Sample records for chronic technological disasters

  1. Anthropology and decision making about chronic technological disasters: Mixed waste remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    This paper discusses two related case studies of decision making about the remediation of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. The three goals of the paper are to (1) place current decision-making efforts in the varied and evolving social, political, regulatory, economic, and technological contexts in which they occur; (2) present definitions and attributes of open-quotes successfulclose quotes environmental decision making from the perspectives of key constituency groups that participate in decision making; and (3) discuss the role of anthropology in addressing environmental decision making. Environmental decision making about remediation is extraordinarily complex, involving human health and ecological risks; uncertainties about risks, technological ability to clean up, the financial costs of clean up; multiple and sometimes conflicting regulations; social equity and justice considerations; and decreasing budgets. Anthropological theories and methods can contribute to better understanding and, potentially, to better decision making

  2. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam


    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  3. Emergency and disaster preparedness for chronically ill patients: a review of recommendations

    Tomio J


    Full Text Available Jun Tomio,1 Hajime Sato2 1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Technology Assessment, National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Japan Abstract: Recent disasters, especially those in developed countries, have highlighted the importance of disaster preparedness measures for chronic diseases. A number of surviving patients experienced the exacerbation of a chronic illness, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases, due to disaster-related stress, interruption of care, or both; for some patients, these exacerbations resulted in death. Here, we review reports from recent disasters in developed countries and summarize the recommendations for disaster preparedness of chronically ill patients. A considerable number of recommendations based on the lessons learned from recent disasters have been developed, and they provide practical and essential steps to prevent treatment interruption during and after a disaster. To improve preparedness efforts, we suggest that health care providers should be aware of the following three suggestions: 1 recommendations should be evidence-based; 2 recommendations should contain consistent messages; and 3 recommendations should be feasible. Keywords: disaster, chronic illness, preparedness

  4. Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

    Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, Alexandra; Sparf, Jorgen;


    Large scale projects tasked with designing infrastructures and urban networks resilient to disasters face a common challenge, i.e. the need to address concomitant technological issues and social problems. What is more, conflicting technologies and the diverse philosophical underpinnings of distinct...... academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDROID (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize...... Educational Development). More specifically, the project investigated the level of interdisciplinary work in current research and educational projects within the field of disaster resilience. Findings illustrate the number and types of disciplines involved in disaster resilience projects and suggest that a...

  5. Information Technology: Roles, Responsibilities in Disaster Management

    Sapan Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available Now, in the era of scientific technology, it is much easier to handle disaster is natural as well as man-made. We can handle a variety of functions that can be used in information technology. It helps to prevent, restore. The development of information technology in the Internet, geographic information systems, remote sensing, satellite communications, so on, helps to assist in the planning, implementation process of risk reduction. Geographic information systems have sufficient capacity and capability to improve the quality and the power of the analysis, the natural hazard assessment, to guide the development of activities as well as assist in the planning of the mitigation measures and implementation of the emergency preparedness for response. Remote sense, however, as a powerful tool that can help you to identify areas of risk, monitoring plan, so that the change in a real-time. Information Technology is playing a big as well as vital role in disaster management. It provides all the required to anticipate, analyze to find the correct solution Just In Time. GIS, remote sensing, other IT tools are available, are being used by different competent authorities for this purpose. Disaster Management is now days a buzz word. Every country, their government, other organizations are working hard to make use of Information Technology in all possible ways to tackle the problems of disaster.

  6. Ethnic heterogeneity and the probability of technological disasters

    Yamamura, Eiji


    This paper uses cross-country data from 1965 to 2008 to examine how ethnic heterogeneity affects the probability of technological disasters. Estimation results showed that ethnic heterogeneity increased the probability of technological disasters.

  7. A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth

    Ling, Douglas C.


    A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

  8. Discussion on Standardization and Technology of Integrated Disaster Decrease for Agrometeorological Disaster

    Huo Zhiguo


    China is a large agricultural country,the losses due to agrometeorological disasters account for 70% to 80% of the total losses caused by agricultural natural disasters.Every year,a variety of meteorological disasters hit 5,000 hectares of crops and affect 400 million persons,with the economic losses over 200 billion Yuan.In recent years,under the influence of global climatic changes,the agrometeorological disasters have become increasingly serious;the affected area,the disaster rate and the economic loss are tending to increase.Therefore,strengthening the agricultural disasters prevention and mitigation,establishing standardization system of monitoring,early warning,evaluation and prevention and control technology for agricultural meteorology,and achieving the standardization of disaster monitoring,early warning and evaluation business are of great significance for prevention and mitigation of agricultural disasters in China.

  9. Disaster recovery plan for Automation Technology

    Automation Technology provides a multitude of data processing and network services to the Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC). These services include: personal computers, local and wide area networks, and Internet and intranet support and services. ERC employees and client personnel receive these services primarily from the Data Center located on the ground floor in the Bechtel Corporate Center at 3350 George Washington Way, Richland, Washington. Centralized databases, server-based software, and network services for the Bechtel Local Area Network reside on servers located in the Data Center. The data communication circuits supported in this center allow for the transmission of business information to and from all project locations in the Hanford Site complex. The loss of one or more of these functions would seriously impact the ability of the ERC to conduct business and bring a virtual standstill to many ERC employees'' activities. Upon declaration of disaster by the Contingency Manager and the Disaster Recovery Coordinator, the disaster recovery plan will be implemented. 24 tabs

  10. Technological disasters--towards a preventive strategy: a review.

    Andersson, N


    Technological or man-made disasters are a growth industry. Widely publicized industrial disasters like those in Bhopal and Chernobyl are only the tip of the iceberg of human and environmental risk from technological development. Other less well publicized disasters, including the contamination of food, water and air, have affected millions of people. The 'slow' technological disasters - like air pollution, pesticides, radiation, lead, asbestos and other industrial hazards - also compromise human intellectual, behavioural and physical development. Although it can be argued that there are hazards attached to virtually every industrial activity and that it is almost impossible to remove completely the risk of technological disasters, it is possible to reduce this risk by decentralizing or deconcentrating knowledge on technological processes. Global recommendations may provide a framework for priority action, but they are obviously not applicable everywhere with the same intensity. A measurement-based approach is described that is beginning to have an effect in several developing countries. PMID:1882438

  11. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.


    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  12. Technology disaster response and recovery planning a LITA guide

    Mallery, Mary


    Featuring contributions from librarians who offer hard-won advice gained from personal experience, this compendium leads readers through a step-by-step process of creating a library technology disaster response and recovery plan.

  13. Technology of disaster response robot and issues

    The needs, function structure , ability of disaster response robot are stated. Robots are classified by move mode such as Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Legged Robots, Exoskeleton, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Wall Climbing Robots, robots for narrow space. Quince, disaster response robot, collected at first information in the building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Functions of rescue robots and technical problems under disaster conditions, shape and characteristics of robots and TRL, PackBot, Pelican, Quince, scope camera, and three-dimensional map made by Quince are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban


    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  15. Five Essential Elements of Crisis Intervention for Communities and Schools When Responding to Technological Disasters

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Lazarus, Philip J.


    Technological disasters result from human error, negligence, or limitations in perceiving and reducing risk. They are a form of manmade disaster that exerts a devastating effect on impacted individuals, communities, and ecosystems. Because of their negative impacts, technological disasters often erode community connectedness, undermine adaptive…

  16. Information technology and public health management of disasters--a model for South Asian countries.

    Mathew, Dolly


    This paper highlights the use of information technology (IT) in disaster management and public health management of disasters. Effective health response to disasters will depend on three important lines of action: (1) disaster preparedness; (2) emergency relief; and (3) management of disasters. This is facilitated by the presence of modern communication and space technology, especially the Internet and remote sensing satellites. This has made the use of databases, knowledge bases, geographic information systems (GIS), management information systems (MIS), information transfer, and online connectivity possible in the area of disaster management and medicine. This paper suggests a conceptual model called, "The Model for Public Health Management of Disasters for South Asia". This Model visualizes the use of IT in the public health management of disasters by setting up the Health and Disaster Information Network and Internet Community Centers, which will facilitate cooperation among all those in the areas of disaster management and emergency medicine. The suggested infrastructure would benefit the governments, non-government organizations, and institutions working in the areas of disaster and emergency medicine, professionals, the community, and all others associated with disaster management and emergency medicine. The creation of such an infrastructure will enable the rapid transfer of information, data, knowledge, and online connectivity from top officials to the grassroots organizations, and also among these countries regionally. This Model may be debated, modified, and tested further in the field to suit the national and local conditions. It is hoped that this exercise will result in a viable and practical model for use in public health management of disasters by South Asian countries. PMID:15748016

  17. The role and future of space technology in disaster reduction

    Walter, Louis S.


    This paper describes the potential uses of satellite remote sensing in the mitigation of disasters and their effects by means of prevention, preparedness, and relief. A review is given of the capabilities of communications, geophysical, meteorological, and earth-resources satellites to point out potential applications in the three categories. A complete list of available spacecraft is presented in a table giving data on disaster-related applications. Key functions for disaster mitigation include their use as data resources and as experimental sources of information that can be of use in disaster prediction. Satellites with high temporal or spatial resolutions are useful for providing consistent prompt information required for disaster-management specialists. The use of SAR and TRMM scanning radar techniques to directly measure rainfall and other quantities of relevance to the prediction of disasters.

  18. The growing role of web-based geospatial technology in disaster response and support.

    Kawasaki, Akiyuki; Berman, Merrick Lex; Guan, Wendy


    This paper examines changes in disaster response and relief efforts and recent web-based geospatial technological developments through an evaluation of the experiences of the Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, of the Sichuan (2008) and Haiti (2010) earthquake responses. This paper outlines how conventional GIS (geographic information systems) disaster responses by governmental agencies and relief response organisations and the means for geospatial data-sharing have been transformed into a more dynamic, more transparent, and decentralised form with a wide participation. It begins by reviewing briefly at historical changes in the employment of geospatial technologies in major devastating disasters, including the Sichuan and Haiti earthquakes (case studies for our geospatial portal project). It goes on to assess changes in the available dataset type and in geospatial disaster responders, as well as the impact of geospatial technological changes on disaster relief effort. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learned from recent responses and offers some thoughts for future development. PMID:23278379

  19. Towards a methodology for the use of geo-information technology in disaster assessment

    Dawie van Vuuren


    Full Text Available Disaster assessment entails the description of disaster events and their impact on human lives, property and the environment. Information is a vital component of this process, and geo-information technology in particular should have a key role in this regard.

  20. Business information technology professor studies supply chain management for disaster relief

    Ho, Sookhan


    Chris Zobel, associate professor of business information technology in the Pamplin College of Business, is developing new approaches for modeling disaster resilience to help decision makers gain a better understanding of the tradeoffs in managing supply chain operations during a disaster.

  1. Towards a methodology for the use of geo-information technology in disaster assessment

    Dawie van Vuuren


    Disaster assessment entails the description of disaster events and their impact on human lives, property and the environment. Information is a vital component of this process, and geo-information technology in particular should have a key role in this regard.

  2. Domestic disasters and geospatial technology for the Defense Logistics Agency

    Nerg, Amanda; Stuckenschneider, Kristie


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to analyze the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) for the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). The report found four common areas for improvement in Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief response. This report explored how using a GIS in disaster response could alleviate these common problem areas. This report also used an optimization model to analyze DLA quantitative fuel distribution data. This re...

  3. Information and communication technology: connecting the public and first responders during disasters.

    Buzzelli, Michelle M; Morgan, Paula; Muschek, Alexander G; Macgregor-Skinner, Gavin


    Lack of success in disaster recovery occurs for many reasons, with one predominant catalyst for catastrophic failure being flawed and inefficient communication systems. Increased occurrences of devastating environmental hazards and human-caused disasters will continue to promulgate throughout the United States and around the globe as a result of the continuous intensive urbanization forcing human population into more concentrated and interconnected societies. With the rapid evolutions in technology and the advent of Information and communication technology (ICT) interfaces such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Myspace, and Smartphone technology, communication is no longer a unidirectional source of information traveling from the newsroom to the public. In the event of a disaster, time critical information can be exchanged to and from any person or organization simultaneously with the capability to receive feedback. A literature review of current information regarding the use of ICT as information infrastructures in disaster management during human-caused and natural disasters will be conducted. This article asserts that the integrated use of ICTs as multidirectional information sharing tools throughout the disaster cycle will increase a community's resiliency and supplement the capabilities of first responders and emergency management officials by providing real-time updates and information needed to assist and recover from a disaster. PMID:25530560

  4. An Analysis of Geospatial Technologies for Risk and Natural Disaster Management

    José A. Quintanilha


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of spatial data for risk and natural disaster management. The importance of remote-sensing (RS, Geographic Information System (GIS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data is stressed by comparing studies of the use of these technologies for natural disaster management. Spatial data sharing is discussed in the context of the establishment of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs for natural disasters. Some examples of SDI application in disaster management are analyzed, and the need for participation from organizations and governments to facilitate the exchange of information and to improve preventive and emergency plans is reinforced. Additionally, the potential involvement of citizens in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected from volunteered geographic information (VGI applications is explored. A model relating all of the spatial data-sharing aspects discussed in the article was suggested to elucidate the importance of the issues raised.

  5. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed

  6. Integrating emerging earth science technologies into disaster risk management: an enterprise architecture approach

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.


    Disaster risk management has grown to rely on earth observations, multi-source data analysis, numerical modeling, and interagency information sharing. The practice and outcomes of disaster risk management will likely undergo further change as several emerging earth science technologies come of age: mobile devices; location-based services; ubiquitous sensors; drones; small satellites; satellite direct readout; Big Data analytics; cloud computing; Web services for predictive modeling, semantic reconciliation, and collaboration; and many others. Integrating these new technologies well requires developing and adapting them to meet current needs; but also rethinking current practice to draw on new capabilities to reach additional objectives. This requires a holistic view of the disaster risk management enterprise and of the analytical or operational capabilities afforded by these technologies. One helpful tool for this assessment, the GEOSS Architecture for the Use of Remote Sensing Products in Disaster Management and Risk Assessment (Evans & Moe, 2013), considers all phases of the disaster risk management lifecycle for a comprehensive set of natural hazard types, and outlines common clusters of activities and their use of information and computation resources. We are using these architectural views, together with insights from current practice, to highlight effective, interrelated roles for emerging earth science technologies in disaster risk management. These roles may be helpful in creating roadmaps for research and development investment at national and international levels.

