention has been given to cubic permutation polynomials (CPPs). This paper proves a theorem which states sufficient and necessary conditions for a cubic permutation polynomial to be a null permutation polynomial. The result is used to reduce the search complexity of CPP interleavers for short lengths (multiples of 8, between 40 and 256), by improving the distance spectrum over the set of polynomials with the largest spreading factor. The comparison with QPP interleavers is made in terms of search complexity and upper bounds of the bit error rate (BER) and frame error rate (FER) for AWGN channel. Cubic permutation polynomials leading to better performance than quadratic permutation polynomials are found for some lengths.
Self-Dual Permutation Codes over Finite Chain Rings
YUAN Yuan; ZHANG Huanguo
2007-01-01
Permutation codes over finite chain rings are introduced; by using the character of the finite chain rings and the knowledge of representation of group, some conditions for existence or non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over finite chain rings are obtained. Specially, when the group is a direct product ora 2-group and a 2'-group, and the group action is transitive, the sufficient and necessary condition of the existence of permutation codes is given.
Parity-Alternate Permutations and Signed Eulerian Numbers
Tanimoto, Shinji
2006-01-01
In order to study signed Eulerian numbers, we introduce permutations of a particular type, called parity-alternate permutations, because they take even and odd entries alternately. The objective of this paper is twofold. The first is to derive several properties of those permutations, by subdividing them into even and odd ones. The second is to discuss relationships between those and signed Eulerian numbers. Divisibility properties by prime powers are also deduced for signed Eulerian numbers ...
Permutation orbifolds of N=2 supersymmetric minimal models
In this paper we apply the previously derived formalism of permutation orbifold conformal field theories to N=2 supersymmetric minimal models. By interchanging extensions and permutations of the factors we find a very interesting structure relating various conformal field theories that seems not to be known in literature. Moreover, unexpected exceptional simple currents arise in the extended permuted models, coming from off-diagonal fields. In a few situations they admit fixed points that must be resolved. We determine the complete CFT data with all fixed point resolution matrices for all simple currents of all Z2-permutations orbifolds of all minimal N=2 models with k≠2mod4.
A W[1]-completeness result for permutation pattern matching
Bruner, Marie-Louise
2011-01-01
The NP-complete Permutation Pattern Matching problem asks whether a permutation P (the pattern) can be matched into a permutation T (the text). A matching is an order-preserving embedding of P into T. This paper studies the parameterized complexity of Permutation Pattern Matching. We show that this problem is W[1]-complete with respect to the length of the pattern P. Under standard complexity theoretic assumptions this implies that no fixed-parameter tractable algorithm can be found for any parameter depending solely on P.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...
The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations
We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity
Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations
Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Stoltz, Gabriel [Université Paris-Est, CERMICS (ENPC), INRIA, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)
2015-09-14
We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.
2003-01-01
Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...
Fast Algorithm for Solution of r-Permutation Factor Circulant Linear Systems
HE Cheng-yuan; CHEN, YONG
2010-01-01
In this paper, r-permutation factor circulant matrix is defined based on the permutation factor circulant matrix , and a fast algorithm for conditions of solution and solution of r-permutation factor circulant matrix linear equations AX=b are presented. When r-permutation factor circulant matrix are nonsingular, this algorithm computes the single solution of r-permutation factor circulant matrix linear equations , that is , there exists a unique r-permutation factor circulant matrix*, which t...
On the Two-Body Permutation-Parity Combinatorial Transformation
Yu, Hai-jun; Du, Jian-ming; Ren, Gang
2015-10-01
Based on the coherent entangled state representation we find a new unitary operator which plays role of two-body permutation-parity combinatorial transformation. We employ the method of integration within ordered product of operators to derive this operator, its explicit form and normally ordered form are both obtained. The unitary operator for permutation-parity-squeezing combinatorial transformation is also obtained.
Permutation sign under the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence
Reifegerste, Astrid
2003-01-01
We show how the sign of a permutation can be deduced from the tableaux induced by the permutation under the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence. The result yields a simple proof of a conjecture on the squares of imbalances raised by Stanley.
On the effective and automatic enumeration of polynomial permutation classes
Homberger, Cheyne; Vatter, Vince
2013-01-01
We describe an algorithm, implemented in Python, which can enumerate any permutation class with polynomial enumeration from a structural description of the class. In particular, this allows us to find formulas for the number of permutations of length n which can be obtained by a finite number of block sorting operations (e.g., reversals, block transpositions, cut-and-paste moves).
M\\'enage Numbers and M\\'enage Permutations
Li, Yiting
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the combinatorial structures of straight and ordinary m\\'enage permutations. Based on these structures, we prove four formulas. The first two formulas define a relationship between the m\\'enage numbers and the Catalan numbers. The other two formulas count the m\\'enage permutations by number of cycles.
Simple permutations of the classes Av(321, 13524) and Av(321, 13452) have polynomial growth
Lutful Karim; Nargis Khan
2011-01-01
A permutation is called simple if its only blocks i.e. subsets of the permutation consist of singleton and the permutation itself. For example, 2134 is not a simple permutation since it consists ofa block 213 but 3142 is a simple permutation. The basis of a permutation is a pattern which is minimal under involvement and do not belong to the permutation. In this paper, we prove that the number of simple permutations an of the pattern class with two basis of length 3 and 5 such as Av(321, 13452...
A Fuzzy Permutation Method for False Discovery Rate Control.
