Sample records for chp-pak-pix pathway maintains

  1. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten;


    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene...... the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential...... for entire female development and that the csd gene exclusively processes the heterozygous state. Fem activity is also required to maintain the female determined pathway throughout development, which we show by mosaic structures in fem-repressed intersexuals. We use expression of Fem protein in males...

  2. Epigenetic regulator Lid maintains germline stem cells through regulating JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity

    Lama Tarayrah


    Full Text Available Signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms have both been shown to play essential roles in regulating stem cell activity. While the role of either mechanism in this regulation is well established in multiple stem cell lineages, how the two mechanisms interact to regulate stem cell activity is not as well understood. Here we report that in the Drosophila testis, an H3K4me3-specific histone demethylase encoded by little imaginal discs (lid maintains germline stem cell (GSC mitotic index and prevents GSC premature differentiation. Lid is required in germ cells for proper expression of the Stat92E transcription factor, the downstream effector of the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Our findings support a germ cell autonomous role for the JAK-STAT pathway in maintaining GSCs and place Lid as an upstream regulator of this pathway. Our study provides new insights into the biological functions of a histone demethylase in vivo and sheds light on the interaction between epigenetic mechanisms and signaling pathways in regulating stem cell activities.

  3. Descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM initiate and maintain bilateral hyperalgesia after muscle insult

    Tillu, DV; Gebhart, GF; Sluka, KA


    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is involved in facilitation of spinal nociceptive processing and generation of hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. We hypothesized that the bilateral hyperalgesia that develops after repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline is initiated and maintained by activation of descending facilitatory pathways from the RVM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebral guide cannulae into the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) ...

  4. Importance of maintaining the basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome during acetabular reconstruction.

    Nie, Yong; Pei, Fuxing; Shen, Bin; Kang, Pengde; Li, Zongming


    The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome is important for the maintenance of implant stability in press-fit acetabular reconstruction of total hip arthroplasty. However, information on the basic stress pathway and its impact factors remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the orientations and positions of the acetabular component on the basic stress pathway. The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome was defined as two parts: 3D basic trabecular bone stress distribution and quantified basic cortical bone stress level, using two subject-specific finite element normal hip models. The effects were then analysed by generating 32 reconstructed acetabular cases with different cup abduction and anteversion angles within a range of 35-50° and 10-25°, respectively, and 12 cases with different hip centre heights within a range of 0-15 mm above the acetabular dome. The 3D trabecular stress distribution decreased remarkably in all cases, while the 80% of the basic cortical bone stress level was maintained in cases when the acetabular component was positioned at 10° or 15° anteversion and 40° or 45° abduction angles. The basic stress pathway above the acetabular dome was disturbed when the superior displacement of the hip centre exceeded 5 mm above the anatomical hip centre. Positioning the acetabular component correctly contributes to maintain the stress balance between the acetabular cup and the bone during acetabular reconstruction, thus helping restore the normal hip biomechanics and preserve the stability of the implants. PMID:26469561