  7. The growing role of web-based geospatial technology in disaster response and support

    Kawasaki, Akiyuki; Berman, Merrick Lex; Guan, Wendy


    This paper examines changes in disaster response and relief efforts and recent web-based geospatial technological developments through an evaluation of the experiences of the Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, of the Sichuan (2008) and Haiti (2010) earthquake responses. This paper outlines how conventional GIS (geographic information systems) disaster responses by governmental agencies and relief response organisations and the means for geospatial data-sharing have been trans...

  8. Disaster management mobile protocols: a technology that will save lives.

    Williamson, Hope M


    Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster education for healthcare workers at all levels in the multidisciplinary medical response to major events has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. This article describes a disaster management mobile application of systematic evidence-based practice. The application is interactive and comprises portable principles, algorithms, and emergency protocols that are agile, concise, comprehensive, and response relevant to all healthcare workers. Early recognition through clinical assessment versus laboratory and diagnostic procedures in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRNE) exposures grounded in an evidence-based skill set is especially important. During the immediate threat, the clinical diagnosis can get frustrating because CBRNE casualties can mimic everyday healthcare illnesses and initially present with nonspecific respiratory or flu-like symptoms. As there is minimal time in a catastrophic event for the medical provider to make accurate decisions, access to accurate, timely, and comprehensive information in these situations is critical. The CBRNE mobile application is intended to provide a credible source for treatment and management of numerous patients in an often intimidating environment with scarce resources and overwhelming tasks. PMID:21466030

  9. Reviews of Geospatial Information Technology and Collaborative Data Delivery for Disaster Risk Management

    Hiroyuki Miyazaki


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that geospatial information technology is considered necessary for disaster risk management (DRM, the need for more effective collaborations between providers and end users in data delivery is increasing. This paper reviews the following: (i schemes of disaster risk management and collaborative data operation in DRM; (ii geospatial information technology in terms of applications to the schemes reviewed; and (iii ongoing practices of collaborative data delivery with the schemes reviewed. This paper concludes by discussing the future of collaborative data delivery and the progress of the technologies.

  10. Toxic chemical disasters and the implications of Bhopal for technology transfer.

    Weiss, B; Clarkson, T W


    The dramatic disaster in 1984 at Bhopal, India, may be overshadowed in total impact by less immediate health effects characterized by long latency, cumulative damage, and subtle impairments. Transfer of chemical technology must be accompanied by transfer of the corresponding infratechnology, toxicology, only then can the process of technology transfer be managed with fewer risks, fewer costs, and fewer tragic surprises. PMID:3520276

  11. Feasibility Assessment of Using Geoinformatics Technology in Disaster Disease Surveillance in a Developing Country, Iran

    Faruque, Md Omar; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh; Ardalan, Ali; AHMADNEZHAD, Elham; Mohammadinia, Leila


    Background and purpose: Geoinformatics technology retains an unprecedented trait of performing with a supersonic speed and precision in public health management whereas the existing disease surveillance systems in developing countries lack using this technology. This article aims to assess the feasibility of using geoinformatics technology in disaster disease surveillance in a developing country, Iran. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on technology acceptance mod...

  12. Identifying and tracking disaster victims: state-of-the-art technology review.

    Pate, Barbara L


    The failure of our nation to adequately track victims of Hurricane Katrina has been identified as a major weakness of national and local disaster preparedness plans. This weakness has prompted government and private industries to acknowledge that existing paper-based tracking systems are incapable of managing information during a large-scale disaster. In response to this need, efforts are under way to develop new technologies that allow instant access to identity and location information during emergency situations. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of state-of-the-art technologies, with implications and limitations for use during mass casualty incidents. PMID:18091082

  13. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.


    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  14. Utilization of Telecom Technologies for the Disaster Management in Underdeveloped Coastal Districts of Pakistan

    Wasim Shahid Khawaja


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies plays critical role in all phases of disaster management, and enabler of e-services delivery to the underdeveloped areas. Unfortunately this critical infrastructure is highly prone to disasters. This paper is based on coastal areas of Pakistan, which were badly affected during floods 2005 -2012. Universal Service Fund (USF Pakistan has started many telecom projects for broadband infrastructure, telemedicine and distant learning to uplift the livelihood of underdeveloped areas. The telecom infrastructure collapsed during disasters and population sustained heavy damages due to unavailability of disaster information. Causes of breakdown of telecom infrastructure are investigated. Remedial options are found from literature review, public’s reports & case studies. Then, these technological options are applied upon Pakistan regulatory & telecom infrastructure context and two separate plans for survival of narrowband and broadband communication are proposed. Another contingency plan for easy deployable temporary infrastructure is given for the case of total blackout of communication. An overview of existing information & communication systems weaknesses & gaps are given, its remedies are discussed for the effective mitigation of disasters. This study can be extended to other underdeveloped regions of the world to serve the calamity struck regions with fewer economic and human losses.

  15. Post-Disaster Safety Net: Instituting Leadership, Economic and Technological Arrangements

    Akaiso, Darlington


    This dissertation will present the findings of an in-depth study conducted on flood victims in Bangkok, Thailand. The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using modern technologies as a post-crisis remediation strategy to reconnect displaced families in the aftermath of a disaster. This will include investigating which modern…

  16. A future science and technology strategy for manmade and natural disaster on Japan

    The worst century natural calamity disaster due to 2011 Japan earth quake accompanied by most dreaded tsunami imposing manmade nuclear reactor radiation leakage damaging global environment imposing danger over the survival of flora and fauna had made a big silence over all of our science and technology claims for any fore sensing and urgent safety measure

  17. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST) Yoshiyuki KANEDA Disaster mitigation center Nagoya University/ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) Mustafa ELDIK Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and       Earthquake Researches Institute (KOERI) and Members of SATREPS Japan-Turkey project The target of this project is the Marmara Sea earthquake after the Izmit (Kocaeli) Earthquake 1999 along to the North Anatolian fault. According to occurrences of historical Earthquakes, epicenters have moved from East to West along to the North Anatolian Fault. There is a seismic gap in the Marmara Sea. In Marmara region, there is Istanbul with high populations such as Tokyo. Therefore, Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large Earthquakes and Tsunamis in cooperation with each other in SATREPS project. This project is composed of Multidisciplinary research project including observation researches, simulation researches, educational researches, and goals are as follows, ① To develop disaster mitigation policy and strategies based on Multidisciplinary research activities. ② To provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations. ③ To organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey. ④ To contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate Multidisciplinary research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and .disaster education in Turkey.

  18. Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis

    YAMAMURA, Eiji


    This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

  19. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian


    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  20. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    Berg, B. van den; Velden, P.G. van der; Yzermans, C.J.; Stellato, R.K.; Grievink, L.


    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  1. Health-related quality of life and mental health problems after a disaster: Are chronically ill survivors more vulnerable to health problems?

    Berg, Bellis van den; Velden, Peter G van der; Yzermans, C Joris; Stellato, Rebecca K; Grievink, Linda


    Studies have shown that the chronically ill are at higher risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL) and for mental health problems. A combination with traumatic events might increase this risk. This longitudinal study among 1216 survivors of a disaster examines whether chronically ill s

  2. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    Yang Gao; Jason Levy; Maya Nand Jha


    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensiv...

  3. The burden of natural and technological disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M


    The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns. PMID:17298162

  4. A Synergy Framework for the integration of Earth Observation technologies into Disaster Risk Reduction

    Gaetani, Francesco; Petiteville, Ivan; Pisano, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; St Pierre, Luc


    Earth observations and space-based applications have seen a considerable advance in the last decade, and such advances should find their way in applications related to DRR, climate change and sustainable development, including in the indicators to monitor advances in these areas. The post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, as adopted by the 3rd WCDRR is a action-oriented framework for disaster risk reduction that builds on modalities of cooperation linking local, national, regional and global efforts. Earth observations from ground and space platforms and related applications will play a key role in facilitating the implementation of the HFA2 and represent a unique platform to observe and assess how risks have changed in recent years, as well as to track the reduction in the level of exposure of communities. The proposed white paper focuses mainly on Earth Observation from space but it also addresses the use of other sources of data ( airborne, marine, in-situ, socio-economic and model outputs) in combination to remote sensing data. Earth observations (EO) and Space-based technologies can play a crucial role in contributing to the generation of relevant information to support informed decision-making regarding risk and vulnerability reduction and to address the underlying factors of disaster risk. For example, long series of Earth observation data collected over more than 30 years already contribute to track changes in the environment and in particular, environmental degradation around the world. Earth observation data is key to the work of the scientific community. Whether due to inadequate land-use policies, lack of awareness or understanding regarding such degradation, or inadequate use of natural resources including water and the oceans; Earth observation technologies are now routinely employed by many Ministries of Environment and Natural Resources worldwide to monitor the extent of degradation and a basis to design and enact new environmental

  5. Science and Technology in Regional Flood Disaster Pilots: A GEOSS Capacity Building Imperative

    Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Mandl, D.


    This paper describes activities and results of melding basic scientific research in remote sensing with applied science and technology development and infusion to implement regional flood pilot programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean Region. These regional flood pilots support local and national agency involvement in emergency response and humanitarian assistance activities using orbital, sub-orbital, and in-situ sensors combined with predictive models and socio-economic data to form a cohesive, interoperable set of systems that cover the full cycle of disaster mitigation, warning, response, and recovery for societal benefit. Global satellite coverage is coordinated through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in conjunction with the United Nations Space Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). Other international non-government organizations plus regional and local agencies all play individual roles in exploring the science results, applying the observations and model outputs to form geo-referenced maps that provide improved situational awareness and environmental intelligence for disaster management. The improvements to flood forecast and nowcast outputs include higher resolution drainage and hydrology mapping, improved retrievals for microwave data for soil moisture, plus improved validation from regional ground truth databases. Flow gauge and river depth archive data from local assets provide improved validation of flood model results. Incorporation of atmospheric correction using ground truth data from calibration and validation sites enables better detection and classification of plant species identification and plant stress. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) are implemented to provide internet access to satellite tasking, data processing, and distribution/notification in addition to model outputs and other local and regional data sets

  6. Geographic Information System Technology Leveraged for Crisis Planning, Emergency, Response, and Disaster Management

    Ross, A.; Little, M. M.


    NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is piloting the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology that can be leveraged for crisis planning, emergency response, and disaster management/awareness. Many different organizations currently use GIS tools and geospatial data during a disaster event. ASDC datasets have not been fully utilized by this community in the past due to incompatible data formats that ASDC holdings are archived in. Through the successful implementation of this pilot effort and continued collaboration with the larger Homeland Defense and Department of Defense emergency management community through the Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data Working Group (HIFLD WG), our data will be easily accessible to those using GIS and increase the ability to plan, respond, manage, and provide awareness during disasters. The HIFLD WG Partnership has expanded to include more than 5,900 mission partners representing the 14 executive departments, 98 agencies, 50 states (and 3 territories), and more than 700 private sector organizations to directly enhance the federal, state, and local government's ability to support domestic infrastructure data gathering, sharing and protection, visualization, and spatial knowledge management.The HIFLD WG Executive Membership is lead by representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs - OASD (HD&ASA); the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate's Office of Infrastructure Protection (NPPD IP); the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Integrated Working Group - Readiness, Response and Recovery (IWG-R3); the Department of Interior (DOI) United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP), and DHS Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  7. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir


    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  8. Innovations in health information technologies for chronic pulmonary diseases

    Himes, Blanca E; Weitzman, Elissa R


    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic obstructive lung disorders in the US that affect over 49 million people. There is no cure for asthma or COPD, but clinical guidelines exist for controlling symptoms that are successful in most patients that adhere to their treatment plan. Health information technologies (HITs) are revolutionizing healthcare by becoming mainstream tools to assist patients in self-monitoring and decision-making, and subsequently, driving...

  9. The use of Information and Communication Technology in disaster management : The case of Cameroon

    Bong, Carine Kuo; Ngang, Joseph Bayiah


    Abstract The frequency of natural disasters and its negative consequences in terms of the number of people killed, property destroyed and negative environmental impacts caused in the affected communities constitute one of the basic foundations and motivations for the development and use of ICT and other means of preventing as well as responding to disasters in the world today. This is simply because disaster management constitutes an important part of any developmental framework. Unfortunatel...

  10. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...


    Dr. Mervin Jay Z. Suaybaguio


    Full Text Available Anchored on Davis’ (1989 Technology Acceptance Model, three hundred constituents representing the three cities and eight municipalities of Davao del Norte were randomly surveyed on their perceptions about the use of Short Message Service (SMS technology as a tool for sending disaster warning and alert messages. 145 males and 155 females answered the survey. Tagum City had the highest number of respondents (78 while the municipalities of San Isidro (8 and Talaingod (8 had the least. Results showed that SMS technology as practiced by the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council of Davao Del Norte was perceived as good by 93.83% of the respondents. With a mean of 4.17, the use of SMS was perceived as a more credible source that prompted the people to demand for timely information from the authorities. Such communication strategy as coping mechanism was meant to prepare people to brace themselves for upcoming natural calamities. However, barriers such as network problems and hoax messages hindered the transmission of disaster warnings in real time and therefore must be addressed to institutionalize the operation so that SMS technology can better serve its purpose.

  12. Technologies of compliance? Telecare technologies and self-management of chronic patients

    Maathuis, Ivo Jan Hein


    Telecare technologies are instruments that enable care at a distance via the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). One of the aims of telecare technologies is to support self-management strategies of chronic patients. However, the ways in which self-management is articulated in t

  13. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response.

