Sample records for cineole eucalyptole reduces

  1. Gastroprotective Mechanisms of the Monoterpene 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol.

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    Full Text Available Recently, our research group identified and reported 1,8-cineole (CIN, a monoterpene that naturally occur in many aromatic plants, as one of the major constituent of the essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM, as well as characterized the gastroprotective action of this oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action involved in the antiulcer and healing activity of CIN, in order to confirm its correlation with the gastroprotective effect of EOHM. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols (acute ulceration, gastrointestinal motility and antisecretory activity. In addition, were determinated the involvement of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups; the levels of gastric mucus, lipid peroxidation, sulphydryl groups and myeloperoxidase activity. The healing ability was evaluated by acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (PCNA, Ki-67 and BrdU. The treatment with CIN inhibited ethanol-, ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The highest doses of CIN inhibited gastric emptying, but did not affect intestinal transit. CIN (100 mg/kg reduced the volume of basal but not stimulated acid secretion. CIN increased levels of mucus (89.3%, prevented depletion of -SH groups (62.6% and reduced the level of lipid peroxidation (55.3% and myeloperoxidase activity (59.4% in the gastric mucosa. In chronic ulcer model, CIN reduced in 43.1% the gastric area lesion, promoted significant regeneration and restoration of the levels of mucus in glandular cells as confirmed by histological analysis; and promoted increase in cell proliferation as evidenced by reactivity for PCNA, Ki-67 and BrdU. This findings demonstrate the role of 1,8-cineole as an important ulcer healing agent and indicate the involvement of antioxidant and cytoprotective mechanisms in the gastroprotective effect of compound. This study also provides evidence that 1,8-cineole is related to the

  2. Inhibitory effect of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) on Egr-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells

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    Jian-ya ZHOU; Xue-fen WANG; Fa-di TANG; Jian-ying ZHOU; Guo-hua LU; Yan WANG; Ru-lian BIAN


    Aim: To study the effects of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) on the expression of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) and NF-κB in the human monocyte THP-1 cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: The THP-1 cells were incu-bated with serial doses of 1,8-cineol (1, 10, and 100 mg/L, 30 rain) before being stimulated with LPS (1 mg/L, 30 rain). The localization of Egr-1 in the THP-1 cells was detected by immunofluorescence and a laser scanning confocal microscope.The expression of Egr- 1 in the nuclei and whole cell, and NF-κB in the nuclei, were measured by Western blot analysis.Results: When stimulated by LPS, the FITC-labeled Egr-1 was detected mainly in the nuclei. Moreover, the expression of Egr-1 in the whole cell increased markedly compared with the control cells. 1,8-Cineol pretreatment decreased the expression of Egr-1 in both the nuclei and whole cell of the LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells, and this effect was concentration-dependent, but there was no reaction on the expression of NF-κB in the nuclei protein in the LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells.Conclusion: In a concentration-depen-dent manner, 1,8-Cineol reduces LPS-induced Egr-1 expression in nuclei and in whole cell of THP-1 cells, but shows no effect on NF-κB expression.

  3. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

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    Orkun Baris Kovanci


    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  4. The influence of environmentally friendly pesticide - Eucalyptol - alone and in combination with terpinen-4-ol - on model bacterial membranes. (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Szydło, Karolina


    Eucalyptus oil is known from antimicrobial properties and due to natural origin and low toxicity it can be applied as a green pesticide. This plant extract is a mixture of compounds among which Eucalyptol prevails strongly over the number of minor components including terpinen-4-ol. However, antimicrobial effect of total extract is stronger than the effect of its major component. The mechanism of action of essential oils involves their incorporation into membrane of pathogenic cell. To investigate the effect of eucalyptus oil components on bacterial membrane in this work the influence of Eucalyptol on model lipid systems of various compositions was studied and then compared with the effect induced by the mixture of Eucalyptol and terpinen-4-ol. The analysis of the lipid monolayer properties modified by the presence of the essential oils evidenced that Eucalyptol reduces the lipids packing and decreases membrane rigidity, however, its influence is determined both by the concentration of this terpene and by the composition of lipid film. As indicated the results of calculation of the surface excess values Eucalyptol molecules tend to adsorb at the interface, however, at higher concentration in the subphase, the molecules undergo desorption at membrane-related surface pressure. By mixing of Eucalyptol and terpinen-4-ol stronger monolayer fluidization and destabilization can be achieved as well as stronger adsorption, even at higher surface pressures, occurs. However, these effects are also determined by the composition of model system. The collected data suggest that these compounds may act by penetrating bacterial membrane. Moreover, it can be proposed that although Eucalyptol is a major component of the Eucalyptus oil the antimicrobial effect of total extract is generated also by a minor component. This may explain stronger antimicrobial effect of Eucalyptus oil as compared to sole Eucalyptol confirmed in biological studies. PMID:27472454

  5. Production of cineole from Eucalyptus: a preliminary report

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    Donald, D.G.M.


    Work was carried out to assess the feasibility of improving cineole oil yields using selected clones in intensively managed plantations on a short cutting cycle. Clones of E. dives var. c, E. radiata var. australiana and E. polybractea were studied, and results indicated that improvement was possible. (Refs. 11).

  6. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

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    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler


    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  7. Effect of Chloroform, Eucalyptol and Orange Oil Solvents on the Microhardness of Human Root Dentin


    Sedigheh Khedmat; Alaleh Hashemi; Fatemeh Dibaji; Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard


    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each ...

  8. The effect of chloroform, orange oil and eucalyptol on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment. (United States)

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Kol, Elif; Bayrakdar, İbrahim Şevki; Arslan, Hakan


    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of solvents on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment. Sixty extracted human permanent mandibular first molars with curved root canals were selected. All of the root canals were prepared using Twisted File Adaptive instruments (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) using the cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were assigned to four retreatment groups as follows (n = 15): eucalyptol, chloroform, orange oil and control. The canals were scanned using cone-beam computed tomography scanning before and after instrumentation. The chloroform group showed a significantly higher mean transportation value than the orange oil and control groups at the 3 and 5 mm levels (P = 0.011 and P = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference among the orange oil, eucalyptol and control groups in terms of canal transportation (P > 0.61). The chloroform led to more canal transportation than the eucalyptol and orange oil during endodontic retreatment. PMID:26420757

  9. Effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.

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    Sedigheh Khedmat


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each control group. Primary microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Specimens were exposed to solvents for 15 minutes and were subjected to microhardness testing again. Data were recorded and analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA.No significant difference was found in dentin microhardness before and after exposure to solvents in any of the orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform or saline groups (P=0.727. None of the experimental groups showed any significant difference in terms of dentin microhardness reduction (P=0.99 and had no significant difference with the negative control group.This study showed that chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil as gutta percha solvents did not decrease the microhardness of root dentin. Thus, none of the mentioned solvents has any superiority over the others in terms of affecting dentin properties.

  10. Prenatal Association between a Chemosensory Cue (Cineole) and Ethanol Postabsortive Effects Modulates Later Operant Responsiveness to Cineole-Flavored Milk in 1 Day Old Rats


    March, Samanta Mabel


    Near-term rat fetuses detect and associate ethanol’s sensory and postabsortive properties. We aimed to evaluate changes upon operant conditioning in neonates, as a function of prenatal ethanol-mediated associative experiences. Prenatal treatments were: Paired group, dams administered (i.g.) with cineole and 15-min later with EtOH (2.0 g/kg); Long-delay group, dams received cineole 6 hours before ethanol intoxication; Water group, dams received two administrations of water separated by 15 min....