Yang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lee, Wen-Chung
2016-01-01
Biomedical researchers often encounter the large-p-small-n situations-a great number of variables are measured/recorded for only a few subjects. The authors propose a fuzzy permutation method to address the multiple testing problem for small sample size studies. The method introduces fuzziness into standard permutation analysis to produce randomized p-values, which are then converted into q-values for false discovery rate controls. Simple algebra shows that the fuzzy permutation method is at least as powerful as the standard permutation method under any alternative. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed method has desirable statistical properties whether the study variables are normally or non-normally distributed. A real dataset is analyzed to illustrate its use. The proposed fuzzy permutation method is recommended for use in the large-p-small-n settings. PMID:27328860
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex
Permutation Symmetry Determines the Discrete Wigner Function
Zhu, Huangjun
2016-01-01
The Wigner function provides a useful quasiprobability representation of quantum mechanics, with applications in various branches of physics. Many nice properties of the Wigner function are intimately connected with the high symmetry of the underlying operator basis composed of phase point operators: any pair of phase point operators can be transformed to any other pair by a unitary symmetry transformation. We prove that, in the discrete scenario, this permutation symmetry is equivalent to the symmetry group being a unitary 2 design. Such a highly symmetric representation can only appear in odd prime power dimensions besides dimensions 2 and 8. It suffices to single out a unique discrete Wigner function among all possible quasiprobability representations. In the course of our study, we show that this discrete Wigner function is uniquely determined by Clifford covariance, while no Wigner function is Clifford covariant in any even prime power dimension.
The Fractional Metric Dimension of Permutation Graphs
Eunjeong YI
2015-01-01
Let G = (V (G), E(G)) be a graph with vertex set V (G) and edge set E(G). For two distinct vertices x and y of a graph G, let RG{x, y}denote the set of vertices z such that the distance from x to z is not equal to the distance from y to z in G. For a function g defined on V (G) and for U ⊆V (G), let g(U )=? s∈U g(s). A real-valued function g:V (G)→[0, 1] is a resolving function of G if g(RG{x, y})≥1 for any two distinct vertices x, y∈V (G). The fractional metric dimension dimf (G) of a graph G is min{g(V (G)):g is a resolving function of G}. Let G1 and G2 be disjoint copies of a graph G, and let σ : V (G1) → V (G2) be a bijection. Then, a permutation graph Gσ = (V,E) has the vertex set V = V (G1)∪V (G2) and the edge set E = E(G1)∪E(G2)∪{uv|v = σ(u)}. First, we determine dimf (T ) for any tree T . We show that 1 0, there exists a permutation graph Gσ such that dimf (Gσ)−1dimf (Gσ) for all pairs (G,σ). Furthermore, we investigate dimf (Gσ) when G is a complete k-partite graph or a cycle.
Modified permutation-entropy analysis of heartbeat dynamics
Bian, Chunhua; Qin, Chang; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Shen, Qinghong
2012-02-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) contains important information about the modulation of the cardiovascular system. Various methods of nonlinear dynamics (e.g., estimating Lyapunov exponents) and complexity measures (e.g., correlation dimension or entropies) have been applied to HRV analysis. Permutation entropy, which was proposed recently, has been widely used in many fields due to its conceptual and computational simplicity. It maps a time series onto a symbolic sequence of permutation ranks. The original permutation entropy assumes the time series under study has a continuous distribution, thus equal values are rare and can be ignored by ranking them according to their order of emergence, or broken by adding small random perturbations to ensure every symbol in a sequence is different. However, when the observed time series is digitized with lower resolution leading to a greater number of equal values, or the equalities represent certain characteristic sequential patterns of the system, it may not be rational to simply ignore or break them. In the present paper, a modified permutation entropy is proposed that, by mapping the equal value onto the same symbol (rank), allows for a more accurate characterization of system states. The application of the modified permutation entropy to the analysis of HRV is investigated using clinically collected data. Results show that modified permutation entropy can greatly improve the ability to distinguish the HRV signals under different physiological and pathological conditions. It can characterize the complexity of HRV more effectively than the original permutation entropy.
Division des ressources humaines
2000-01-01
N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128
r-BlockPermutation Factor Circulant Matrix and Inverse Matrix
SUN Ji zhong; QIN Keyun; Hu, Yan
2012-01-01
The concept of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix is presented. The characteristics of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix are discussed by Kronecker. The interchange ability of r-block permutation factor circulant matrix has been demonstrated, that is AB=BA. The calculation method of matrix determinant and the sufficient condition of nonsingular matrix based on the diagonalization of circulant matrices are given. Finally, the method of inverse matrix is given in r-blo...
An Erd\\H{o}s--Hajnal analogue for permutation classes
Vatter, Vincent
2015-01-01
Let $\\mathcal{C}$ be a permutation class that does not contain all layered permutations or all colayered permutations. We prove that there is a constant $c$ such that every permutation in $\\mathcal{C}$ of length $n$ contains a monotone subsequence of length $cn$.
A Random Variable Related to the Inversion Vector of a Partial Random Permutation
Laghate, Kavita; Deshpande, M. N.
2005-01-01
In this article, we define the inversion vector of a permutation of the integers 1, 2,..., n. We set up a particular kind of permutation, called a partial random permutation. The sum of the elements of the inversion vector of such a permutation is a random variable of interest.
