US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Humpback chub (Gila cypha) occur based on the description provided in the Federal...
Stone, Dennis M.; Gorman, Owen T.
The largest population of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha inhabits the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam and the lower 14 km of the Little Colorado River (LCR), Arizona. Currently, adults from both rivers spawn and their progenies grow and recruit to adulthood primarily within the LCR, where we studied G. cypha's life history using hoop net capture data. Humpback chub undergo an ontogenesis from diurnally active, vulnerable, nearshore-reliant young-of-the-year (YOY; 30-90 mm total length) into nocturnally active, large-bodied adults (a?Y180 mm TL). During the day, adults primarily resided in deep midchannel pools; however, at night they dispersed inshore amongst the higher densities of YOY conspecifics. Many YOY G. cypha shifted to nocturnal habitats that provided greater cover, possibly, to avoid inshore invading adults. These findings mirror predator-prey scenarios described in other freshwater assemblages, but do not refute other plausible hypotheses. Gila cypha piscivorous activity may escalate in hoop nets, which can confine fish of disparate sizes together; adults were significantly associated with YOY conspecifics and small dead fish in hoop nets at night and eight G. cypha (156-372 mm TL) regurgitated and/or defecated other fish body parts during handling following capture. Gila cypha can definitely be piscivorous given the opportunity, but the magnitude of their piscivorous activity in the wild is debatable.
Goulet, C. T.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division
Glen Canyon Dam is a hydroelectric facility located on the Colorado River in Arizona that is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for multiple purposes including water storage, flood control, power generation, recreation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Glen Canyon Dam operations have been managed for the last several years to improve conditions for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other ecosystem components. An extensive amount of literature has been produced on the humpback chub. We developed this annotated bibliography to assist managers and researchers in the Grand Canyon as they perform assessments, refine management strategies, and develop new studies to examine the factors affecting humpback chub. The U.S. Geological Survey recently created a multispecies bibliography (including references on the humpback chub) entitled Bibliography of Native Colorado River Big Fishes (available at www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/data/COFishBib). That bibliography, while quite extensive and broader in scope than ours, is not annotated, and, therefore, does not provide any of the information in the original literature. In developing this annotated bibliography, we have attempted to assemble abstracts from relevant published literature. We present here abstracts taken unmodified from individual reports and articles except where noted. The bibliography spans references from 1976 to 2009 and is organized in five broad topical areas, including: (1) biology, (2) ecology, (3) impacts of dam operations, (4) other impacts, and (5) conservation and management, and includes twenty subcategories. Within each subcategory, we present abstracts alphabetically by author and chronologically by year. We present relevant articles not specific to either the humpback chub or Glen Canyon Dam, but cited in other included reports, under the Supporting Articles subcategory. We provide all citations in alphabetical order in Section 7.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Gila chub (Gila intermedia) occur. The geographic extent includes Cochise, Gila,...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) occur based on the description provided in the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Bonytail Chub (Gila elegans) occur based on the description provided in the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Sonora chub (Gila seminuda) occur based on the description provided in the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where a buffer for the final critical habitat for Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) occur based on the description...
Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.
We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.
Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.
Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.
Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.
The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.
Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan
Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.
Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.
Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.
Yackulic, Charles B.; Yard, Michael D.; Korman, Josh; Van Haverbeke, David R.
While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark–recapture data collected in 2009–2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July–September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades.
Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.
Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.
French, Robert N E; Ash, Jordan; Brooks, Daniel E
A 29-year-old man was bitten on the forearm by a wild Gila monster. Radiographs demonstrated subcutaneous air. During a period of observation, erythema and edema progressed from the forearm to the axilla and he developed a significant leukocytosis. No purulence was found upon surgical evaluation. We hypothesize that air was introduced into the wound by the "pulsing," chewing-like action that the Gila monster made while it was attached to the man's forearm. PMID:22257299
Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.
We assessed the distributions of three species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta), relative to habitat features across a headwater tributary system of the Colorado River basin in Wyoming. We studied the upper Muddy Creek watershed, Carbon County, portions of which experience intermittent flows during late summer and early fall. Fish and habitat were sampled from 57 randomly-selected, 200-m reaches and 416 habitat units (i.e., pools, glides, or runs) during the summer and fall of 2003 and 2004. Among reaches, the occurrences of adults and juveniles of all three species were positively related to mean wetted width and the surface area of pool habitat, and the occurrences of adult bluehead sucker and roundtail chub were also positively related to the abundance of rock substrate. Only juvenile bluehead sucker appeared to be negatively influenced by the proportion of a reach that was dry at the time of sampling. Within individual pools, glides, and runs, the occurrences of adults and juveniles of all three species were positively related to surface area and maximum depth, and occurrences of bluehead sucker and flannelmouth sucker juveniles were more probable in pools than in glides or runs.
Tyus, Harold M.
The Colorado River of the American West supports a mainstream fish community that is classified as the “Big River” fishes. Four of these fishes are listed as endangered under provisions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Three fishes (i.e., Colorado pike minnow Ptychocheilus Lucius, humpback chub Gila cypha, and bonytail G. elegans) have been listed for over 10 years, and they have recovery plans that were prepared prior to designation of critical habitats. Recently the Colora...
Saksa jäätmefirma SKP Recycling AG & Co ei sõlmi Tallinna linnaga lepingut Jõelähtme prügila rajamiseks kui linn ei garanteeri prügila käibelt 15% rentaablust. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. okt. lk. 6
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Beautiful Shiner (Cyprinella formosa), the Yaqui catfish (Ictalurus pricei),...
Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.
This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.
... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...
Walters, David M.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Crockett, Harry J.; Bruce, James F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.
Many native cyprinids are declining throughout the North American Great Plains. Some of these species require long reaches of contiguous, flowing riverine habitat for drifting eggs or larvae to develop, and their declining populations have been attributed to habitat fragmentation or barriers (e.g., dams, dewatered channels, and reservoirs) that restrict fish movement. Upstream dispersal is also needed to maintain populations of species with passively drifting eggs or larvae, and prior researchers have suggested that these fishes migrate upstream to spawn. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a mark–recapture study of Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis within a 91-km reach of continuous riverine habitat in Fountain Creek, Colorado. We measured CPUE, spawning readiness (percent of Flathead Chub expressing milt), and fish movement relative to a channel-spanning dam. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Flathead Chub migrate upstream to spawn during summer. The CPUE was much higher at the base of the dam than at downstream sites; the seasonal increases in CPUE at the dam closely tracked seasonal increases in spawning readiness, and marked fish moved upstream as far as 33 km during the spawning run. The upstream migration was effectively blocked by the dam. The CPUE of Flathead Chub was much lower upstream of the OHDD than at downstream sites, and migration for Flathead Chub and supports the general hypothesis that barriers limit adult dispersal of these and other plains fishes.
Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.
Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.177 Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in combination with salt (NaCl) to aid...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water, sediment, lizard, and avian samples and fish (whole body and fillet) were collected in 1990 form several locations along the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in...
Kriis, Külli, 1961-
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 22. mai 2004, lk. 3. 21. mail 2004 Ida-Virumaal Uikala prügilas avatud puhastusseadmete kompleksist, mille valmistas ja paigaldas rahvusvaheline ettevõte Pall Corporation
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower reaches of Mineral Creek, a tributary to the Gila River in Pinal County, Arizona, were thought to be polluted by discharges from ASARCO Ray Mine located...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, lizards, and fish collected from 11 middle Gila River sites in 199192 contained low levels of organochlorine compounds. Organochlorine compounds were...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of pesticides and metals on fish and wildlife of the lower Gila River and associated agricultural drainage canals in Maricopa County,...
Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits
Studying ancient irrigation systems reinforces to understand the co-evolution process between the society and water systems. In the prehistoric Southwest of America, the irrigation has been a crucial feature of human adaptation to the dry environment. The influences of social arrangements on irrigation managements, and implications of the irrigation organization in social developments are main issues that researchers have been exploring for a long time. The analysis of ceramics pattern and distribution has assisted to the reconstruction of prehistoric social networks. The existing study shows that, a few pottery fragments specially produced by the materials of the middle Gila River valley, were found in the Salt River valley; however, very few specialized ceramics of the Salt River valley occurred in the middle Gila River valley. It might indicate that there were trades or exchanges of potteries or raw materials from the middle Gila River valley to the Salt River valley. The most popular hypothesis of trading for the potteries is crop production. Based on this hypothesis, the ceramics trade was highly tied to the irrigation system change. Therefore, examining the changing relationship among the ceramics distribution along the middle Gila River, canals flow capacity, and available streamflows, can provide an insight into the evolutionary path among the social economy, irrigation and water environment. In this study, we reconstruct the flow capacity of canals along the middle Gila River valley. In combination with available streamflow from the middle Gila River, we can simulate how much water could be delivered to the main canals and lateral canals. Based on the variation and chronology of potteries distribution, we may identify that, the drama of the middle Gila River receiving insufficient flows for crop irrigation caused the development of ceramics exchange; or the rising of potteries exchange triggers the decline of irrigation in the study area.
Coggins,, Lewis G., Jr.; Yard, Michael D.
The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.
Full Text Available Abstract Growth of Enterobacter aerogenes and accumulation of histamine in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus were investigated through measuring bacterial count, histidine decarboxylase (HDC activity and histamine content in fish samples stored at various temperatures from 4 to 37 °C. Results showed that bacterial count and HDC activity rapidly increased in chub mackerel inoculated with E. aerogenes at storage temperature above 20 °C and reached the highest values (8.64 log CFU/g and 31.68 U/g at 37 °C. Meanwhile, fish samples stored at 25 and 37 °C for 18 h, formed histamine at above 50 mg/100 g of the potential hazard level. In contrast, bacterial growth and histamine formation were controlled for 36 h by cold storage at low temperature (4 °C. Therefore, strict temperature control was necessary for preservation and processing of chub mackerel in order to assure this marine fish safety.
... species as endangered (56 FR 58348). On October 18, 1993, we published a final rule listing the Oregon...-Federal property owners whose actions contribute to the recovery of species listed as endangered or... in the final rule to list the Oregon chub as an endangered species and the recovery plan for...
ESMAEILI, H. R.; PIRAVAR, Z.
The diploid chromosome number of Persian chub, Petroleuciscus persidis (Coad, 1981), was 2n = 50, comprising 29 metacentric, 18 submetacentric, and 3 subtelocentric chromosomes and the number of arms was 97. A detailed karyotype of this endemic cyprinid fish of southern Iran was established for the first time in this study.
Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.
The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation
Kim, Ki Hong; Cho, Jae Bum; Rim, Han-Jong
Neoplagioporus zacconis (Yamaguti, 1934) (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) was found from the intestine of the pale chub, Zacco platypus, for the first time in Korea. The worms were characterized morphologically by oval body shape, bipartited seminal vesicle, sinistrally located genital pore, and lobed ovary, and distinguished from the two other species of Neoplagioporous by body shape and distribution of vitelline follicles. The morphological characteristics, except the ovary, well corresponded to th...
SOYER, Ayla; ŞAHİN, M. Ekin
The effect of glazing with the solutions contained ascorbic acid (AA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), BHT/BHA combination and only water, and storage time on lipid oxidation of chub mackerel were determined during frozen storage at -18°C for 10 months. Glazing with some antioxidants or water of the fish retarded lipid oxidation when compared to control samples during frozen storage. The results of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide v...
Hinfray, L.; Palluel, O.; Piccini, B; Sanchez, W.; Ait Aissa, S.; Noury, P.; Gomez, E.; Geraudie, P.; Minier, C.; Brion, F.; Porcher, JM.
The aim of this study was to assess endocrine disruptive effects in wild population of fish in five French rivers selected to represent different pollution contexts at two seasons (summer and fall). For that purpose, a panel of biometrical parameters (length, weight, and gonado-somatic index: GSI) and biochemical (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase: EROD, vitellogenin: VTG, and brain aromatase) and histological biomarkers (gonads histology) were used in chub (Leuciscus cephalus), a common cyprinid ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonadotropins (GtHs, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH and LH (cmLH were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (Ε2 and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P. In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.
Full Text Available Chub (Leuciscus cephalus is widely spread fish species and it inhabits most of Europe and some parts of Asia. It is also the dweller of different sections of rivers and stagnant waters and it eats both - animal and plant organisms. Thus, it is a very useful species when different habitats, or same biotopes over the period of time are being compared. Based on a number of published data on different habitats, the standard growth curve for chub in Croatia was calculated. Based on total length, Von Bertalanffy's growth curve appears to be: Lt = 31,8 (1-e-0,28(t-0,04 A comparative growth index for the first eight years of chub life was the lowest in the upper Kupa river (89,8 % and the best in the upper part of the Lonja river (112,2 %. The overall growth performance (phi-prime is ϕ`=5,69±O,14. These data are discussed and compared with literature.
Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja
Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. PMID:25938696
Finch, Colton G.; Pine, William E., III; Yackulic, Charles B.; Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Michael D.; Gerig, Brandon S.; Coggins,, Lewis G., Jr.; Korman, Josh
The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3-year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter-annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers.
Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263
Martina Johnson Pokorná
Full Text Available A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae. If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes. 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates.
Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela
Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining
Nemeth, Richard S.; Kadison, Elizabeth
Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau ( Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin ( Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub.
Hayes, Ruth A; Regondi, Simona; Winter, Matthew J; Butler, Patrick J; Agradi, Elisabetta; Taylor, Edwin W; Kevin Chipman, J
Metallothionein has been assayed in a range of aquatic animal tissues as an indicator of metal exposure. We sequenced chub (Leuciscus cephalus) metallothionein cDNA which showed over 90% homology to common carp, goldfish and stone loach and 77% homology to rainbow trout sequences for metallothionein. We then used the extended primer method to develop an accurate quantitative competitive RT-PCR assay for metallothionein mRNA. RT-PCR was used to measure metallothionein mRNA in feral chub from a range of field sites, with different levels of heavy metal pollution, in the West Midlands, UK. Measurements were complemented by analysis of liver and gill metallothionein protein by capillary electrophoresis. There was no significant difference in the metallothionein protein levels between fish of different rivers and there was no evidence of elevation of mRNA at the sites of highest metal exposure. The level of metal exposure (e.g. zinc, nickel and cadmium each ranging between 15 and 28 microg/l ) at the pH (7.5-8.5) of these rivers appears insufficient to elevate hepatic or gill metallothionein in chub. A lack of elevation of hepatic metallothionein mRNA in chub exposed to zinc, copper and manganese for 24 h and 10 days in the laboratory also suggests a non-responsiveness of this species. PMID:15178096
Full Text Available This study investigated the reproductive properties of the population of chub Squalius squalus (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Assino creek, one of the largest tributaries of the upper course of the River Tiber. A total of 547 specimens were caught monthly from March 2008 to May 2009. The age composition of the sample ranged between 0+ and 11+. The sample was made up of 64.54% males and 35.46% females; sexual maturity was attained in both sexes in the second year of life. Analysis of the gonado-somatic index (GSI and of the stage of gonad maturation throughout the year suggests that the reproductive period of the population extends over a long time (April–July. The relationship between total length and fecundity was F = 5.466TL2.312. The mean number (±SE of eggs produced by each female was 15 351 ± 1705 and increased with the size and age of the specimens; with regard to relative fecundity, an average value (±SE of 53 553 ± 4098 eggs·kg-1 was observed. The mean diameter (±SE of ripe eggs was 0.117 ± 0.004 cm. This study sheds light on some important characteristics of the reproductive biology of the chub that have not been fully investigated in Italian populations.