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan


    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system. PMID:25869234

  14. Efficient health information management systems using wireless communications technology to aid disaster victims.

    Nasu, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Nobuyuki; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Sagawa, Setsuko; Tsuji, Masatsugu


    Japan is an earthquake-prone country, and disasters have a devastating effect on the lives of residents in stricken areas. Shelters can be constructed in order to secure the physical safety of residents, but there are no such provisions for the shock of experiencing a disaster, losing property and friends, and transitioning to an unfamiliar life in a shelter, all of which can lead to mental disorders. Caretakers such as medical doctors and nurses who are dispatched to disaster sites also face difficulties in the disruption of communications and transportation, thus a system able to secure efficient health management in those facilities is also required. This paper proposes a health information management system that utilizes mobile phone cameras and mark-sensing cards to improve recovery conditions in disaster-stricken areas. PMID:21626399

  15. The Role of Technology in Chronic Disease Care.

    Milani, Richard V; Bober, Robert M; Lavie, Carl J


    Chronic disease represents the epidemic of our time, present in half the adult population and responsible for 86% of United States (US) healthcare costs and 70% of deaths. The major chronic diseases are primarily due to health risk behaviors that are widely communicable across populations. As a nation, the US has performed poorly in managing chronic disease, in large part because of a failed delivery model of care. New opportunities exist as a result of recent advances in home-based wireless devices, apps and wearables, enabling health delivery systems to monitor disease metrics in near real time. These technologies provide a framework for patient engagement and a new model of care delivery utilizing integrated practice units, both of which are needed to navigate the healthcare needs of the 21st century. PMID:26772623

  16. Pharmaceutical supply for disaster victims who need chronic disease management in region with aging population based on lessons learned from the Noto Peninsula Earthquake in 2007.

    Okumura, Junko; Nishita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Kazuko


    The lessons from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and Chuuetsu Earthquake showed us how difficult it is to keep chronic disease management for survivors of such large-scale earthquakes, particularly for elderly people. To solve the problem, an ordinance for enforcement on exceptional practices was issued for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law Article 49 Clause 1. The law allows selling prescription medicines for patients with chronic diseases who have difficulties to continue their medications due to a large-scale disaster. To make it work, the patient should demonstrate that he or she continuously received the medication by presenting either Medication Notebook or prescription book recorded by the pharmacist. However, the Separation Rate of Prescription and Dispensing in Japan is still low; in particular, that in Ishikawa prefecture, where the Noto Peninsula Earthquake (M 6.9) occurred on March 25, 20007, is very low. It means that few victims hold a Medication Notebook. In consideration of this situation, we conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake with a key-informant-interview during the period from July through August, 2007. This study revealed that: 1) Only 16% (18/110) of respondents kept a Medication Notebook; 2) 75% (82/110) had chronic diseases and received medication regularly; 3) Of 81 who had chronic diseases, 42% (34/91) were dispensed at the same pharmacy always, (The rest received from either clinic or changing pharmacy according to clinic location); and 4) Diseases that the respondents had were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and so on. Based on these results, we discuss the establishment of a pharmaceutical supply system that can effectively distribute appropriate medicines to patients under difficult situations following a large-scale disaster in Japan. PMID:18758141

  17. Planetary Defense is More Than Science and Technology: Policy, People, and Disaster Management

    Harrison, A. A.


    Physical scientists and engineers who work to identify and then deflect or destroy threatening Near Earth Objects deserve the support of colleagues who have a thorough understanding of human psychology, society and culture. Behavioral and social scientists can help build governmental and public support for vigorous and comprehensive programs of planetary defense as well as apply their work to minimize the human cost of NEO threats and impacts. Tasks include preparing the public for a succession of possible threats of differing levels; developing effective warning and evacuation strategies; and supporting residents of affected areas during the impact and recovery phases. Although much can be learned from the pre-existing disaster literature, it is important to remain mindful of differences between asteroid or comet impacts and other natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. After identifying widespread but erroneous stereotypes that exaggerate human weakness and interfere with effective disaster planning, we turn to models whereby international, national, and regional organizations help local communities and citizens develop the skills, attitudes and resources that they need to help protect their own welfare. These models view residents of disaster areas as part of the solution as well as part of the problem, acknowledge dangers and disruptions outside of the immediate impact area, and demand high sensitivity to political and cultural issues. We conclude with a brief discussion of strategies for preserving the human legacy under worst-case scenarios including the construction and administration of survival communities and sending time capsules into space. Anthropology, political science, psychology and sociology are already contributing to astrobiology and SETI, and it is time for researchers and practitioners in these areas to become conspicuous partners in the pursuit of planetary defense.

  18. Internasional Symposium On Lowland Technology (ISLT 2012) SUbstainability of Lowlands to Climated Change and Natural Disasters



    ???Lowland??? denotes regions of low elevation, which are particularly vulnerable to climatic and environmental changes. For example, global warming, which appears to be causing a rise in sea level, must ultimately affect the safety of coastal dikes and other coastal infrastructures, as well as threaten the water and ecological systems in lowland areas. Lowland regions are also particularly susceptible to natural disasters. Action is now required for the development of new tech...

  19. Disaster Research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Rubin, Olivier; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics and...... anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  20. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey. (SATREPS Project: Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development by JICA-JST)

    Kaneda, Y.; Erdik, M. O.; Takahashi, N.; Meral Ozel, N.; Hori, T.; Hori, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Ozel, A. O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Nurlu, M.; Tanircan, G.; Citak, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Necmioglu, O.


    Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes occurred in Turkey, with a total affected population of ~7 million and direct estimated losses of ~25 billion USD. About half the lives lost were due to two earthquakes associated with the North Anatolian Fault in 1939 and 1999. During this time, seven large westward-migrating earthquakes created a 900-km-long continuous surface rupture along the fault zone from Erzincan to the Marmara Sea, stopping just short of Istanbul. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) = 7.4, Parsons concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw >7 in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years. This high probability is shared by Tokyo and San Francisco; however, the earthquake fragility of the pre-2000 building stock in Turkey is much higher than that of California or Japan. (Erdik, 2013). All of the arguments described above provide a sound basis for a Japanese-Turkish partnership enabling each partner to share experiences gained from past destructive earthquakes and prepare for expected large earthquakes. The SATREPS project aims to address this need, also focusing on the tsunami hazard. The project's main objectives are i) to develop disaster mitigation policies and strategies based on multidisciplinary research activities; ii) to provide decision makers with newly found knowledge for its implementation to the current regulations; iii) to organize disaster education programs in order to increase disaster awareness in Turkey; iv) to contribute the evaluation of active fault studies in Japan. To achieve successfully these objectives, 4 research groups have been set specializing on observations, simulations, civil engineering and disaster education and the results will be integrated for disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey.

  1. Flood and Waterlogging Disaster Damage Evaluation in Middle-Lower Yangtze Rive r by 3S technology%基于3S技术的长江中下游洪涝灾情评估研究

    ZHAN; Xiao-guo


    The evaluation method, model and process for the flood and waterlogging disaster condition by GIS,RS and GPS technology and the method for setting up d isaster condition database, dyke database and historical disaster damage databas e are presented. An index of flood damage degree(FDD) used to evaluate the relat ive degree of disaster loss and divide flood and waterlogging area is suggested . The value of flood damage degree can be calculated as follows :taking the vari ous disaster losses of sample area in a base year as standard value and computin g the ratios of various disaster loss values in different areas and years to th e standard flo od disaster loss values, then summing up the weighted ratios. The computed resul t s are the value of flood damage degree in the every year. The macroscopic flood disaster distribution can be evaluated by the values of flood loss degree.

  2. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    O'Hanlon, Charlene


    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  3. A general approach for the estimation of loss of life due to natural and technological disasters

    In assessing the safety of engineering systems in the context of quantitative risk analysis one of the most important consequence types concerns the loss of life due to accidents and disasters. In this paper, a general approach for loss of life estimation is proposed which includes three elements: (1) the assessment of physical effects associated with the event; (2) determination of the number of exposed persons (taking into account warning and evacuation); and (3) determination of mortality amongst the population exposed. The typical characteristics of and modelling approaches for these three elements are discussed. This paper focuses on 'small probability-large consequences' events within the engineering domain. It is demonstrated how the proposed approach can be applied to various case studies, such as tunnel fires, earthquakes and flood events.

  4. Laboratory medicine and mobile health technologies at crossroads: Perspectives for the management of chronic diseases.

    Gruson, Damien; Ko, Gabriel


    Management of chronic diseases represents a leading health and economic issue worldwide. Biomarkers are critical for the diagnosis and management of both communicable and non-communicable chronic diseases, and mobile health (mHealth) technologies are about to change the "game" with regard to the management of patients with such chronic diseases. The development of efficient, accurate and interactive solutions that integrate biomarkers and mHealth opens new perspectives for caregivers for the management of chronic illness. PMID:26983900

  5. 赤潮灾害经济损失评估技术方法%Technology and Method for Economic Losses Assessment of Red Tide Disasters

    文世勇; 宋旭; 田原原; 张强; 陈晨; 高树刚; 赵冬至


    In order to effectively cope with the red tide disasters prevention and reduction,relief and post dis-aster management needs,firstly,according to related research results and the damage characteristic of red tide dis-asters,economic loss assessment index of red tide disasters is put forward based on the actual needs and the opera-tional data that can be got in the operational work.Secondly according to disasters economic theory and economic losses assessment advanced ideas of other natural disasters,operational application method for economic losses as-sessment of red tide disasters is established,including marine aquaculture economic losses,coastal tourism eco-nomic losses,operational and emergency monitoring costs of red tide disasters,and red tide disasters disposal cost assessment model.Finally,the technical process of operational application technology and method for economic los-ses assessment of red tide disasters is put forward.%为有效应对赤潮灾害防灾减灾、灾后救援及管理的需求,在综合分析前人提出的赤潮灾害损失评估技术方法的基础上,参考赤潮灾害对受灾体的危害特点,结合实际工作的需求及在实际中可获取的业务数据,提出了赤潮灾害经济损失评估指标体系;根据灾害经济学理论,借鉴其他自然灾害经济损失评估的先进思想,采用市场价格法,分别建立了包括海水养殖业经济损失、滨海旅游业经济损失、赤潮灾害业务与应急监测费用和赤潮灾害处置费用的赤潮灾害经济损失评估模型;最后,提出了赤潮灾害损失评估的技术流程。

  6. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J


    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

  7. Integrating Telemedicine for Disaster Response: Testing the Emergency Telemedicine Technology Acceptance Model

    Davis, Theresa M.


    Background: There is little evidence that technology acceptance is well understood in healthcare. The hospital environment is complex and dynamic creating a challenge when new technology is introduced because it impacts current processes and workflows which can significantly affect patient care delivery and outcomes. This study tested the effect…

  8. The Monster and the Mother:The Symbolism of Disaster

    SUSANNA MHoffman; ZHAO Yuzhong


    Whether a society encompasses few people or multitudes , whether its landhold is remote and its records without letters or its reach global and its renown etched in ink , disaster con-tradicts its members ’ definitive knowledge . No matter if the disaster stems from nature or errant technology , is experienced or merely expected , no one, neither sage nor scientist , preacher nor presi-dent , can wholly tell the why or the where of a ca-lamitous event .And so, no matter what place in the world it occurs , what form it might take , whether singular or chronic , peoples’ explanations of disaster tend to rely on creative , often mytholog-ical, imagination.The belief systems of people ex-periencing or expecting calamity are rife with sym-bols dealing with their situations , and their cosmol-ogies are vibrant with metaphor .

  9. Catastrophic disasters and the design of disaster medical care systems.

    Mahoney, L E; Reutershan, T P


    The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) is aimed at medical care needs resulting from catastrophic earthquakes, which may cause thousands of deaths and injuries. Other geophysical events may cause great mortality, but leave few injured survivors. Weather incidents, technological disasters, and common mass casualty incidents cause much less mortality and morbidity. Catastrophic disasters overwhelm the local medical care system. Supplemental care is provided by disaster relief forces; this care should be adapted to prevalent types of injuries. Most care should be provided at the disaster scene through supplemental medical facilities, while some can be provided by evacuating patients to distant hospitals. Medical response teams capable of stabilizing, sorting, and holding victims should staff supplemental medical facilities. The NDMS program includes hospital facilities, evacuation assets, and medical response teams. The structure and capabilities of these elements are determined by the medical care needs of the catastrophic disaster situation. PMID:3631673

  10. Reflection on Disaster and Disaster Economy

    LIU Zhonggui


    The paper mainly deals with disaster and presents a discussion and analysis of disaster economy study and its development. It also addresses some noteworthy issues in disaster economy study with a view to promoting disaster prevention and reduction.

  11. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An


    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan. PMID:22661028

  12. "Sensing disaster": the use of wearable sensor technology to decrease firefighter line-of-duty deaths

    Payne, John A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited After more than 30 years of the American fire service averaging over 100 line-of-duty deaths annually, the technology now exists that can reduce the number of firefighter line-of-duty deaths of cardiac origin. Despite the creation of programs designed to improve firefighters’ cardiac health and fitness, no reduction has occurred in the number of firefighters suffering fatal cardiac events. While firefighters can suffer heart attacks or...

  13. Applied Research on Flood Control and Disaster Reduction based on GIS Technology

    QIANG, Xiaohuan; ZHU, Liujuan


    Geographic Information System is able to collect, manage, analyze and send out various geo-spatial information, very spacious and dynamic. Based on GIS technology, applying Digital Elevation Model, Flood Evolution Models, Humane and Economic information the scope of flooding and flood-stricken area, simulate flooding process, development trend and flood losses to provide timely information of towns, roads, water conservancy facilities, distribution of rivers and lakes can be confirmed. The be...

  14. Application of information technology within a field hospital deployment following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake disaster

    Levy, Gad; Blumberg, Nehemia; Kreiss, Yitshak; Ash, Nachman; Merin, Ofer


    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defense Force Medical Corps dispatched a field hospital unit. A specially tailored information technology solution was deployed within the hospital. The solution included a hospital administration system as well as a complete electronic medical record. A light-weight picture archiving and communication system was also deployed. During 10 days of operation, the system registered 1111 patients. The network and system up times were more ...