  5. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav


    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. PMID:27080742

  6. ALDH maintains the stemness of lung adenoma stem cells by suppressing the Notch/CDK2/CCNE pathway.

    Zhongjun Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the expression of ALDH1A1 in lung adenoma stem cells (LASCs and maintenance of their stemness through the Notch pathway.LASCs (A549s were isolated from lung adenoma cells (A549 and identified by their coexpression of CD133 and CD326 and their capacity formulti-directional differentiation. Expression of ALDH1A1 in A549 and A549s cells were evaluated by Real-time PCR. Effects of ALDH1A1 upregulation in A549 cells and its downregulation in A549s cells on the clonogenicity and cell cycle were assessed by colony-forming unit assay. Moreover, the effects of ALDH1A1 on the Notch pathway, and thus on the cell cycle, were studied.A549s cells were successfully isolated and identified.ALDH1A1expression was significantly higher in A549s than in A549 cells. Clonogenicity was significantly decreased in A549s cells treated with ALDH1A1 siRNA. Duration of the G1 stage of the cell cycle increased after ALDH1A1 was overexpressed, or decreased with ALDH1A1 siRNA. ALDH1A1, Notch1, -2, and -3, CDK2, and CCNE1 expression levels were higher in A549s cells than in A549 cells. Expression of Notch1, -2, and -3, CDK2, and CCNE1 was significantly decreased by upregulation of ALDH1A1 in A549 cells, but increased by its interruption in A549s cells. When Notch3 or CDK2 expression was downregulated, the expression levels of ALDH1A1, Notch1, -2, and -3, CDK2, and CCNE1 were reduced in all cell types.ALDH1A1 expression improved clonogenicity and inhibited the cell cycle, maintaining the stemness of the A549s cells; this may involve suppression of the Notch/CDK2/Cyclin pathway.

  7. Wnt/Wingless Pathway Activation Is Promoted by a Critical Threshold of Axin Maintained by the Tumor Suppressor APC and the ADP-Ribose Polymerase Tankyrase.

    Wang, Zhenghan; Tacchelly-Benites, Ofelia; Yang, Eungi; Thorne, Curtis A; Nojima, Hisashi; Lee, Ethan; Ahmed, Yashi


    Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs metazoan development and is deregulated in numerous human congenital disorders and cancers. In the absence of Wnt stimulation, a multiprotein "destruction complex," assembled by the scaffold protein Axin, targets the key transcriptional activator β-catenin for proteolysis. Axin is maintained at very low levels that limit destruction complex activity, a property that is currently being exploited in the development of novel therapeutics for Wnt-driven cancers. Here, we use an in vivo approach in Drosophila to determine how tightly basal Axin levels must be controlled for Wnt/Wingless pathway activation, and how Axin stability is regulated. We find that for nearly all Wingless-driven developmental processes, a three- to fourfold increase in Axin is insufficient to inhibit signaling, setting a lower-limit for the threshold level of Axin in the majority of in vivo contexts. Further, we find that both the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and the ADP-ribose polymerase Tankyrase (Tnks) have evolutionarily conserved roles in maintaining basal Axin levels below this in vivo threshold, and we define separable domains in Axin that are important for APC- or Tnks-dependent destabilization. Together, these findings reveal that both APC and Tnks maintain basal Axin levels below a critical in vivo threshold to promote robust pathway activation following Wnt stimulation. PMID:26975665

  8. Alternative Oxidase: A Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathway to Maintain Metabolic and Signaling Homeostasis during Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants

    Greg C. Vanlerberghe


    Full Text Available Alternative oxidase (AOX is a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. While respiratory carbon oxidation pathways, electron transport, and ATP turnover are tightly coupled processes, AOX provides a means to relax this coupling, thus providing a degree of metabolic homeostasis to carbon and energy metabolism. Beside their role in primary metabolism, plant mitochondria also act as “signaling organelles”, able to influence processes such as nuclear gene expression. AOX activity can control the level of potential mitochondrial signaling molecules such as superoxide, nitric oxide and important redox couples. In this way, AOX also provides a degree of signaling homeostasis to the organelle. Evidence suggests that AOX function in metabolic and signaling homeostasis is particularly important during stress. These include abiotic stresses such as low temperature, drought, and nutrient deficiency, as well as biotic stresses such as bacterial infection. This review provides an introduction to the genetic and biochemical control of AOX respiration, as well as providing generalized examples of how AOX activity can provide metabolic and signaling homeostasis. This review also examines abiotic and biotic stresses in which AOX respiration has been critically evaluated, and considers the overall role of AOX in growth and stress tolerance.

  9. Probiotic-derived polyphosphate enhances the epithelial barrier function and maintains intestinal homeostasis through integrin-p38 MAPK pathway.