Permutation based decision making under fuzzy environment using Tabu search
Mahdi Bashiri
2012-04-01
Full Text Available One of the techniques, which are used for Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM is the permutation. In the classical form of permutation, it is assumed that weights and decision matrix components are crisp. However, when group decision making is under consideration and decision makers could not agree on a crisp value for weights and decision matrix components, fuzzy numbers should be used. In this article, the fuzzy permutation technique for MCDM problems has been explained. The main deficiency of permutation is its big computational time, so a Tabu Search (TS based algorithm has been proposed to reduce the computational time. A numerical example has illustrated the proposed approach clearly. Then, some benchmark instances extracted from literature are solved by proposed TS. The analyses of the results show the proper performance of the proposed method.
Formula for fixed point resolution matrix of permutation orbifolds
We find a formula for the resolution of fixed points in extensions of permutation orbifold conformal field theories by its (half-)integer spin simple currents. We show that the formula gives a unitary and modular invariant S matrix.
Permutation Orbifolds in Conformal Field Theories and String Theory
2011-01-01
We summarize the results obtained in the last few years about permutation orbifolds in two-dimensional conformal field theories, their application to string theory and their use in the construction of four-dimensional heterotic string models.
Dynamic Permutational Isomerism in a closo-Cluster.
Fu, Junhong; Morshedi, Mahbod; Moxey, Graeme J; Barlow, Adam; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G
2016-04-01
Permutational isomers of trigonal bipyramidal [W2 RhIr2 (CO)9 (η(5) -C5 H5 )2 (η(5) -C5 HMe4 )] result from competitive capping of either a W2 Ir or a WIr2 face of the tetrahedral cluster [W2 Ir2 (CO)10 (η(5) -C5 H5 )2 ] from its reaction with [Rh(CO)2 (η(5) -C5 HMe4 )]. The permutational isomers slowly interconvert in solution by a cluster metal vertex exchange that is proposed to proceed by Rh-Ir and Rh-W bond cleavage and reformation, and via the intermediacy of an edge-bridged tetrahedral transition state. The permutational isomers display differing chemical and physical properties: replacement of CO by PPh3 occurs at one permutational isomer only, while the isomers display distinct optical power limiting behavior. PMID:26868979
Multiscale Permutation Entropy Based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis
Jinde Zheng; Junsheng Cheng; Yu Yang
2014-01-01
A new rolling bearing fault diagnosis approach based on multiscale permutation entropy (MPE), Laplacian score (LS), and support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed in this paper. Permutation entropy (PE) was recently proposed and defined to measure the randomicity and detect dynamical changes of time series. However, for the complexity of mechanical systems, the randomicity and dynamic changes of the vibration signal will exist in different scales. Thus, the definition of MPE is introduced and...
Permutation Polynomials of Degree 6 or 7 over Finite Fields of Characteristic 2
Li, Jiyou; Chandler, David B.; Xiang, Qing
2010-01-01
In \\cite{D1}, Dickson listed all permutation polynomials up to degree 5 over an arbitrary finite field, and all permutation polynomials of degree 6 over finite fields of odd characteristic. The classification of degree 6 permutation polynomials over finite fields of characteristic 2 was left incomplete. In this paper we complete the classification of permutation polynomials of degree 6 over finite fields of characteristic 2. In addition, all permutation polynomials of degree 7 over finite fie...
Some illustrative examples of permutability of fuzzy operators and fuzzy relations
Bragard, J.; Recasens-Ferres, J. (Jorge); Elorza-Barbajero, J. (Jorge); Carmona-Cervelló, N. (Neus)
2014-01-01
Composition of fuzzy operators often appears and it is natural to ask when the order of composition does not change the result. In previous papers, we characterized permutability in the case of fuzzy consequence operators and fuzzy interior operators. We also showed the connection between the permutability of the fuzzy relations and the permutability of their induced fuzzy operators. In this work we present some examples of permutability and non permutability of fuzzy operators and fuzzy rela...
Permutation Polynomials of Degree 6 or 7 over Finite Fields of Characteristic 2
Li, Jiyou; Xiang, Qing
2010-01-01
In \\cite{D1}, Dickson listed all permutation polynomials up to degree 5 over an arbitrary finite field, and all permutation polynomials of degree 6 over finite fields of odd characteristic. The classification of degree 6 permutation polynomials over finite fields of characteristic 2 was left incomplete. In this paper we complete the classification of permutation polynomials of degree 6 over finite fields of characteristic 2. In addition, all permutation polynomials of degree 7 over finite fields of characteristic 2 are classified.
On permutation-twisted free fermions and two conjectures
We conjecture that the category of permutation-twisted modules for a multi-fold tensor product vertex operator superalgebra and a cyclic permutation of even order is isomorphic to the category of parity-twisted modules for the underlying vertex operator superalgebra. This conjecture is based on our observations of the cyclic permutation-twisted modules for free fermions as we discuss in this work, as well as previous work of the first author constructing and classifying permutation-twisted modules for tensor product vertex operator superalgebras and a permutation of odd order. In addition, we observe that the transposition isomorphism for two free fermions corresponds to a lift of the −1 isometry of the integral lattice vertex operator superalgebra corresponding to two free fermions under boson-fermion correspondence. We conjecture that all even order cyclic permutation automorphisms of free fermions can be realized as lifts of lattice isometries under boson-fermion correspondence. We discuss the role of parity stability in the construction of these twisted modules and prove that in general, parity-unstable weak twisted modules for a vertex operator superalgebras come in pairs that form orthogonal invariant subspaces of parity-stable weak twisted modules, clarifying their role in many other settings
A Comparative Study on the Performance of Permutation Algorithms
Bassil, Youssef
2012-01-01
Permutation is the different arrangements that can be made with a given number of things taking some or all of them at a time. The notation P(n,r) is used to denote the number of permutations of n things taken r at a time. Permutation is used in various fields such as mathematics, group theory, statistics, and computing, to solve several combinatorial problems such as the job assignment problem and the traveling salesman problem. In effect, permutation algorithms have been studied and experimented for many years now. Bottom-Up, Lexicography, and Johnson-Trotter are three of the most popular permutation algorithms that emerged during the past decades. In this paper, we are implementing three of the most eminent permutation algorithms, they are respectively: Bottom-Up, Lexicography, and Johnson-Trotter algorithms. The implementation of each algorithm will be carried out using two different approaches: brute-force and divide and conquer. The algorithms codes will be tested using a computer simulation tool to mea...
Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes
Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh
2016-02-01
The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing.
Permutation centralizer algebras and multimatrix invariants
Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2016-03-01
We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multimatrix gauge-invariant observables. One family of such noncommutative algebras is parametrized by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of two-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its center and its maximally commuting subalgebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The center of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multimatrix correlators. These generate the counting of a certain class of bicoloured ribbon graphs with arbitrary genus.
Permutation combinatorics of worldsheet moduli space
Freidel, Laurent; Garner, David; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2015-06-01
Light-cone string diagrams have been used to reproduce the orbifold Euler characteristic of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces at low genus and with few punctures. Nakamura studied the meromorphic differential introduced by Giddings and Wolpert to characterize light-cone diagrams and introduced a class of graphs related to this differential. These Nakamura graphs were used to parametrize the cells in a light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space. We develop links between Nakamura graphs and realizations of the worldsheet as branched covers. This leads to a development of the combinatorics of Nakamura graphs in terms of permutation tuples. For certain classes of cells, including those of the top dimension, there is a simple relation to Belyi maps, which allows us to use results from Hermitian and complex matrix models to give analytic formulas for the counting of cells at an arbitrarily high genus. For the most general cells, we develop a new equivalence relation on Hurwitz classes which organizes the cells and allows efficient enumeration of Nakamura graphs using the group theory software gap.
Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei; Xie, Yong
2016-01-01
In this contribution, the toxicological effects of C.I. Acid Red 2 and 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) have been elucidated by utilizing plasma albumin as a biological model. Fluorescence data indicated that the Trp-214 residue was quenched by both azo compounds, but the quenching degree of C.I. Acid Red 2 is less than PAN. According to the results of time-resolved fluorescence decay, it may be observed that the quenching of Trp-214 residue is controlled by static type; this corroborates the Stern-Volmer analyses and the conformational transition of protein was concurred. The experiments also found that azo colorants are situated within subdomain IIA, several amino acid residues, such as Ser-202, Ala-210, and Trp-214 were believed to be yielded direct interaction with the two chemicals, yet the operating distances between C.I. Acid Red 2 and relevant residues are greater than PAN. Interestingly, we may ascertain that the azo colorants with naphthalene ring possess stronger affinity with protein than those just having benzene ring in their molecular structure. This suggested that the existence of naphthalene ring substituent could hold relatively great risk for the human body due to large hydrophobicity (cLogP); therefore, the hydrophobicity of azo colorants can probably be a major element of its toxicological activities. PMID:26682933
Christopher J Reed
Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.
Tight bounds on the threshold for permuted k-colorability
Dani, Varsha; Olson, Anna
2011-01-01
If each edge (u,v) of a graph G=(V,E) is decorated with a permutation pi_{u,v} of k objects, we say that it has a permuted k-coloring if there is a coloring sigma from V to {1,...,k} such that sigma(v) is different from pi_{u,v}(sigma(u)) for all (u,v) in E. Based on arguments from statistical physics, we conjecture that the threshold d_k for permuted k-colorability in random graphs G(n,m=dn/2), where the permutations on the edges are uniformly random, is equal to the threshold for standard graph k-colorability. The additional symmetry provided by random permutations makes it easier to prove bounds on d_k. By applying the second moment method with these additional symmetries, and applying the first moment method to a random variable that depends on the number of available colors at each vertex, we bound the threshold within an additive constant. Specifically, we show that for any constant epsilon > 0, for sufficiently large k we have 2 k ln k - ln k - 2 - epsilon < d_k < 2 k ln k - ln k - 1 + epsilon. I...
Permutation Complexity and Coupling Measures in Hidden Markov Models
Taichi Haruna
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, the duality between values (words and orderings (permutations has been proposed by the authors as a basis to discuss the relationship between information theoretic measures for finite-alphabet stationary stochastic processes and their permutatio nanalogues. It has been used to give a simple proof of the equality between the entropy rate and the permutation entropy rate for any finite-alphabet stationary stochastic process and to show some results on the excess entropy and the transfer entropy for finite-alphabet stationary ergodic Markov processes. In this paper, we extend our previous results to hidden Markov models and show the equalities between various information theoretic complexity and coupling measures and their permutation analogues. In particular, we show the following two results within the realm of hidden Markov models with ergodic internal processes: the two permutation analogues of the transfer entropy, the symbolic transfer entropy and the transfer entropy on rank vectors, are both equivalent to the transfer entropy if they are considered as the rates, and the directed information theory can be captured by the permutation entropy approach.
Sensitive detection of p65 homodimers using red-shifted and fluorescent protein-based FRET couples.