Valová, Zdenka; Hudcová, H.; Roche, Kevin Francis; Svobodová, J.; Bernardová, I.; Jurajda, Pavel
Roč. 185, č. 4 (2013), s. 3359-3368. ISSN 0167-6369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mercury * Lead * Chub * Nonlethal methods * Scales Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2013
Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F
Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit. PMID:17401130
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila... National Forest and the Field Museum of Natural History have completed an inventory of human remains, in...) published in the Federal Register for human remains and associated funerary objects from these sites (63...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila... National Forest and the Field Museum of Natural History have completed an inventory of human remains and... Federal Register for these sites (63 FR 39293-39294, July 22, 1998; 70 FR 44686-44687, August 3, 2005;...
Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 2. veebr. lk. 3. Uikala prügila tegevjuht uuest jäätmesorteerimise korraldusest. Lisa: Ervin Metsatalu CV. Kommenteerivad ASi N&V ja OÜ Ekovir omanik Nikolai Ossipenko ja keskkonnateenistuse juhataja Agu Värimäe
Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir
Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna. PMID:26986024
Full Text Available Systematic characteristics of chub L. cephalus are given by an analysis of eight meristic (on 550 specimen and 23 plastic characteristics (on 588 specimen, of both genders including the non-mature examples from the river of Babuna, right tributary stream of the Vardar river (Aegean sea river-basin. The measurements were carried out according to the Pravdina scheme. The results were compared with the data of former researches of the material from the same river basin, the main river of Vardar or its major tributary streams, as well as on different materials belonging to various populations living in various biotops: small brooks, big lowlands rivers; in still biotops of both types, oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes; and finally in accumulation lakes. The author faced great difficulties while unifying and comparing the plastic characteristics of chub from various biotops, mainly because of lack of complete data made by various authors. The author claims that making a diagnosis regarding the belonging of chub on the level of sub-species only by a morphometric analysis is tricky since such results, when isolated from other systematic criteria such as the zoo-geographic, cito-genetic, bio-chemical ones and so on, can have a dubious scientific value.
Tidwell, V. C.; Sun, A. C.; Klise, G. T.; Peplinski, W. J.; Brainard, J. R.; Aragon, C. A.
The 2005 Arizona Water Settlements Act (AWSA) has given southwestern New Mexico a unique opportunity to appropriate water from the Upper Gila River basin. This appropriation calls for Arizona irrigators to "trade" their existing use of Gila River water for Central Arizona Project water to realize New Mexico's legal right to develop water originating in its portion of the Upper Gila River watershed. The complexity of the AWSA and various stakeholders interested in the implications of the settlement has led to the development of a collaborative modeling team. As a team member, Sandia National Laboratories is tasked with building an integrated basin scale system-dynamics model that can implement the constraints outlined in the AWSA by projecting water supply and demand scenarios into the future. By building this model, stakeholders will gain insight into the hydrologic complexities inherent in a river basin, and it will allow them to evaluate whether alternate water use scenarios will be allowed under the constraints outlined by the AWSA. The model replicates historic surface and ground water conditions in the basin using available data for supply, including gauges that measure stream flow, ditch flow, and precipitation. Demands are measured through annual hydrographic survey records for agricultural production, industrial water use by mining, municipal and domestic use in both urban and rural communities, and riparian evapotranspiration. Within the system-dynamics framework, volumetric flow of water is the dynamic state variable calculated from one river reach to the next. Stream gauge, climate and consumptive use data are used to calibrate the historic baseline flows. There is a great deal of uncertainty that must be addressed when attempting to model a large basin. Integrating a watershed model to add the contribution of ungauged tributaries is part of this effort. Another challenge is the presence of federally listed endangered avian and aquatic species whose flow
Effect of irradiation at doses of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel held at room temperature was described. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were used and objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation of the product. Boiled fish irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad were found to be in good quality for 10, 15, and 17 days respectively, compared with 3 days for the unirradiated control. Trimethylamine nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were found to be useful indices of quality, which showed fair correlation with sensory evaluation of the irradiated product. Total aerobic count showed little value as a quality index. Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus predominated in both unirradiated and irradiated boiled fish. The product was found to be free of faocal coliform. Safety of the irradiated boiled fish concerning botulism was discussed
Onikura, Norio; Nakajima, Jun; Kouno, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Yoshiko; Kaneto, Jun
Ecological information on the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella Fowler, 1910) was collected during field surveys and used to analyze habitat use by this species at each growth stage. Surveys were conducted every month for approximately 2 years In an irrigation ditch near the Ushizu River, Kyushu Island, Japan. Based on the characteristic nuptial coloration of males, it was estimated that H. rasborella spawns between spring and summer. Size measurements of 2697 individuals indicated two size classes. The population of age class 1 decreased rapidly after the spawning period. On the basis of growth patterns, the life cycle of H. rasborella was classified into three stages: the growth stage (GS) of age class 0 fish from August to November, the no-growth stage (NGS) of age class 0 fish from December to March, and the growing and spawning stage (GSS) of age class 0 and 1 fish from April to August. Habitat use by GS, NGS, and GSS fish was analyzed with a stepwise multiple linear regression. The average number of fish was negatively correlated with the presence of a concrete revetment in the GS; positively and negatively correlated with minimum water depth and submerged plants, respectively, in the NGS; and positively correlated with maximum water temperature in the GSS. These results suggest that maintenance of the water level in the fallow season and not using concrete revetments are essential for the conservation of this species under the present conditions in Japanese rice fields. PMID:19583495
Samson, J.; Stone, M. C.
The dynamism of the Gila River, in southwestern New Mexico, USA, has resulted in the creation of a topographically diverse floodplain that supports an array of riparian wetlands. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ecohydrologic and ecohydraulic processes of two of these wetlands, in order to predict their potential response to anthropogenic or natural changes in hydrology. One represents a natural wetland and the other a wetland that exists only as a result of an anthropogenic modification to the river system. A network of 30 wells and 2 weather stations were installed in early 2013 to provide a high resolution of data on surface water and ground water hydrologic conditions. Phreatic surface contour maps were produced to aid in the visualization of sub-surface gradients. Based on these results, an electrical resistivity investigation was conducted to identify paleoflow channels as well as depth to bedrock and other potential areas of interest. These data formed the development of three dimensional ModFlow models that were used to investigate potential future stream flow scenarios on wetland hydrology. The model outputs are being used in tandem with the results of quarterly ecological surveys on vegetation, algae, benthic, and bird communities, to make predictions of potential changes in community structure and function.
Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)
Liu, Qiao-Lin; Xu, Bao-Hong; Xiao, Tiao-Yi; Su, Jian-Ming; Yao, Yi-Bin; Liu, Yu-Jie
The barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus), a kind of small commercial fish, is widespread in China. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the barbel chub from the Xiangjiang River. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,619 bp, with the base composition of 31.19% A, 25.01% T, 27.68% C, and 16.12% G. The organization and arrangement of these genes are the same as that found in the teleosts, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major noncoding control region (D-loop region). Compared with the S. curriculus collected from Jiangsu province, there were 29 mutation sites in the mitogenome sequence of Xiangjiang S. curriculus. All the mutation sites were transitions and mainly occurred in protein-coding genes (21/29), two mutation sites occurred in transfer RNA, two occurred in ribosomal RNA, and four occurred in D-loop region. Among the 21 mutation sites in protein-coding genes, 6 mutation sites resulted in amino acid mutation in ND2, ATPase6, COX3, ND4, and Cytb genes, while the others were synonymous substitutions. These results indicated that there was genetic variation in different geographical populations of S. curriculus. PMID:23452330
Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E., III
This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.
Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Park, June-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Cargo, Jordan; Schlenk, Daniel; Jung, Jinho
The Cd exposure for 14 days significantly increased both the molecular (DNA single-strand breaks) and biochemical (metallothionein concentrations) biomarkers in the freshwater pale chub, Zacco platypus, whereas changes in the histological and physiological biomarker responses were negligible. The BkF exposure for 14 days led to significant increases in the mRNA expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase enzymatic activity and DNA single-strand breakage at the molecular and biochemical levels. In addition, exposure to 50μg/L of BkF induced histological alteration in the liver, with significant changes to the liver somatic index and condition factor at the physiological level. The integration of multi-level biomarker responses at the molecular, biochemical and physiological levels was highly correlated with the concentrations of Cd and BkF. PMID:25217733
Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor
Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.
Dubé, Monique G; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Hruska, Kimberly A; Glozier, Nancy E
Mining of the world's second-largest nickel deposits in the area of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal saturation of some catchments. We conducted artificial stream studies in the years 2001 and 2002 to assess the effects of treated metal mine effluents (MMEs) from three different mining operations discharging to Junction Creek, Sudbury, on two fish species, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and pearl dace (Semotilus margarita). Treatments tested for 35 to 41 d included reference water, Garson MME (30%), Nolin MME (20%), and Copper Cliff MME (45%). In 2001, effects on chub included reduced survival and depressed testosterone levels (fivefold reduction) after exposure to all MMEs. In 2002, chub and dace survival were reduced to less than 60% in the Copper Cliff and Garson treatments. In addition, the total body weights of male and female dace were reduced after exposure to the Garson and Copper Cliff treatments. In 2001 and 2002, responses were most common to the 45% Copper Cliff and 30% Garson effluents, with consistent increases in nickel, rubidium, strontium, iron, lithium, thallium, and selenium observed across treatment waters and body tissues. More work is required to link observed effects to field effects and to identify multitrophic level responses of the ecosystem to the MMEs. The artificial stream studies provided a mechanism to identify changes in the endpoints of relevant fish species exposed to present-day metal mine discharges independent of historical depositions of metals in the Sudbury area. PMID:16494220
Jang, Jun-Chul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Yang, Yong-Soo; Lee, Hyung-Been; Yu, Young-Moon; Kim, Jong-Myoung
To study the absorption characteristics of rhodopsin, a dim-light photoreceptor, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the relationship between light wavelengths on the photoresponse, the rod opsin gene was cloned into an expression vector, pMT4. Recombinant opsin was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Cells containing the regenerated rhodopsin were solubilized and subjected to UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis in the dark and upon illumination. Difference spectra from the lysates indicated an absorption maximum of mackerel rhodopsin around 500 nm. Four types of light-emitting diode (LED) modules with different wavelengths (red, peak 627 nm; cyan, 505 nm; blue, 442 nm; white, 447 + 560 nm) were constructed to examine their effects on the photoresponse in chub mackerel. Behavioral responses of the mackerels, including speed and frequencies acclimated in the dark and upon LED illumination, were analyzed using an underwater acoustic camera. Compared to an average speed of 22.25 ± 1.57 cm/s of mackerel movement in the dark, speed increased to 22.97 ± 0.29, 24.66 ± 1.06, 26.28 ± 2.28, and 25.19 ± 1.91 cm/s upon exposure to red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs, respectively. There were increases of 103.48 ± 1.58, 109.37 ± 5.29, 118.48 ± 10.82, and 109.43 ± 3.92 %, respectively, in the relative speed of the fishes upon illumination with red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs compared with that in the dark (set at 100 %). Similar rate of wavelength-dependent responses was observed in a frequency analysis. These results indicate that an LED emitting a peak wavelength close to an absorption maximum of rhodopsin is more effective at eliciting a response to light. PMID:26746848
Kim, Woo-Keun; Park, June-Woo; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho
In this study, antioxidant responses including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were evaluated in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Cu exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in Z. platypus, particularly in the liver, whereas BaP exposure had a negligible effect. Following Cu exposure, both SOD and CAT activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing significant correlations with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a measure of LPO (r = 0.646 and 0.663, respectively). SOD, CAT and GST mRNA levels were also enhanced following Cu exposure, except at 20 μg L(-1), although significant correlations with antioxidant enzyme activities were not found. The results of this study suggest that combined information on SOD and CAT activities together with LPO levels in the liver could be a useful indicator for assessing oxidative stress in freshwater fish. PMID:24477393
Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho
Multi-level biomarker responses (molecular/biochemical and histological/physiological levels) were studied to assess the sublethal toxicities of copper (Cu: 1.25, 5, and 20μg/L) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP: 0.5, 5, and 50μg/L) induced in the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus. Except for the kidney tissues when exposed to 20μg Cu/L, no significant differences were observed at the histological or physiological levels among the treatment groups. However, various molecular and biochemical responses were observed in Z. platypus, and these responses primarily depended on exposure time. Upon Cu exposure, both DNA single-strand breaks (COMET) and metallothionein (MT) concentration significantly increased after 4 days, whereas there were no significant changes after 14 days of exposure. Both 4 and 14 days of BaP exposure induced significant increases in COMET and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but there was no significant difference between them. Additionally, both Cu and BaP induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity only after 14 days of exposure. The current findings demonstrate that the differences in the responses of MT and EROD are associated with each chemical's particular mode of action. Biomarker responses at the molecular and biochemical levels were quantized in terms of the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index to compare the toxicities of Cu and BaP. The IBR values were well correlated with the concentrations of Cu and BaP, and the correlations were enhanced at 4 days of exposure (r(2)=0.849 and 0.945, respectively) compared with 14 days (r(2)=0. 412 and 0.634, respectively). These results suggest that the IBR index may be a useful tool for the integrative quantification of the molecular and biochemical biomarker responses in a short-term exposure to Cu and BaP. PMID:23478165
Kim, Woo-Keun; Jung, Jinho
The integration of biomarker responses ranging from the molecular to the individual level is of great interest for measuring the toxic effects of hazardous chemicals or effluent mixtures on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus by using multi-level biomarker responses at molecular [mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and metallothionein (MT)], biochemical (enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and concentration of MT), and physiological [condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI)] levels. The mRNA expression levels of GST and MT in Z. platypus from a site downstream of a WWTP significantly increased by 2.2- and 4.5-fold (pGST in fish from the downstream site significantly decreased by 43%, 98%, and 13%, respectively (p<0.05), except for an increase in MT concentration (41%). In addition, a significant increase in LSI (46%) was observed in Z. platypus from the downstream site (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the liver of Z. platypus were higher (530%, 353%, 800%, and 2,200%, respectively) in fish from a downstream site than in fish from an upstream location, and several multi-level biomarker responses were significantly correlated with the accumulated metals in Z. platypus (p<0.05). Integrated biomarker responses at molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels (multi-level IBR) were much higher (about 4-fold) at the downstream site than at the upstream site. This study suggests that the multi-level IBR approach is very useful for quantifying in situ adverse effects of WWTP effluents. PMID:26967356
NIU Cuijuan; WANG Wei; GAO Ying; LI Li
The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs),17β-estradiol (E2),p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE),4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT),to sperm motility,fertilization rate,hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study.The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10ngL-1 for E2 and TBT,1 μgL-1 for NP and 100μgL-1 for DDE,respectively.The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 lg L-1 for DDE and NP,respectively.Of the tested properties of S.curriculus,larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μgL-1.Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ngL-1 for E2,10ngL-1 for TBT and 1 μgL-1 for NP,respectively.Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations,the hatching rate and larval survival rate ofS.curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs.The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S.curriculus.Overall,E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE,while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters.Thus,the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S.curriculus.Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2,DDE,NP and TBT.
Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li
The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.
Shucui Jiang; Mohammad I.Khan; James R.Bain; Cai Jiang; Christopher R.Hansebout; Zesheng Yu; Yuqing Liu; Michel P.Rathbone
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that adult enteric gila (EG) facilitate the growth of transected dorsal root axons into the uninjured spinal cord to form functional connections with their targets. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the effects of EG on spinal cord function, tissue injury, and axonal regeneration following transplantation into injured rat spinal cords, according to histological and functional outcomes. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at McMaster University, Canada from January 2006 to March 2008.MATERIALS: EG were isolated from rat intestine. METHODS: One week following spinal cord crush, female Wistar rats were injected with an EG suspension (2 μL, 1 x 10 5/μL, n=10) or with the same volume of fresh culture medium alone (control animals, n=11). The third group did not receive any injection following laminectomy and served as the sham-operated controls (n=5). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Behavior was tested prior to transplantation and weekly following transplantation, with nine behavioral examinations in total. Open field, hind limb placement response, foot orientation response, and inclined plane test were utilized. Immediately following the final behavioral examination, spinal cord T9 to L1 segments were harvested for immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine astroglial scarring, axonal regeneration and spinal cord lesion size. RESULTS: Rats with EG transplantation exhibited significantly better locomotor function with reduced tissue damage, compared with the control rats. Cystic cavities were present 2 months after injury in spinal cords from both control groups. In contrast, rats injected with EG did not present with cystic lesions. In addition, the injury site consisted of cellular material and nerve fibers, and axonal regeneration was apparent, with dense labeling of neurofilament-positive axons within the injury site. Moreover, regenerating axons were
Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua
The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products. PMID:19835766
Heindl, Leopold Alexander; Ernst, Roger
Having attended the hearing on the Salt River Critical Area, you are conversant with the controversy in connection with the exclusion of certain lands from the critical area along the Gila Ricer from Lateral 23 westward to the vicinity of Buckeye.
Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian; Yuan, Xin-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong
Fish inhabit environments that vary greatly in terms of predation intensity, and these predation regimes are generally expected to be a major driver of divergent natural selection. To test whether there is predator-driven intra-species variation in the locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference of pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river, we measured unsteady and steady swimming and water velocity preference among fish collected from both high- and low-predation habitats in the Wujiang River. We also measured the routine metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed (Uopt). The fish from the high-predation populations showed a shorter response latency, elevated routine metabolism, lower swimming efficiency at low swimming speed and lower water velocity preference compared with those from the low-predation populations. Neither of the kinematic parameters fast-start and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) showed a significant difference between the high- and low-predation populations. The fish from the high-predation populations may improve their predator avoidance capacity primarily through an elevated routine metabolism and shorter response latency to achieve advanced warning and escape, rather than an improved fast-start swimming speed or acceleration. Thus, the cost of this strategy is an elevated RMR, and no trade-off between unsteady and steady swimming performance was observed in the pale chub population under various predation stresses. It was interesting to find that the high-predation fish showed an unexpected lower velocity preference, which might represent a compromise between predation avoidance, foraging and energy saving. PMID:25452504
Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Shimizu, Akio; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya
The presence of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) forms in the brain of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, namely, salmon GnRH (sGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), was confirmed by combined high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA). Immunocytochemical localization of the three GnRH forms in the brain was Investigated by using specific antisera, to elucidate possible roles of each GnRH form in reproduction in this species, and double immunolabeling was used to localize GnRH-ir (immunoreactive) fibers Innervating the pituitary. sGnRH-ir neurons were localized in the ventral olfactory bulb and terminal nerve ganglion region. Further, sGnRH-ir fibers were found in different regions of the brain, with prominent fibers running in parallel in the preoptic area (POA) without entering the pituitary. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were observed only in the midbrain tegmentum region, with a wide distribution of fibers, which were dense in the midbrain tegmentum and spinal cord. SbGnRH-ir cell bodies were localized in the nucleus preopticus of the POA, with fibers in the olfactory bulb, POA, and hypothalamus. Among the three GnRH forms, only SbGnRH-ir fibers innervated the pituitary gland from the preoptic-hypothalamic region, targeting follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing cells in the proximal pars distalis, as demonstrated by double immunocytochemistry. The localization of the GnRH-ir system was similar in male and female fish. These results demonstrate that multiple GnRH forms exist in the brain of the chub mackerel and suggest that they serve different functions, with SbGnRH having a significant role in reproduction in stimulating FSH- and LH-producing cells, and sGnRH and cGnRH-II serving as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. PMID:19968470
Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric
Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.
Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of organisms to assess exposure to environmental contaminants is of great potential use. Biochemical markers, specifically liver enzymes of the first and the second phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 (CYP 450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH - were used to assess contamination of the aquatic environment at 12 locations near the mouths of major rivers in the Czech Republic. These rivers were the LuÃ…Â¾nice, Otava, SÃƒÂ¡zava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, OhÃ…Â™e, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra. The indicator species selected was the Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. The highest levels of CYP 450 and EROD catalytic activity were found in livers of fish from the Labe (ObÃ…Â™ÃƒÂstvÃƒÂ (0.32Ã‚Â±0.10 nmol mg-1 protein and 1061.38Ã‚Â±545.51 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. The highest levels of GST catalytic activity and GSH content were found in fish from the Otava (35.39Ã‚Â±13.35 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein and 4.29Ã‚Â±2.10 nmol GSH mg-1 protein, respectively. They were compared with levels of specific inductors of these biochemical markers in muscle. The results confirmed contamination of some river locations (Labe ObÃ…Â™ÃƒÂstvÃƒÂ, Svratka.
Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.
Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior
李曰嵩; 潘灵芝; 严利平; 陈新军
鲐鱼Scomber japonicus资源丰富，在我国近海渔业中占有重要地位。其渔场的形成受海洋环境的制约，本文确定鲐鱼运动和物理环境之间的响应关系，建立起了基于个体的东海鲐鱼生长洄游模型。结果显示，鲐鱼集群分布与捕捞生产渔场基本吻合，鲐鱼聚集主要受台湾暖流、大陆沿岸水、黑潮影响，往往集群在一定温度范围内并在冷暖交汇区温盐梯度大偏暖水一侧。在台湾暖流和沿岸水交汇的锋面附近、台湾暖流暖水舌前端、黑潮与中国大陆沿岸水形成的潮境区域均有大量的鲐鱼聚集，并形成渔场。产卵位置的变动使偏西产卵位置的鲐鱼由于受台湾暖流影响较大，鲐鱼会呈长带状大量聚集在台湾暖流和沿岸水的锋面附近，并使在台湾暖流暖水舌前端的聚集数量增多，而偏东的产卵的鲐鱼受黑潮影响较大，聚集分布范围较大，会使黑潮形成的锋面附近聚集数量增多，而使台湾暖水舌的前端的聚集量减少。正常产卵位置在生存率方面是最佳产卵位置。研究表明鲐鱼所处空间位置不同，会影响其集群的位置，用数值模型验证了物理环境会对鲐鱼的洄游和渔场的形成产生影响。%Chub mackerel (Scomberjaponicus)is abundant resource in the coastal waters and occupies an important status in marine fisheries of China.The formation of the fishing ground was restricted marine environment.In this paper,according to the fitness theory,the response relationship between chub mackerel and physical environment was determined by using of physical environmental factor of temperature,salinity,temperature gradient,salinity gradient,distance,density of fish,up-welling.An individual-based growth and migration model of chub mackerel in East China Sea was developed.The result showed distribution patterns of mackerel agree well with fishing ground of purse seine fishery in East China Sea in
周卫枫; 汤海青; 贺林娟; 杨华; 欧昌荣
A two-step procedure was performed to isolate and screen histamine-producing bacteria （HPB） from Chub mackerel meat according to their histamine-producing capability. The screened strains were identified by physiological and biochemical analysis combined with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The results showed that among five HPB strains isolated from Chub mackerel meat, two strains were gram-negative bacteria and the other three strains were gram-positive bacteria. These five HPB isolates were separately inoculated into a medium containing 2.0 g/100 mL histidine and cultured for 24 h at 36 ℃ to obtain histamine concentrations of 210.5, 823.0, 130.5, 229.0 mg/L and 217.0 mg/L, respectively. They were identified as Pseudomonas monteilii, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus sphaericus, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri according to their physiological and biochemical charactefistcs and molecular biological analysis.%根据产组胺能力，采用二步筛选法从鲭鱼肉中分离、筛选组胺产生菌（HPB），并通过生理生化实验结合16S rRNA序列同源性分析，对分离得到的HPB进行鉴定。结果表明：筛选出的5株组胺产生菌中，2株为革兰氏阴性菌、3株为革兰氏阳性菌，将5株菌接种到含2．0g／100mL组氨酸的培养基中，36℃条件下培养24h，培养液中组胺产量分别为210．5、823．0、130．5、229．0、217．0mg／L。根据生理生化特性与16S rRNA序列同源性分析，分离得到的HPB分别为蒙氏假单胞菌（Pseudomonas monteilii）、弗氏柠檬酸杆菌（Citrobacter freundii）、球形芽孢杆菌（Bacillus sphaericus）、溶酪大球菌（Macrococcus caseolyticus）以及松鼠葡萄球菌（Staphylococcus sciuri）。
Vernieu, William S.
Under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey`s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) conducted a high-flow experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) from March 4 through March 9, 2008. This experiment was conducted under enriched sediment conditions in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon and was designed to rebuild sandbars, aid endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), and benefit various downstream resources, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the aquatic food base, riparian vegetation, and archaeological sites. During the experiment, GCD discharge increased to a maximum of 1,160 m3/s and remained at that rate for 2.5 days by near-capacity operation of the hydroelectric powerplant at 736 m3/s, augmented by discharge from the river outlet works (ROW) at 424 m3/s. The ROW releases water from Lake Powell approximately 30 m below the powerplant penstock elevation and bypasses the powerplant turbines. During the HFE, the surface elevation of Lake Powell was reduced by 0.8 m. This report describes studies that were conducted before and after the experiment to determine the effects of the HFE on (1) the stratification in Lake Powell in the forebay immediately upstream of GCD and (2) the water quality of combined GCD releases and changes that occurred through the tailwater below the dam. The effects of the HFE to the water quality and stratigraphy in the water column of the GCD forebay and upstream locations in Lake Powell were minimal, compared to those during the beach/habitat-building flow experiment conducted in 1996, in which high releases of 1,273 m3/s were sustained for a 9-day period. However, during the 2008 HFE, there was evidence of increased advective transport of reservoir water at the penstock withdrawal depth and subsequent mixing of this withdrawal current with water above and below this depth. Reservoir hydrodynamics during the HFE period were largely being controlled by a winter inflow
王从军; 陈新军; 李纲
鲐鱼是我国近海重要经济鱼类,其资源的可持续利用和科学管理一直受到人们的关注和重视.以Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型为理论依据,采用中、日、韩3国1998-2008年灯光围网渔业的生产作业数据以及相关的经济数据,估算东、黄海鲐鱼的最大可持续产量(MSY)、最大经济产量(MEY)和生物经济平衡点(BE)及其对应的捕捞努力量.在此基础上,设计出多种基于不同权重的生物、经济和社会目标的捕捞方案,建立东、黄海鲐鱼生物经济社会综合模型,比较其在不同捕捞方案下的短期(1～5年)、中期(10年)、长期(20年)的经济效益和社会效益以及渔业资源状况.结果表明,东、黄海鲐鱼资源量正处于或已经处于过度捕捞状态;以MEY为管理目标的长期经济效益为最大,且资源状况保持最好,但社会就业率较低;以BE为管理目标的当前以及短期效益较大,且可以解决大量就业问题,但长期经济效益为最低,且资源状况最差;而捕捞方案9的经济和社会综合效益为最好,且资源状况也较佳.研究认为,综合各方面因素,最佳的捕捞方案为方案9,即适宜捕捞努力量应控制在19 889网次.研究亮点:渔业资源开发和利用不仅是资源利用的问题,更是一个社会和经济问题.本研究以东黄海鲐鱼为例,首次构建了基于生态、经济和社会综合效益的Gordon-Schaefer生物经济模型,估算了在不同捕捞策略下短期、中期、长期的综合效益和资源状况,研究结果为科学制定鲐鱼资源管理策略提供了依据.%Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is an important economic species in the coastal waters of China,and its sustainable utilization and scientific management has been attractive and attentions by peoples.In this paper,based on Gordon-Schaefer bio-economic model,we use the catch data of purse seine fishery and economic data from China,Japan and Korea from 1998 to 2008 to
Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Dyrlund, Thomas Franck; Thomsen, Line Rold; Nielsen, Tania Aaquist; Brøndum, Lars; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida; Enghild, Jan Johannes
proteome was characterized using 2D-gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing followed by protein identification based on sequence homology. A total of 39 different proteins were identified out of the 58 selected spots that represent the major constituents of...... venom. Of these proteins, 19 have not previously been identified in helodermatid venom. The data showed that helodermatid venom is complex and that this complexity is caused by genetic isoforms and post-translational modifications including proteolytic processing. In addition, the venom proteome...
Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall
complete taxon sampling from these fishes, and species delimitation was determined on the basis of congruence between monophyletic groupings in the molecular phylogeny combined with comparison of morphological variation in type material. The results overall indicate that our understanding of species...... diversity and higher level relationships require revision. Topologies including a range of outgroup taxa consistently failed to retrieve a monophyletic Kyphosidae sensu Nelson (2006), i.e. Kyphosus + Girella + Scorpis. Our work thus supports previous phylogenetic studies in suggesting that Kyphosidae...
Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kincaid, Dustin W.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Kelly, Holly A.W.; Behn, Kathrine A.; White, Tyler; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Baxter, Colden V.
Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically altered the physical environment (especially discharge regime, water temperatures, and sediment inputs) of the Colorado River. High-flow experiments (HFE) that mimic one aspect of the natural hydrograph (floods) were implemented in 1996, 2004, and 2008. The primary goal of these experiments was to increase the size and total area of sandbar habitats that provide both camping sites for recreational users and create backwaters (areas of stagnant flow in the lee of return-current eddies) that may be important as rearing habitat for native fish. Experimental flows might also positively or negatively alter the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery in the clear tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., and native fish populations in downstream reaches (for example, endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha) through changes in available food resources. We examined the short-term response of benthic macroinvertebrates to the March 2008 HFE at three sites [river mile 0 (RM 0, 15.7 miles downriver from the dam), RM 62, and RM 225] along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam by sampling immediately before and then 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after the HFE. We selected these sites because of their importance to management; RM 0 has a valuable trout fishery, and RM 62 is the location of the largest population of the endangered humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. In addition to the short-term collection of samples, as part of parallel investigations, we collected 3 years of monthly (quarterly for RM 62) benthic macroinvertebrate samples that included 15 months of post-HFE data for all three sites, but processing of the samples is only complete for one site (RM 0). At RM 0, the HFE caused an immediate 1.75 g AFDM/m2 (expressed as grams ash-free dry mass, or AFDM) reduction of macroinvertebrate biomass that was driven by significant reductions in the biomass of the two dominant taxa in this reach-Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New
Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra
In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah, which composed a novel suite of top predators and potential competitors. We examined the interspecific interactions among Scofield Reservoir piscivores using a multifaceted approach including gut analyses, stable isotopes, and gape limitation. Large Cutthroat Trout consumed 50–100% Utah Chub and tiger trout consumed 45–80%. In contrast, small and large Rainbow Trout consumed primarily invertebrate prey and exhibited significant overlap with small tiger trout, Cutthroat Trout, and Utah Chub. Large Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout occupy a top piscivore trophic niche and are more littoral, while Rainbow Trout occupy an omnivore niche space and are more pelagic. Both Cutthroat and tiger trout varied in niche space with respect to size-class, demonstrating an ontogenetic shift to piscivory at approximately 350 mm TL. Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout are capable of consuming prey up to 50% of their own size, which is larger than predicted based on their theoretical gape limit. Because it appears food resources (Utah Chub) are not limited, and performance metrics are high, competition is unlikely between Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout. In contrast, apparent survival of Rainbow Trout has recently declined significantly, potentially due to shared food resources with Utah Chub or negative behavioral interactions with other members of the community. Collectively, this research aids in understanding biotic interactions within a top-heavy and novel fish community and assists towards developing
Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W
Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted
Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, M.; Kratochvíl, L.
Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e104716. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : determining mechanisms * lizards * evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014
... found in ambient air: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3... includes general and emergency authorities, ambient air quality standards, permitting requirements for... proposed TIP is to implement, maintain, and enforce the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geodetic Control Points dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. Data by this...
... disturbances (fire, drought, insects and disease), climate change, invasive species, and habitat connectivity... to address effects of climate change. Though the needs for change identified in the AMS report are... need for change, ] and information concerning public participation. It also provides estimated...
... public participation, and the responsible agency official. The project area is defined by the boundaries... develop alternatives to the proposed action. Responsible Official The responsible official for this... nature and scope of the environmental, social, and economic issues, and possible alternatives related...
Fish populations were studied in the Central Arizona Project's canal system during the first 4 years of aqueduct operation (1986-1989). Ichthyoplankton entering the canal from Lake Havasu averaged 1 larva/m3 during April-June 1987 and 1988. Larval fish densities increased significantly in downstream samples, substantiating diver observations that fish were spawning in the canal system. Of the 16 fish species collected, 14 were assumed to have originated from Lake Havasu and 2 were introduced by anglers from their bait buckets. Initially, the fish community was dominated numerically by threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense (>88%), centrarchids (< 10%), cyprinids (<2%), and striped bass Morone saxatilis (<1%). However, as annual water diversions increased from 13 x 108 m3 in 1986 to 9.4 x 108 m3 in 1989, community composition shifted from clupeids to centrarchids (70%). Fish densities dropped from an estimated 1,260 fish/ha in 1986 to 17 fish/ha in 1989, and biomass dropped from 116 to 73 kg/ha. Declines were attributed to higher operational velocities, associated scour, deprivation, and predation. Although initial populations adjusted downward to planned operational conditions, the fish community continued to represent a potentially valuable, but as yet unused, resource.
Estimates of evapotranspiration by young saltcedar, based on energy budget measurements, were made for an unfilled portion of the San Carlos Reservoir in east-central Arizona. Foty-eight days of record were obtained before the site was inundated. The young saltcedar, which had grown from seed earlier in the season , had an average daily evapotranspiration of 5.8 millimeters of water during the period August 17, 1971, to October 3, 1971. Daily values ranged from 9.2 millimeters to a low of 0.23 millimeters which occurred during a stormy day. (USGS)
Saaremaa ühisgümnaasiumi tüdrukud Gerda Nelis (7. klass) ja Hanna Tuus (6. klass) esitasid oma põhjaliku uurimistöö aprillis maakonna õpilasteadurite päeval. Mais pälvisid nad SA Archimedes ning haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi korraldatud konkursil oma töö “Haki (Corvus monedula) bioloogiast ja tema levikust ning arvukusest Kuressaare linnas Saaremaal” eest Tallinna loomaaia eripreemia.
Ondračková, Markéta; Šimková, A.; Hyršl, P.; Lamková, K.; Wenger, M.; Machala, M.; Jurajda, Pavel
Reykjavík : University of Iceland, 2008. s. 41-42. [International Conference on Fish Diseases and Fish Immunology. 06.09.2008-09.09.2008, Reykjavík] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasite infection Subject RIV: GL - Fishing http://www.keldur.hi.is/ Apps /WebObjects/HI.woa/swdocument/1014331/ra%C3%B0stefnuhefti.pdf
... only mayfly species endemic to New Mexico, where it is known from two sites (an unnamed tributary and... dencyanna) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate... publication of this notice, we are initiating a review of the status of the species to determine if...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...
... least 15 days in advance through local media, newspapers, and the BLM Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/nm... criteria related to the EA by any of the following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/nm/st/en/fo/Las... recreation and tourism in the area? 9. What effects would this proposed action have on...
Asboe, Mark; Fernandes, Joao; Grönvall, Erik
This paper presents an ongoing project that focuses on improving the quality of life for senior citizens by developing IT support for independent living in their homes. We introduce a concept that explores and supports coordination within a social and care community targeting elderly people. The...... paper reports on early project findings such as how elderly perceive a touch screen based interface and why a touch screen based interface might be favorable for this category of users in respect to a standard PC. Furthermore, This paper contributes to the societal debate on how IT may support ageing in...
Felipe Bisaggio Pereira
Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.
Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.
Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.
Our aim was to assess whether past discharges from a wastewater treatment plant increased metal pollutant loads in stream mobile species in a one-day baseline sampling study that included a coastal wetland. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) of two sizes, black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) were collected from Malibu Creek, and California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) of three sizes, as well as arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) were sampled from Malibu Lagoon near Los Angeles, California. Species from each locality were pooled by length, homogenized, digested by microwave wet ashing, and analyzed by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for 27 elements. Lagoon killifish 2.0-3.5 cm long contained levels of arsenic and lead above the levels for 95% of California fish, the EDL95. Black bullhead upstream of the discharge contained elevated levels of As, Cr and Se. Young mosquitofish <3 cm in length upstream of the discharge differed greatly in the order of abundance of their elements relative to larger mosquitofish and to other species collected. More sampling than this baseline study allowed was needed to determine if the wastewater treatment plant was a pollution source
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...
Seifertová, M.; Bryja, Josef; Vyskočilová, M.; Martínková, Natália; Šimková, A.
Roč. 39, č. 6 (2012), s. 1024-1040. ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cytochrome b * Europe * freshwater fishes * glacial refugia * microsatellites * phylogeography * population structure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.863, year: 2012
Full Text Available In the present study, several growth parameters of 338 Squalius cephalus (L., 1758 specimens collected from the Orenler dam lake (Turkey between July 2005 and June 2006 were studied. The population comprised 50.74% males, 46.29% females, and 2.97% males+females. In the examined samples, the age of females and males ranged from I to VII and I to VI, respectively. The fork length and weight of females were 14.7-38.0 cm and 40.68-27.0 g, respectively; these values were 16.3-33.7 cm and 57.7-560.0 g, respectively, for males. The age-length and age-weight relationships at time t were calculated by the von Bertalanffy equation for females, and the following results were obtained: Lt = 37.12[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96], Wt = 775.6[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96]3.27, Lt = 43.59[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719], and Wt = 1123.2[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719]3.08. The calculated length-weight relationship was W = 0.36L3.27 for females and W = 0.03356L3.08 for males. The average condition factor was 1.412 for females and 1.284 for males. Consequently, in the Orenler dam lake, S. cephalus grows very well according to the study’s results.
..., Arizona 85222. Gila Bend Public Library, 202 North Euclid Avenue, Gila Bend, Arizona 85337. Salazar-Ajo Branch Library, 33 Plaza, Ajo, Arizona 85321. The LS-SDNM Planning Area includes approximately...
... University professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Gila River Indian Community of the... University is responsible for notifying the Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and...
李建生; 严利平; 胡芬; 张辉
利用2012年春季在温台渔场对日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)繁殖群体连续6批取样的生物学测定数据,对其繁殖生物学特征进行了研究。结果表明,叉长340 mm以下群体中,雌雄比基本符合1∶1的性比关系；叉长340 mm以上群体中,雌鱼显著多于雄鱼(P 340 mm group. Variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) over time showed that the main breeding season lasted from mid-March to mid-April in this location. Female and male GSI values showed significant differences in the time periods, and the overall performance for females was higher than in males. We found the average feeding intensity to be greater in males than in females in the different gonadal stages. The liver index showed significant differences in the different female and male gonadal stages, with values for females higher than males. Absolute fecundity was 44 017–734 684 grains (mean ±SD, 173 867 ± 15 719 grains), while the dominant group was 10–30×104 grains (70.37%). Relative fe-cundity was 187–1403 grains/g (mean ± SD, 538 ± 31 grains/g), and the dominant group was 390–700 grains/g (66.67%). Egg size was 0.27–1.22 mm (mean ± SD, 0.86 ± 0.01 mm), while the dominant group ranged from 0.7 to 1.1 mm. The absolute fecundity of S. japonicus in the Wen-Tai fishing ground was found to be less than that of the northern Yellow Sea and higher than that of the Taiwan Strait. Relative fecundity was higher than historic levels, but the mean egg size was found to be lower than in the 1980s, and the minimum fork length of males and females at maturity ex-perienced a certain degree of reduction. This suggests that reproductive interventions (i.e., increasing relative fecundity, reducing egg sizes, and promoting early sexual maturity in the fish) are needed to cope with the high fishing intensity and environment stresses that had threaten Scomber japonicus reproductive stocks.
李建生; 严利平; 胡芬
根据1986年和2010年在黄海北部取样测定的日本鲭(Scomber japonicus)产卵群体基础生物学数据以及怀卵量计数结果,对其繁殖生物学特征的年代际变化进行了研究。结果表明,在日本鲭产卵群体基础生物学特征方面,1986年的叉长、体质量、纯体质量和性腺重这4项基本生物学指标的范围和平均值均明显大于2010年,年龄结构从1986年由1+~7+龄组成,2+龄和3+龄为优势组,改变为2010年由1+~3+龄组成,2+龄为优势组。在性腺成熟度组成和性腺指数(GSI)方面,2次采样均发现日本鲭雌鱼性腺成熟度以Ⅳ期和Ⅴ期为主；开始排卵前, GSI随性腺成熟度的增加而增加；相同叉长组而言,2010年平均GSI较1986年呈现增加趋势。相同叉长组的繁殖力分析表明,相对于1986年,2010年体质量相对繁殖力升高了11.93%,而绝对繁殖力则下降了18.45%。这些繁殖生物学特征的变化可能是由于日本鲭群体年龄结构简单化、个体小型化、生长速度加快等原因造成的。为了今后更好地保护并可持续利用日本鲭资源,在现有的围网休渔制度的基础上,建议在东黄海日本鲭各主要产卵场及其产卵期制定其他相应的保护措施,以限制其他捕捞网具对该物种产卵群体的过度捕捞。%We evaluated the changes in the reproductive traits of Scomber japonicus spawning stocks in the northern Yellow Sea between 1986 and 2010. The range and mean values of the four basic biological indicators (fork length, weight, net weight, and gonad weight) were significantly higher in 1986 than in 2010. In 1986, the age structure ranged from age 1+ to 7+and was dominated by age 2+-3+individuals. In 2010, the age range was reduced (1+-3+) and the dominant age was 2+. In 1986, the range in GSI was 3.43-21.87 (mean 11.63) and the mean GSI varied significantly among fish of different lengths. In 2010, the GSI ranged between 8.33 and 20.50 (mean 13.16) and there was little dif-ference in mean GSI among different length groups. In both years, the gonads of female fish were primarily at stagesⅣ and Ⅴ and the GSI increased with increase in gonad maturity before spawning. The mean GSI increased between 1986 and 2010 for the same sized fish. The absolute fecundity (F) was in the range of 7.5167×104-100.7746×104 grains (mean:50.2502×104±1.2615×104) and the most common value was between 40×104 and 70×104 grains in 1986. In 2010, the range was 23.4520×104-62.0805×104 grains (mean:40.7312×104±2.1458×104 grains) and the most common group was 30×104-50×104 grains. In 1986, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 269-2 519 grains/mm (mean: 1 467±33 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 100-1 600 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 303-1 552 grains (mean:1 041±21 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/g). In 2010, the relative fecundity (r/L) was in the range of 798-1 864 grains/mm (mean:1 279±36 grains/mm) with most fish being in the range 900-1 300 grains/mm). The relative fecundity r/W was in the range 705-1 724 grains/g (mean: 1 170±31 grains/g) with most fish being in the range 1000-1 300 grains/g). Compared with 1986, the relative fecundity r/W in-creased by 11.93%in 2010, while the absolute fecundity decreased by 18.45%within the same fork length range. These changes in the reproductive characteristics may be caused by simplification of the age structure, individual miniaturization, or growth acceleration in Scomber japonicus stocks. To better protect and sustain Scomber japonicus resources, we suggest the fishery administrative department should consider additional protective measures at the primary spawning ground and during the spawning period to limit the over harvest of spawning stocks in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea.