    Shuichi Segawa

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on human health, particularly in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis in a complex manner notwithstanding the diversity of an intestinal flora between individuals. Thus, it is highly probable that some common molecules secreted by probiotic and/or commensal bacteria contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protect the intestinal epithelium from injurious stimuli. To address this question, we aimed to isolate the cytoprotective compound from a lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 which possess the ability to induce cytoprotective heat shock proteins in mouse small intestine. L. brevis was incubated in MRS broth and the supernatant was passed through with a 0.2-µm filter. Caco2/bbe cells were treated with the culture supernatant, and HSP27 expression was evaluated by Western blotting. HSP27-inducible components were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and HPLC. Finally, we identified that the HSP27-inducible fraction was polyphosphate (poly P, a simple repeated structure of phosphates, which is a common product of lactobacilli and other bacteria associated with intestinal microflora without any definitive physiological functions. Then, poly P was synthesized by poly P-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase. The synthesized poly P significantly induced HSP27 from Caco2/BBE cells. In addition, Poly P suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in the mouse small intestine and pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and integrins counteract its protective effect. Daily intrarectal administration of poly P (10 µg improved the inflammation grade and survival rate in 4% sodium dextran sulfate-administered mice. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that poly P is the molecule responsible for maintaining intestinal barrier actions which are mediated through the intestinal integrin β1-p38 MAPK.

  10. Thymol has antifungal activity against Candida albicans during infection and maintains the innate immune response required for function of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Shu, Chengjie; Sun, Lingmei; Zhang, Weiming


    The Caenorhabditis elegans model can be used to study Candida albicans virulence and host immunity, as well as to identify plant-derived natural products to use against C. albicans. Thymol is a hydrophobic phenol compound from the aromatic plant thyme. In this study, the in vitro data demonstrated concentration-dependent thymol inhibition of both C. albicans growth and biofilm formation during different developmental phases. With the aid of the C. elegans system, we performed in vivo assays, and our results further showed the ability of thymol to increase C. elegans life span during infection, inhibit C. albicans colony formation in the C. elegans intestine, and increase the expression levels of host antimicrobial genes. Moreover, among the genes that encode the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, mutation of the pmk-1 or sek-1 gene decreased the beneficial effects of thymol's antifungal activity against C. albicans and thymol's maintenance of the innate immune response in nematodes. Western blot data showed the level of phosphorylation of pmk-1 was dramatically decreased against C. albicans. In nematodes, treatment with thymol recovered the dysregulation of pmk-1 and sek-1 gene expressions, the phosphorylation level of PMK-1 caused by C. albicans infection. Therefore, thymol may act, at least in part, through the function of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway to protect against C. albicans infection and maintain the host innate immune response to C. albicans. Our results indicate that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a crucial role in regulating the beneficial effects observed after nematodes infected with C. albicans were treated with thymol. PMID:26783030

  11. The Nuclear Zinc Finger Protein Zfat Maintains FoxO1 Protein Levels in Peripheral T Cells by Regulating the Activities of Autophagy and the Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Ishikura, Shuhei; Iwaihara, Yuri; Tanaka, Yoko; Luo, Hao; Nishi, Kensuke; Doi, Keiko; Koyanagi, Midori; Okamura, Tadashi; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Shirasawa, Senji


    Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a key molecule for the development and functions of peripheral T cells. However, the precise mechanisms regulating FoxO1 expression in peripheral T cells remain elusive. We previously reported that Zfat(f/f)-CD4Cre mice showed a marked decline in FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells, partially through proteasomal degradation. Here we have identified the precise mechanisms, apart from proteasome-mediated degradation, of the decreased FoxO1 levels in Zfat-deficient T cells. First, we confirmed that tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Zfat in Zfat(f/f)-CreERT2 mice coincidently decreases FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells, indicating that Zfat is essential for maintaining FoxO1 levels in these cells. Although the proteasome-specific inhibitors lactacystin and epoxomicin only moderately increase FoxO1 protein levels, the inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine restore the decreased FoxO1 levels in Zfat-deficient T cells to levels comparable with those in control cells. Furthermore, Zfat-deficient T cells show increased numbers of autophagosomes and decreased levels of p62 protein, together indicating that Zfat deficiency promotes lysosomal FoxO1 degradation through autophagy. In addition, Zfat deficiency increases the phosphorylation levels of Thr-308 and Ser-473 of Akt and the relative amounts of cytoplasmic to nuclear FoxO1 protein levels, indicating that Zfat deficiency causes Akt activation, leading to nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. Our findings have demonstrated a novel role of Zfat in maintaining FoxO1 protein levels in peripheral T cells by regulating the activities of autophagy and the Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27226588