  15. Natural disasters.

    Cullen, J M


    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed. PMID:7234811

  16. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    Bell, Andrew T.


    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  17. Prioritizing Residential High-Performance Resilient Building Technologies for Immediate and Future Climate Induced Natural Disaster Risks

    Ladipo, Oluwateniola Eniola


    Climate change is exacerbating natural disasters, and extreme weather events increase with intensity and frequency. This requires an in-depth evaluation of locations across the various U.S. climates where natural hazards, vulnerabilities, and potentially damaging impacts will vary. At the local building level within the built environment, private residences are crucial shelter systems to protect against natural disasters, and are a central component in the greater effort of creating comprehen...

  18. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    L. See; McCallum, I.; Liu, W; Keating, A; Hochrainer-Stigler, S.; Mochizuki, J.; Fritz, S; Dugar, S; Arestegui, M.; Szoenyi, M.; Laso-Bayas, J.C.; Burek, P.; French, A.; Moorthy, I.


    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood...


    Himanshu A. Joshi


    Full Text Available With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strategies. “Efficient management of Disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad.” Hospitals play a key role in Management of the affected population by providing immediate and effective treatment at the site and in the hospital. Considering the wide range of disasters and no bar for time, place and people it requires immediate intervention, and this management would be an extension of emergency or casualty services of hospital. It adds an extra load to hospital, functions, and to cope up this situation it requires to have a systematic, planned and effective approach. In this article, I have discussed a model disaster management plan for a hospital, clinical principles of management of casualties and specific problems of Disaster Management. A guide line for operational framework to face disaster in the form of Disaster manual is suggested for each hospital. A preplanned disaster management plan according to this guideline would provide an edge to a hospital in such crucial situations and in turn will serve the humanity & society.

  20. Assessment of emergency response planning and implementation in the aftermath of major natural disasters and technological accidents

    Implementation in the Aftermath of Major Natural Disasters and Technological Accidents. (author)

  1. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  2. Disaster management


    With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strateg...

  3. Nuclear technology and chronic diseases: an exploratory study evolving the clinical physician perception

    This research is an exploratory cross-sectional study about the relationship of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. There is a concern over the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease in developing countries and it should hence be carefully evaluated in the context of societies, organizations and individuals. The technological advances experienced in the last decades especially in the nuclear technology area have created expectations to deal more efficiently with the challenge of chronic diseases. However little has been explored in this area under the point-of-view of medical doctors as agents who make this system of relations between disease and technology. The necessity for public and private planning to deal with this set of problems can benefit through an initial evaluation about the forthcoming theme, but should incorporate the agenda of health and technology planning for the following years. Using mixed methodology, made up of qualitative and quantitative approach, this research sought to reveal and configure important dimensions around the theme of this study. The field research was made up of interviews analyzed using techniques of fundamental theory and also of questionnaires sent by web analyzed statistically using exploratory factor analysis. These ventures allowed dimensions to be revealed that make up the perception of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. These dimensions presented in a form of a theoretical construct that were then discussed under the point of view of social theory and technological innovation. (author)

  4. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    V. A. Emelin


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  5. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair


    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  6. Factor analysis for the adoption of nuclear technology in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases

    To identify and evaluate latent variables (variables that are not directly observed) for adopting and using nuclear technologies in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. The measurement and management of these latent factors are important for health care due to complexities of the sector. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis study was conducted among 52 physicians practicing in the areas of Cardiology, Neurology and Oncology in the State of Sao Paulo who agreed to participate in the study between 2009 and 2010. Data were collected using an attitude measurement questionnaire, and analyzed according to the principal component method with Varimax rotation. Results: The component matrix after factor rotation showed three elucidative groups arranged according to demand for nuclear technology: clinical factors, structural factors, and technological factors. Clinical factors included questionnaire answers referring to medical history, previous interventions, complexity and chronicity of the disease. Structural factors included patient age, physician's practice area, and payment ability. Technological factors included prospective growth in the use of nuclear technology and availability of services. Conclusions: The clinical factors group dimension identified in the study included patient history, prior interventions, and complexity and chronicity of the disease. This dimension is the main motivating for adopting nuclear technology in diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases. (author)

  7. Academe-Local Government Partnership Towards Effective Application of Geospatial Technologies for Smarter Flood Disaster Management at the Local Level: AN Example from Mindanao, Philippines

    Makinano-Santillan, M.; Santillan, J. R.; Morales, E. M. O.; Asube, L. C. S.; Amora, A. M.; Cutamora, L. C.; Makinano, R. M.


    In this paper, we discuss how an academe-local government partnership can lead the way for the effective use of geospatial technologies for smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster. In Jabonga municipality, in the province of Agusan del Norte, in Mindanao, Philippines, two significant flooding events occurred in the year 2014 which were caused by overflowing water bodies due to continuous heavy rains. These flood events inundated populated areas, caused massive evacuation, made roads un-passable, and greatly damaged sources of incomes such as croplands and other agricultural areas. The partnership between Caraga State University and the local government of Jabonga attempts to improve localized flood disaster management through the development of web-based Near-real Time Flood Event Visualization and Damage Estimations (Flood EViDEns) application. Flood EViDENs utilizes LiDAR-derived elevation and information products as well as other elevation datasets, water level records by monitoring stations, flood simulation models, flood hazard maps, and socio-economic datasets (population, household information, etc.), in order to visualize in near-real time the current and future extent of flooding, to disseminate early warnings, and to provide maps and statistics of areas and communities affected and to be affected by flooding. The development of Flood EViDEns as the main product of the partnership is an important application of geospatial technologies that will allow smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster in Jabonga.

  8. Developing open geographic data model and analysis tools for disaster management: landslide case

    A. C. Aydinoglu; M. S. Bilgin


    Disaster Management aims to reduce catastrophic losses of disasters as landslide. Geographic information technologies support disaster management activities for effective and collaborative data management considering complex nature of disasters. Thus, this study aims to develop interoperable geographic data model and analysis tools to manage geographic data coming from different sources. For landslide disaster, 39 scenario-based activities were analyzed with required ...

  9. Research on inversion high mining pressure distribution and technol-ogy of preventing dynamic disasters by MS monitoring in longwall face

    CHENG Yun-hai; JIANG Fu-xing; ZOU Yin-hui


    Under two rock strata combination conditions, over 10,000 microseismic events were received with microseismic location monitoring technology which possessed by the author's studying team, used in fully mechanized coal face of Huafeng Mine of Xinwen Coal Mining Group Co., Shandong Province. On the basis of the achievement of the loca-tion results, the conclusions were drawn as follows: On the basis of the achievement of 3D strata fracturing situation and the section plane of microseimic events in different areas, the relationship between spatial structure of overlying strata and mining pressure field was found, and we might describe distribution range of dynamic pressure of advance pressure and lateral stress around long face, and range of structure ad-tivation. Quantitative guid-ance to prevent dynamic disasters was provided. The practice in coal mine got a effective results. According to the FLAC3D soft numerical simulation of diameter drilling hole (the diameter is 300 mm) to relieve pressure in specified geological condition in Huafeng Mine, the right distance of two dirlls is 2.5 m and the right depth is 12 m. The research pro-vided basic guiding and practical experiences for the underground microseismic monitoring and disaster prevention in side slopes or tunnels engineering.

  10. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Kimberley Shoaf


    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  11. Disasters and their consequences for public health.

    Giorgadze, T; Maisuradze, I; Japaridze, A; Utiashvili, Z; Abesadze, G


    Humanitarian emergencies, including natural and human-made disasters, conflicts and complex emergencies, constitute what has traditionally been considered the main threat to health security worldwide. Each year millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters around the world. Tornados, hurricanes, heavy rains and earthquakes resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and many more affected. Indeed, disasters would not be disastrous if it were not for their effect on the human population. Links between the natural environment and human health have been suggested for centuries. Disasters throughout history have had significant impact on the numbers, health status and life style of populations. It induce: Deaths, Severe injuries, requiring extensive treatments, Increased risk of communicable diseases, Damage to the health facilities, Damage to the water systems, Food shortage, Population movements. The authors focused on the natural disasters, caused by natural forces rather than by acts associated with human behavior and that affect a large population in a widespread geographic region. Describing the general effects of disasters on health, it does not pretend to cover every contingency. Review of recent literature on humanitarian emergencies has shown that the public health consequences of natural disasters are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease and emotional trauma. In addition, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic disease and infectious disease through the impact on the health care system. PMID:21685525

  12. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    McSwain, Norman E


    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

  13. 温室自然灾害的防灾减灾技术%Technology of Disaster Prevention and Reduction of Greenhouse

    程瑞; 王双喜


    设施农业属于高投入、高产出、资金、技术、劳动力密集型的产业。它利用人工建造的设施,使传统农业逐步摆脱自然的束缚,实现农产品的反季节上市,进一步满足多元化、多层次的消费需求。温室作为设施农业的主体,研究温室设施自然灾害的防灾减灾控制技术,是节约社会资源、保障安全生产的重要手段。该文就温室设施遭遇火灾、风灾、雪灾等灾害形成的原因及预防措施展开论述。%Facility agriculture is a capital ,technology and labor intensive industry ,while it is also a high input and output industry.It makes the traditional agriculture gradually get rid of the bondage of nature by using the artificial facilities.It realizes the agricultural products off-season and further meet the diversified ,multi-level consumer demands.The greenhouse is the main part of the facility agriculture ,researching natural disaster prevention and mitigation control technology in greenhouse is an important means of saving social resources and ensuring safety in production. In this paper,it discussed the causes and prevention measures of disasters such as fire ,wind and snow storms.

  14. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang


    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  15. Disaster Response for Effective Mapping and Wayfinding

    Gunawan L.T.


    The research focuses on guiding the affected population towards a safe location in a disaster area by utilizing their self-help capacity with prevalent mobile technology. In contrast to the traditional centralized information management systems for disaster response, this research proposes a decen-

  16. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.


    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  17. A Qualitative Study on Patient Perceptions Towards mHealth Technology Among High Risk, Chronic Disease Patients

    Martinez, Phillip Rico


    Background: For over 17 years, the Prevention and Access to Care and Treatment (PACT) Project has actively developed a Community Health Worker model for care of chronically ill, high risk patients. Given the high burden of chronic disease and associated rising health expenditures, mHealth technology has emerged as a promising low cost, high efficacy intervention for delivery of patient-centered care and as a tool for self-management of chronic disease Objective: Attitudes and perceptions r...

  18. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag


    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  19. Doubly Optimal Secure Multicasting: Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network : Disaster Relief

    Garimella, Rama Murthy; Abhijeet, Samdarshi; Singhal, Deepti


    Recently, the world has witnessed the increasing occurrence of disasters, some of natural origin and others caused by man. The intensity of the phenomenon that cause such disasters, the frequency in which they occur, the number of people affected and the material damage caused by them have been growing substantially. Disasters are defined as natural, technological, and human-initiated events that disrupt the normal functioning of the economy and society on a large scale. Areas where disasters...

  20. Disaster Prevention and Rescue Information Service Platforms

    Wen-Ray Su


    Full Text Available Because of its special hydrology and physiographic environmental conditions, Taiwan experiences a wide range of natural disasters, such as typhoons, floods, slope collapses, debris flows, and earthquakes, resulting in the loss of many lives and properties. Integration of disaster-related information, such as data and models, and the analysis and application of the information are crucial to reduce the damage caused by natural disasters. Therefore, the National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction introduced the information service platform technology of the Research Development and Evaluation Commission to integrate the information of related ministerial departments for added value and use. Related technologies have integrated information of disaster prevention and rescues, assisted the government in disaster prevention and rescue, and effectively reduced the time required for information integration. Additionally, the added value of information applications enabled situational analysis and process handling during natural disasters. This study uses responses to typhoons as examples, and describes how the service application platform of disaster prevention and rescue is used to integrate various data in the response processes and employs related systems to provide users real-time information as a reference for subsequent decision-making.

  1. Novel topical formulation for ischemic chronic wounds. Technological design, quality control and safety evaluation.

    Cabrera, Carla Agostina; Ramos, Alberto Nicolas; Loandos, María Del Huerto; Valdez, Juan Carlos; Sesto Cabral, Maria Eugenia


    Ulceration of the foot in diabetes is common and disabling, and frequently leads to amputation of the leg. The pathogenesis of foot ulceration is complex, clinical presentation variable and management requires early expert assessment. Despite treatment, ulcers readily become chronic wounds. Chronic wounds are those that remain in a chronic inflammatory state failing a normal healing process patterns. This is partially caused by inefficient eradication of opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We propose its control or eradication will promote wound healing. Lactobacillus plantarum cultures supernatants (LAPS) shows antipathogenic and pro-healing properties. The main objective was to design two pharmaceutical dosage forms by using LAPS as active pharmaceutical ingredient and to perform its quality control, in vitro activity conservation tests and human trials (safety evaluation). Both selected formulations reach the technological quality expected for 120 days, shows adequate occlusive characteristics and proper adhesion to human skin. From the in vitro release assays were found that LAPS shows adequate release from matrix and maintain its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. First human trials were developed and neither edema nor erythema on healthy skin voluntaries was found. We conclude that C80 and C100 are adequate for their use in future clinical trials to demonstrate a comprehensive therapeutic effectiveness in ischemic chronic wounds. PMID:25687423

  2. Necessity as the Mother of Invention: Innovative Responses to Natural Disasters

    Qing Miao; David Popp


    How do innovators respond to the shock of a natural disaster? Do natural disasters spur technical innovations that can reduce the risk of future hazards? This paper examines the impact of three types of natural disasters including earthquakes, droughts and flooding on the innovation of their respective mitigation technologies. Using patent and disaster data, our study is the first to relate natural disasters to technology innovation, and also presents the first attempt to empirically examine ...