Joachim Goedhart
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET between the green fluorescent protein (GFP variants CFP and YFP is widely used for the detection of protein-protein interactions. Nowadays, several monomeric red-shifted fluorescent proteins are available that potentially improve the efficiency of FRET. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To allow side-by-side comparison of several fluorescent protein combinations for detection of FRET, yellow or orange fluorescent proteins were directly fused to red fluorescent proteins. FRET from yellow fluorescent proteins to red fluorescent proteins was detected by both FLIM and donor dequenching upon acceptor photobleaching, showing that mCherry and mStrawberry were more efficient acceptors than mRFP1. Circular permutated yellow fluorescent protein variants revealed that in the tandem constructs the orientation of the transition dipole moment influences the FRET efficiency. In addition, it was demonstrated that the orange fluorescent proteins mKO and mOrange are both suitable as donor for FRET studies. The most favorable orange-red FRET pair was mKO-mCherry, which was used to detect homodimerization of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 in single living cells, with a threefold higher lifetime contrast and a twofold higher FRET efficiency than for CFP-YFP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed high FRET efficiency of red-shifted couples is in accordance with increased Förster radii of up to 64 A, being significantly higher than the Förster radius of the commonly used CFP-YFP pair. Thus, red-shifted FRET pairs are preferable for detecting protein-protein interactions by donor-based FRET methods in single living cells.
Wei Chin-Chuan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide generated by non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (NOXs is of growing importance for physiology and pathobiology. The calcium binding domain (CaBD of NOX5 contains four EF-hands, each binding one calcium ion. To better understand the metal binding properties of the 1st and 2nd EF-hands, we characterized the N-terminal half of CaBD (NCaBD and its calcium-binding knockout mutants. Results The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement for NCaBD reveals that the calcium binding of two EF-hands are loosely associated with each other and can be treated as independent binding events. However, the Ca2+ binding studies on NCaBD(E31Q and NCaBD(E63Q showed their binding constants to be 6.5 × 105 and 5.0 × 102 M-1 with ΔHs of -14 and -4 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that intrinsic calcium binding for the 1st non-canonical EF-hand is largely enhanced by the binding of Ca2+ to the 2nd canonical EF-hand. The fluorescence quenching and CD spectra support a conformational change upon Ca2+ binding, which changes Trp residues toward a more non-polar and exposed environment and also increases its α-helix secondary structure content. All measurements exclude Mg2+-binding in NCaBD. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 1st non-canonical EF-hand of NOX5 has very weak Ca2+ binding affinity compared with the 2nd canonical EF-hand. Both EF-hands interact with each other in a cooperative manner to enhance their Ca2+ binding affinity. Our characterization reveals that the two EF-hands in the N-terminal NOX5 are Ca2+ specific. Graphical abstract
Non-Abelian braid statistics versus projective permutation statistics
Recent papers by Finkelstein, Galiautdinov, and co-workers [J. Math. Phys. 42, 1489 (2001); 42, 3299 (2001)] discuss a suggestion by Wilczek that non-Abelian projective representations of the permutation group can be used as a new type of particle statistics, valid in any dimension. Wilczek's suggestion was based in part on an analysis by Nayak and Wilczek (NW) of the non-Abelian representation of the braid group in a quantum Hall system. We point out that projective permutation statistics is not possible in a local quantum field theory as it violates locality, and show that the NW braid group representation is not equivalent to a projective representation of the permutation group. The structure of the finite image of the braid group in a 2n/2-1-dimensional representation is obtained
Quantum mechanics and permutation invariants of finite groups
We study quantum behavior from a constructive 'finite' point of view, since the introduction of continuum or other actual infinities into physics poses serious conceptual and technical difficulties without any need for these concepts in physics as an empirical science. Taking this approach, we can show that the quantum-mechanical problems can be formulated in the invariant subspaces of permutation representations of finite groups, while the quantum interferences occur as phenomena that are observable in these subspaces. The scalar products in the invariant subspaces (which are needed for formulating the Born rule – the main postulate of quantum mechanics that links mathematical description with experiment) are linear combinations of independent bilinear invariant forms of the permutation representation. A complete set of such forms for any permutation group can be easily calculated by a simple algorithm. Slightly more sophisticated algorithms are required for expressing quantum observables in terms of these forms.
Determination of Pavement Rehabilitation Activities through a Permutation Algorithm
Sangyum Lee
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical programming model for optimal pavement rehabilitation planning. The model maximized the rehabilitation area through a newly developed permutation algorithm, based on the procedures outlined in the harmony search (HS algorithm. Additionally, the proposed algorithm was based on an optimal solution method for the problem of multilocation rehabilitation activities on pavement structure, using empirical deterioration and rehabilitation effectiveness models, according to a limited maintenance budget. Thus, nonlinear pavement performance and rehabilitation activity decision models were used to maximize the objective functions of the rehabilitation area within a limited budget, through the permutation algorithm. Our results showed that the heuristic permutation algorithm provided a good optimum in terms of maximizing the rehabilitation area, compared with a method of the worst-first maintenance currently used in Seoul.
Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content Authentication for Watermarking
S.Maruthuperumal
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In modern days, digital watermarking has become an admired technique for hitting data in digital images to help guard against copyright infringement. The proposed Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content authentication (PHBC methods develop a secure and excellence strong watermarking algorithm that combines the reward of permutation-based Homogeneous block (PHB with that of significant and insignificant bit values with X0R encryption function using Max coefficient of least coordinate value for embedding the watermark. In the projected system uses the relationship between the permutation blocks to embed many data into Homogeneous blocks without causing solemn distortion to the watermarked image. The experimental results show that the projected system is very efficient in achieving perceptual invisibility with an increase in the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. Moreover, the projected system is robust to a variety of signal processing operations, such as image Cropping, Rotation, Resizing, Adding noise, Filtering , Blurring and Motion blurring.