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    Anita Liška


    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.



    Anita Liška


    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. In general, fumigant activity of all th...



    Anita Liška


    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. Ingeneral, fumi...

  14. 1,8-Cineole Ameliorates Steatosis of Pten Liver Specific KO Mice via Akt Inactivation

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    Soichiro Murata


    Full Text Available Hepatocyte-specific Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten-knockout (KO mice exhibit hepatic lesions analogous to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. 1,8-cineole is a monoterpene oxide and it has several biological effects including hepatoprotective effects. In this study we revealed that 1,8-cineole ameliorates NASH of Pten KO mice. Pten KO mice were assigned to a control group without any medication or to a 1,8-cineole group injected with 50 mg/kg i.p. twice per week for eight weeks. At eight weeks, livers from each group were processed to measure triglyceride (TG content, gene expression analysis, western blot analysis, and histological examination including Oil red O staining. 1,8-cineole ameliorated hepatic steatosis in Pten KO mice, revealed by TG content and Oil red O staining. Moreover, 1,8-cineole downregulated collagen 1a1 expression and improved liver fibrosis. Thus, 1,8-cineole has potential as a candidate to treat NASH by inactivating the Akt/PI3-kinase pathway.

  15. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

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    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla


    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  16. Prenatal Association between a Chemosensory Cue (Cineole and Ethanol Postabsortive Effects Modulates Later Operant Responsiveness to Cineole-Flavored Milk in 1 Day Old Rats

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    March, Samanta Mabel


    Full Text Available Near-term rat fetuses detect and associate ethanol’s sensory and postabsortive properties. We aimed to evaluate changes upon operant conditioning in neonates, as a function of prenatal ethanol-mediated associative experiences. Prenatal treatments were: Paired group, dams administered (i.g. with cineole and 15-min later with EtOH (2.0 g/kg; Long-delay group, dams received cineole 6 hours before ethanol intoxication; Water group, dams received two administrations of water separated by 15 min. On PD1 neonates were trained in an operant task. Two different learning conditions were used. Paired pups were trained under a FR=1 reinforcement schedule. Yoked pups received the reinforcer but, unrelated to their own behavior. Milk or Cineole-flavored milk were the reinforce solutions. Present results support the idea that ethanol-related prenatal memories modulate operant responsiveness when pups are re-exposed to cues that predict toxic consequences of the drug.

  17. Enhancement of Mycophenolate Mofetil Permeation for Topical Use by Eucalyptol and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (United States)

    Songkram, Chalermkiat


    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA) which can be metabolized by esterase. MMF has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for treatment of psoriasis patient with skin symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether MMF is efficiently effective to treat skin symptoms developed from psoriasis. The insufficient amount of MMF penetrating through the skin results in the treatment failure due to the difficulty in MMF penetration through the stratum corneum. Skin permeation enhancers such as eucalyptol (EUL) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) potentially aid in increasing skin penetration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a concentration ratio (% w/v) between two enhancers (EUL and NMP). The results showed that EUL enhanced MMF permeation with an enhancement ratio (ER) of 3.44 while NMP was not able to promote the penetration of MMF. Interestingly, the synergistic effect of the two enhancers was observed with a suitable ratio given that the ER was 8.21. EUL and NMP are promising enhancers for the development of MMF based skin product. PMID:27069715

  18. Synergies of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole to inhibit bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables. (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Azerêdo, Geíza Alves; de Araújo Torres, Rayanne; da Silva Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; de Souza, Evandro Leite


    This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole against bacteria associated with minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, time-kill assay in vegetable broth and application in vegetable matrices. Their effects, individually and in combination, on the sensory characteristics of the vegetables were also determined. Carvacrol and 1,8-cineole displayed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) in a range of 0.6-2.5 and 5-20 μL/mL, respectively, against the organisms studied. FIC indices of the combined application of the compounds were 0.25 against Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, suggesting a synergic interaction. Application of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole alone (MIC) or in a mixture (1/8 MIC+1/8 MIC or 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) in vegetable broth caused a significant decrease (pvegetable broth and in experimentally inoculated fresh-cut vegetables. A similar efficacy was observed in the reduction of naturally occurring microorganisms in vegetables. Sensory evaluation revealed that the scores of the most-evaluated attributes fell between "like slightly" and "neither like nor dislike." The combination of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole at sub-inhibitory concentrations could constitute an interesting approach to sanitizing minimally processed vegetables. PMID:22273461

  19. Priming effects of leaves of Laurus nobilis L. and 1,8-cineole on carbon mineralization

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    Burak Kocak


    Full Text Available Plant secondary compounds can have stimulating effect on C cycling and change its rate in soils. We examined how leaves of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.; Lauraceae and 1,8-cineole (CIN, one of its constituents, affect soil C mineralization and its rate. Leaves and soil samples of bay laurel were taken from Cukurova University Campus (Adana, Turkey growing naturally under Mediterranean climate conditions. Leaves and CIN were considered as the two forms of organic C sources. After determining the level of 1,8-cineole in leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, soils were mixed with powdered leaves and 1,8-cineole based on their C contents at same and half doses of soil organic C level. Carbon mineralization of all soils was determined over 54 d (28 °C, 80% field capacity. While 1,8-cineole was found as a major constituent of leaves (65% of essential oil, all doses of leaves and CIN increased soil microbial activity. There were significant differences for C mineralization rate between control and all applications (P < 0.05. High C levels of all treatments decreased C mineralization rate compared to control soils. In summary, all treatments stimulated C mineralization and it is possible to conclude that soil microorganisms adapted to use CIN as an energy source.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Antitumoral Activity of Liposomal Antisense Oligonucleotides by Cineole as a Chemical Penetration Enhancer

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    Hamid Reza Moghimi


    Full Text Available Cellular uptake and cytoplasmic release of liposomal antisense oligonucleotides (AsODNs, which can act as rate-limiting steps, are still remained to be completely optimized. Here, the possibility of enhancing such processes at cellular and animal levels by cineole, as a penetration enhancer, was investigated. A cationic nanoliposome containing an AsODN against PKC-α and a cineole-containing nanoliposome were prepared and characterized. The effect of nanoliposomal cineole on sequence-specific cytotoxicity of nanoliposomal AsODN against A549, was studied in vitro (MTT, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and real time PCR and in vivo (xenograft lung tumor in nude mice using different concentrations and treatment times. Results showed specific cytotoxicity of nanoliposomal AsODN was increased significantly from 11% to 25% when A549 cells were exposed to 10 µg/mL cineole for 1 or 4 hours. This inhibitory effect was further increased to about 40% when the concentration was increased to 40 µg/mL for 1 hour. In animal studies, cineole significantly decreased the tumor volume (about 75% and increased its doubling time from 13 days to 31 days. A linear relationship exists between cineole concentration and its enhancement effects. Finally it was concluded that cineole, and possibly other membrane fluidizers, can improve nanoliposomal gene therapy at cellular and animal levels.

  1. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling. (United States)

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J


    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators. PMID:26669427

  2. The Effect of 1,8-Cineole Inhalation on Preoperative Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial


    Ka Young Kim; Hyo Jin Seo; Sun Seek Min; Mira Park; Geun Hee Seol


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of eucalyptus oil and its constituents on anxiety in patients before selective nerve root block (SNRB). This study was a randomized controlled trial carried out in 62 patients before SNRB. The patients were randomized to inhale limonene, 1,8-cineole, or eucalyptus oil, each at concentrations of 1% vol/vol in almond oil or almond oil (control). Anxiety-visual analog scale (A-VAS), state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), profile of...