  12. Synchronized firing of fast-spiking interneurons is critical to maintain balanced firing between direct and indirect pathway neurons of the striatum

    Damodaran, Sriraman; Evans, Rebekah C.


    The inhibitory circuits of the striatum are known to be critical for motor function, yet their contributions to Parkinsonian motor deficits are not clear. Altered firing in the globus pallidus suggests that striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the direct (D1 MSN) and indirect pathway (D2 MSN) are imbalanced during dopamine depletion. Both MSN classes receive inhibitory input from each other and from inhibitory interneurons within the striatum, specifically the fast-spiking interneurons (FSI). To investigate the role of inhibition in maintaining striatal balance, we developed a biologically-realistic striatal network model consisting of multicompartmental neuron models: 500 D1 MSNs, 500 D2 MSNs and 49 FSIs. The D1 and D2 MSN models are differentiated based on published experiments of individual channel modulations by dopamine, with D2 MSNs being more excitable than D1 MSNs. Despite this difference in response to current injection, in the network D1 and D2 MSNs fire at similar frequencies in response to excitatory synaptic input. Simulations further reveal that inhibition from FSIs connected by gap junctions is critical to produce balanced firing. Although gap junctions produce only a small increase in synchronization between FSIs, removing these connections resulted in significant firing differences between D1 and D2 MSNs, and balanced firing was restored by providing synchronized cortical input to the FSIs. Together these findings suggest that desynchronization of FSI firing is sufficient to alter balanced firing between D1 and D2 MSNs. PMID:24304860

  13. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung


    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  14. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    SI Zi-han


    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  15. Maintaining Your Health

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  16. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    Høy, Bente


    Background. Older people, living in nursing homes, are exposed to diverse situations, which may be associated with loss of dignity. To help them maintain their dignity, it is important to explore, how dignity is preserved in such context. Views of dignity and factors influencing dignity have been...... studied from both the residents´ and the care pro-viders´ perspective. However, most of these studies pertain to experiences in the dying or the illness context. Knowledge is scarce about how older people experience their dig-nity within their everyday lives in nursing homes. Aim To illuminate the meaning...... of maintaining dignity from the perspective of older people living in nursing homes Method. This qualitative study is based on individual interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandinavia. A phenomenolog-ical-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur...

  17. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Peter Davis


    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  18. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Watson, Leela R.


    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  19. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency


    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  20. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  1. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  2. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber


    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  3. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Benjamin Xue


    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  4. Efficient And Maintainable Test Automation

    Ahmed, Abdifatah; Lindhe, Magnus


    More and more companies experience problems with maintainability and time-consuming development of automated testing tools. The MPC department at Ericsson Software Technology AB use methods and tools often developed during time pressure that results in time-consuming testing and requires more effort and resources than planned. The tools are also such nature that they are hard to expand, maintain and in some cases they have been thrown out between releases. For this reason, we could identify t...

  5. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas


    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  6. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    Kennedy, Mike


    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  7. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  8. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    Gruber, Fred


    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  9. Bulkloading and Maintaining XML Documents

    Schmidt, A.R.; Kersten, M.L.