Permutations and the combinatorics of gauge invariants for general N
Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2016-01-01
Group algebras of permutations have proved highly useful in solving a number of problems in large N gauge theories. I review the use of permutations in classifying gauge invariants in one-matrix and multi-matrix models and computing their correlators. These methods are also applicable to tensor models and have revealed a link between tensor models and the counting of branched covers. The key idea is to parametrize $U(N)$ gauge invariants using permutations, subject to equivalences. Correlators are related to group theoretic properties of these equivalence classes. Fourier transformation on symmetric groups by means of representation theory offers nice bases of functions on these equivalence classes. This has applications in AdS/CFT in identifying CFT duals of giant gravitons and their perturbations. It has also lead to general results on quiver gauge theory correlators, uncovering links to two dimensional topological field theory and the combinatorics of trace monoids.
Bipartite Graphs Related to Mutually Disjoint S-Permutation Matrices
Krasimir Yordzhev
2012-01-01
Some numerical characteristics of bipartite graphs in relation to the problem of finding all disjoint pairs of S-permutation matrices in the general $n^2 \\times n^2$ case are discussed in this paper. All bipartite graphs of the type $g=$, where $|R_g |=|C_g |=2$ or $|R_g |=|C_g |=3$ are provided. The cardinality of the sets of mutually disjoint S-permutation matrices in both the $4 \\times 4$ and $9 \\times 9$ cases are calculated.
Detecting regular dynamics from time series using permutations slopes
Eyebe Fouda, J. S. Armand; Koepf, Wolfram
2015-10-01
In this paper we present the entropy related to the largest slope of the permutation as an efficient approach for distinguishing between regular and non-regular dynamics, as well as the similarities between this method and the three-state test (3ST) algorithm. We theoretically establish that for suitably chosen delay times, permutations generated in the case of regular dynamics present the same largest slope if their order is greater than the period of the underlying orbit. This investigation helps making a clear decision (even in a noisy environment) in the detection of regular dynamics with large periods for which PE gives an arbitrary nonzero complexity measure.
Permutation entropy of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise
We have worked out theoretical curves for the permutation entropy of the fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise by using the Bandt and Shiha [C. Bandt, F. Shiha, J. Time Ser. Anal. 28 (2007) 646] theoretical predictions for their corresponding relative frequencies. Comparisons with numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, the entropy-gap in the transition between these processes, observed previously via numerical results, has been here theoretically validated. Also, we have analyzed the behaviour of the permutation entropy of the fractional Gaussian noise for different time delays
Yang-Baxter R-operators and parameter permutations
We present an uniform construction of the solution to the Yang-Baxter equation with the symmetry algebra sl(2) and its deformations: the q-deformation and the elliptic deformation or Sklyanin algebra. The R-operator acting in the tensor product of two representations of the symmetry algebra with arbitrary spins l1 and l2 is built in terms of products of three basic operators S1, S2, S3 which are constructed explicitly. They have the simple meaning of representing elementary permutations of the symmetric group S4, the permutation group of the four parameters entering the RLL-relation
Free-field representation of permutation branes in Gepner models
We consider a free-field realization of Gepner models based on the free-field realization of N = 2 superconformal minimal models. Using this realization, we analyze the A/B-type boundary conditions starting from the ansatz with the left-moving and right-moving free-field degrees of freedom glued at the boundary by an arbitrary constant matrix. We show that the only boundary conditions consistent with the singular vector structure of unitary minimal model representations are given by permutation matrices, thereby yielding an explicit free-field construction of the permutation branes of Recknagel
A Permutation Test for Identifying Significant Clusters in Spatial Dataset
TANG Jianbo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Spatial hierarchical clustering methods considering both spatial proximity and attribute similarity play an important role in exploratory spatial data analysis. Although existing methods are able to detect multi-scale homogeneous spatial contiguous clusters, the significance of these clusters cannot be evaluated in an objective way. In this study, a permutation test was developed to determine the significance of clusters discovered by spatial hierarchical clustering methods. Experiments on both simulated and meteorological datasets show that the proposed permutation test is effective for determining significant clustering structures from spatial datasets.
Profile classes and partial well-order for permutations
Murphy, Maximillian; Vatter, Vincent
2003-01-01
It is known that the set of permutations, under the pattern containment ordering, is not a partial well-order. Characterizing the partially well-ordered closed sets (equivalently: down sets or ideals) in this poset remains a wide-open problem. Given a 0/+-1 matrix M, we define a closed set of permutations called the profile class of M. These sets are generalizations of sets considered by Atkinson, Murphy, and Ruskuc. We show that the profile class of M is partially well-ordered if and only if...
On the topology of the permutation pattern poset
McNamara, Peter R. W.; Steingrimsson, Einar
2013-01-01
The set of all permutations, ordered by pattern containment, forms a poset. This paper presents the first explicit major results on the topology of intervals in this poset. We show that almost all (open) intervals in this poset have a disconnected subinterval and are thus not shellable. Nevertheless, there seem to be large classes of intervals that are shellable and thus have the homotopy type of a wedge of spheres. We prove this to be the case for all intervals of layered permutations that h...
On permutation symmetries of hopfield model neural network
Boxi Wu
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Discrete Hopfield neural network (DHNN is studied by performing permutation operations on the synaptic weight matrix. The storable patterns set stored with Hebbian learning algorithm in a network without losing memories is studied, and a condition which makes sure all the patterns of the storable patterns set have a same basin size of attraction is proposed. Then, the permutation symmetries of the network are studied associating with the stored patterns set. A construction of the storable patterns set satisfying that condition is achieved by consideration of their invariance under a point group.