  3. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish

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    Kyung-Hyun Cho1,2,*


    Full Text Available We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Hypercholesterolemiawas induced in zebrafish using cholesterol-feedingtreatment, 4% cholesterol, for 3 weeks. After feeding with orwithout the addition of cineole, the results revealed that cineolepossessed lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activitiesin hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. In addition, serum amyloidA and interleukin-6 levels were lowered and lipid accumulationwas decreased in the liver. Conclusively, 1,8-cineole wasfound to have anti-oxidant activities in lipoprotein metabolismboth in vitro and in vivo with simultaneous reduction of lipidaccumulation in the liver of zebrafish.

  4. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole). (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh


    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product. PMID:22955501

  5. 1,8-cineole protected human lipoproteins from modification by oxidation and glycation and exhibited serum lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish


    Kyung-Hyun Cho


    We recently reported that a water extract of laurel or turmeric,1,8-cineole enriched fractions, showed hypolipidemic activityin the zebrafish model. Therefore, the present study investigatedthe cineole’s anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activitiesin lipoprotein metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Cineolehad inhibitory effects on cupric ion-mediated oxidation of lipoproteinsin general, while simultaneously enhancing ferric ionremoval ability in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hypercholesterolem...

  6. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by solid-state fermentation of Eucalyptus waste from the essential oil industry using Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus. (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra; Dambolena, José Sebastián; Lucini, Enrique; Jaramillo Mejía, Santiago; Albertó, Edgardo; Zygadlo, Julio A


    Biotechnological conversion of low-cost agro-industrial by-products, such as industrial waste or terpenes from the distillation of essential oils from plants into more valuable oxygenated derivatives, can be achieved by using microbial cells or enzymes. In Argentina, the essential oil industry produces several tons of waste each year that could be used as raw materials in the production of industrially relevant and value-added compounds. In this study, 1,8-cineole, one of the components remaining in the spent leaves of the Eucalyptus cinerea waste, was transformed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using the two edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Favolus tenuiculus. As a result, two new oxygenated derivatives of 1,8-cineole were identified: 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-ol and 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2.2.2]octan-6-one. Additionally, changes in the relative percentages of other aroma compounds present in the substrate were observed during SSF. Both fungal strains have the ability to produce aroma compounds with potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26342920

  7. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite


    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables. PMID:25710162

  8. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoe Nakashima


    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  9. Essential oil compounds as stress reducing agents in rats. (United States)

    Kaewwongse, M; Sanesuwan, K; Pupa, P; Bullangpoti, V


    Essential oil compounds were studied to demonstrate their potential as stress reducing agents against rats. Rats were intraperitoneal administered with Linalool, Cineole and Thymol, respectively. Anxiety-related behaviors were determined by open field test and elevated plus maze test. Thymol reduced anxiety-related behavior of the animals. Linalool had no effect in both sexes of rats in the open field test. Thus, the results suggested that Thymol and Linalool are safe to control pets without harming non-target mammals PMID:25145237

  10. Drug: D04115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04115 Drug Eucalyptol (USAN); Cineole C10H18O 154.1358 154.2493 D04115.gif Same as: C09844 ATC ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA13 Cineole D0 ...

  11. A comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oil from Eucalyptus globulus growing in Dehradun (India) andaround the world.


    Archana Joshi; Ashutosh Sharma; R. K. Bachheti; Pandey, D. P.


    Due to increasing use of natural products, essential oil are also in great demand in various field such as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulusgrown in Dehradun, India. A total of twenty seven compounds were identified from the essential oil, by Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy representing 100 % of the total oil.The dominant compounds being Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) 54.79 %, β-...

  12. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  13. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren


    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results...

  14. Eucalyptus (United States)

    ... with a combination of eucalyptus oil, lavender, marjoram, rosemary, and peppermint oils might reduce pain and depression ... ModerateBe cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.AmphetaminesInhaling eucalyptol, a chemical found in eucalyptus ...

  15. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  16. Reducing Erosion and Runoff


    Relf, Diane


    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  17. Reducing Childhood Obesity (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  18. Reduced Extended MHD (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.


    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  19. Reducing Childhood Obesity (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  20. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.


    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  1. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.


    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  2. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr90, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  3. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  4. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei


    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  5. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana


    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  6. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)


    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  7. Risk-reducing mastectomy. (United States)

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S


    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  8. Reducing Children's Media Viewing


    Erin Clyne; Jason, Leonard A.


    This case study evaluates the use of a Restrictive aide and the complementary use of parental mediation techniques to reduce media viewing among children. A family was provided a TV Token Timer, which involved a positive reward in exchange for participating in activities outside of watching television. Media viewing habits decreased from the baseline to the completion of the intervention at week 8 for both children. The parent reported high levels of Instructive mediation and positively evalu...

  9. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias


    Pope, Devin G.; Price, Joseph; Wolfers, Justin


    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  10. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs


    Stojanov Ana


    This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reason...

  11. Reducing volcanic risk (United States)

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.


    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  12. Coupling Reduces Noise


    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John. F.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.


    We demonstrate how coupling nonlinear dynamical systems can reduce the effects of noise. For simplicity we investigate noisy coupled map lattices. Noise from different lattice nodes can diffuse across the lattice and lower the noise level of individual nodes. We develop a theoretical model that explains this observed noise evolution and show how the coupled dynamics can naturally function as an averaging filter. Our numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the model predictions.

  13. Does democracy reduce corruption?


    Ivar Kolstad; Arne Wiig


    While democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption, there are obvious endogeneity problems in measuring the impact of democracy on corruption. This paper addresses the endogeneity of democracy by exploiting the common observation that democracies seldom go to war against each other. We instrument for democracy using a dummy variable reflecting whether a country has been at war with a democracy in the period 1946-2009, while controlling for the extent to which countries have been at war...

  14. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban


    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  15. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion (United States)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie


    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  16. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M


    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  17. Reducing GWAS Complexity. (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A


    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups. PMID:26771711

  18. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger


    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  19. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo


    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  20. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G


    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  1. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.)

  2. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization (United States)

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis


    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  3. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  4. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete


    ECT Team, Purdue


    Concrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by GRACE Construction Products and ARCO Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time.

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z


    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  7. Reducible braids and Garside theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan


    We show that reducible braids which are, in a Garside-theoretical sense, as simple as possible within their conjugacy class, are also as simple as possible in a geometric sense. More precisely, if a braid belongs to a certain subset of its conjugacy class which we call the stabilized set of sliding circuits, and if it is reducible, then its reducibility is geometrically obvious: it has a round or almost round reducing curve. Moreover, for any given braid, an element of its stabilized set of sliding circuits can be found using the well-known cyclic sliding operation. This leads to a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the Nielsen-Thurston type of any braid, modulo one well-known conjecture on the speed of convergence of the cyclic sliding operation.

  8. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea


    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  9. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits


    Rivas Barragan, Daniel


    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  10. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  11. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  12. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean


    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  13. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)


    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  14. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  15. Reducing chlorination of niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of cylindric briquettes of Nb2O5 and carbon are presented. The effects of chlorine flow, dimension of the briquettes, porosity, percentage of the reducing agent in the mixture and temperature are analysed. The volatilization aspect of Nb2O5 by the briquettes and the structural transformations of the samples are described. (M.A.C.)

  16. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels


    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  17. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  18. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S


    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  19. Reduced False Memory after Sleep (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.


    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  20. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;


    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding d...