  3. Doubly Optimal Secure Multicasting: Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network : Disaster Relief

    Garimella, Rama Murthy; Singhal, Deepti


    Recently, the world has witnessed the increasing occurrence of disasters, some of natural origin and others caused by man. The intensity of the phenomenon that cause such disasters, the frequency in which they occur, the number of people affected and the material damage caused by them have been growing substantially. Disasters are defined as natural, technological, and human-initiated events that disrupt the normal functioning of the economy and society on a large scale. Areas where disasters have occurred bring many dangers to rescue teams and the communication network infrastructure is usually destroyed. To manage these hazards, different wireless technologies can be launched in the area of disaster. This paper discusses the innovative wireless technologies for Disaster Management. Specifically, issues related to the design of Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network (arising in the communication network for disaster relief) are discussed.

  4. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    Chen, Y.


    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  5. The National Library of Medicine’s Disaster Information Management Research Center

    Steven Joseph Phillips


    The Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) develops and provides access to health information resources and technology for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. DIMRC focuses on maintaining access to health information at all phases of disasters, developing innovative products and services for emergency personnel, conducting research to support disaster health information management, and collaborating with other agencies and communities. Several tools are available t...

  6. Towards a wireless patient: chronic illness, scarce care and technological innovation in the United Kingdom.

    May, Carl; Finch, Tracy; Mair, Frances; Mort, Maggie


    'Modernization' is a key health policy objective in the UK. It extends across a range of public service delivery and organizational contexts, and also means there are radical changes in perspective on professional behaviour and practice. New information and communications technologies have been seen as one of the key mechanisms by which these changes can be engendered. In particular, massive investment in information technologies promises the rapid distribution and deployment of patient-centred information across internal organizational boundaries. While the National Health Service (NHS) sits on the edge of a pound sterling 6 billion investment in electronic patient records, other technologies find their status as innovative vehicles for professional behaviour change and service delivery in question. In this paper, we consider the ways that telemedicine and telehealthcare systems have been constructed first as a field of technological innovation, and more recently, as management solutions to problems around the distribution of health care. We use NHS responses to chronic illness as a medium for understanding these shifts. In particular, we draw attention to the shifting definitions of 'innovation' and to the ways that these shifts define a move away from notions of technological advance towards management control. PMID:15893864


    Deirdre Walsh


    Conclusion: This study provides evidence of patient desire for a technology-enabled remote exercise rehabilitation programme. Further to this, the current study provides promising preliminary evidence for both the high level of technology use and capability among a cohort of people with chronic illness.

  8. Mitigating natural disasters

    Floods and storm surges in Bangladesh, cyclones in the Philippines, earthquakes in Turkey, Mexico, Armenia (USSR) and California (USA), volcanoes in Columbia and landslides in Indonesia: all these recent major disasters indicate a trend of rising severity of disasters in both developing and developed countries. The changing dimensions of these disasters have been population growth, urbanization and industrialization. While every effort must be made to deconcentrate development (and the population) in disaster-prone regions, the fact remains that such a process is complex and slow to establish. The vulnerability/disaster/relief spiral must, and can, be brought under control by means of disaster mitigation. (author)

  9. Coping with Disasters

    ... feel dazed or numb after going through a disaster. You may also feel sad, helpless, or anxious. ... places or people that remind you of the disaster. You might have trouble sleeping, eating, or paying ...

  10. Texas Disaster Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  11. Disaster Risk Management Policy

    Inter-American Development Bank


    This Disaster Risk Management Policy has been developed in the context of an increase in the number and seriousness of disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the awareness that disasters have significant bearing on the economic and social development of most countries in the region, affecting disproportionately the poorest countries and people. This policy, which emphasizes risk reduction, is intended to improve the institutional and policy framework of the Bank to support disaster...

  12. Learning from disasters

    Every few months, somewhere around the world a major 'man-made' industrial disaster or serious near hit takes place. They affect every major industry, including the nuclear, chemical and petrochemical industries, where the impacts can affect not only the workforce immediately involved, but also the wider community. It has become increasingly clear that these types of events have deep-seated, organizational and cultural root causes and it is these which this paper attempts to address. Because these root causes are not common to any one technology or organization, there is an enormous volume of available learning across a wide range of industry sectors. This paper is based on research in BNFL which has examined a number of events (actual events and near hits) in a variety of industrial sectors. For the purposes of this paper, we have chosen five examples for discussion and analysis. These have been selected from a larger number of events studied, by applying screening criteria to ensure their relevance and potential for learning. The events discussed here are: - The Columbia shuttle disaster (United States of America, 2003); - The Longford Gas Plant explosion (Australia, 1998); - The JCO criticality accident (Japan, 1999); - Railway disasters in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 2003, particularly the Ladbroke Grove train crash and earlier events; - The Piper Alpha offshore petrochemical disaster (United Kingdom, 1988). It should be emphasized that in discussing these and other events, we have drawn on the findings of reviews and inquiries, including those referenced above. We have attempted to do this in a spirit of learning. In each case, the organizations involved were subject to pressures and difficulties (many of which we attempt to identify) and it is not the intention of this paper to establish blame or to criticize organizations or individuals. Against this background, the paper will first discuss some of the approaches which have proved valuable in

  13. Disaster Management Plans

    Ikeda, Makoto


    Following its devastating experience with recent disasters, Japan has been strengthening or drawing up new disaster management plans at the national and local levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) revealed a number of weaknesses in planning for complex and extraordinary disasters. Central and local governments have been revising their plans to reflect what they learned from the GE...

  14. Disaster: Planning, Preparation, Prevention.

    Rutherford, Christine


    Discusses causes of library disasters and provides several examples of disasters. Emphasis is on the importance of awareness, insurance protection, a written disaster plan, cooperation with the fire marshall and insurance agent in planning, and staff training. Several elements of the written plan are listed. (22 references) (MES)

  15. Resilience in disaster research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel;


    disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature. In...

  16. 激光雷达技术在综合减灾业务中的应用分析%Application Analysis of LiDAR Technology in the Comprehensive Disaster Reduction Activities

    林月冠; 范一大; 王薇; 黄河


    In this paper, a brief introduction of airborne LiDAR technology and its advantages including speediness, penetration, initiative, high-density and high-precision, high efficiency, information-richness are given. Airborne LiDAR research and application status in disaster mitigation are illustrated by analyzing the usage of airborne LiDAR in Haiti Earthquake, Great Sichuan Earthquake and Hurricane "Ike". It’s potential applications would be in disaster prevention and mitigation activities comprising comprehensive disaster risk assessment, disaster monitoring and early warning, emergency rescue and disaster relief, disaster comprehensive assessment and social impact assessment, disaster recovery and reconstruction and etc. where floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, mudslides, forest fires and other natural disasters are included. Finally, application expectation of airborne LiDAR in China comprehensive disaster reduction and risk management is given with the further development of technology, reducing of data acquisition costs and improvement of data processing levels.%介绍了激光雷达技术,分析了机载激光雷达的快速性、穿透性、主动性、高密度高精度、高效性、信息丰富等优点。以海地地震、汶川地震、飓风“艾克”为例概述了机载激光雷达技术在灾害管理中的研究和应用现状。分析了洪水、地震、飓风、滑坡、泥石流、森林火灾等自然灾害应对过程中,机载激光雷达在综合风险调查、灾害监测预警、灾害应急救援和救助、灾情损失评估和社会影响评价、灾后恢复重建等防灾减灾业务的应用潜力。展望激光雷达技术在提高我国综合减灾能力和风险管理水平中的应用前景--随着技术的进一步发展、数据获取成本的降低以及后续数据处理水平的提高,激光雷达技术将和其他的空间信息技术一起进一步提升我国综合减灾能力和风险管理水平。

  17. Study on Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment System of Northern Henan:A Case Study of Huixian City

    Xinjian; ZHU; Xinzhou; ZANG; Shiping; Duan; Huailiang; CHEN


    Based on the meteorological data and geological disaster information of Huixian in northern Henan during 1961-2009, four disaster-inducing factors like rainstorm, hail, gale and geological disasters were analyzed, and then a meteorological disaster risk evaluation index system was established to zone meteorological disaster risk, finally the meteorological disaster risk zoning map was obtained. The results show that rainstorm, hail and geographical disasters appeared more frequently in mountains than plains; on the contrary, gale occurred more frequently in plains. These conclusions could provide scientific and technological support and theoretical foundation for preventing meteorological disasters in Huixian.

  18. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.


    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  19. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.


    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  20. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.


    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  1. Key Aspects of Providing Healthcare Services in Disaster Response Stage.

    Samira Sadat Pourhosseini


    Full Text Available Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster.In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data.Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims' management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management.Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management.

  2. RFID Applied to Supply Chain Logistics in Disaster Recovery

    Wang, Heng; Hubbard, Brian J; Hubbard, Sarah


    The purpose of this paper is to review recent developments to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for supply chain logistics in the construction industry and identify potential applications of this technology for disaster recovery in construction operations. Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and extreme weather conditions can cause significant damage to local communities and disruptions to the local supply chain. The effective movement of resources during disaster recovery operation...

  3. Disease aftershocks - The health effects of natural disasters

    Guptill, S.C.


    While the initial activity of a natural disaster event may directly injure or kill a number of people, it is possible that a significant number of individuals will be affected by disease outbreaks that occur after the first effects of the disaster have passed. Coupling the epidemiologist's knowledge of disease outbreaks with geographic information systems and remote sensing technology could help natural disaster relief workers to prevent additional victims from disease aftershocks.

  4. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui


    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required. PMID:27013218

  5. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Kelman, Ilan


    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy. PMID:17714169

  6. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.


    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  7. Disaster mental health

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter


    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  8. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立


    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  9. Decentralization and Natural Disasters

    Timothy J. Goodspeed


    This paper surveys recent research on decentralization and natural disasters. The first part discusses results from theoretical models that have been used to study the issues that arise when natural disasters occur in a country with more than one level of government. The next section discusses the empirical results that have been found in the literature. A third section briefly touches upon practical problems that arise when decentralized governments are confronted with a natural disaster. Th...

  10. Disaster medicine through Google Glass.

    Carenzo, Luca; Barra, Federico Lorenzo; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Colombo, Davide; Costa, Alessandro; Della Corte, Francesco


    Nontechnical skills can make a difference in the management of disasters and mass casualty incidents and any tool helping providers in action might improve their ability to respond to such events. Google Glass, released by Google as a new personal communication device, could play a role in this field. We recently tested Google Glass during a full-scale exercise to perform visually guided augmented-reality Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment triage using a custom-made application and to identify casualties and collect georeferenced notes, photos, and videos to be incorporated into the debriefing. Despite some limitations (battery life and privacy concerns), Glass is a promising technology both for telemedicine applications and augmented-reality disaster response support to increase operators' performance, helping them to make better choices on the field; to optimize timings; and finally represents an excellent option to take professional education to a higher level. PMID:25460812

  11. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Colber, Judith


    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.


    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838


    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi


    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  14. Decision aid models for disaster management and emergencies

    Vitoriano, Begoña; Da Ruan


    Disaster management is a process or strategy that is implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. The process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Governments on all levels as well as many businesses create some sort of disaster plan that make it possible to overcome the catastrophe and return to normal function as quickly as possible.Response to natural disasters (e.g., floods, earthquakes) or technological disaster (e.g., nuclear, chemical) is an extreme complex process that involves severe time press

  15. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.


    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  16. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford...

  17. Rebuilding After Disaster: Going Green from the Ground Up



    This how-to guide describes ways to turn a disaster into an opportunity to rebuild with greener energy technologies. Covers such topics as the importance of energy, options for communities, instructions for developing an energy plan, and other considerations. This guide is intended for the community leaders who have experienced a disaster.

  18. Public health protection after nuclear and radiation disasters

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan combined with massive earthquake and immense tsunami, Some crucial lessons were reviewed in this paper, including emergency response for natural technological disasters, international effects, public psychological health effects and communication between the government and public. (authors)

  19. Large-Scale Disasters

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  20. Overview of Nuclear and Industrial Disasters ( 1921 - 1988 )

    Today human error is one of the major concerns of our industrial societies. Several times a year , dramatic accidents , the consequences of which we tend to forget about , occur , reminding us of this . Analyzing these different accidents shows that , in most cases , human error , not to be confused with fault , is at the origin of the disaster . These risks are growing every day owing to increasingly complex technological systems which are harder to understand , hence to control , by those operating them . On 26 April 1986 an accident occurred at the fourth unit of Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Ukraine , Soviet Union , which resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and part of the building in which it was housed . Large amounts of the radioactive materials in the reactor core were released from the building into the surrounding environment. Thirty one members of the plant operating personnel and the response teams gave their lives to stop the releases and to mitigate the consequences of the accident. Much of the radioactive material released was carried away in the form of gases and dust particles by normal air currents . Radioactive materials were widely dispersed in this manner , with most remaining in the Soviet Union . A comparison will be given here between Chernobyl accident and some other industrial disasters . A disaster is taken to mean a sudden or acute event which gives rise to large scale acute and / or chronic harm . For the purposes of the discussion made by Dr. V. C. Marshall of the University of Bradford , Atom , Feb. 1988 , nine categories of harm are put forward without implying that they are in rank order of severity or that the list is exhaustive her

  1. The Debrisoft® Monofilament Debridement Pad for Use in Acute or Chronic Wounds: A NICE Medical Technology Guidance

    Meads, C; Lovato, E; Longworth, L


    As part of its Medical Technology Evaluation Programme, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited a manufacturer to provide clinical and economic evidence for the evaluation of the Debrisoft ® monofilament debridement pad for use in acute or chronic wounds. The University of Birmingham and Brunel University, acting as a consortium, was commissioned to act as an External Assessment Centre (EAC) for NICE, independently appraising the submission. This article is an ove...

  2. Financial Protection Against Natural Disasters

    World Bank Group


    The primary objective of this report is to take stock of the global progress on financial protection against natural disasters over the last decade and bring together the latest thinking on disaster risk financing and insurance. Disaster risk financing and insurance helps minimize the cost and optimize the timing of meeting post-disaster funding needs without compromising development goals...

  3. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Kris Kodrich


    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  4. Soon After the Disaster

    LI LI


    @@ China's disaster relief departments have initiated a first-class emergency response for disaster relief in the wake of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that hit Qinghai Province at 7:49 a.m.on April 14. The decision was made by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Committee for Disaster Reduction at noon of the same day.As of 4:30 p.m.April 15,the shallow earthquake with its epicenter in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in the province has left at least 760 people dead,11,477 others injured and around 100,000 homeless,local authorities say.