A reduction theorem for primitive binary permutation groups
Wiscons, Joshua
2015-01-01
A permutation group $(X,G)$ is said to be binary, or of relational complexity $2$, if for all $n$, the orbits of $G$ (acting diagonally) on $X^2$ determine the orbits of $G$ on $X^n$ in the following sense: for all $\\bar{x},\\bar{y} \\in X^n$, $\\bar{x}$ and $\\bar{y}$ are $G$-conjugate if and only if every pair of entries from $\\bar{x}$ is $G$-conjugate to the corresponding pair from $\\bar{y}$. Cherlin has conjectured that the only finite primitive binary permutation groups are $S_n$, groups of ...
Glycerol acyl-transfer kinetics of a circular permutated Candida antarctica Lipase B
Triacylglycerols containing a high abundance of unusual fatty acids, such as y-linolenic acid, or novel arylaliphatic acids, such as ferulic acid, are useful in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is quite often used for non-aqueous synthesis, although ...
SELF-DUAL PERMUTATION CODES OVER FORMAL POWER SERIES RINGS AND FINITE PRINCIPAL IDEAL RINGS
张光辉; 刘宏伟
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings and finite principal ideal rings. We first give some results on the torsion codes associated with the linear codes over formal power series rings. These results allow for obtaining some conditions for non-existence of self-dual permutation codes over formal power series rings. Finally, we describe self-dual permutation codes over finite principal ideal rings by examining permutation codes over their component chain rings.
Permutation-like Matrix Groups with a Maximal Cycle of Prime Square Length
DENG, GUODONG; Fan, Yun
2013-01-01
A matrix group is said to be permutation-like if any matrix of the group is similar to a permutation matrix. G. Cigler proved that, if a permutation-like matrix group contains a normal cyclic subgroup which is generated by a maximal cycle and the matrix dimension is a prime, then the group is similar to a permutation matrix group. This paper extends the result to the case where the matrix dimension is a square of a prime.
On signed p-Kostka numbers and the indecomposable signed Young permutation modules
Giannelli, Eugenio; Lim, Kay Jin; Wildon, Mark
2015-01-01
We study the modular structure of signed Young permutation modules for symmetric groups. In particular, we give some new reductions for the signed $p$-Kostka numbers, namely the multiplicities of indecomposable signed Young modules as direct summands of signed Young permutation modules. In the second part of the article we completely classify the indecomposable signed Young permutation modules.
Mixing Times of Self-Organizing Lists and Biased Permutations
Bhakta, Prateek; Randall, Dana; Streib, Amanda Pascoe
2012-01-01
Sampling permutations from S_n is a fundamental problem from probability theory. The nearest neighbor transposition chain \\cal{M}}_{nn} is known to converge in time \\Theta(n^3 \\log n) in the uniform case and time \\Theta(n^2) in the constant bias case, in which we put adjacent elements in order with probability p \
APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography
Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey;
2015-01-01
of cryptographic schemes actually require the nonce assumption for their security. In this paper, we propose APE as the first permutation-based authenticated encryption scheme that is resistant against nonce misuse. We formally prove that APE is secure, based on the security of the underlying...
Boson permutation and parity operators: Lie algebra and applications
We show that dichotomic permutation and parity operators for a two-dimensional boson system form an su(2) algebra with a unitary operator that relates, in quantum optics, to a balanced beamsplitter. The algebra greatly simplifies the input-output transformations of states through quantum nonlinear systems such as the Kerr interferometer or the kicked top
Updating Preconditioners for Permuted Non-Symmetric Linear Systems
Birken, P.; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meister, A.; Tůma, Miroslav
2007-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 1022101-1022102. ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100300703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioner updates * sequences of linear systems * nonsymmetric incomplete factorizations * physics-based permutation of linear systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
A Permutation Test for Correlated Errors in Adjacent Questionnaire Items
Hildreth, Laura A.; Genschel, Ulrike; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Lesser, Virginia M.
2013-01-01
Response patterns are of importance to survey researchers because of the insight they provide into the thought processes respondents use to answer survey questions. In this article we propose the use of structural equation modeling to examine response patterns and develop a permutation test to quantify the likelihood of observing a specific…
Permutation symmetry for neutrino and charged-lepton mass matrices
Permutation symmetry S3 is applied to obtain two equal Majorana neutrino masses, while maintaining three different charged-lepton masses and suppressing neutrinoless double beta decay. The resulting radiative splitting of the two neutrinos is shown to be suitable for solar neutrino vacuum oscillations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Note on permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes
In this Letter we show that under BCFW-deformation the large-z behavior of permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes found by Boels and Isermann in (arxiv:1109.5888) can be simply understood from the well known Kleiss-Kuijf relation and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relation.
Permutation Matrix Method for Dense Coding Using GHZ States
We present a new method called the permutation matrix method to perform dense coding using Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We show that this method makes the study of dense coding systematically and regularly. It also has high potential to be realized physically. (general)
Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation
We present different algorithms for mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best-known algorithms. Better algorithms can be derived that are tuned for specific initial states. These algorithms are based on a characterization of the group of all locally realizable permutations of the 4n possible tensor products of n Bell states
Permutation/randomization-based inference for environmental data.