Arusoo, Helen, 1972-
Intervjuu Austraalia režissööri David Fedelega filmi "E-prügila" valmimisest. Film kajastab eluolu Ghana pealinna Accra keskel asuvas Euroopa elektroonikaromu ladustavas prügilas. Film pälvis Matsalu 10. loodusfilmide festivalil eriauhinna
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report identifies characteristics of use of antimycin to destroy stickleback, chub, suckers and other competitors to salmon and dolly varden.
Kroon, Kalle, 1966-
Landid, voblerid. Kuidas Michigani osariigis elanud mesinik 1898. a puulandi leiutas, kes ja kuidas seda edaspidi täiustas. Mudelid Wiggler, Pikie ja Huskie. Kuulsad firmad Creek Chub, Heddon, South Bend jt
鲐鱼灯光围网渔船水上集鱼灯水中照度分布及优化配置的理论计算%The theoretical calculations of underwater irradiance of upper water fish aggregation lamps and its optimal allocation in light purse seine vessels for chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus)
沙锋; 钱卫国; 吴仲琪; 陈幸骏
采用叠加法照度计算模式,根据一组鲐鱼灯光围网渔船中3艘不同渔船的水上集鱼灯布置参数,使用自行开发的水上集鱼灯水下光场计算系统,对各船的水中照度分布进行了计算,获得船舷右侧中部水深方向200 m范围内不同深度的照度,并使用Surfer 8.0软件绘制等值曲线图,结果表明:主灯船在总功率为180 kW的情况下,10 lx的等照度曲线水平方向最远在56 m左右,水深方向不超过20 m;离船水平距离40 m、垂直距离40 m处的照度约为0.01 lx.副灯船在总功率为120 kW的情况下,10 lx的等照度曲线水平方向最远在46 m左右,水深方向不超过18 m;离船水平距离33 m、垂直距离38 m处的照度约为0.01 lx.网船在总功率为40 kW的情况下,10 lx的等照度曲线水平方向最远在45m左右,水深方向不超过15 m;离船水平距离30 m、垂直距离35m处的照度为0.01 lx左右.从集鱼灯的配置情况来看,主灯船、副灯船与网船目前的配置均较好,但主灯船在灯距增大到0.26m、灯高增大到5 m时可增加1.6％的有效水体体积,副灯船在灯距减少到0.28m、灯高增大到5 m时可增加2.1％的有效水体体积,网船在灯距增大到0.64m、灯高增大到9 m时可增加1.7％的有效水体体积.计算结果还表明,大幅度的增加光诱渔船的集鱼灯功率并不能很有效的提高该船的光诱范围.%According to the arrangement parameters of attracting lamps on the light purse seine vessels, the illumination distribution underwater was calculated. The results showed that in the case of the total power of fishing lamps being 180 kW in main light vessel, the equal illumination curve of 10 lx could reach 56 m in horizontal direction in the farthest, and did not exceed 20 m in vertical direction. In 40 m vertical and 40 m horizontal distance from the ship, the illumination was about 0. 01 lx. In the second case of the total power of fishing lamps being 120 kW in vice light vessel, the equal illumination curve of 10 lx could reach 46 m in the horizontal farthest,and did not exceed 20 m in vertical direction. In 40 m vertical and 33 m horizontal distance from the ship, the illumination was about 0. 01 lx. In the third case of the total power of fishing lamps being 40 kW in net vessel, the equal illumination curve of 10 lx could reach 45 m in the horizontal farthest, and did not exceed 15 m in vertical directiong. In 35 m water depth and 38 m horizontal distance from the ship, the illumination was about 0. 01 lx. As to the configuration of fish lamp, the present current configuration of main light vessel is good, but if we increase the space to 0. 26 m, and increase the lamps' height to 5 m, 1. 6% of the effective water volume can be increased. The present current configuration of vice light vessel is good, but if we decrease the space between to 0. 28 m, and increase the lamps' height to 5 m, 2. 1% of the effective water volume can be increased. And the present current configuration of the net vessel is also good, but if we decrease the space to 0. 64 m, and increase the lamps' height to 9 m, 1. 7% of the effective water volume can be increased. The results also show that it is not very effective way to improve the light induced range of the boat by greatly increasing the total power of fishing lamps.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains imagery for the Gila National Forest, Catron and Grant County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains imagery for the Gila National Forest, Catron and Grant County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains imagery for the Gila National Forest, Catron and Grant County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declining populations of the endangered Gila topminnow in the Santa Cruz River prompted a 1997 study to assess contaminant levels in water, sediment, invertebrates,...
The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum uses such quaint teaching tools as the Gila monster and the boojum tree to tell the story of its vast and fascinating but often misunderstood desert environment. (Editor)
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the water quality and the ecosystem health of a segment of Pescara river (Abruzzo-Italy with the aid of an integrated approach. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were determinated in water and chub samples in order to calculate the bioconcentration factor. Biochemical, physical and microbiological characterisation were also carried out on water samples. Moreover, real and synergic effects of water pollution on biota were investigated by genotoxicological tests. Water samples were tested by Salmonella mutagenicity assay, whereas micronucleus assay on chub was used to evaluate environmental genotoxic effects on fish. The characterisation of water samples did not reveal any relevant contamination of Pescara river, but some analytical results obtained for biota were remarkable. In particular, the comparison between the site downstream from the industrial area of Chieti and the control site showed significant differences in chub micronuclei frequencies.
... Wilde (2006, pp. 1647-1649) found that young were produced throughout the summer, when relatively low... existing resources, such as food and habitat, and could result in less dilution of environmental...). Reproduction Little is known about prairie chub reproduction, but based on known reproductive habits of...
Tanaka, Takeo; Inaba, Minoru
In order to find out a suitable method for freezing and storage of chub mackerel, a kind of fatty fish, the round fish were frozen experimentally by liquid nitrogen spraying metho d (LN2-freezing) and usual contact freezing as a control experiment, and stored at -10, - 20 and -40°C for 6 months. Quality change of the fish meat during frozen storage was checked using indices such as pH, POV and VBN. The quality was also evaluated by histological observation and sensory score. Results are as follows : (l)The present data did not always show the superiority of ultra-rapid freezing with LN2 in quality of frozen-stored chub mackerel as compared with contact freezing, regardless of storage temperature. (2) It seemd to be necessary to store fatty chub mackerel at a temperature below -20°C, such as -25 - -30°C being advisable. (3) Quality of chub mackerel was observed to change more markedly than that of sardine tested already during frozen storage.
... Intent in the Federal Register (73 FR 11137; February 29, 2008), announcing our intent to complete a CCP..., including Oregon chub, Fender's blue butterfly, Bradshaw's desert-parsley, Kincaid's lupine, Nelson's checker- ] mallow, and Willamette daisy, and provide migration habitat for listed Chinook salmon...
Nikica Šprem; Daniel Matulić; Roman Safner; Ivica Aničić; Tea Tomljanović; Predrag Ivanković; Marina Piria; Tomislav Treer
Neretva chub Squalius svallize is an endemic vulnerable species, strictly protected in Croatia but not protected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Populations are declining due to environmental degradation, dams, predators and poaching. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of S. svalize is required.
Full Text Available Neretva chub Squalius svallize is an endemic vulnerable species, strictly protected in Croatia but not protected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Populations are declining due to environmental degradation, dams, predators and poaching. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of S. svalize is required.
Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D
Sea chubs of the family Kyphosidae are major consumers of macroalgae on both temperate and tropical reefs, where they can comprise a significant proportion of fish biomass. However, the relationships and taxonomic status of sea chubs (including the junior synonyms Hermosilla, Kyphosus, Neoscorpis and Sectator) worldwide have long been problematical due to perceived lack of character differentiation, complicating ecological assessment. More recently, the situation has been further complicated by publication of conflicting taxonomic treatments. Here, we resolve the relationships, taxonomy and distribution of all known species of sea chubs through a combined analysis of partial fragments from mitochondrial markers (12s, 16s, cytb, tRNA -Pro, -Phe, -Thr and -Val) and three nuclear markers (rag1, rag2, tmo4c4). These new results provide independent evidence for the presence of several junior synonyms among Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa, demonstrating that several sea chub species are more widespread than previously thought. In particular, our results can reject the hypothesis of endemic species in the Atlantic Ocean. At a higher taxonomic level, our results shed light on the relationships between Girellidae, Kuhliidae, Kyphosidae, Microcanthidae, Oplegnathidae and Scorpididae, with Scorpididae resolved as the sister group to Kyphosidae. PMID:27143240
... Applicant: Blue Earth Ecological Consultants, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Applicant requests an amendment to a...-841359 Applicant: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Gila National Forest, Silver City, New Mexico... Mexico. Permit TE-819471 Applicant: SWCA, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah. Applicant requests a renewal to...
... RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to... PEDRO RIVER BASIN: Copper Creek SANTA CRUZ RIVER BASIN: Agua Caliente Wash Nogales Wash Sonoita Creek... of the water quality standard. (Sec. 303, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33...
... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and... 107(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a... United States Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') at or from a Site known as the Gila River...
... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Phoenix Area Office, Phoenix, AZ, and Huhugam Heritage Center, Gila River Indian... to repatriate cultural items in the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau...
... Gila Plain Sites. In the Federal Register (66 FR 55957-55958, Monday, November 5, 2001) paragraph... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...
Studies on shelf life extension of three kinds of cured fish products, i.e. salted chub mackeral (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been made using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combination treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that 0.1% potassium sorbate followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy retards mould growth on the products and extends the shelf life to a considerable length of time in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs
Studies on shelf-life extension of three kinds of cured fish product, i.e. salted chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been done using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combined treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, content of volatile reducing substances and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf-life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that potassium sorbate residue of 0.1 % level followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy could retard mould growth on the products and extend the shelf-life considerably in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author)
Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero
The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...
Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887) frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México
Leonardo A. Abitia-Cárdenas; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Víctor H Cruz-Escalona; Peterson, Mark S.; Jesús Rodríguez-Romero
The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...
Abitia Cárdenas, Leonardo Andrés; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo; Peterson, Mark S.; Rodriguez Romero, Jesús
The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus), California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus), and jumbo squid (Dosi...
Lopes, C; Perga, M.E.; Peretti, A; Roger, M.C.; Persat, H.; Babut, M.
Many chemical, physiological, and trophic factors are known to affect ioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biota. Understanding the primary factors affecting fish contamination is critical for predicting and assessing risks to upper-trophic level consumers, including humans. Here we identify PCB contamination pathways that could explain within- and between-species variability in fish concentration levels. Three freshwater river fish species (barbel, chub and bream) were sampl...
Nadine Rujeni; Léonidas Mbanzamihigo
The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Se...
Ivan Jakovlić; Tomislav Treer
After the structure of fish populations from gravel-pit Vukovina was determined, those populations were checked for 10 morphometric and 4 meristic parameters, as well as for length-mass relationship. For chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) some meristic characters expressed the values beyond those mentioned in the standard key for the freshwater fish species determination. When compared to other locations, length-mass relationship and condition factor (CF) were signif...
Dewi Indriyani Roslim
Full Text Available Limbah organik dari limbah rumah tangga, pertanian, perkebunan, dan peternakan sering menimbulkan masalah, karena mencemari lingkungan. Cacing tanah dapat menggunakan limbah organik tersebut sebagai media pertumbuhannya dan juga merombaknya menjadi pupuk kasting. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pertumbuhan tiga jenis cacing tanah yang ditemui di kota Pekanbaru pada dua media pertumbuhan. Tiga jenis cacing tanah yang diteliti adalah Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, dan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Faktorial Lengkap. Masing-masing cacing tanah ditumbuhkan pada dua media, yaitu serasah dan campuran kotoran sapi+tanah, di dalam pot plastik. Medium tanpa cacing tanah digunakan sebagai kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan cacing tanah Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, dan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu memiliki perbedaan karakter morfologi pada panjang tubuh, warna kulit, jumlah segmen, tipe prostomium, jumlah seta per segmen, warna dan posisi klitellum, posisi dan jumlah lubang jantan. Medium campuran kotoran sapi+tanah lebih cocok untuk pertumbuhan Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu, media serasah untuk pertumbuhan Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh, dan media kotoran sapi saja tanpa penambahan tanah untuk Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah.Organic waste produced from household, agriculture, plantation, and animal husbandry may cause environmental pollution. Earthworms can utilize this organic waste for their growth medium and decompose them to produce casting fertilizer. The objective of this study was to analyze the growth of three earthworm species from Pekanbaru using two types of media, i.e. Perionyx sp1 (Cacing Merah, Perionyx sp2 (Cacing Susu, and Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh. All these earthworms were grown in litter media and manure-soil mixture. Media without the earthworms were used as control. The experiment design used in this
Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Skorić, Stefan; Gačić, Zoran; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Vasić, Nebojša; Vuković-Gačić, Branka
Metals and metalloids are natural components of the biosphere, which are not produced per se by human beings, but whose form and distribution can be affected by human activities. Like all substances, they are a contaminant if present in excess compared to background levels and/or in a form that would not normally occur in the environment. Samples of liver, gills, gonads and muscle from European chub, Squalius cephalus, were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of tissue selection in monitoring research. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was selected as an in vivo genotoxicity assay, a rapid and sensitive method for measuring genotoxic effects in blood, liver and gills of the European chub. Microscopic images of comets were scored using Comet IV Computer Software (Perceptive Instruments, UK). The objective of our study was to investigate two reservoirs, Zlatar and Garasi, and one river, Pestan by: (i) determining and comparing metal and metalloid concentrations in sediment, water and tissues of European chub: liver, gills, muscle and gonads (ii) comparing these findings with genotoxicity of water expressed through DNA damage of fish tissues. A clear link between the level of metals in water, sediment and tissues and between metal and genotoxicity levels at examined sites was not found. This suggests that other xenobiotics (possibly the organic compounds), contribute to DNA damage. PMID:27016612
Le, T T Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Sures, Bernd
Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub
Pénzes, Judit J.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Condezo, Gabriela N.; Ball, Inna; Papp, Tibor; Doszpoly, Andor; Paradela, Alberto; Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; López-Sanz, María; Nguyen, Thanh H.; van Raaij, Mark J.; Marschang, Rachel E.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária; San Martín, Carmen
Although adenoviruses (AdVs) have been found in a wide variety of reptiles, including numerous squamate species, turtles, and crocodiles, the number of reptilian adenovirus isolates is still scarce. The only fully sequenced reptilian adenovirus, snake adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1), belongs to the Atadenovirus genus. Recently, two new atadenoviruses were isolated from a captive Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) and Mexican beaded lizards (Heloderma horridum). Here we report the full genomic and prot...
Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.
A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phyloge...
Büroo Field Operations maastikuarhitekt ning Pennsylvania Ülikooli maastikuarhitektuuri osakonna juhataja James Corner oma büroost, maastikust kui "instrumendist", postindustriaalsete aladega seotud projektidest (New Yorgi High Line'i muutmine pargiks ja promenaadiks), tööst suuremahuliste maastikega (Fresh Kills'i soo, endise prügila muutmine pargialaks), maastikuarhitektuurist ja linnakujundusest (maastiku urbanism), õpetamise tähtsusest oma töös ja maastikuarhitektuuri ideede arendamisel. Bibl. lk. 24
Dewi Indriyani Roslim; Dini Septya Nastiti; Herman -
Limbah organik dari limbah rumah tangga, pertanian, perkebunan, dan peternakan sering menimbulkan masalah, karena mencemari lingkungan. Cacing tanah dapat menggunakan limbah organik tersebut sebagai media pertumbuhannya dan juga merombaknya menjadi pupuk kasting. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pertumbuhan tiga jenis cacing tanah yang ditemui di kota Pekanbaru pada dua media pertumbuhan. Tiga jenis cacing tanah yang diteliti adalah Amynthas aspergillum (Cacing Gila Bodoh), Perionyx sp1 ...
McCance, D.R.; Hanson, R.L.; Charles, M. A.; Jacobsson, L. T.; Pettitt, D. J.; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W. C.
OBJECTIVE--To compare the ability of tests measuring two hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin concentrations in predicting the specific microvascular complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN--Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between complications and concomitant results of the three tests. SETTING--Gila River Indian Community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--Pima Indians (cross sectional, n = 960), aged 25 years or above who...
Milošković, Aleksandra; Dojčinović, Biljana; Kovačević, Simona; Radojković, Nataša; Radenković, Milena; Milošević, Djuradj; Simić, Vladica
The study monitored the contamination of fish muscle tissue by elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at 17 sampling sites, in order to assess the pollution status of the main rivers in Serbia. Of the six commercially important fish species included in the study (pikeperch Sander lucioperca, catfish Silurus glanis, bream Abramis brama, barbel Barbus barbus, chub Squalius cephalus, nase Chondrostoma nasus), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that benthivore bream and barbel and predatory catfish have the highest tendency toward the accumulation of elements. This study achieved its primary objective and produced a contamination map of Serbia as a basis for further research. The estimated metal pollution index (MPI) showed the Tisa River to be unaffected by direct pollution (with an MPI value of 0.31) and the West Morava and Pek rivers to be affected (with MPI values of 1.92 and 0.73 for the WM1 and WM2 sampling sites and 0.65 for the Pek sampling site). Over the past two decades, Serbia has not expanded its industrial activity, which has resulted in the barely noticeable anthropogenic input of heavy metals in the rivers close to industry, and the main rivers are mostly unaffected and slightly affected. We assumed that pollution by heavy metals in the 1990s was trapped in the sediment, thus showing an increased concentration of elements in the species that live and feed on the bottom. Hg concentrations exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations (MPCs) only in catfish samples (0.62 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D3 sampling site) and barbel (0.78 mg kg(-1)) from the West Morava (WM1 sampling site), while Cd concentrations exceeded the MPC in catfish samples (0.09 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D1 sampling site) and chub samples (0.1 mg kg(-1)) from the South Morava (SM2 sampling site). The average concentrations of Pb exceeded the MPC in chub and barbel samples (0.32 and 0.82 mg kg(-1), respectively) from the West Morava (WM1
Valová, Zdenka; Jurajda, Pavel; Janác, Michal; Bernardová, Ilja; Hudcová, Hana
The aim of this study was to assess mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contamination in muscle tissue of fishes over the longitudinal profile of the River Morava (Czech Republic, Danube basin) and to detect any temporal trends over the past 18 years. Fish samples were collected in 1992, 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2009 at 6 study sites situated just downstream of important pollution sources. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) were selected as indicator species at 5 sites, and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) at the uppermost site where chub do not occur. In total, muscle tissue of 175 specimens of chub and 19 specimens of brown trout were analysed. Concentrations of heavy metals ranged as follows: mercury 0.015-0.369 mg/kg; cadmium 0.001-0.254 mg/kg and lead 0.006-1.505 mg/kg. Mercury levels did not exceed the maximum allowed concentration in the Czech Republic (0.5 mg/kg). Content of cadmium and lead in fish muscle exceeded the maximum allowed levels (0.05 and 0.3 mg/kg respectively) in 11 and 4 samples, respectively. On average, the order of metal concentration in fish muscle was: Hg>Pb>Cd. No significant differences were found between sites along the longitudinal profile of the river. Significant differences were found, however, for the interannual comparison of cadmium and lead (but not mercury) at different sites (P metal concentrations, especially cadmium and lead, in the following 1998 season. Our results indicate that the Morava river basin does not represent a threatening source of mercury, cadmium or lead for the River Danube downstream. PMID:20981604
GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang
The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.
Hodges, S.W.; Magoulick, D.D.
Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined what habitats act as refuges for fishes during summer drying, hypothesizing that pools would act as refuge habitats. We predicted that during drying fish would show directional movement into pools from riffle habitats, survival rates would be greater in pools than in riffles, and fish abundance would increase in pool habitats. We examined movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species, bigeye shiner (Notropis boops), highland stoneroller (Campostoma spadiceum) and creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), during seasonal stream drying in an Ozark stream using a closed robust multi-strata mark-recapture sampling. Population parameters were estimated using plausible models within program MARK, where a priori models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Creek chub showed directional movement into pools and increased survival and abundance in pools during drying. Highland stonerollers showed strong directional movement into pools and abundance increased in pools during drying, but survival rates were not significantly greater in pools than riffles. Bigeye shiners showed high movement rates during drying, but the movement was non-directional, and survival rates were greater in riffles than pools. Therefore, creek chub supported our hypothesis and pools appear to act as refuge habitats for this species, whereas highland stonerollers partly supported the hypothesis and bigeye shiners did not support the pool refuge hypothesis. Refuge habitats during drying are species dependent. An urgent need exists to further understand refuge habitats in streams given projected changes in climate and continued alteration of hydrological regimes. ?? 2011 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).
Long, James M.; Starks, T. A.; Miller, M.L.
Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. AllMacrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0·22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0·02) and M. gelida (B = 0·09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0·62 to 0·97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0·79 mm day−1 for M. meeki to 1·39 mm day−1 for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0·985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions.
Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.
Borax Lake is located in southeastern Oregon, within the Alvord Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area. Borax Lake is a large hot spring; there are more than 50 smaller hot springs within about one-half mile to the north of the lake. Several geothermal exploration wells have been drilled near Borax Lake, and there is concern that development of the geothermal resources could affect the lake and nearby hot springs. A factor to consider in developing the resource is that the Borax Lake chub is an endangered species of fish that is found exclusively in Borax Lake.
Pledger, A. G.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.
Benthic foraging by fish can modify the nature and rates of fine sediment accrual and the structure and topography of coarse-grained fluvial substrates, with the potential to alter bed material characteristics, particle entrainment thresholds, and bedload transport fluxes. However, knowledge of what controls the nature, extent, and intensity of benthic foraging and the consequent influence of these controls on geomorphic impact remain rudimentary. An ex-situ experiment utilising Barbel Barbus barbus and Chub Leuciscus cephalus extended previous work by considering the role of fish size and species as controls of sediment disturbance by foraging and the implications for bed material characteristics and bedload transport. In a laboratory flume, changes in bed microtopography and structure were measured when a water-worked bed of 5.6-22.6 mm gravels was exposed to four size classes of Barbel (4-5″, 5-6″, 6-8″, 8-10″ in length) and a single size class of Chub (8-10″). In line with other studies that have investigated animal size as a control of zoogeomorphic agency, increasing the size of Barbel had a significant effect on measured disturbance and transport metrics. Specifically, the area of disturbed substrate, foraging depth, and the fish's impact on microtopographic roughness and imbrication all increased as a function of fish size. In a comparison of the foraging effects of like-sized Barbel and Chub, 8-10″ in length, Barbel foraged a larger area of the test bed and had a greater impact on microtopographic roughness and sediment structure. Relative to water-worked beds that were not foraged, bed conditioning by both species was associated with increased bedload transport during the subsequent application of high flows. However, the bedload flux after foraging by Barbel, which is a specialist benthivore, was 150% higher than that following foraging by Chub, which feed opportunistically from the bed, and the total transported mass of sediment was 98
Full Text Available Fish samplings were carried out monthly from spring to autumn during 2008, on the Lamone river and the Campigno stream by an electrofishing, in order to verify the presence of fish populations and the most common species represented. Barb, Barbus plebejus, Blageon, Leuciscus muticellus, Chub, Leuciscus cephalus, South European Nase, Chondrostoma genei were identified. A small population of Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario was also recognized. Barb is the most represented species in all the sites. The samplings highlight that Lamone river presented conditions suitable to fully guarantee the life of the fish populations.
Čech, Martin; Vejřík, Lukáš
Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), 129–142. ISSN 0139-7893. [Czech Ichthyological Conference /XII./. Vodňany, 19.05.2010-20.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : diagnostic bones * fish withdrawal * regurgitated pellets * European chub * European perch * grayling * roach * ruffe * Slapy Reservoir * trout spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011
Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin
There are 13 species of fish found in the waters of Bear Lake. Of those 13, 4 are endemic (found only in Bear Lake). The 4 endemics species are Bonneville cisco, Bonneville whitefish, Bear Lake whitefish, and Bear Lake sculpin. Five of the remaining 9 fish species are native to the region, and 4 are exotic introductions. These native fishes are the Bonneville cutthroat trout, Utah sucker, redside shiner, speckled dace and Utah chub. The exotic fishes are lake trout, common carp, yellow p...
Full Text Available After the structure of fish populations from gravel-pit Vukovina was determined, those populations were checked for 10 morphometric and 4 meristic parameters, as well as for length-mass relationship. For chub (Leuciscus cephalus and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus some meristic characters expressed the values beyond those mentioned in the standard key for the freshwater fish species determination. When compared to other locations, length-mass relationship and condition factor (CF were significantly lower for all checked populations. This indicates that gravel-pit Vukovina is extremely oligotrophic and has very poor fish production.
Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.
A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.
McCance, D. R.; Pettitt, D J; Hanson, R L; Jacobsson, L. T.; Knowler, W C; Bennett, P H
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of diabetes in relation to birth weight in Pima Indians. DESIGN--Follow up study of infants born during 1940-72 who had undergone a glucose tolerance test at ages 20-39 years. SETTING--Gila River Indian community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--1179 American Indians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (plasma glucose concentration > or = 11.1 mmol/l two hours after ingestion of carbohydrate). RESULTS--The prevalence was great...
Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.
A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses. PMID:15542689
Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R
A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses. PMID:15542689
Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K
Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur. PMID:27583576
Rubio Pobes, Coro
Índice: - Glory (1989): una visión dramatizada sobre el origen de los Buffalo Soldiers (Óscar Álvarez Gila). - Los violentos años veinte: gánsters, prohibición y cambios socio-políticos en el primer tercio del siglo xx en Estados Unidos (Aurora Bosch). - La crisis de la democracia en América: Caballero sin espada (Frank Capra, 1939) (José-Vidal Pelaz López). - El manantial, una apología del individualismo norteamericano (José Luis Sánchez Noriega). - Cine y elecciones: El candi...
Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei
Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.
Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo
Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes. PMID:23238894
Full Text Available The diet and food niche overlap of five fish species in the Úpoř brook was evaluated. The supply of food represented by benthos was studied, and the proportion of total food particles in the intestine of brown trout Salmo trutta L., chub Squalius cephalus (L., dace Leuciscus leuciscus (L., bullhead Cottus gobio (L. and stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L. was measured. Evaluations were performed using a new index (Mtotp. All fish species except stone loach exhibited a balanced consumption of the food supply. The food components were systematically grouped, but no differences in the ingestion of these groups were found. However, a new approach in the evaluation of food competition based on observation of species-specific preferences/avoidance in ingestion of food particles was applied. The particles were divided into four ecological categories according to their availability for fish. Brown trout concentrated on easily accessible sources of benthos or that hiding below stones, and also distinctly preyed on terrestrial insects. Chub displayed a similar feeding habit, though concentrating more on drift and allochthonous sources. The food spectrum of dace was mostly composed of easily accessible benthic organisms, consuming fewer hidden benthos and terrestrial insects. The food of bullhead and stone loach was similar, both preferring benthos. Bullhead consumed hidden species while stone loach consumed more accessible species rather than hidden ones.
Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.