  1. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman


    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  2. A reduced-turbulence, reduced-entrainment electrostatic precipitator


    Bahner, Mark A.


    This thesis describes testing of an electrostatic precipitator that has a portion of the main precipitator flow drawn through a porous (fabric) collecting surface. Tests investigated effects of flow through the collecting surface (side flow) on precipitator turbulence and particulate removal efficiency. Particulate removal tests were conducted at both ambient temperature and boiler slipstream conditions. Side flow was shown to reduce turbulence in the boundary layers of the collecting plat...

  3. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin


    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A , RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  4. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)


    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  5. Reduced graphene oxide molecular sensors. (United States)

    Robinson, Jeremy T; Perkins, F Keith; Snow, Eric S; Wei, Zhongqing; Sheehan, Paul E


    We demonstrate reduced graphene oxide as the active material for high-performance molecular sensors. Sensors are fabricated from exfoliated graphene oxide platelets that are deposited to form an ultrathin continuous network. These graphene oxide networks are tunably reduced toward graphene by varying the exposure time to a hydrazine hydrate vapor. The conductance change of the networks upon exposure to trace levels of vapor is measured as a function of the chemical reduction. The level of reduction affects both the sensitivity and the level of 1/ f noise. The sensors are capable of detecting 10 s exposures to simulants of the three main classes of chemical-warfare agents and an explosive at parts-per-billion concentrations. PMID:18763832

  6. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  7. Structural reducibility of multilayer networks (United States)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito


    Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%.

  8. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth


    Patrick Doupe


    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  9. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher


    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  10. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes


    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T; DAVIS, R.; Deitchman, S.


    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  11. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit


    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  12. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  13. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  14. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  15. FIREhose: Reducing Data from FIRE (United States)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Lambrides, Erini; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle L.; BDNYC


    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects that do not have enough mass to ignite hydrogen fusion in their core. Their mass is between 0.08 solar masses and the mass of our sun. Brown dwarfs are very bright in the near-infrared wavelength band (0.8- 2.5 microns). We reduced data from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) instrument on the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. FIRE is a medium-resolution echelle spectrometer, whose data reduction results in a spectrum of a star. When reducing FIRE data, it is important to account for inconsistencies in the data, such as bad pixels, cosmic rays, and the effects of our atmosphere. Using the FIREhose pipeline, these inconsistencies can be accounted for and corrected using a A0 telluric with a known spectrum. After telluric correcting, the data reduction results in a primed spectrum for an object, which can then be used to determine an object's physical properties, such as atmospheric composition, radial velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity.

  16. Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.


    Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

  17. Interventions to reduce school bullying. (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen


    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  18. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  19. Periocular Recognition Using Reduced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika D R,


    Full Text Available Biometrics is science of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data. Biometric system establishes identity of a person based on unique physical or behavioural characteristic possessed by an individual. Behavioural biometrics measures characteristics which are acquired naturally over time. Physical biometrics measures inherent physical characteristics on a n individual. Over the last few decades enormous attention is drawn towards ocular biometrics. Cues provided by ocular region have led to exploration of newer traits. Feasibility of periocular region as a useful biometric trait has been explored recently. With the promising results of preliminary examination, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Researchers have analyzed various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. The current paper investigates the effect of using Lower Central Periocular Region (LCPR for identification. The results obtained are comparable with those acquired for the entire periocular region with an advantage of reduced periocular area.

  20. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob;


      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of...... gambling due to their specific structural characteristics. These include a high event frequency (number of games per minute), a high frequency of small wins and near misses, and auditory as well as visual feedback that reinforce extended gambling behavior [1].   This study focused on gambling behavior in...... pathological gamblers and healthy controls, using one of the most popular slot machines in Denmark, ’Orient Expressen‘. The study included 20 pathological gamblers (10 females) and 20 healthy non-gambling controls (10 females). While being videotaped the subjects played two versions of the slot machine in...

  1. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption. (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan


    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  2. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  3. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)


    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  4. Reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Meija


    The Final Report on reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing is presented. Tests were conducted on board the NASA KC-135 RGA in Houston, Texas. The objective was to analyze the effects of large angle rotations on flexible, multi-segmented structures. The flight experiment was conducted to provide data which will be compared to the data gathered from ground tests of the same configurations. The flight and ground tested data will be used to validate the TREETOPS software, software which models dynamic multibody systems, and other multibody codes. The flight experiment consisted of seven complete flights on board the KC-135 RGA during two one-week periods. The first period of testing was 4-9 Apr. 1993. The second period of testing was 13-18 Jun. 1993.

  5. The ITER reduced cost design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years of joint work under the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) EDA agreement yielded a mature design for ITER which met the objectives set for it (ITER final design report (FDR)), together with a corpus of scientific and technological data, large/full scale models or prototypes of key components/systems and progress in understanding which both validated the specific design and are generally applicable to a next step, reactor-oriented tokamak on the road to the development of fusion as an energy source. In response to requests from the parties to explore the scope for addressing ITER's programmatic objective at reduced cost, the study of options for cost reduction has been the main feature of ITER work since summer 1998, using the advances in physics and technology databases, understandings, and tools arising out of the ITER collaboration to date. A joint concept improvement task force drawn from the joint central team and home teams has overseen and co-ordinated studies of the key issues in physics and technology which control the possibility of reducing the overall investment and simultaneously achieving the required objectives. The aim of this task force is to achieve common understandings of these issues and their consequences so as to inform and to influence the best cost-benefit choice, which will attract consensus between the ITER partners. A report to be submitted to the parties by the end of 1999 will present key elements of a specific design of minimum capital investment, with a target cost saving of about 50% the cost of the ITER FDR design, and a restricted number of design variants. Outline conclusions from the work of the task force are presented in terms of physics, operations, and design of the main tokamak systems. Possible implications for the way forward are discussed

  6. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  7. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  8. Regulating environments to reduce obesity. (United States)

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M


    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally. PMID:15683074

  9. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  10. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications

  11. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩


    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  12. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)


    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  14. Microwave Antenna With Reduced Noise Leakage (United States)

    Cha, A. G.


    Gain or gain-to-temperature ratio of dual-shaped subreflector receiving antenna increased when illumination is tapered near aperture edge. Taper imposed in antenna feed reduces spillover in transmitting mode and reduces noise pickup in receiving mode.

  15. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers


    F. A. Romanuk; Korolev, S. P.; M. S. Loman


    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  16. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk


    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  17. Interpretation of the reduced density gradient


    Boto, Roberto A.; Contreras-García, Julia; Tierny, Julien; Piquemal, Jean-Philip


    An interpretation of the reduced density gradient in terms of the bosonic kinetic energy density is presented. Contrary to other bonding indicators based on the kinetic energy density such as the localised orbital locator (LOL) or the electron localization function (ELF), the reduced density gradient is not only able to identify covalent bondings, but also ionic and non-covalent interactions. This study reveals that the critical points of the reduced density gradient are closely connected wit...

  18. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria


    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.


    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains belonging to the species Pseudomonas chloritidismutans and a (per)chlorate-reducing strain Dechloromonas hortensis were isolated. The characterization of the chlorate-reducing strain AW-1, which was isolated from a bioreactor ...

  19. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana

    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say that...... every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some exotic (nonrealizable) fusion system....

  20. Study on high Tc superconducting ripple reducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents study on application of high Tc superconductors as a ripple reducer for reduction of the toroidal field (TF) ripple without changing the design of TF coils. The feasibility of the ripple reducer is first demonstrated on the basis of experiments. Next, parameter survey of the ripple reducer is performed for the configuration of the outline design of ITER, and a guideline for the design of the ripple reducer is presented with the consideration of constraints from the technological viewpoint of the fusion reactor. (orig.)