Spicer, R Christopher; Gangloff, Harry J
2016-03-01
Quantitative inference from environmental contaminant data is almost exclusively from within the classic Neyman/Pearson (N/P) hypothesis-testing model, by which the mean serves as the fundamental quantitative measure, but which is constrained by random sampling and the assumption of normality in the data. Permutation/randomization-based inference originally forwarded by R. A. Fisher derives probability directly from the proportion of the occurrences of interest and is not dependent upon the distribution of data or random sampling. Foundationally, the underlying logic and the interpretation of the significance of the two models vary, but inference using either model can often be successfully applied. However, data examples from airborne environmental fungi (mold), asbestos in settled dust, and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) in soil demonstrate potentially misleading inference using traditional N/P hypothesis testing based upon means/variance compared to permutation/randomization inference using differences in frequency of detection (Δf d). Bootstrapping and permutation testing, which are extensions of permutation/randomization, confirm calculated p values via Δf d and should be utilized to verify the appropriateness of a given data analysis by either model. PMID:26850713
Static non-abelian forces and the permutation group
It is shown that the classical static interaction energy of two non-abelian point sources is ambiguous. The ambiguity is discrete and corresponds to the elements of the permutation group on n symbols, if the gauge group is U(n). (Auth.)
An Involution on Involutions and a Generalization of Layered Permutations
Bona, Miklos; Smith, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Taking transposes of Standard Young Tableaux defines a natural involution on the set $I(n)$ of involutions of length $n$ via the the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. In some cases, this involution can be defined without resorting to the Robinson-Schensted correspondence. As a byproduct, we get an interesting generalization of layered permutations.
Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests
LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.
2009-01-01
A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…
Monoids of injective maps closed under conjugation by permutations
Mesyan, Zachary
2010-01-01
Let X be a countably infinite set, Inj(X) the monoid of all injective endomaps of X, and Sym(X) the group of all permutations of X. We classify all submonoids of Inj(X) that are closed under conjugation by elements of Sym(X).
A permutation test for the race model inequality
Gondan, Matthias
2010-01-01
signals. Several statistical procedures have been used for testing the race model inequality. However, the commonly employed procedure does not control the Type I error. In this article a permutation test is described that keeps the Type I error at the desired level. Simulations show that the power of the...
A central limit theorem for a new statistic on permutations
Chatterjee, Sourav; Diaconis, Persi
2016-01-01
This paper does three things: It proves a central limit theorem for a novel permutation statistic, the number of descents plus the number of descents in the inverse. It provides a clear illustration of a new approach to proving central limit theorems more generally. It gives us an opportunity to acknowledge the work of our teacher and friend B. V. Rao.
A new permutational behaviour of spin -3/2 states
A new permutational behaviour of spin -3/2 states under the symetric group S3 defined solely on the spin -3/2 space is demonstrated. The transposition elements of S3 are expressed succintly in terms of the squares of the spin -3/2 matrices. (Author)
Deformation of basaltic shield volcanoes under cointrusive stress permutations
Chaput, Marie; Famin, Vincent; Michon, Laurent
2014-01-01
We performed a microstructural study of Piton des Neiges (La Réunion Island) to understand how intrusions and stresses control each other in basaltic volcanoes. Our study reveals that three perpendicular intrusions trends coexisted during the 2 Myr history of the volcano: a N120-140°E rift zone, a perpendicular dike trend, and swarms of subhorizontal intrusions hereafter called "sill zones". Independently, the inversion of fault-slip data shows that incompatible paleostress fields recurrently occurred along with the intrusions: a dominant NNE-SSW extension, a perpendicular extension, and strike-slip or compressional regimes. The orientations of paleostresses are consistent with the orientations of the three perpendicular intrusion populations. We propose that stress accumulation in the edifice under the effect of repeated magma injections resulted in permutations of the principal axes of the stress tensor, causing a reorientation of subsequent intrusions. Stress permutations were cyclical. Each cycle started with dike injections in an extensional stress field, reducing the deviatoric stress and switching the axes of principal stresses, and finished with sill intrusions in a compressional stress field. Sill zones acted as detachment planes, restoring the extensional stress field and initiating a new cycle of permutations. Our model of stress permutations is in agreement with the pattern of eruptions and deformation observed at Piton de la Fournaise. In contrast with the Hawaiian model of spreading on a décollement, stress permutations in La Réunion's volcanoes imply that the basal deformation of the edifices, if any, is not sufficient to compensate the reduction of deviatoric stress caused by intrusions.
Non-parametric combination and related permutation tests for neuroimaging.
Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Brooks, Jonathan C; Tracey, Irene; Smith, Stephen M; Nichols, Thomas E
2016-04-01
In this work, we show how permutation methods can be applied to combination analyses such as those that include multiple imaging modalities, multiple data acquisitions of the same modality, or simply multiple hypotheses on the same data. Using the well-known definition of union-intersection tests and closed testing procedures, we use synchronized permutations to correct for such multiplicity of tests, allowing flexibility to integrate imaging data with different spatial resolutions, surface and/or volume-based representations of the brain, including non-imaging data. For the problem of joint inference, we propose and evaluate a modification of the recently introduced non-parametric combination (NPC) methodology, such that instead of a two-phase algorithm and large data storage requirements, the inference can be performed in a single phase, with reasonable computational demands. The method compares favorably to classical multivariate tests (such as MANCOVA), even when the latter is assessed using permutations. We also evaluate, in the context of permutation tests, various combining methods that have been proposed in the past decades, and identify those that provide the best control over error rate and power across a range of situations. We show that one of these, the method of Tippett, provides a link between correction for the multiplicity of tests and their combination. Finally, we discuss how the correction can solve certain problems of multiple comparisons in one-way ANOVA designs, and how the combination is distinguished from conjunctions, even though both can be assessed using permutation tests. We also provide a common algorithm that accommodates combination and correction. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1486-1511, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848101