    The popularity of XML as a exchange and storage format brings about massive amounts of documents to be stored, maintained and analyzed -- a challenge that traditionally has been tackled with Database Management Systems (DBMS). To open up the content of XML documents to analysis with declarative quer

  10. Control Inflation while Maintain Growth

    Yang Junsheng


    @@ Dragged by the U.S.subprime crisis and the soaring oil price, the global economy is slowing down,causing problems to China, the country which has continuously achieved miraculous economic growth.Apart from the accumulation of high inflation and risks of overheated economy, China is attacked by serious natural disasters ever since the beginning of 2008,including the snow disaster, the earthquake and the flood.It is obviously that China's priority now is to bring inflation under control so as to maintain the stable growth of economy.

  11. Maintaining workforce staffing and competence

    The French nuclear security system is a performance based system in which the nuclear operators have responsibility for the security of the nuclear material held in the facilities they operate. These operators have a choice of the means they use to fulfil their security obligations. Among the three main operators, two have decided to recruit and train their own staff, and the third has signed an agreement with the gendarmerie. Maintaining a high level of vigilance is an important and vital challenge, for which the management of the nuclear facilities is responsible and accountable. Flexibility, management support and commitment and repeated exercises are good means to reach this goal. However, no security system is appropriate unless the whole staff, those directly involved in security or otherwise, share a high degree of security culture. (author)

  12. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Birman, Kenneth P.


    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  13. Building and maintaining media contacts

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  14. Software Code Maintainability : A Literature Review

    Berna Seref


    Full Text Available Software Maintainability is one of the most important quality attributes. To increase quality of a software, to manage software more efficient and to decrease cost of the software, maintainability, maintainability estimation and maintainability evaluation models have been proposed. However, the practical use of these models in software engineering tools and practice remained little due to their limitations or threats to validity. In this paper, results of our Literature Review about maintainability models, maintainability metrics and maintainability estimation are presented. Aim of this paper is providing a baseline for further searches and serving the needs of developers and customers.

  15. Intellectualization of Design Technique for Product Maintainability

    SHI Quan; SONG Yi-gang; CHENG Zhong-hua


    The basis of the two guideline lectures for maintainability design,namely "maintainability design criterions" and "cases compilation of maintainability design technique",an intellectualized architecture for combining rule-based reasoning(RBR)and case-based reasoning(CBR),is presented in this paper by analyzing from maintainability design procedure to the thought of our solving the maintainability design problem.Furthermore,the domain model and reasoning process is introduced and a representation of maintainability domain knowledge is given.Finally,the computer-aided engineering system for maintainability design(MCAES)which is based on intellectualized architecture is reported;its function and implementation is described.

  16. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L


    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  17. Building and maintaining media relations

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  18. WikiPathways: capturing the full diversity of pathway knowledge.

    Kutmon, Martina; Riutta, Anders; Nunes, Nuno; Hanspers, Kristina; Willighagen, Egon L; Bohler, Anwesha; Mélius, Jonathan; Waagmeester, Andra; Sinha, Sravanthi R; Miller, Ryan; Coort, Susan L; Cirillo, Elisa; Smeets, Bart; Evelo, Chris T; Pico, Alexander R


    WikiPathways ( is an open, collaborative platform for capturing and disseminating models of biological pathways for data visualization and analysis. Since our last NAR update, 4 years ago, WikiPathways has experienced massive growth in content, which continues to be contributed by hundreds of individuals each year. New aspects of the diversity and depth of the collected pathways are described from the perspective of researchers interested in using pathway information in their studies. We provide updates on extensions and services to support pathway analysis and visualization via popular standalone tools, i.e. PathVisio and Cytoscape, web applications and common programming environments. We introduce the Quick Edit feature for pathway authors and curators, in addition to new means of publishing pathways and maintaining custom pathway collections to serve specific research topics and communities. In addition to the latest milestones in our pathway collection and curation effort, we also highlight the latest means to access the content as publishable figures, as standard data files, and as linked data, including bulk and programmatic access. PMID:26481357

  19. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  20. Cyclic energy pathways in ecological food webs

    B. D. Fath; Halnes, G.


    Standard ecology textbooks typically maintain that nutrients cycle, but energy flows in unidirectional chains. However, here we use a new metric that allows for the identification and quantification of cyclic energy pathways. Some of these important pathways occur due to the contribution of dead organic matter to detrital pools and those organisms that feed on them, reintroducing some of that energy back into the food web. Recognition of these cyclic energy pathways profoundly impacts many ...