  1. Reduced, tame and exotic fusion systems


    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Oliver, Bob; Ventura, Joana


    We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems, reduced fusion systems and tame fusion systems. These are motivated by our attempts to better understand and search for exotic fusion systems: fusion systems which are not the fusion systems of any finite group. Our main theorems say that every saturated fusion system reduces to a reduced fusion system which is tame only if the original one is realizable, and that every reduced fusion system which is not tame is the reduction of some...

  2. Chitosan-supported Borohydride Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new chitosan-supported borohydride reducing reagent (CBER) was prepared by treatment of KBH4 with the resin of chitosan derivative, which was first synthesized fiom the reaction of cross-linked chitosan microsphere with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. CBER could reduce aromatic carbonyl compound to corresponding alcohol.

  3. Genus Reducing Knots in 3-Manifolds


    Rieck, Yo’av


    A genus reducing knot is a knot that has infinitely many surgeries after which the Heegaard genus of the manifold reduces. We study certain aspects of this question, in particular solving it for totally orientable Seifert Fibered Spaces, where we find examples of manifolds of arbitrarily high genus containing no such knot.

  4. A small town reduces its energy expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vissac, G.


    Langeac, a 4 300 inhabitants community in France, has relied on its resinous forest and on the local wood industry to save energy, reduce its energy expenses and protect environment. A wood-fired heat network exists, supplied by regional manufacturers. On top of that the charges are reduced in the field of energy. (TEC). 1 fig.

  5. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo


    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  6. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.


    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal c

  7. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy. (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.


    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  8. An intervention to reduce playground equipment hazards


    Roseveare, C.; Brown, J.; McIntosh, J.; Chalmers, D


    Objectives—A community intervention trial was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two methods of reducing playground hazards in schools. The study hypotheses were: (1) a health promotion programme addressing barriers to implementing the New Zealand Playground Safety Standard will reduce playground hazards and (2) the intervention programme will be more successful than providing information alone.

  9. Soluble calcium amendments: reducing pathogen losses (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. Its application to agricultural fields may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. It may also reduce fecal bacterial contamination of surface ...

  10. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.


    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation tha

  11. Method and container for reducing pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of reducing the pertechnetate in TcO4- comprises mixing together an aqueous solution of pertechnetate, e.g. the eluant from a technetium generator, metallic tin or an alloy thereof as a reducing agent for the pertechnetate, and a soluble salt of a metal below tin in the electrochemical series, e.g. copper, as an activator for the tin metal reducing agent. A complexing agent for the reduced technetium or a colloid stabiliser may also be included. The pH is preferably 3 to 12. Also claimed is a closed container containing the tin reducing agent, the activator, and the complexant or colloid stabiliser if used, preferably in a freeze-dried sterile state, to which the pertechnetate solution may be added. (author)

  12. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines (United States)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic


    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  13. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms (United States)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark


    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  14. Novel Reduced Parts Online Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Ashrafi


    Full Text Available This paper presents design consideration and performance analysis of novel reduced parts online three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS system. The proposed UPS system is based on reduced switch count dual bridge matrix converter. It employs only six power switches and results in reducing the cost of the system compared to conventional online UPS topologies, while achieving excellent performance. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated through simulation in terms of input/output waveforms quality and shows the viability of topology.

  15. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients. (United States)

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John


    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  16. Reducing nitrogen oxides from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains 17 individual lectures of the seminar included in databanks. The lectures concern combustion and waste gas measures for reducing the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission from coal-fired and gas-fired power stations. (PW)

  17. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture. (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan


    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  18. 76 FR 6123 - Reducing Regulatory Burden (United States)


    ... Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Cohen, Assistant General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and..., the President issued Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' to...

  19. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP)



    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana


    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  1. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  2. Goal directed fluid therapy reduces major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Y. Kassim


    Conclusion: A restrictive strategy of fluid maintenance during optimization of oxygen delivery with early treatment directed to maintain oxygen extraction ratio estimate (O2ERe at <27% reduces major complications and hospital stay of surgical patients undergo abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  3. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  4. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner


    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  5. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van der Ploeg


    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  6. How Stress Can Reduce Dissipation in Glasses


    Wu, Jiansheng; Yu, Clare C.


    We propose that stress can decrease the internal friction of amorphous solids, either by increasing the potential barriers of defects, thus reducing their tunneling and thermal activation that produce loss, or by decreasing the coupling between defects and phonons. This stress can be from impurities, atomic bonding constraints, or externally applied stress. Externally applied stress also reduces mechanical loss through dissipation dilution. Our results are consistent with the experiments, and...

  7. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios


    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  8. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination


    Martin, Joshua Deckert


    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...

  9. Laser welding in a reduced gravity environment (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.


    Preliminary results on the effects of reduced gravity on laser welding of stainless steel and other materials are reported. Laser welding experiments using a low power (10-18 watts) Nd-YAG laser have been performed on the NASA KC-135, which flies parabolic maneuvers to simulate reduced gravity conditions. Experiments on 0.005-0.010 inch thick stainless steel samples displayed a pronounced change in weld bead width, depth of penetration and surface ripple with changes in gravity level.

  10. Reducing stereotype threat by blurring intergroup boundaries.


    Rosenthal, H. E. S.; Crisp, R. J.


    The authors aimed to establish whether interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias could be applied to the stereotype threat domain. In three experiments, the hypothesis was tested that blurring intergroup boundaries would reduce stereotype threat. In the first study, it was found that female participants who thought about characteristics shared between the genders tended to show less preference for stereotypical female careers than did participants in the baseline condition. In. Experim...

  11. Reduced span spray – Part 1: Retention


    Massinon, Mathieu; De Cock, Nicolas; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene; Lebeau, Frédéric


    Maximising treatment efficiency for a given target lies mainly on depositing a maximum part of the spray volume within an optimal droplet size range, which has to be as narrow as possible to reduce retention variability and drift issues. The present work focuses on exploring the effect of span factor of the droplet size distribution on the final retention by a 3D target plant using a modelling approach with the final aim of guiding the development of a reduced span nozzle (Redu...

  12. Acetate reduces microglia inflammatory signaling in vitro


    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Puig, Kendra L.; Combs, Colin K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.


    Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation and reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroglial activation and interleukin (IL)-1β expression in vivo. To determine how acetate imparts these properties, we tested the hypothesis that acetate metabolism reduces inflammatory signaling in microglia. To test this, we measured the effect acetate treatment had on cytokine expression, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, histone H3 at lysine 9 acetylati...

  13. Reduced form of a Mueller matrix


    Gil, Jose J.; Jose, Ignacio San


    Through a simple procedure based on the Lu-Chipman decomposition [S-Y. Lu and R. C. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 13, 1106 (1996)] any depolarizing Mueller matrix can be transformed into a reduced form which accumulates the depolarization and polarizance properties into a set of six parameters. The simple structure of this reduced form provides straightforward ways for the general characterization of Mueller matrices as well as for the analysis of singular Mueller matrices.

  14. Reduced form of a Mueller matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Jose J


    Through a simple procedure based on the Lu-Chipman decomposition [S-Y. Lu and R. C. Chipman, J. Opt. Soc. Am A 13, 1106 (1996)] any depolarizing Mueller matrix can be transformed into a reduced form which accumulates the depolarization and polarizance properties into a set of seven parameters. The simple structure of this reduced form provides straightforward ways for the general characterization of Mueller matrices as well as for the analysis of singular Mueller matrices.