  5. Refocusing disaster aid.

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg


    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  6. Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences

    Supe Avinash


    Full Text Available In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster.

  7. Preparing for disasters: education and management strategies explored.

    Alfred, Danita; Chilton, Jenifer; Connor, Della; Deal, Belinda; Fountain, Rebecca; Hensarling, Janice; Klotz, Linda


    During the last half of the 20th century, the focus of nursing changed from home and field to high-tech clinics and hospitals. Nursing in the absence of technology due to man-made or natural disasters almost disappeared from the curriculum of many nursing schools. Numerous disaster events and threats in the early 21st century caused educators and practitioners to increase the emphasis on disaster nursing and those principles that guide the nurse's practice in response to disasters. This article chronicles tools used by nurse educators to integrate disaster nursing into the didactic and clinical experiences of baccalaureate nursing students. We represent two nursing schools about 90 miles apart that collaborated to provide students with practical application of disaster nursing concepts. Part 1: An educational journey toward disaster nursing competencies: A curriculum in action provides an overview of the curricular tools used to insure adequate coverage of disaster nursing concepts across the curriculum. Part 2: Collaborative learning in Community Health Nursing for emergency preparedness relates the steps taken to plan, implement, and evaluate two different collaborative disaster simulation events. In this manuscript we have attempted transparency so that others can learn from our successes and our failures. PMID:25578381

  8. Disaster Resiliency and Recovery: Capabilities (Fact Sheet)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's leader in energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, practices, and strategies. For the last 15 years, NREL has provided expertise, tools, and innovations to private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities during the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages after disaster strikes.

  9. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  10. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  11. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Vento, Carla J.


    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  12. Telemedicine for Trauma, Emergencies, and Disaster Management

    Latifi, Rifat


    Telemedicine has evolved to become an important field of medicine and healthcare, involving everything from simple patient care to actual performance of operations at a distance. This groundbreaking volume addresses the complex technical and clinical development in the management of trauma, disaster, and emergency situations using telemedicine. The book explains how telemedicine and related technologies can be used to effectively handle a wide range of scenarios, from a situation as small as a car crash, to major disasters such as an earthquake. Professionals find critical discussions on the p

  13. Disasters in urban context

    Norris, Fran H.


    This article provides a brief overview of the field of disaster research, summarizing what is known at present about the prevalence of disasters, the range of stressors and outcomes experienced, and sample-, event-, and individual-level risk factors for poor health and mental health outcomes. Prior research does not suggest that an urban context either enhances or reduces risk for individual survivors. It is argued, however, that the influence of extraindividual exposure, ethnic diversity, an...

  14. Institution and decomposition of natural-disaster impact on growth

    yamamura, eiji


    We investigated whether natural disasters enhance efficiency improvement, capital accumulation, and technological progress. Furthermore, we examined whether the influence of natural disasters depends on the legal origin. By using long-term panel data, this paper decomposes productivity growth measured by the growth of output per labor unit into three components: efficiency improvement, capital accumulation, and technological progress. After controlling for countries’ specific unobservable cha...

  15. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development

    During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)

  16. Real-time elastography with a novel quantitative technology for assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B

    Background: The accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis stage is important in determining the treatment strategy. The limitations of percutaneous liver biopsy as the gold standard are obvious for invasion. Real-time elastography with conventional ultrasound probes and a new quantitative technology for diffuse histological lesion is a novel approach for staging of liver fibrosis. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the value of real-time tissue elastography with a new quantitative technology for the assessment of liver fibrosis stage. Materials and methods: Real-time elastography was performed in 55 patients with liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B and in 20 healthy volunteers. Eleven parameters for every patient in colorcode image obtained from the real-time elastography were analyzed with principal components analysis. We analyzed the correlation between elasticity index and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of real-time elastography for liver fibrosis staging. Additionally, aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index was also included in the analysis. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the elasticity index and the histologic fibrosis stage was 0.81, which is highly significant (p 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: Real-time elastography with a new quantitative technology for diffuse histological lesion is a new and promising sonography-based noninvasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  17. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Kieffer, Susan W.


    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  18. Disaster monitoring by ALOS and follow-on mission

    Moriyama, Takashi


    Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS) was successfuly launched on January 24th 2006 at Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket. The Satellite mass is about 4 tons of weight, Sun synchronous sub-recurrent orbit, repetation cycle is 46 days (sub cycle 2days) and 5 years mission operation. ALOS has four missions such as Cartography, Regional Observation, Resource Survey and Diasater monitoring. After the satelllite launch, there were several opportunities to observe natural disasters in the world.. ALOS will be distribute disaster information through international framework such as Sentinel Asia and International Charter on Disaster Monitoring. The 'Sentinel Asia' initiative was established by space agencies and disaster authorities in the Asia and Oceania, to use Remote Sensing information and Web-GIS data-delivery technologies in support of disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. Sentinel Asia is 'voluntary and best-efforts-basis initiatives' led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share the disaster information in the region using the 'Digital Asia' (Web-GIS) platform. International Charter is the membership framework to operate the satellite in case of disaster occurs. and distribute the data and information free of charge. ALOS is nominated both activities to contribute disaster monitoring and mitigation. This paper describes the introduction of ALOS and acquired disaster images to indicate its potential use for disaster monitoring. The design of follow on mission is indispensable to promise continuous monitoring of natural disaster. This paper also describes the initial idea of ALOS follow on mission.

  19. Sentinel Asia step 2 utilization for disaster management in Malaysia

    With the installation of Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite (WINDS) communication system in the National Space Centre, Banting; officially Malaysia is one of the twelve Sentinel Asia Step2 System Regional Servers in the Asia Pacific region. The system will be dedicated to receive and deliver images of disaster struck areas observed by Asia Pacific earth observation satellites by request of the Sentinel Asia members via WINDS satellite or 'Kizuna'. Sentinel Asia is an initiative of collaboration between space agencies and disaster management agencies, applying remote sensing and web-GIS technologies to assist disaster management in Asia Pacific. When a disaster occurred, participating members will make an Emergency Observation Request (EOR) to the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRC). Subsequently, the Data Provider Node (DPN) will execute the emergency observation using the participating earth observation satellites. The requested images then will be processed and analysed and later it will be uploaded on the Sentinel Asia website to be utilised for disaster management and mitigation by the requestor and any other international agencies related to the disaster. Although the occurrences of large scale natural disasters are statistically seldom in Malaysia, but we can never be sure with the unpredictable earth climate nowadays. This paper will demonstrate the advantage of using Sentinel Asia Step2 for local disaster management. Case study will be from the recent local disaster occurrences. In addition, this paper also will recommend a local disaster management support system by using the Sentinel Asia Step2 facilities in ANGKASA

  20. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)


    Himayatullah KHAN; Vasilescu, Laura Giurca; Khan, Asmatullah


    The present study explains the various concepts used in disaster management. The concepts explained include: Disaster, Hazard, Vulnerability, Capacity, Risk and Disaster Management Cycle. In addition to the terminologies, the study also seeks to explain various types of disasters.

  2. Virtual Disaster Simulation: Lesson Learned from an International Collaboration That Can Be Leveraged for Disaster Education in Iran.

    Ardalan, Ali; Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Akbarisari, Ali; Djalali, Ahmadreza


    Disaster education needs innovative educational methods to be more effective compared to traditional approaches. This can be done by using virtual simulation method. This article presents an experience about using virtual simulation methods to teach health professional on disaster medicine in Iran. The workshop on the "Application of New Technologies in Disaster Management Simulation" was held in Tehran in January 2015. It was co-organized by the Disaster and Emergency Health Academy of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Emergency and the Research Center in Disaster Medicine and Computer Science applied to Medicine (CRIMEDIM), Università del Piemonte Orientale. Different simulators were used by the participants, who were from the health system and other relevant fields, both inside and outside Iran. As a result of the workshop, all the concerned stakeholders are called on to support this new initiative of incorporating virtual training and exercise simulation in the field of disaster medicine, so that its professionals are endowed with field-based and practical skills in Iran and elsewhere. Virtual simulation technology is recommended to be used in education of disaster management. This requires capacity building of instructors, and provision of technologies. International collaboration can facilitate this process. PMID:26236561

  3. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji


    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  4. Introduction of Disaster Cognitive Psychological Science

    Rui Nouchi


    Disaster science is an academic field that explores mechanisms of disasters, investigates economic, social, and environmental impact of disasters, and develops systems for disaster prevention, mitigation, and restoration. After the 2011 Great East Japan (Tohoku) earthquake and tsunami disaster, reduction and avoidance of potential losses from disasters have received much attention. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new research field in disaster science called disaster cognitive p...

  5. Disaster risk reduction strategies and post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction

    Palliyaguru, R. S.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard


    World’s vulnerability to natural disasters has increased over the last few years. Hence, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into constructed facilities has taken up an important role in the whole of the disaster management cycle. This paper aims to study the importance of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in to postdisaster infrastructure reconstruction and the initiatives taken by the relevant bodies in order to minimize the future natural risks in reconstruction of ...

  6. Disaster event: Window of opportunity to implement global disaster policies?

    Siambabala B. Manyena


    Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to a...

  7. The perception of disasters: Some items from the culture

    This short reflection on social perception of disasters analyses their implications in the development and evolution of public policies on disaster prevention. Perception is the result of psychological conditions of people made of socially accepted ideas that conforms local culture. Four stages in the development of social perception explain how the impact of disasters is considered. First Christian religions are connected with the idea that disasters are punishment of divinity in response to our sins. Secondly, disasters are the result of the forces of nature, which have led to the idea of constructing the denial as a form of response. Disasters occur, but it doesn't threaten me because my local environment is safe enough. Third perception of security is diminished by the excessive reliance that exists in science and technology. This tends to increase vulnerability to disaster, especially among higher social classes who imagine they can pay the cost of these developments. Lastly short consideration is given to some recent ideas regarding disasters as the result of human intervention, especially with respect to global climate change

  8. A Proposed Model for IT Disaster Recovery Plan

    Hossam Abdel Rahman Mohamed


    Full Text Available IT disaster recovery planning is no longer an option. Reliable IT services have become an integral part of most business processes. To ensure the continued provision of information technology, firms must engage in IT disaster recovery planning. Surprisingly, there is little research on this topic. IT disaster recovery planning has not been fully conceptualized in mainstream IT research. A previously framework for assessing the degree of IT disaster recovery planning. Practitioners can use this study to guide IT disaster recovery planning. Our Disaster Recovery Plan is designed to ensure the continuation of vital business processes in the event that a disaster occurs. This plan will provide an effective solution that can be used to recover all vital business processes within the required time frame using vital records that are stored off-site. This Plan is just one of several plans that will provide procedures to handle emergency situations. These plans can be utilized individually but are designed to support one another. The first phase is a Functional Teams and Responsibilities the Crisis Management Plan. This phase allows the ability to handle high-level coordination activities surrounding any crisis situation. We will also discuss the development, finally maintenance and testing of the Disaster Recovery Plan.

  9. [Disaster and disaster nursing: from an education and research perspective].

    Chen, Li-Chin; Fan, Jun-Yu


    Due to its geographic position and the effect of changes in both global and island-specific environments, Taiwan is an area highly prone to natural disasters. While responsibility for national disaster prevention and rescue are distributed amongst various authorities, healthcare agencies hold sole responsibility for the treatment of injuries sustained during disaster events. Disaster casualties require differing levels of medical assistance. In order to respond systematically to disaster events, the government should require that all healthcare facilities operate a hospital emergency incident command system (HEICS). Past experience shows the important role that nurses play in the disaster relief process. The 911 disaster in the United States both helped reorient the direction of nursing education and emphasized teaching practical strategies, standard operating procedures, and frequently asked questions for nurses. Recognizing the limited research done worldwide on disaster nursing, the World Society of Disaster Nursing (WSDN) was established in 2008 in Kobe, Japan. The main purposes of the WSDN is to promote international academic exchange, establish an Internet information exchange platform, and organize international disaster nursing related activities. The WSDN has suggested that future research may focus in on critical issues that include post-disaster health status follow-up, exploration of the healthcare needs and other issues of disaster survivors, care skills development, and the potential for development of cooperative support networks between medical institutions. PMID:20535673

  10. The early warning application role in facing the environmental crisis and disasters: "Preliminarily risk management strategy for the greater city of Cairo"

    Ghoneem Yousef M.; Elewa Ahmed Khaled A.


    Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies, methods using the new technology applications which play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disasters. This paper describes the importance of the remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in evolving a suitable strategy for disaster, crises a...

  11. School Mental Health Services Following an Environmental Disaster.

    Crabbs, Michael A.


    Each year, dozens of natural disasters occur, leaving child victims in their wake. Short-term effects on children include such maladaptive behavioral reactions as enuresis, insomnia, crying, vomiting, and phobias. Long-term effects include compulsive behavior, personality changes, chronic anxiety, and nightmares. (JN)

  12. Improving medication adherence for chronic disease using integrated e-technologies.

    Dixon, Brian E; Jabour, Abdulrahman M; Phillips, Erin O'Kelly; Marrero, David G


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than 285 people worldwide and the fourth leading cause of death. Increasing evidence suggests that many DM patients have poor adherence with prescribed medication therapies, impacting clinical outcomes. Patients' barriers to medication adherence and the extent to which barriers contribute to poor outcomes, however, are not routinely assessed. We designed a dashboard for an electronic health record system to integrate DM disease and medication data, including patient-reported barriers to adherence. Processes to support routine capture of data from patients are also being explored. The dashboard is being evaluated at multiple ambulatory clinics to examine whether integrated electronic tools can support patient-centered decision-making processes involving complex medication regimens for DM and other chronic diseases. PMID:23920703

  13. A digital social network for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information

    Xu, J. H.; Nie, G. Z.; Xu, X.