This report summarizes a comprehensive study and development of the method documented in Owen-Joyce and others (2000). That report and one for the area upstream from Laguna Dam (Wilson and Owen-Joyce, 1994) document the accounting-surface method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Downstream from Laguna Dam, the Colorado River is the source for nearly all recharge to the river aquifer. The complex surface-water and ground-water system that exists in the area is, in part, the result of more than 100 years of water-resources development. Agriculture is the principal economy and is possible only with irrigation. The construction and operation of canals provides the means to divert and distribute Colorado River water to irrigate agricultural lands on the flood plains and mesas along the Colorado and Gila Rivers, in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, and in the area upstream from Dome along the Gila River. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, dewatering, and domestic use. The area downstream from Laguna Dam borders additional areas of agricultural development in Mexico where Colorado River water also is diverted for irrigation.
Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.
The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.
Abdel K.M. Baareh
Full Text Available Forecasting a time series became one of the most challenging tasks to variety of data sets. The existence of large number of parameters to be estimated and the effect of uncertainty and outliers in the measurements makes the time series modeling too complicated. Recently, Artificial Neural Network (ANN became quite successful tool to handle time series modeling problem. This paper provides a solution to the forecasting problem of the river flow for two well known Rivers in the USA. They are the Black Water River and the Gila River. The selected ANN models were used to train and forecast the daily flows of the first station no: 02047500, for the Black Water River near Dendron in Virginia and the second station no: 0944200 for the Gila River near Clifton in Arizona. The feed forward network is trained using the conventional back propagation learning algorithm with many variations in the NN inputs. We explored models built using various historical data. The selection process of various architectures and training data sets for the proposed NN models are presented. A comparative study of both ANN and the conventional Auto-Regression (AR model networks indicates that the artificial neural networks performed better than the AR model. Hence, we recommend ANN as a useful tool for river flow forecasting.
Rooney, Tim [Antares Group Inc.
The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including: Technical appropriateness; Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance; Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including: Resource analysis and costs; Identification of potential bioenergy projects; Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.
Sardine individuals from the different sites showed significantly different trophic position for both C and N isotopes. The northern individuals were depleted in d15N (1‰ difference, suggesting that phytoplankton is more important in their diet. The d13C values showed greater differences (~3‰ for both Sardines and zooplankton between the two sites, pointing high fidelity for sardine individuals towards the feeding grounds. While Anchovy and Horse Mackerel showed a similar pattern with sardine for δ13C, chub mackerel showed no significant differences between the two areas suggesting a higher seasonal migratory behavior for this species. Sardine Microelements profiles reinforced the sedentary behavior hypothesis for sardine. The Barium (Ba profiles were the most discriminant: the concentration range was 7× higher for the southern area where upwelling intensity is higher .
Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Draut, Amy E.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Korman, Josh; Hilwig, Kara D.; Schmit, Lara M.
On March 5, 2008, the Department of the Interior began a 60-hour high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to determine if water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding could be used to improve downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and their cooperators undertook a wide range of physical and biological resource monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the release. Scientists sought to determine whether or not high flows could be used to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars, create nearshore habitat for the endangered humpback chub, and benefit other resources such as archaeological sites, rainbow trout, aquatic food availability, and riverside vegetation. This fact sheet summarizes research completed by January 2010.
Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall; Choat, John Howard
Sea chubs, family Kyphosidae, have a global distribution and are consumers of macroalgae in some temperate and all tropical reef systems. We determined phylogenetic relationships of the ingroup and related outgroup taxa using partial fragments from mitochondrial markers (12s, 16s, cytb, tRNA -Pro...... chronogram using several outgroup fossil calibrations revealed that kyphosids originated in the sub-tropical Indo-Pacific during the late Eocene or early Oligocene, and rapidly colonized subtropical seas. Kyphosus originated relatively recently, in the early Miocene. The temperate clade of Kyphosus...... and evolved new dietary preferences. Diversification into low latitude reef systems was geographically comprehensive and occurred during a period of marked environmental fluctuation in tropical oceans. Herbivory is a basal trait and originated in temperate environments, while zooplanktivory in the...
Two methods of salting fresh chub mackerel (R. neglectus) were examined: dry salting and brine salting. With dry salting (and sun drying) moulding occurs after 1 month. Sorbate prevents moulding. Irradiation reduces the bacterial population. Best results are obtained with sorbate and radiation used in combination. The brine salting investigation was not completed at the time of writing. Packaging materials for study were selected on the basis of the physical protection that could be obtained and also cost. Based on drop tests, irradiation of polyethylene film with doses up to 10 kGy does not significantly affect tensile strength or tear resistance. Similar results were obtained with polypropylene woven cloth. Carton boxes were unchanged with doses up to 5 kGy. Carton boxes are more suitable than woven bags for large scale irradiation. (author). 2 figs, 12 tabs
Full Text Available We compared techniques used by poachers to capture fishes in the streams and stagnant water bodies of the Tisa River basin in Ukraine, which included: gill nets, lift nets, screen nets, electrofishing devices, spears, concussion, and beach seine. In total, 38 species were observed in poachers’ catches, among which the most abundant were nase (Chondrostoma nasus, Carpathian barbel (Barbus carpathicus, chub (Squalius cephalus, crucian carp (Carassius gibelio, and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus. The highest diversity of species was observed in gill nets (25 species in rivers and 10 in stagnant waters, lift nets (20 species in rivers and eight in stagnant waters, and electrofishing (19 species. Poachers’ catches can provide information on fish species’ compositions and relative abundance in montane rivers; but there are biases associated with each technique.
Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.
Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.
The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).
Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.
Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.
The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ''may affect'' the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA)
Silalahi, Sari Anggraini
Otaku （オタク） adalah istilah atau sebutan dalam bahasa Jepang yang dipakai untuk orang yang tergila-gila pada budaya visual modern Jepang, seperti : komik jepang (manga, 漫画), anime (アニメ), game, cosplay, dan lain-lain. Kata otaku sendiri berarti “rumahmu” atau “kamu” (お宅) dan mempunyai konotasi formal. Tetapi sejak tahun 80-an, kata “otaku” dipakai dalam makna lain. Awalnya adalah ketika kalangan penggemar anime dan manga (komik) ketika bertemu dan saling menyapa, “お宅 の コレクション を 見てもいいですか。” (Bole...
Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Wilcox, Ethan
We observed behavior consistent with nest-guarding in Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at two nests in a large wind-energy-generation facility near Palm Springs, California, locally known as the Mesa Wind Farm. As researchers approached the nests, female desert tortoises moved to the entrance of their burrows and positioned themselves sideways, directly over their nests. One female stretched her limbs outward and wedged herself into the burrow (her plastron directly above the nest). Guarding of nests is rarely observed in Agassiz's desert tortoise but can occur as a result of attempted predation on eggs by Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) or in direct response to the perceived threat posed by researchers. This is the first report of nest-guarding for G. agassizii in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem of California.
Conocimiento actual sobre la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens en el estado de Durango, México Current status of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens in Durango, Mexico
Juan F. Charre-Medellín
Full Text Available Se revisó el estado del conocimiento sobre la distribución de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis para el estado de Durango, México, con base en bibliografía previa y 2 nuevos registros basados en excretas. Sólo 3 de los reportes históricos disponibles estuvieron documentados con evidencia física u observaciones. El análisis de las excretas reveló principalmente restos de peces, en su mayoría nativos. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus y Scartomyzon austrinus no se habían registrado previamente en la dieta de L. longicaudis en México. La presencia de la nutria neotropical en las partes altas y media de 3 grandes cuencas (Mezquital-San Pedro, Nazas y Grande de Santiago apunta a la importancia de preservar las cabeceras de estos ríos, donde la nutria puede persistir aún cuando sus partes bajas tengan un fuerte efecto antropogénico.An update on the state of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis for the state of Durango, Mexico is presented based on the revision of literature reports and the addition of 2 new records. Upon revision, only 3 of the previous reports are supported by physical evidence or observations; and 2 more are newly documented records based on scats. Analysis of these samples indicated that the main items consumed by otters in Durango were mostly native fishes. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus and Scartomyzon austrinus had not been recorded previously in the neotropical otter's diet. Neotropical otters are able to persist at the headwaters of at least 3 major basins (San Pedro-Mezquital, Nazas, and Grande de Santiago even though strong anthropogenic disturbances have already occurred downstream, thus pointing to the need of effective conservation strategies for these areas.
Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja
of objectives, with the values of individual agencies and tribes deliberately preserved. Trout removal strategies aimed at the Paria to Badger Rapid reach (PBR), with a variety of permutations in deference to cultural values, and with backup removal at the Little Colorado River reach (LCR) if necessary, were identified as top-ranking portfolios for all agencies and Tribes. These PBR/LCR removal portfolios outperformed LCR-only removal portfolios, for cultural reasons and for effectiveness - the probability of keeping the humpback chub population above a desired threshold was estimated to be higher under the PBR/LCR portfolios than the LCR-only portfolios. The PBR/LCR removal portfolios also outperformed portfolios based on flow manipulations, primarily because of the effect of sport fishery and wilderness recreation objectives, as well as cultural objectives. The preference for the PBR/LCR removal portfolios was quite robust to variation in the objective weights and to uncertainty about the underlying dynamics, at least over the ranges of uncertainty investigated. Examination of the effect of uncertainty on the recommended outcomes allowed us to complete a 'value of information' analysis. The results of this analysis led to an adaptive strategy that includes three possible long-term management actions (no action; LCR removal; or PBR removal) and seeks to reduce uncertainty about the following two issues: the degree to which rainbow trout limit chub populations, and the effectiveness of PBR removal to reduce trout emigration downstream into Marble and eastern Grand Canyons, where the largest population of humpback chub exist. In the face of uncertainty about the effectiveness of PBR removal, a case might be made for including flow manipulations in an adaptive strategy, but formal analysis of this case was not conducted. The full set of conclusions described above is not definitive, however. This analysis described in this report is a simplified depiction of the t
Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita
Discharge of substances like pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, and chelating agents in surface waters has increased over the last decades due to the rising numbers of chemicals used by humans and because many WWTPs do not eliminate these substances entirely. The study, results of which are presented here, focused on associations of (1) concentrations of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface waters, sediments, and tissues of fishes; (2) results of laboratory biotests indicating potentials for effects in these samples and (3) effects either in feral chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from two German rivers (Schussen, Argen) or in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in bypass systems to streamwater of these rivers or in cages directly in the rivers. The Schussen and Argen Rivers flow into Lake Constance. The Schussen River is polluted by a great number of chemicals, while the Argen River is less influenced by micropollutants. Pesticides, chelating agents, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in effluents of a WWTP discharging to the Schussen as well as in surface water, and/or fishes from downstream of the WWTP. Results obtained by biotests conducted in the laboratory (genotoxicity, dioxin-like toxicity, and embryotoxicity) were linked to effects in feral fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP or in fishes exposed in cages or at the bypass systems downstream of the WWTP. Dioxin-like effect potentials detected by reporter gene assays were associated with activation of CYP1A1 enzymes in fishes which are inducible by dioxin-like chemicals. Abundances of several PCBs in tissues of fishes from cages and bypass systems were not associated with these effects but other factors can influence EROD activity. Genotoxic potentials obtained by in vitro tests were associated with the presence
梁丽雅; 王綪; 王婧; 杨毅青; 马俪珍; 闫师杰
以鲢鱼、鲤鱼和鲶鱼肉为试材，研究斩拌工序对鱼肉品质及氯霉素残留量的影响。结果表明：经斩拌后，鱼肉中蛋白质含量呈下降趋势，鲤鱼显著低于鲢鱼和鲶鱼；自由水峰面积减少，不易流动水峰面积增加，不同斩拌处理的鱼肉水分分布差异不显著；脂肪含量差异不显著；HL斩拌的鱼肉灰分和蛋白质损失量最小。斩拌对鱼肉L*和a*值影响较小，使pH不同程度地升高（6.5~7.5）；HL斩拌可显著降低TBARS值。经斩拌氯霉素残留降解率达73.33%~99.13%。斩拌可有效去除氯霉素残留，经HL斩拌后的鱼肉品质最佳。%With silver carp, carp, and catfish flesh as the experimental material,effects of chopping processing on the quality and chloramphenicol residues of freshwater fish were studied. The results showed that after chopped, that protein content of fish flesh showed a downward trend, the value of carp flesh was significantly lower than that of chub and catfish;Free-water content decreased, immobilized-water content increased, and water distribution of different chopping was not significant. The difference of fat content between them was not significant;the ash and protein yield loss in fish flesh was least by HL chopping. The chopping had less affection on L*and a*value of fish flesh. The pH of fish flesh increased in different degrees (6.5-7.5);TBARS values of chub and carp decreased significantly, but the catfish raised by HL chopping. Degradation rate of chloramphenicol residues was 77.33%-99.13%. Chopping can effectively get rid of the chloramphenicol residue , and the quality of fish flesh was the best by HL chopping.
Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.
In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow
Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.
Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with
Miège, C; Peretti, A; Labadie, P; Budzinski, H; Le Bizec, B; Vorkamp, K; Tronczyński, J; Persat, H; Coquery, M; Babut, M
The main objective of this study was to collect new data on the occurrence, levels of priority and emerging organic compounds in freshwater fish sampled in the Rhone River. The 34 studied contaminants included alkylphenols, bisphenol A, polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE), perfluorinated compounds, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD), hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD). About 50 fish samples (individual specimens or pooled fish) were collected from three sites located upstream and downstream of the Lyon metropolitan area in the Rhone River (France). Four species were caught at each site, namely: the barbel (Barbus barbus), the common bream (Abramis brama), the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and the chub (Squalius cephalus). Some contaminants were quantified in all the 32 fish samples analysed: 4-nonylphenol, α-HBCD, the six PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorodecanoic acid. Twenty three of the 32 samples had a concentration of PFOS above the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) (up to six times higher than the EQS), and all the 32 samples had concentrations of PBDE above the EQS (up to 4,000 times higher, with the sum of six PBDE varying from 4.5 to 182 ng/g dry weight). Clearly, the interest to consider PFOS and HBCD as new priority substances is confirmed. In contrast, the pertinence of a priority status for HCBD, which was never quantified in our study, might have to be reconsidered in the future. PMID:22760502
Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in non-model organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species.
Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D
National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884
Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent
Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine. PMID:26562342
Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Woo-Keun; Shin, Hyun Suk; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Young; Choi, Kyungho
Zacco platypus, pale chub, is an indigenous freshwater fish of East Asia including Korea and has many useful characteristics as indicator species for water pollution. While utility of Z. platypus as an experimental species has been recognized, genetic-level information is very limited and warrants extensive research. Metallothionein (MT) is widely used and well-known biomarker for heavy metal exposure in many experimental species. In the present study, we cloned MT in Z. platypus and evaluated its utility as a biomarker for metal exposure. For this purpose, we sequenced complete complementary DNA (cDNA) of MT in Z. platypus and carried out phylogenetic analysis with its sequences. The transcription-level responses of MT gene following the exposure to CdCl2 were also assessed to validate the utility of this gene as an exposure biomarker. Analysis of cDNA sequence of MT gene demonstrated high conformity with those of other fish. MT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and enzymatic MT content significantly increased following CdCl2 exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The level of CdCl2 that resulted in significant MT changes in Z. platypus was within the range that was reported from other fish. The MT gene of Z. platypus sequenced in the present study can be used as a useful biomarker for heavy metal exposure in the aquatic environment of Korea and other countries where this freshwater fish species represents the ecosystem. PMID:26092240
Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Tong-Soo; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon; Jeong, Kyungjin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok
The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae was investigated in a total of 2,293 freshwater fish collected from 11 rivers or streams in 9 administrative regions of Gangwon-do, Korea for 5 years (2009-2013). All fish were collected by netting methods and examined using the artificial digestion methods. Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 4 fish species, i.e., Pungtungia herzi, Squalidus japonicus coreanus, Acheilognathus rhombeus, and Ladislabia taczanowskii, from only Hantangang in Cheorwon-gun. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 1,154 (50.3%) fish and their average number per infected fish was 55.8. Among the positive fish species, especially Tribolodon hakonensis from Namdaecheon in Yangyang-gun and Plecoglossus altivelis from Osipcheon in Samcheok-si were most heavily infected. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 611 (26.7%) fish and the average metacercarial burden per infected fish was 1,032. Two chub species, Zacco platypus and Zacco temminckii were highly and heavily infected with C. armatus metacercariae in almost all regions surveyed. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were also found in 24 fish from a few localities, but their numbers per fish infected were very low. From the above results, it is confirmed that the metacercariae of intestinal flukes, especially Metagonimus spp. and C. armatus, were heavily infected, while C. sinensis metacercariae were rarely found in fish from Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25246719
Fu, Shi-Jian; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Yan, Guan-Jie; Fu, Cheng; Pang, Xu
The Wujiang River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, has many dams along its length. These dams alter the river's natural habitat and produce various flow regimes and degrees of predator stress. To test whether the swimming performance and external body shape of pale chub (Zacco platypus) have changed as a result of alterations in the flow regime and predator conditions, we measured the steady (U(crit)) and unsteady (fast-start) swimming performances and morphological characteristics of fish collected from different sites along the Wujiang River. We also calculated the maximum respiratory capacity and cost of transport (COT). We demonstrated significant differences in swimming performance and morphological traits among the sampling sites. Steady swimming performance was positively correlated with water velocity and negatively correlated with the abundance of predators, whereas unsteady swimming performance was negatively correlated with water velocity. The body shape was significantly correlated with both swimming performance and ecological parameters. These findings suggested that selection pressure on swimming performance results in a higher U(crit) and a more streamlined body shape in fast-flow and (or) in habitats with low predator stress and subsequently results in a lower COT. These characteristics were accompanied by a poorer fast-start performance than that of the fish from the slow-flow and (or) high-predator habitats. The divergence in U(crit) may also be due in part to variation in respiratory capacity. PMID:23463244
Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
To evaluate the feasibility of dried fish irradiation, transportation studies of irradiated dried fish, either by land or by sea under practical conditions, have been carried out. A small-scale consumer acceptance test was also done to support the possible commercial application of the irradiation process. Dried salted chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) packaged in polyethylene pouches and then packed in master cartons of up to 20 kg capacities were transported by truck from Jakarta to Bandung, and from Jakarta to Ujung Pandang by cargo boat after being irradiated at 0.5 kGy. Unirradiated samples were also included in the trials in order to compare the results. It was found that carton boxes of 20 kg capacity provided with strapping bands are durable for transportation of dried fish. A dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to prevent insect damage and also reduced the incidence of mould growth on dried fish. However, chemical deterioration, such as oxidative rancidity and brown discolouration could not be prevented by irradiation. In general, organoleptic properties of unirradiated and irradiated dried fish showed no significant difference. Irradiated dried fish could be marketed for about 3-4 months at ambient conditions. (author). 3 tabs
Investigations on glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and rhodanese of both unirradiated and irradiated chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) have been carried out. Fish were irradiated with doses varied from 0 to 5 kGy, at a dose rate of 2 kGy/hr. Fish extracts prepared in 0.01 M phosphate-buffer of pH 7 were used throughout the enzyme experiments. The conclusion drawn from five replicates showed a significant decrease (P<=0.01) in fish G0T, GPT and rhodanese specific activities after irradiation. It is proved that GOT and GPT were more susceptible towards irradiation as compared to rhodanese. An irradiation dose of 4 kGy was able to inactivate G0T, GPT and rhodanese for ca 50, 44 and 36% respectively. Evidently transaminase as well as rhodanese specific activities to spoiled fish were significantly lower (P<=0.01) than those of fresh fish. The residual GOT, GPT and rhodanese specific activities in spoiled fish was found to be about 35, 41 and 22% respectively. (author)
Full Text Available Understanding intraspecific variability in fish somatic growth rates is important as growth is a key life history trait that plays a fundamental role in many biological and ecological processes. Here, the influence of environmental and chemical parameters was tested on intraspecific variability in growth rates of the cyprinid fishes roach Rutilus rutilus, chub Squalius cephalus and dace Leuciscus leuciscus across 13 rivers in England, and also compared with those for barbel Barbus barbus from the same rivers. Outputs indicated that growth rate responses to the parameters were species-specific, with more significant effects generally detected on juvenile growth than lifetime growth. For R. rutilus and S. cephalus, latitude (as a surrogate of temperature was the most significant predictor of their growth rates, with growth rates decreasing as latitude increased. Contrary to prediction, aspects of degraded water quality accelerated the growth rates of these fishes, except in B. barbus, although concentrations of nitrogenous compounds were below toxicity thresholds. This emphasizes the ability of populations of these cyprinid fishes to tolerate some environmental disturbances and, in entirety, suggests that the intraspecific variability in the growth rates of these fishes is significantly influenced by abiotic parameters and their association with levels of anthropogenic disturbance.
Ramalhosa, Maria João; Paíga, Paula; Morais, Simone; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto
QuEChERS method was evaluated for extraction of 16 PAHs from fish samples. For a selective measurement of the compounds, extracts were analysed by LC with fluorescence detection. The overall analytical procedure was validated by systematic recovery experiments at three levels and by using the standard reference material SRM 2977 (mussel tissue). The targeted contaminants, except naphthalene and acenaphthene, were successfully extracted from SRM 2977 with recoveries ranging from 63.5-110.0% with variation coefficients not exceeding 8%. The optimum QuEChERS conditions were the following: 5 g of homogenised fish sample, 10 mL of ACN, agitation performed by vortex during 3 min. Quantification limits ranging from 0.12-1.90 ng/g wet weight (0.30-4.70 microg/L) were obtained. The optimized methodology was applied to assess the safety concerning PAHs contents of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and farmed seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Although benzo(a)pyrene, the marker used for evaluating the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in food, was not detected in the analysed samples (89 individuals corresponding to 27 homogenized samples), the overall mean concentration ranged from 2.52 +/- 1.20 ng/g in horse mackerel to 14.6 +/- 2.8 ng/g in farmed seabass. Significant differences were found between the mean PAHs concentrations of the four groups. PMID:19750509
Full Text Available This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein−1 to 106.6 ng mg protein−1 and from 5.2 ng L−1 to 173.9 ng L−1, respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site, which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P<0.01, rs=0.806.
Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Bradbury, Ian R; Mendibil, Iñaki; Álvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Irigoien, Xabier
Restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and related methods are revolutionizing the field of population genomics in nonmodel organisms as they allow generating an unprecedented number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) even when no genomic information is available. Yet, RAD-seq data analyses rely on assumptions on nature and number of nucleotide variants present in a single locus, the choice of which may lead to an under- or overestimated number of SNPs and/or to incorrectly called genotypes. Using the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) and a close relative, the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias), as case study, here we explore the sensitivity of population structure inferences to two crucial aspects in RAD-seq data analysis: the maximum number of mismatches allowed to merge reads into a locus and the relatedness of the individuals used for genotype calling and SNP selection. Our study resolves the population structure of the Atlantic mackerel, but, most importantly, provides insights into the effects of alternative RAD-seq data analysis strategies on population structure inferences that are directly applicable to other species. PMID:26936210
Full Text Available Primary cell culture from caudal fin and kidney of seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch using tissue explant method were cultured in three different medias with various salt concentrations. Only seabass kidney (SK cells grew well in Leibovitze's-15 medium containing 8 g/l of NaCl supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum at an optimum temperature of 25 oC. Over a period of 24 months, SK cells were subcultured over than 75 passages and exhibited epithelial-like cells. The chromosome number of SK cells was 42. The cells were found to be free from bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma contamination. Seabass cells can be kept at -80 oC and/or in liquid nitrogen (-196 oC for at least 24 months with a survival rate of 83.20 and 74.50 %, respectively. Nine fish viruses were tested for their infectivity and this SK cells were susceptible to sand goby virus (SGV, chub reovirus (CRV, snake-head rhabdovirus (SHRV, red seabream iridovirus (RSIV, seabass iridovirus (SIV and grouper iridovirus-2 (GIV-2.
Rujeni, Nadine; Mbanzamihigo, Léonidas
The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB) and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25%) were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep) or were consuming raw cow's milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas. PMID:25101131
Brown, M B; Khengar, R H; Turner, R B; Forbes, B; Traynor, M J; Evans, C R G; Jones, S A
This study investigated the in vitro nail permeability of penetrants of varying lipophilicity-caffeine (CF, logP -0.07), methylparaben (MP, logP 1.96) and terbinafine (TBF, logP 3.3) and the effect of 2 novel penetration enhancers (PEs), thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) on their permeation. Studies were conducted using full thickness human nail clippings and ChubTur((R)) diffusion cells and penetrants were applied as saturated solutions. The rank order of steady-state penetrant flux through nails without PE application (MP>CF>TBF) suggested a greater sensitivity to penetrant molecular weight rather than logP. TA increased the flux of CF and MP approximately 4- and approximately 2-fold, respectively, whilst urea H(2)O(2) proved ineffective at enhancing permeability. The sequential application of TA followed by urea H(2)O(2) increased TBF and CF flux ( approximately 19- and approximately 4-fold, respectively) but reversing the application order of the PEs was only mildly effective at increasing just MP flux ( approximately 2-fold). Both nail PEs are likely to function via disruption of keratin disulphide bonds and the associated formation of pores that provide more 'open' drug transport channels. Effects of the PEs were penetrant specific, but the use of a reducing agent (TA) followed by an oxidising agent (urea H(2)O(2)) dramatically improved human nail penetration. PMID:19071202
Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.
Full Text Available The incidence of human brucellosis is not documented in Rwanda despite several reports on the disease in cattle. Because brucellosis has been associated with abortion, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of positive serology in women presenting with abortion and/or stillbirth. The study was done in Huye District, in the Southern Province of Rwanda, and the patients were recruited from both the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB and Kabutare District Hospital. Serum samples were collected and the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT was performed on each sample. A questionnaire was also used to investigate potential contacts with animals and/or consumption of raw milk. A total of 60 women were recruited and 15 (i.e., 25% were Brucella seropositive. The questionnaire showed that those with seropositivity either were in contact with domestic animals (cattle, goat, or sheep or were consuming raw cow’s milk. Human brucellosis appears to be of public health importance in Rwanda and more attention should be drawn on the disease. The current study provides a basis for larger studies to establish the incidence of human brucellosis in Rwanda. More mechanistic studies will also demonstrate the pathogenicity of Brucella in human placentas.
T. P. Nwogu
Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.
Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; Ogugbue, C. J.
This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830
Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.
Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.
Full Text Available In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA probe protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species.
Full Text Available The restoration of longitudinal connectivity of a watercourse altered by man-made obstacles is a key issue for the protection and safeguard of freshwater ecosystems and the construction of fish passes constitutes a relevant ad hoc measure. However, in many countries, like Italy, there is still not an adequate technical-scientific background and experience in this field and therefore several migratory species have become extinct or are suffering from severe impacts. The main elements of the river rehabilitation for fish project promoted by the Modena Province concerning the middle course of the Panaro River (North Italy, a watercourse characterised by high naturalistic and environmental values but fragmented by several weirs built to prevent riverbed erosion, are presented in this paper. The case study is analysed through the main steps that were carried out to define a preliminary plan for the restoration of the river continuity for the migration of four target species (South European nase (Chondrostoma genei, Italian barbel (Barbus plebejus, chub (Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and soufie (Leuciscus souffia muticellus through the design of an innovative type of steep-slope fish ramp with large-scale roughness elements. The case study is part of an overall project and is the applicative section of an educational document drawn up in the form of guidelines on the correct methodological approach for fish passes design, that will be addressed to professionals, technicians and local Authorities working in the field of water resource management.
Liu, Rui; Ma, Duan; Li, Yiming; Hu, Renming; Peng, Yongde; Wang, Qinghua
Exendin-4 (Ex4), a peptide initially found in the saliva of the Gila monster, can activate the signaling pathway of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). We previously reported that a chimera protein consisting of Ex4 and mouse IgG heavy chain constant regions (Ex4/Fc) can exert biological effects of GLP-1, such as improving glycemic control and ameliorating manifestations in diabetic mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ex4/Fc is effective in modulating energy homeostasis in mice. Our results showed that in vivo expression of Ex4/Fc by intramuscular injection of the plasmid encoding Ex4/Fc followed by local electroporation effectively decreased food intake in the mice on high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. In addition, the reduced energy intake was associated with the decreased excrements from the Ex4/Fc-treated HFD mice but not the Fc control mice. Remarkably, the Ex4/Fctreated HFD mice displayed significantly lower triglyceride (TG) levels when compared with the control mice. Interestingly, while the leptin levels were not changed, the circulating ghrelin levels were higher in Ex4/Fc mice than those in the Fc control mice. These results suggested that Ex4/Fc can improve energy metabolism and lipid metabolism through GLP-1R in mice under excessive nutrition conditions. PMID:24951724
Wolpert, H. D.
Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.