  15. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site. (United States)

    Horsley, Chris


    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  16. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model


    Daniela Braduţanu


    The aim of this scientific paper is to present an original reducing resistance to change model. After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers implement more smoothly an organizational change process and at the same time, reduce effectively employees’ resistance. The proposed model is very helpful for managers and change agents who are c...

  17. Multiple polylogarithms and linearly reducible Feynman graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bogner, Christian


    We review an approach for the computation of Feynman integrals by use of multiple polylogarithms, with an emphasis on the related criterion of linear reducibility of the graph. We show that the set of graphs which satisfies the linear reducibility with respect to both Symanzik polynomials is closed under taking minors. As a step towards a classification of Feynman integrals, we discuss the concept of critical minors and exhibit an example at three loops with four on-shell legs.

  18. Reduced sulfur compound oxidation by Thiobacillus caldus.


    Hallberg, K. B.; Dopson, M; Lindström, E B


    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds was studied by using resting cells of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus strain KU. The oxygen consumption rate and total oxygen consumed were determined for the reduced sulfur compounds thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur, sulfide, and sulfite in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors and uncouplers. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone had no affect on the oxidation of thiosulfate, ...

  19. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim


    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  20. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression


    Braak, ter, C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.


    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal components analysis and can therefore be carried out with standard statistical packages. The proposed biplot highlights the major aspects of the regressions by displaying the least-squares approxima...

  1. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  2. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies


    Basu, N. N.; Barr, L; Ross, G. L.; Evans, D. G.


    Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

  3. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  4. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.


    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  5. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer (United States)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.


    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution. Chemical extractions of the reduced sediments have also been performed, to determine the rate of Fe(II) and U(IV) accumulation.

  6. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  8. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Carilli

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  9. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers (United States)

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard


    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  10. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men. (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A


    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men. PMID:24320065

  11. Outcomes of a program to reduce depression. (United States)

    Kim, Gyung Hee; Kim, Kyeha; Park, Hyojung


    Depression is increasing among Korean college students. Moreover, it is common for depressed individuals to consider attempting suicide. The purpose of this study therefore was to develop and examine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. Study participants were assigned to either an intervention (n = 27) or control (n = 31) group. The intervention group received a depression-reducing program in eight 1-hr weekly sessions. Measures of suicidal ideation and depression were administered. The program has effects on suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. The findings suggest that the study program may be useful in reducing suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. PMID:21078916

  12. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.


    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  13. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.


    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  14. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido


    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of $5$. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations.

  15. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens;


    experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P <.001) in both knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension and...

  16. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving? (United States)

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter


    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26017375

  17. Comments on the height reducing property

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki


    A complex number alpha is said to satisfy the height reducing property if there is a finite subset F of the ring Z of the rational integers such that Z[alpha]=F[alpha]. This problem of finding F has been considered by several authors, especially in contexts related to self affine tilings, and expansions of real numbers in non-integer bases. We continue, in this note, the description of the numbers satisfying the height reducing property, and we specify a related characterization of the roots of integer polynomials with dominant term.

  18. Formal derivation of distributed MapReduce


    Pereverzeva, Inna; Butler, Michael; Salehi Fathabadi, Asieh; Laibinis, Linas; Troubitsyna, Elena


    MapReduce is a powerful distributed data processing model that is currently adopted in a wide range of domains to efficiently handle large volumes of data, i.e., cope with the big data surge. In this paper, we propose an approach to formal derivation of the MapReduce framework. Our approach relies on stepwise refinement in Event-B and, in particu- lar, the event refinement structure approach – a diagrammatic notation facilitating formal development. Our approach allows us to derive the system...

  19. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni


    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  20. Reduced Multiplicative Tolerance Ranking and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz


    Full Text Available In this paper a reduced multiplicative tolerance - a measure of sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP is presented. By using this new measure a method for ranking the set of efficient extreme solutions is proposed. The idea is to rank these solutions by values of the reduced tolerance. This approach can be applied to many MOLP problems, where sensitivity analysis is important for a decision maker. In the paper, applications of the presented methodology are shown in the market model and the transportation problem.

  1. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen


    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  2. Scientist Researches Way to Reduce Global Warming (United States)

    For the last four years, scientists at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory have been searching for alternative soil and crop management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon and nitrogen sequestration. “If we can redu...

  3. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory (United States)

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit


    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  4. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science


    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  5. Engaging to reduce emissions and solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different negotiations about the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is studied in this article. The problem of developing countries or fast developing countries such asian countries is evoked. The rate of carbon dioxide emission could be calculated in function of GDP (gross domestic product) to allow to reduce the gaps between the different countries. (N.C.)

  6. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.


    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction compan

  7. Reduced-dimension clustering for vegetation segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Nettleton, D.; Tang, L.


    Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimensionclustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels

  8. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  9. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.; Glasser, Fred P.


    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations and...

  10. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles


    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  11. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability. (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson


    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  12. Ways to reduce contamination of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is one of the most important radionuclides released into the environment. Possibilities of study of reducing the content of radionuclides directly in food have been analysed less. However, a significant reduction of content such as radiocesium we can achieve by leaching, marinating, steeping and cooking to allow in selected foods reach acceptable values. Observation was mainly focused on the mushrooms and meat. (author)

  13. 77 FR 31548 - Reducing Regulatory Burden (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' is extended to June 19, 2012. DATES: DOE will accept comments, data, and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Cohen, Assistant General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and...

  14. 77 FR 28518 - Reducing Regulatory Burden (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' issued by... INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Cohen, Assistant General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and...

  15. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' issued by... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Cohen, Assistant General Counsel for Legislation,...

  16. 76 FR 75798 - Reducing Regulatory Burden (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXIII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' issued by... General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and Energy Efficiency, U.S. Department of Energy, Office...

  17. Device and Method for Reducing Aircraft Noise (United States)

    Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor)


    A noise abatement device that is positioned adjacent to a body. The noise abatement device generally includes tabs or cavities which thicken the shear layer created by fluid flow over, around, or near the body, by creating horseshoe-shaped vortices; this thickening of the shear layer reduces the strength of fluctuations in the flow which produce noise.

  18. On reduced density matrices for disjoint subsystems (United States)

    Iglói, F.; Peschel, I.


    We show that spin and fermion representations for solvable quantum chains lead in general to different reduced density matrices if the subsystem is not singly connected. We study the effect for two sites in XX and XY chains as well as for sublattices in XX and transverse Ising chains.

  19. Reducing Dogmatism among Undergraduate Counselor Trainees. (United States)

    Parkay, Forrest W.

    Previous research has emphasized the significant negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and dogmatism, or closemindedness. To reduce levels of dogmatism in counselor trainees, a program was developed and tested at Southwest Texas State University. The new course, "Guidance to Meet the Needs of Multicultural Students," gave counseling…

  20. Reducing Mathematics Anxiety with Computer Assisted Instruction. (United States)

    Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.


    Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)

  1. Vitamin D with Calcium Reduces Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir;


    ,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin...... D was given with calcium (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98). The number needed to treat with vitamin D plus calcium for 3 yr to prevent one death was 151. Trial level meta-analysis (24 trials with 88,097 participants) showed similar results, i.e. mortality was reduced with vitamin D plus...... calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06).Conclusion:Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone....