    Acquiring disaster information quickly after an earthquake is crucial for disaster and emergency rescue management. This study examines a digital social network - an earthquake disaster information reporting network - for rapid collection of earthquake disaster information. Based on the network, the disaster information rapid collection method is expounded in this paper. The structure and components of the reporting network are introduced. Then the work principles of the reporting network are discussed, in which the rapid collection of disaster information is realised by using Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) messages to report the disaster information and Geographic information system (GIS) to analyse and extract useful disaster information. This study introduces some key technologies for the work principles, including the methods of mass sending and receiving of SMS for disaster management, the reporting network grouping management method, brief disaster information codes, and the GIS modelling of the reporting network. Finally, a city earthquake disaster information quick reporting system is developed and with the support of this system the reporting network obtained good results in a real earthquake and earthquake drills. This method is a semi-real time disaster information collection method which extends current SMS based method and meets the need of small and some moderate earthquakes.

  14. Disaster management: Mental health perspective

    Suresh Bada Math; Maria Christine Nirmala; Sydney Moirangthem; Naveen C Kumar


    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immed...

  15. 突发地质灾害应急技术:过程模式%Geological Disaster Emergency Technology:Process Model

    张小趁; 陈红旗


    Time is the key factor affecting the effectiveness of emergency management.For emergency re-sponse division and allocation of resources,along the main line of time,the emergency plan process design is the main content of geological disaster emergency plans.Construction of the emergency response system is relatively late in china.Because of the lack of emergency theory and practice,resulting in emergency management position is not uniform;the emergency process is not perfect.It may lead to “seek quickly ignore accuracy”,confused man-agement procedures and technical processes,confused management plan and disposal programs.These reduce the effect of the emergency prevention and control.In order to improve the effectiveness of the emergency prevention, follow dynamic-coordination-integrated ideas,the paper detailed and optimized emergency procedures plans.Qro-posed emergency process model that “Three-phase,Three-level,Five steps,and Nine sectors”.The emergency procedures including:monitoring,response and recovery.Emergency plan levels including:nearby response,early disposal,rescue response;Emergency response experience including:starting,planning,doing,consultation test and end;Emergency control includes:emergency warning,scenario analysis,investigations,monitoring,disaster assessment,risk aversion,emergency prevention,cause determination,summary and rehabilitate.This mode is still superficial,yet construction process model library support.Only for geological disaster emergency workers to reference.%时间是影响突发地质灾害应急防治成效的关键因素。面向应急情景、任务和能力,以时间为主线的应急技术设计是应急预案的主要内容。由于我国应急体系建设起步较晚,应急防治理论基础薄弱,缺乏系统案例,导致应急响应与防治过程尚不清晰,存在“求快忽准”、混淆管理程序和技术流程等现象。采用情景分析方法,基于协调集成设计的思想,首次

  16. Emergency And Disaster Reports



    This monographic issue is about Nepal and its disaster risk profile. Nepal’s fragile geology and steep topography make it the 20th top most disaster prone country in The world. Nepal is a part of the Himalayan-Ganga system with the system extending about 160-200 kilometers from north to south spanning six geological And climatic belts varying in altitude from about 8000 to just about 60 metres above mean sea level in eastern Nepal. About 83 per cent of Nepal lies within The mountaino...

  17. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.


    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  18. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn


    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

  19. Nuclear technology and chronic diseases: an exploratory study evolving the clinical physician perception; Doencas cronicas e tecnologia nuclear: estudo exploratorio envolvendo a percepcao de medicos clinicos

    Sato, Renato Cesar


    This research is an exploratory cross-sectional study about the relationship of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. There is a concern over the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease in developing countries and it should hence be carefully evaluated in the context of societies, organizations and individuals. The technological advances experienced in the last decades especially in the nuclear technology area have created expectations to deal more efficiently with the challenge of chronic diseases. However little has been explored in this area under the point-of-view of medical doctors as agents who make this system of relations between disease and technology. The necessity for public and private planning to deal with this set of problems can benefit through an initial evaluation about the forthcoming theme, but should incorporate the agenda of health and technology planning for the following years. Using mixed methodology, made up of qualitative and quantitative approach, this research sought to reveal and configure important dimensions around the theme of this study. The field research was made up of interviews analyzed using techniques of fundamental theory and also of questionnaires sent by web analyzed statistically using exploratory factor analysis. These ventures allowed dimensions to be revealed that make up the perception of chronic disease and the use of nuclear technology. These dimensions presented in a form of a theoretical construct that were then discussed under the point of view of social theory and technological innovation. (author)

  20. Multi-temporal Analysis of Land Cover Changes in Nagasaki City Associated with Natural Disasters Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Shaikh, Asif A.; Gotoh, Keinosuke; Tachiiri, Kaoru


    Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully prevent the damage that they cause. However, it is possible to reduce the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies and to help in rehabilitation and post disaster reduction. Remote sensing technology has proven its usefulness, not only for monitoring disastrous events, but also to provide accurate and timely information well before the occurrence of a disaster. The study of the temporal changes of spat...

  1. The National Library of Medicine’s Disaster Information Management Research Center

    Steven Joseph Phillips


    Full Text Available The Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC develops and provides access to health information resources and technology for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. DIMRC focuses on maintaining access to health information at all phases of disasters, developing innovative products and services for emergency personnel, conducting research to support disaster health information management, and collaborating with other agencies and communities. Several tools are available to help emergency responders in hazardous materials or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear incidents. Access to the literature is made available through PubMed and the Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, with links to online documents and resources from numerous organizations and government agencies. In addition, DIMRC supports the Disaster Information Specialist Program, a collaborative effort to explore and promote the role of librarians and information specialists in the provision of disaster-related information resources to the workforce and communities.

  2. Disaster Changes Us


    On scientists confirming that sex is a channel for HIV AIDS infection, the sexual emancipation that had flourished in America and Europe since the middle of the last century subsided. More stress has since been placed on family issues. A disaster can thus change moral standards and senses of value, as well as behavior.

  3. Face Up to Disasters


    Viewing a disaster properly demands more courage than a peaceful mind from a country or region. On July 28, 1976, a 7.8-magnitude earthquake hit the city of Tangshan in north China's Hebei Province. The temblor, releasing energy 400 times greater than the atom bombs that hit Hiroshima, killed over 240,000 people and severely

  4. Disasters in Europe

    Journal Editors


    Full Text Available Every year, suddenly, large-scale threats of health or disasters occur across Europe. There are many types of them: explosions, legionellose and other epidemics of infectious diseases, large-scale traffic accidents, unsafe food, and large-scale air pollution.

  5. When Facing Natural Disasters

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ China last experienced a strong earthquake in 1976 in Tang Shan, Hehei Province. At the beginning of this year, severe snow storms struck more than half of China. What impact have these natural disasters left on China, especially the latest earthquake in Sichuan? Let's do a comparison.

  6. Disaster Risk Reduction

    Trohanis, Zoe; Dastur, Arish; XU, TING; Cira, Dean


    In order to address the impact of the Wenchuan earthquake, which occurred on 12 May 2008 and registered 8.0 on the Richter scale, the Government of China will implement an effective, comprehensive, and sustainable recovery program. At the same time, it is important that the government consider how the recovery process can contribute to disaster risk reduction (DRR), the objective being to ...

  7. Food for Disasters


    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  8. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Thompson, Neil


    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  9. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.


    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  10. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    Nabutola, W.


    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  11. Disaster medicine. A guide for medical care in case of disasters. 3. rev. ed.

    This guide was first published in 1982. The 2003 edition takes account of new research, of practical experience in natural disasters, and of the organisational plans of the German civil service units. All factors are considered which are important for successful medical care in case of natural disasters, large-scale accidents, and war. Among the new issues that are considered in this volume is the new European situation with regard to national safety, the new German legislation on civil safety, the hazards of an increasingly technological society, and the options and requirements for protection of the population in case of emergencies. After the Chernobyl accident, the focus in the field of nuclear radiation has shifted to radiation protection problems. There are new chapters on stress management during and after emergency shifts which take account of the experience gained in major disasters. (orig.)

  12. Design and realization of spatial information service system for government administration of natural disaster

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jiping; Zhu, Yi; Shi, Lihong


    The government of nearly every country have responsibility for administering the affairs of preventing and reducing the natural disasters. The geospatial character and positional connection of natural disasters information makes the geospatial information and GIS technology play a key role in government affairs increasingly. Based on project implementation and study of developing science and technology concerning reducing and preventing disasters in China, the paper is mainly on the comprehensive study of requirements analysis,construction pattern, primary assignments, main functions, important application and methods of Spatial Information Service System for Government Administration of Natural Disaster.

  13. Gender equity in disaster early warning systems

    De Silva, Kushani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard


    Capacities of societies, communities and individuals or a social-ecological system to deal with adverse consequences and the impacts of hazard events define the resilience. New and innovative Emergency Communications, Warning Systems (ECWS) technologies and solutions improve resilience of the nations. Research shows that different types of systems (e.g. decision support, resource management, early warning, communications, and inter-agency) are highly valued in emergency and disaster events re...

  14. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness

    Viness Pillay


    Full Text Available Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity. The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness.


    Q. Linyao


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1 putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2 identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1, and 3 linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  16. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    Meng, Y.; Yang, S.; Shi, P.; Jeager, C. C.


    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is an important approach linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show the following: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on exports but have no significant impact on imports; (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports; (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  17. a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method

    Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.


    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  18. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.


    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  19. Bhopal-A Case Study of International Disaster.

    Dhara; Dhara


    This paper outlines what is known about the probable events leading up to the disaster in Bhopal, India, in 1984, wherein release of a gas cloud from an industrial plant killed over 3,800 people. It briefly reviews the toxicology of methyl isocyanate, a major component of the cloud; presents an overview of the acute and chronic health effects of the gas exposure from published human and animal studies; identifies some of the clinical dilemmas and medical management and epidemiologic issues being debated; provides an insight into national and transnational implications; and summarizes the lessons learned or not learned from this disaster of global significance. PMID:9990159

  20. Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response

    Girard, Trevor


    produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

  1. Co-Benefits of Disaster Risk Management

    Vorhies, Francis; Wilkinson, Emily


    Many ex ante measures taken to reduce disaster risk can deliver co-benefits that are not dependent on disasters occurring. In fact, building resilience to climate extremes and disasters can achieve multiple objectives. These are secondary to the main objective of disaster risk management of avoiding disaster losses, but identifying and measuring additional co-benefits can enhance the attra...

  2. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Lameire, N


    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  3. Lessons from nuclear disasters

    The most severe and worst of all nuclear disasters is, needless to say, the explosion of an atomic bomb. The WHO committee on the effects of nuclear war, established in 1982, concluded that the only approach to the treatment of the health effects of nuclear warfare is primary prevention, that is, the prevention of nuclear war. Nuclear disasters have also occurred in nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, causing various damage and acute anxiety among the workers and general public, but thus far the related health effects have not always been correctly evaluated. Such problems as exposed population, individual exposed dose and health risks which are associated with these evaluation efforts are discussed here. (author)

  4. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Disaster Prevention Sector Facility

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)


    This document (GN-2085-5) was favorably considered by the Bank's Board of Directors on March 12, 2001. The Sector Facility, in particular, will assist countries to take an integrated approach to reducing and managing their risk to natural hazards before a disastrous event through the following components: (1) Risk identification and forecasting to understand and quantify vulnerability and disaster risk; (2) mitigation to address the structural sources of vulnerability; and (3) preparedness to...

  6. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  7. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model


    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  8. Ecological model of disaster management.

    Beaton, Randal; Bridges, Elizabeth; Salazar, Mary K; Oberle, Mark W; Stergachis, Andy; Thompson, Jack; Butterfield, Patricia


    The ecological model of disaster management provides a framework to guide occupational health nurses who are developing disaster management programs.This ecological model assumes that disaster planning, preparedness, response, and recovery occur at various levels of the organization. These nested, increasingly complex organizational levels include individual and family, workplace, community, state, tribal, federal, and global levels. The ecological model hypothesizes that these levels interact and these dynamic interactions determine disaster planning, preparedness, response, and recovery outcomes. In addition to the features of the hazard or disaster, it is also assumed that parallel disaster planning, preparedness, and response elements, logistical challenges, and flexibility, sustainability, and rehabilitation elements occur at each level of the ecological model. Finally, the model assumes that evaluation of response and recovery efforts should inform future planning and preparedness efforts. PMID:19051571

  9. Have natural disasters become deadlier?

    Raghav Gaiha; Kenneth Hill; Ganesh Thapa; Varsha S. Kulkarni


    Abstract The present study seeks to build on earlier work by identifying the factors associated with the frequency of natural disasters and the resulting mortality. Drawing together the main findings, some observations are made from a policy perspective to focus on key elements of a disaster reduction strategy. Countries that were prone to natural disasters in the decade 1970-79 continued to be so in the next two decades. Geophysical factors (e.g. whether landlocked, size of a country) had an...

  10. Have Natural Disasters Become Deadlier?

    Raghav Gaiha; Kenneth Hill; Ganesh Thapa


    The present study seeks to build on earlier work by identifying the factors associated with the frequency of natural disasters and the resulting mortality. Drawing together the main findings, some observations are made from a policy perspective to focus on key elements of a disaster reduction strategy. Countries that were prone to natural disasters in the previous decade (1970-79) continued to be so in the next two decades. Geophysical factors (e.g. whether landlocked, distance to coast) had ...

  11. Disasters, Confidence and the Economy

    N.J. Nahuis


    Negative events often have a significant influence on confidence but their effect on the Dutch economy is considerably less clear-cut. Disasters have a significant influence on consumer and producer confidence. With regard to consumer confidence, this is seen principally in the Economic Climate sub-indicator and to a lesser degree in the Propensity to Consume sub-indicator. After only a small number of disasters was the decline large enough to be individually significant. However, disasters h...

  12. Gender Aspects of Disaster Management

    Fordham, Maureen; Meyreles, Lourdes


    LESSONS FOR PRACTITIONERS • Disaster situations are not ‘freak’ events but reflect the unequal structures of the societies in which we live. • In disasters and conflict situations, gender gaps in everyday life chances not only persist but can widen with lower socioeconomic status. • Disaster management continues to be resistant to, or dismissive of, gender concerns and fails to both recognize and facilitate participation by all social groups. • The inclusion of women (and other m...

  13. Disaster education in the UK

    Collins, Andrew; Manyena, Bernard; Shiroshita, Hideyuki; Hobbs, Brian; Twigg, John; Fordham, Maureen; Okada, Norio; Rawlinson, Steve


    The seminar series brought together emergency management specialists and educationalists to explore how disaster management knowledge, innovation and education can contribute to building a culture of safety and resilience in the UK. The series was primarily focussed on ways of understanding UK disaster reduction contexts, though informed by contributions from other parts of the world. The strengthening of debate on practical and policy developments for disaster education helped exchange exper...

  14. Use of Health Information and Communication Technologies to Promote Health and Manage Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Disease: Applications in the Field of Health Education

    Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M.; Wang, Min Qi; Eddy, James M.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don


    This special issue provides real-world examples of the diverse methods health education researchers are using to expand existing applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health promotion and chronic disease management. The original and review articles presented in this special issue investigate eHealth, mHealth, and…

  15. Radiation accident/disaster

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  16. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  17. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  18. Natural disasters: from destruction to recovery

    Constanza S. Liborio


    Natural disasters often cause extensive loss and damage, yet post-disaster reconstruction may create opportunities that bring long-term economic benefits. Read the October 2011 Newsletter "Natural Disasters: From Destruction to Recovery" for details.

  19. How public health should accept nuclear disaster

    Nuclear disaster differed from former pollution in greatness and width of disaster and its effects and characterized by seven points: (1) dispersal of large amount of radioactive materials in the environment and wide contamination of soils, atmosphere, river and ocean, (2) 160000 affected population moved with fear of radiation health effects, (3) enormous effects on life and quality of life, (4) more than one generation taken for final completion of reactor decommissioning, (5) immense impacts on local economy due to contamination of agriculture and fishery products, (6) giant cost of decontamination and (7) doubts on national energy policy, and science and technology. Public health should be responsible not only for risk assessment and countermeasures but also for regulation of contamination level. Predicted accumulated dose rates for 30 years were evaluated dependent on regional area with decay and decontamination scenario. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Needs for Robotic Assessments of Nuclear Disasters

    Victor Walker; Derek Wadsworth


    Following the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima nuclear reactor plant in Japan, the need for systems which can assist in dynamic high-radiation environments such as nuclear incidents has become more apparent. The INL participated in delivering robotic technologies to Japan and has identified key components which are needed for success and obstacles to their deployment. In addition, we are proposing new work and methods to improve assessments and reactions to such events in the future. Robotics needs in disaster situations include phases such as: Assessment, Remediation, and Recovery Our particular interest is in the initial assessment activities. In assessment we need collection of environmental parameters, determination of conditions, and physical sample collection. Each phase would require key tools and efforts to develop. This includes study of necessary sensors and their deployment methods, the effects of radiation on sensors and deployment, and the development of training and execution systems.

  1. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  2. The Shared Decision Making Frontier: a Feasibility and Usability Study for Managing Non-Critical Chronic Illness by Combining Behavioural & Decision Theory with Online Technology.

    Russell, Amina; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza


    The objective of this study is to determine if shared decisions for managing non-critical chronic illness, made through an online biomedical technology intervention, us feasible and usable. The technology intervention incorporates behavioural and decision theories to increase patient engagement, and ultimately long term adherence to health behaviour change. We devised the iheart web intervention as a "proof of concept" in five phases. The implementation incorporates the Vaadin web application framework, Drools, EclipseLink and a MySQL database. Two-thirds of the study participants favoured the technology intervention, based on Likert-scale questions from a post-study questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of think aloud feedback, video screen captures and open-ended questions from the post-study questionnaire uncovered six main areas or themes for improvement. We conclude that online shared decisions for managing a non-critical chronic illness are feasible and usable through the iheart web intervention. PMID:26262028

  3. Rebuilding After Disaster: Going Green from the Ground Up (Revised) (Brochure)


    20-page "how-to" guide describing ways to turn a disaster into an opportunity to rebuild with greener energy technologies. It covers such topics as the importance of energy, options for communities, instructions for developing an energy plan, and other considerations. This guide is intended for the community leaders who have experienced a disaster.

  4. Serious gaming for user centered innovation and adoption of disaster response information systems

    Meesters, Kenny; Van De Walle, Bartel A


    Global profusion of information technology has spawned a large and varied number of tools and systems to aid disaster responders in managing disaster-related information. To adequately study the conception, development and deployment of such tools and systems, the user and the operational context in

  5. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara


    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  6. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    LiFa-bin; WeiFang-qiang; CuiPeng; ZhouWan-cun


    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control engineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Siehuan-Tibet Highway.

  7. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    Li Fa-bin; Wei Fang-qiang; Cui Peng; Zhou Wan-cun


    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control ergineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

  8. Role of Libraries in Disaster Management: Experience from North East India

    Satpathy, K. C.


    India is a large country and prone to a number of natural hazards. Among all the natural hazards that that country faces, river floods are the most frequent and devastating. A shortfall in rainfall causes droughts or drought-like situations in various parts of the country. The country has suffered some severe earthquakes causing widespread damage to life and property. India has a coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe cyclonic formations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Another major problem faced by the country takes the form of landslides and avalanches. All the major disasters directly or indirectly affect libraries. With an increasing interest in spreading a culture of prevention in the field of disaster management, considerable emphasis is now being placed on research and development activities in the area of information technology for disaster preparedness and prevention. This has brought a significant positive change even through the number and frequency of disasters in this country has increased. The library can play a significant role in spreading awareness of disaster management. Keeping the above facts in mind the author describes a disaster and the role of Information technology in reducing its impact. The paper also describes the role of libraries in the management of the disaster. The author shares his personal experience of how North East India deals with disaster management. Finally, the future vision of disaster management is outlined.

  9. Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining

    Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.


    Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

  10. Natural disasters: a framework for research and teaching.

    Alexander, D


    Natural disasters are defined in this paper by relating the impact of extreme geophysical events to patterns of human vulnerability. Hazard perception is shown to be a factor that limits the mitigation of risk. The historical development of disaster studies is traced and five different schools of thought are identified. The current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) is evaluated critically with regard to its potential for unifying the disparate strands of knowledge and its scope as a vehicle for education. A pedagogical framework for disaster studies is presented. Time and space provide valuable unifying factors, while the subject matter can be differentiated according to the continua and dichotomies that it presents. In disaster studies as in other branches of higher education, an ecocentric approach is preferable to a technocentric one, as many of the poorer nations of the world, which are most afflicted by natural catastrophe, will have to rely for mitigation on maintaining their ecological sustainability, instead of depending on sophisticated technology. Valuable insights into the impact of environmental extremes on mankind are gained from the study of disasters as human ecology. PMID:20958724

  11. Disaster management: Mental health perspective

    Suresh Bada Math


    Full Text Available Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ′preventive medicine′ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ′R′s such as Readiness (Preparedness, Response (Immediate action, Relief (Sustained rescue work, Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources, Recovery (Returning to normalcy and Resilience (Fostering. Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  12. Economic development and natural disasters

    Klomp, Jeroen


    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th

  13. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers

    ... PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment and Coping Treatment Self-Help and Coping PTSD Research Where to Get Help for PTSD Help with VA PTSD Care or ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military ...

  14. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Gang Li; Qingpu Zhang; Wang Li; Zhengqian Feng


     Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major...

  15. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.


    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  16. Application of Near Real-Time and Multiscale Three Dimensional Earth Observation Platforms in Disaster Prevention

    Whey-Fone Tsai


    Full Text Available Taiwan frequently experiences natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, landslides, debris flows, and earthquakes. Therefore, the instant acquisition of high-definition images and topographic or spatial data of affected areas as disasters occur is crucial for disaster response teams and making emergency aid decisions. The National Applied Research Laboratories has implemented the project “development of near real-time, high-resolution, global earth observation 3D platform for applications to environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation.” This developmental project integrates earth observation techniques, data warehousing, high-performance visualization displays, grids, and disaster prevention technology to establish a near real-time high-resolution three-dimensional (3D disaster prevention earth observation application platform for Taiwan. The main functions of this platform include (1 integration of observation information, such as Formosat-2 satellite remote sensing, aerial photography, and 3D photography of disaster sites, to provide multidimensional information of the conditions at the affected sites; (2 disaster prevention application technologies, such as large-sized high-resolution 3D projection system, medium-sized active stereo projection systems, and small-sized personal computers with multiscale 3D display systems; (3 a 3D geographical information network platform that integrates data warehousing and cloud services, complies with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC international standard for image data exchange and release processes, and includes image overlaying and added-value analysis of disasters; and (4 near real-time and automated simulation of image processing procedures, which accelerates orthophoto processing once raw data are received from satellites and provides appropriate images for disaster prevention decision-making within 3 to 6 h. This study uses the 88 Flood event of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, Typhoon Fanapi

  17. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center


    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  18. Vulnerability to Weather Disasters: the Choice of Coping Strategies in Rural Uganda

    Jennifer F. Helgeson


    Full Text Available When a natural disaster hits, the affected households try to cope with its impacts. A variety of coping strategies, from reducing current consumption to disposing of productive assets, may be employed. The latter strategies are especially worrisome because they may reduce the capacity of the household to generate income in the future, possibly leading to chronic poverty. We used the results of a household survey in rural Uganda to ask, first, what coping strategies would tend to be employed in the event of a weather disaster, second, given that multiple strategies can be chosen, in what combinations would they tend to be employed, and, third, given that asset-liquidation strategies can be particularly harmful for the future income prospects of households, what determines their uptake? Our survey is one of the largest of its kind, containing over 3000 observations garnered by local workers using smartphone technology. We found that in this rural sample, by far, the most frequently reported choice would be to sell livestock. This is rather striking because asset-based theories would predict more reliance on strategies like eating and spending less today, which avoid disposal of productive assets. It may well be that livestock is held as a form of liquid savings to, among other things, help bounce back from a weather disaster. Although, we did find that other strategies that might undermine future prospects were avoided, notably selling land or the home and disrupting the children’s education. Our econometric analysis revealed a fairly rich set of determinants of different subsets of coping strategies. Perhaps most notably, households with a more educated head are much less likely to choose coping strategies involving taking their own children out of education.

  19. [Doctor's behavior in disasters].

    Wälchli, Peter


    When facing a disaster outside of hospitals, physicians have to work in unfamiliar surroundings. Self-protection is the first priority: be aware of possible dangers of traffic, explosions, electricity, structural collapse and toxic gas. Arriving first, one should safe the scene of accident (e.g. breakdown triagle, turn off electricity) and try to get a general idea of what has occured. After that, call the rescue services (in Switzerland dial 144). Only once this ist done, should one begin treating patients. If the rescue services are at scene, look for the commander, usually fitted out with a warning west "Einsatzleiter" ("chef d'intervention" in the french speaking part of Switzerland). Introduce yourself (name, profession, skills and material). In disasters, fields other than medicine are often more important. Nevertheless, doctors can help with logical thinking, strong and agile hands and attentive listening. One should only do the tasks assigned. In situations with mass casualities, morbidity and mortality can be reduced by special measures. The most important for physicians is the Triage. Triage is the sorting of patients based on their need for treatment and transport with the available resources. Triage ist usually run by the most experienced doctor. PMID:18399181

  20. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  1. Disaster management following explosion.

    Sharma, B R


    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making. PMID:18522253

  2. Upstream Disaster Management to Support People Experiencing Homelessness

    Sundareswaran, Madura; Ghazzawi, Andrea; O'Sullivan, Tracey L.


    The unique context of day-to-day living for people who are chronically homeless or living with housing insecurity puts them at high risk during community disasters. The impacts of extreme events, such as flooding, storms, riots, and other sources of community disruption, underscore the importance of preparedness efforts and fostering community resilience. This study is part of larger initiative focused on enhancing resilience and preparedness among high risk populations. The purpose of this s...

  3. 3D printed rapid disaster response

    Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Mottern, Edward; Corley, Katrina; Chu, Kai-Dee


    Under the Department of Homeland Security-sponsored Sensor-smart Affordable Autonomous Robotic Platforms (SAARP) project, Robotic Research, LLC is developing an affordable and adaptable method to provide disaster response robots developed with 3D printer technology. The SAARP Store contains a library of robots, a developer storefront, and a user storefront. The SAARP Store allows the user to select, print, assemble, and operate the robot. In addition to the SAARP Store, two platforms are currently being developed. They use a set of common non-printed components that will allow the later design of other platforms that share non-printed components. During disasters, new challenges are faced that require customized tools or platforms. Instead of prebuilt and prepositioned supplies, a library of validated robots will be catalogued to satisfy various challenges at the scene. 3D printing components will allow these customized tools to be deployed in a fraction of the time that would normally be required. While the current system is focused on supporting disaster response personnel, this system will be expandable to a range of customers, including domestic law enforcement, the armed services, universities, and research facilities.

  4. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Susan Sterett


    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  5. Disaster event: Window of opportunity to implement global disaster policies?

    Siambabala B. Manyena


    Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.

  6. Chronic pancreatitis

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  7. 13 CFR 123.2 - What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? 123.2 Section 123.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.2 What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? SBA offers...

  8. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.


    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  9. Gender Mainstreaming and Sustainable Post Disaster Reconstruction,

    Yumarni, Tri; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard


    Gender inequalities are barriers to achieve sustainable post disaster reconstruction. Mainstreaming gender equality within post disaster reconstruction process can enhance sustainability of reconstruction. Based on a detailed literature review on post disaster reconstruction, this paper identifies pre-requisite conditions for mainstreaming gender within sustainable post disaster reconstruction as ; awareness of gender needs and concerns, a strong gender policy framework, women ...

  10. Disasters, Victimization, and Children's Mental Health

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David


    In a representative sample of 2,030 U.S. children aged 2-17, 13.9% report lifetime exposure to disaster, and 4.1% report experiencing a disaster in the past year. Disaster exposure was associated with some forms of victimization and adversity. Victimization was associated with depression among 2- to 9-year-old disaster survivors, and with…