  2. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising. (United States)

    Barber, James G.; And Others


    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  3. Involutions and Representations for Reduced Quantum Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gutt, Simone


    In the context of deformation quantization, there exist various procedures to deal with the quantization of a reduced space M_red. We shall be concerned here mainly with the classical Marsden-Weinstein reduction, assuming that we have a proper action of a Lie group G on a Poisson manifold M, with a moment map J for which zero is a regular value. For the quantization, we follow [BHW] (with a simplified approach) and build a star product *_red on M_red from a strongly invariant star product * on M. The new questions which are addressed in this paper concern the existence of natural *-involutions on the reduced quantum algebra and the representation theory for such a reduced *-algebra. We assume that * is Hermitian and we show that the choice of a formal series of smooth densities on the embedded coisotropic submanifold C = J^{-1}(0), with some equivariance property, defines a *-involution for *_red on the reduced space. Looking into the question whether the corresponding *-involution is the complex conjugation ...

  4. Strategies for Reducing Text Book Costs (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2008


    In recent years, the price of college textbooks has become a growing concern for students and others who care about keeping college costs affordable. As policymakers and higher education systems explore the issue further, there are actions that can be taken immediately on college campuses to reduce the cost of textbooks. This brief presents…

  5. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad


    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  6. Reducing Cholesterol Intake: Are the recommendations valid?


    Chan, Joanna K.; McDonald, Bruce E.


    The authors question dietary recommendations for the general public calling for reduced cholesterol intake. Metabolic studies have shown that dietary cholesterol normally induces only small increases in blood cholesterol level. There is evidence that only a portion of the population responds to a change in cholesterol intake; hence lowering dietary cholesterol will be effective for only some.

  7. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana


    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  8. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.


    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  9. Reduced local energy surface profiles for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional molecular reduced local energy error surface profiles are reported. The calculations are carried out for the hydrogen molecule using the Hartree-Fock wavefunctions of Coulson, Goodisman and Kolos and Roothaan. These surfaces provide both a complete and a simple way to interpret local errors in these wavefunctions. (author)

  10. Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic Equations in Toroidal Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shen-Ming; YU Guo-Yang


    By applying a new assumption of density, I.e. R2 p = const, the continuity equation is satisfied to the order ofe2`+with e being the inverse aspect ratio. In the case of large aspect ratio, a set of reduced magnetohydrodynamicequations in toroidal geometry are obtained. The new assumption about the density is supported by experimentalobservation to some extent.

  11. A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.


    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. To date, four flights have been completed during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated lunar gravity.

  12. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  13. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction. (United States)

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin


    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. PMID:25641420

  14. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity (United States)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  15. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach. (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  16. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions. (United States)

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.


    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  17. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall? (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.


    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  18. Reducing the diameters of computer networks (United States)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.


    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  19. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.


    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  20. Finding Strategic Solutions to Reduce Truancy (United States)

    Reid, Ken


    This article focuses on recent developments to find strategic solutions to the problem of truancy. It considers issues related to defining truancy and why reducing truancy matters before considering what causes truancy. The article concentrates upon seven areas where further work is needed: the role of parents (and carers); early intervention,…

  1. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.


    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  2. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik) (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch)


    Yosep Ruslim


    Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL) with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik) system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL...

  3. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  4. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis


    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...... and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in...... Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality....

  5. Reducing CQI Signalling Overhead in HSPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied M. Abd El-atty


    Full Text Available The efficiency of adaptive modulation and coding (AMC procedure in high speed Downlink packet access (HSDPA depends on the frequency of the channel quality information (CQI reports transmitted by the UE to Node B. The more frequent the reports are the more accurate the link adaptation procedure is. On the other hand, the frequent CQI reports increase uplink interference, reducing thus the signal reception quality at the uplink. In this study, we propose an improved CQI reporting scheme which aims to reduce the required CQI signaling by exploiting a CQI prediction method based on a finite-state Markov chain (FSMC model of the wireless channel. The simulation results show that under a high downlink traffic load, the proposed scheme has a near-to-optimum performance while produces less interference compared to the respective periodic CQI scheme.

  6. Behavioral Simulations in MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guozhang; Sowell, Benjamin; Wang, Xun; Cao, Tuan; Demers, Alan; Gehrke, Johannes; White, Walker


    In many scientific domains, researchers are turning to large-scale behavioral simulations to better understand important real-world phenomena. While there has been a great deal of work on simulation tools from the high-performance computing community, behavioral simulations remain challenging to program and automatically scale in parallel environments. In this paper we present BRACE (Big Red Agent-based Computation Engine), which extends the MapReduce framework to process these simulations efficiently across a cluster. We can leverage spatial locality to treat behavioral simulations as iterated spatial joins and greatly reduce the communication between nodes. In our experiments we achieve nearly linear scale-up on several realistic simulations. Though processing behavioral simulations in parallel as iterated spatial joins can be very efficient, it can be much simpler for the domain scientists to program the behavior of a single agent. Furthermore, many simulations include a considerable amount of complex comp...

  7. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages. (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof


    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  8. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård;

    The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation of...... the N-surplus introduced at the sector level was the most cost effective regulation when compared with administrative regulation and set a side. For phosphorus a balance between incoming and outgoing phosphorus is very costly as this requires that much slurry is transported from the western to the...... eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus...

  9. Designing reduced beacon trajectory for sensor localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Localization is one of the substantial issues in wireless sensor networks. The key problem for the mobile beacon localization is how to choose the appropriate beacon trajectory. However, little research has been done on it. In this paper, firstly,we deduce the number of positions for a beacon to send a packet according to the acreage of ROI (region of interest); and next we present a novel method based on virtual force to arrange the positions in arbitrary ROI; then we apply TSP (travelling salesman problem) algorithm to the positions sequence to obtain the optimal touring path, i.e. the reduced beacon trajectory. When a mobile beacon moves along the touring path, sending RF signals at every position, the sensors in ROI can work out their position with trilateration. Experimental results demonstrate that the localization method, based on the beacon reduced path, is efficient and has flexible accuracy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Y. Sun; S.J. Yuan


    The principle of the stretch reducing process is analyzed and three models of pass design areestablished. The simulations are done about variables, such as, stress, strain, the stretches betweenthe stands, the size parameters of the steel tube, and the roll force parameters. According to itsproduct catalogs the system can automatically divide the pass series, formulate the rolling table,and simulate the basic technological parameters in the stretch reducing process. All modules areintegrated based on the developing environment of VB6. The system can draw simulation curvesand pass pictures. Three kinds of database including the material database, pass design database,and product database are devised using Microsoft Access, which can be directly edited, corrected,and searched.

  11. Reducing stillbirths in low-income countries. (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Harrison, Margo S; Mcclure, Elizabeth M


    Worldwide, 98% of stillbirths occur in low-income countries (LIC), where stillbirth rates are ten-fold higher than in high-income countries (HIC). Although most HIC stillbirths occur prenatally, in LIC most stillbirths occur at term and during labor/delivery. Conditions causing stillbirths include those of maternal origin (obstructed labor, trauma, antepartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia/eclampsia, infection, diabetes, other maternal diseases), and fetal origin (fetal growth restriction, fetal distress, cord prolapse, multiples, malpresentations, congenital anomalies). In LIC, aside from infectious origins, most stillbirths are caused by fetal asphyxia. Stillbirth prevention requires recognition of maternal conditions, and care in a facility where fetal monitoring and expeditious delivery are possible, usually by cesarean section (CS). Of major causes, only syphilis and malaria can be managed prenatally. Targeting single conditions or interventions is unlikely to substantially reduce stillbirth. To reduce stillbirth rates, LIC must implement effective modern antepartum and intrapartum care, including fetal monitoring and CS. PMID:26577070

  12. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    foot, the radio an extension of the ear, the television an extension of the eye. From this perspective, exploring the internet as an extension of identity produces fruitful questions about the role of on-line writing in Web presences. The Web changes writing as a knowledge-making practice by offering......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension of the...... writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream...

  13. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes. (United States)

    Voas, R B


    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  14. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I;


    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  15. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  16. Reducing NOx emissions with Group IIIB compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes improvement in a process for the catalytic cracking of a heavy hydrocarbon feed containing nitrogen compounds by contact with a circulating inventory of catalytic cracking catalyst to produce catalytically cracked products and spent catalyst containing coke comprising nitrogen compounds. The spent catalyst is regenerated by contact with oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in a catalyst regeneration zone operating at catalyst regeneration conditions to produce hot regenerated catalyst which is recycled to catalytically crack the heavy feed and the catalyst regeneration zone produces a flue gas comprising CO, CO2 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The improvement comprises: reducing the NOx content of the flue gas by adding to the circulating catalyst inventory an additive comprising discrete particles comprising oxides of Group IIIB elements, exclusive of Group III elements which are ion exchanged or impregnated into the cracking catalyst, the additive being added in an amount sufficient to reduce the production of NOx relative to operation without the additive

  17. Direct reducing method for metal ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a high temperature steam electrolysis device using solid electrolyte, a hydrogen gas is generated from steams by using nuclear heat at high temperature from a high temperature gas cooling reactor (HTGR) and electric power generated by the nuclear temperature, to directly reduce metal ores by the hydrogen gas. With such procedures, no CO2 is evolved. Further, steams in a gas mixture of the hydrogen gas and the steams generated from the high temperature steam electrolysis device are adsorbed by a pressure swing type (PSA) steam adsorbing device to be separated from the hydrogen gas. Metal ores are directly reduced by the hydrogen gas separated from steams. With such procedures, since the steams are adsorbed and separated from hydrogen gas in the PSA without condensation, it is possible to reutilize separated steams as a heat source, thereby enabling to improve thermal efficiency. (T.M.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin


    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  19. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl;


    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospect...... others when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for...

  20. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Braduţanu


    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to present an original reducing resistance to change model. After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers implement more smoothly an organizational change process and at the same time, reduce effectively employees’ resistance. The proposed model is very helpful for managers and change agents who are confronted with a high degree of resistance when trying to implement a new change, as well as for researches. The key contribution of this paper is that resistance is not necessarily bad and if used appropriately, it can actually represent an asset. Managers must use employees’ resistance.

  1. Gratitude: a tool for reducing economic impatience. (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Li, Ye; Dickens, Leah; Lerner, Jennifer S


    The human mind tends to excessively discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones, and it is thought that "hot" affective processes drive desires for short-term gratification. Supporting this view, recent findings demonstrate that sadness exacerbates financial impatience even when the sadness is unrelated to the economic decision at hand. Such findings might reinforce the view that emotions must always be suppressed to combat impatience. But if emotions serve adaptive functions, then certain emotions might be capable of reducing excessive impatience for delayed rewards. We found evidence supporting this alternative view. Specifically, we found that (a) the emotion gratitude reduces impatience even when real money is at stake, and (b) the effects of gratitude are differentiable from those of the more general positive state of happiness. These findings challenge the view that individuals must tamp down affective responses through effortful self-regulation to reach more patient and adaptive economic decisions. PMID:24760144

  2. Distraction from emotional information reduces biased judgements. (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Bench, Shane W; Davis, Elizabeth L


    Biases arising from emotional processes are some of the most robust behavioural effects in the social sciences. The goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the emotion regulation strategy of distraction could reduce biases in judgement known to result from emotional information. Study 1 explored lay views regarding whether distraction is an effective strategy to improve decision-making and revealed that participants did not endorse this strategy. Studies 2-5 focused on several established, robust biases that result from emotional information: loss aversion, desirability bias, risk aversion and optimistic bias. Participants were prompted to divert attention away from their feelings while making judgements, and in each study this distraction strategy resulted in reduced bias in judgement relative to control conditions. The findings provide evidence that distraction can improve choice across several situations that typically elicit robustly biased responses, even though participants are not aware of the effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:25787937

  3. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup


    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  4. A New Reducing Regent: Dichloroindium Hydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1Introduction Among the hydride derivatives of group 13 elements, various types of aluminum hydrides and boron hydrides have been employed as powerful reduction tools. Indium hydrides have not received much attention,whereas the synthesis of indium trihydride (InH3) was reported several decades ago[1]. There have been no precedents for monometallic indium hydrides having practical reactivity, while activated hydrides such as an ate complex LiPhn InH4-n (n = 0- 2) and phosphine-coordinated indium hydrides readily reduce carbonyl compounds. In view of this background, we focused on the development of dichloroindium hydrides (Cl2InH) as novel reducing agents that bear characteristic features in both ionic and radical reactions.

  5. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution (United States)

    Jones, R. E.


    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  6. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range (United States)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.


    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  7. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael


    production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate, there was no......The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP...

  8. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout. (United States)

    Lukens, Wayne W; Bucher, Jerome I; Shuh, David K; Edelstein, Norman M


    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to stabilize nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U. S. Department of Energy. Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs because of the high solubility and mobility of Tc(VII), pertechnetate (TcO4-), the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively stabilize 99Tc if they contain additives that chemically reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. The 99Tc leach rate of reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much lower than that for CWFs that contain TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure studies showed that Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be of concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, referred to as "permeable samples", the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were sealed in cuvettes made of polystyrene, which has a relatively large O2 diffusion coefficient. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as a Tc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS data is consistent with a structure consisting of triangular clusters of Tc(IV) centers linked together through a combination of disulfide and sulfide bridges as in MoS3. From the EXAFS model, the stoichiometry of TcSx is TC3S10, which is presumably the compound generally referred to as "Tc2S7". The TcSX initially present in the permeable samples was steadily

  9. Pyruvate reduces 4-aminophenol in vitro toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyruvate has been observed to reduce the nephrotoxicity of some agents by maintaining glutathione status and preventing lipid peroxidation. This study examined the mechanism for pyruvate protection of p-aminophenol (PAP) nephrotoxicity. Renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats were incubated for 30-120 min with 0, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 mM PAP in oxygenated Krebs buffer containing 0 or 10 mM pyruvate or glucose (1.28 or 5.5 mM). LDH leakage was increased above control by 0.25 and 0.5 mM PAP beginning at 60 min and by 0.1 mM PAP at 120 min. Pyruvate prevented an increase in LDH leakage at 60- and 120-min exposure to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate also prevented a decline in ATP levels. Glucose (1.28 and 5.5 mM) provided less protection than pyruvate from PAP toxicity. Total glutathione levels were diminished by 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP within 60 and 30 min, respectively. Pyruvate prevented the decline in glutathione by 0.1 mM PAP at both time periods and at 30 min for 0.25 mM PAP. Pyruvate reduced the magnitude of glutathione depletion by 0.25 mM PAP following a 60-min incubation. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels in renal slices were increased at 60 min by exposure to 0.25 mM PAP, while pyruvate prevented increased GSSG levels by PAP. Pyruvate also reduced the extent of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins present after a 90-min incubation with PAP. These results indicate that pyruvate provided protection for PAP toxicity by providing an energy substrate and reducing oxidative stress

  10. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers


    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L.


    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past. A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam. Both warnings reduc...