  1. Molecular pathways

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra


    45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection of...... fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  2. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    ... 159291.html Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency' Rate of oxygen consumption differs little between active ... body is like a car with a fuel efficiency level," Ortega said in a Humboldt State news ...

  3. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  4. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    Catherine A. Solheim; Jaime Ballard; Patricia D. Olson


    This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documen...

  5. Patients’ lived experiences regarding maintaining dignity

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Manookian, Arpi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza


    Preservation of dignity is frequently emphasized as a basic patient’s right in national and international nursing codes of ethics and is indeed the essence and core of nursing care. It is therefore essential to explore the concept based on patients’ lived experiences in order to maintain and respect their dignity and consequently improve the quality of health services and patient satisfaction. The present study aimed to discover the lived experiences of Iranian patients regarding maintaining ...

  6. Incrementally Maintaining Classification using an RDBMS

    Koc, Mehmet Levent; Ré, Christopher


    The proliferation of imprecise data has motivated both researchers and the database industry to push statistical techniques into relational database management systems (RDBMSs). We study algorithms to maintain model-based views for a popular statistical technique, classification, inside an RDBMS in the presence of updates to the training examples. We make three technical contributions: (1) An algorithm that incrementally maintains classification inside an RDBMS. (2) An analysis of the above a...

  7. Maintaining Arc Consistency with Multiple Residues

    Lecoutre, Christophe; Likitvivatanavong, Chavalit; Shannon, Scott; Yap, Roland; Zhang, Yuanlin


    International audience Exploiting residual supports (or residues) has proved to be one of the most cost-effective approaches for Maintaining Arc Consistency during search (MAC). While MAC based on optimal AC algorithm may have better theoretical time complexity in some cases, in practice the overhead for maintaining required data structure during search outweighs the benefit, not to mention themore complicated implementation. Implementing MAC with residues, on the other hand, is trivial. I...

  8. Maintainability program requirements for space systems


    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  9. Impact of Design Patterns on Software Maintainability

    Fatimah Mohammed Alghamdi


    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the effect of design patterns on the Software maintainability. Design patterns describe solutions for common design problems and they were introduced to improve software quality and accelerate software development. However, there are some difficulties to choose an optimal pattern adapted to a certain application and problem. So until now the results on the effect of design patterns on software quality are controversial. In this context, we propose a tool for design pattern guided that retrieves the appropriate pattern with respect to software maintainability from a repository of patterns. It measures the maintainability of design pattern by some metrics and candidate the more maintainable pattern to the designer or developer. It provides a support for decision making during system design and refactoring. As the results, the decision of applying a certain design pattern is usually a trade-off since the effect of design pattern on software maintainability is influenced by some factors such as the pattern size and the prior expertise of the developer.

  10. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten; Yang, Jungwoo

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  11. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  12. Requirements for Automated Assessment of Spreadsheet Maintainability

    Correia, José Pedro


    The use of spreadsheets is widespread. Be it in business, finance, engineering or other areas, spreadsheets are created for their flexibility and ease to quickly model a problem. Very often they evolve from simple prototypes to implementations of crucial business logic. Spreadsheets that play a crucial role in an organization will naturally have a long lifespan and will be maintained and evolved by several people. Therefore, it is important not only to look at their reliability, i.e., how well is the intended functionality implemented, but also at their maintainability, i.e., how easy it is to diagnose a spreadsheet for deficiencies and modify it without degrading its quality. In this position paper we argue for the need to create a model to estimate the maintainability of a spreadsheet based on (automated) measurement. We propose to do so by applying a structured methodology that has already shown its value in the estimation of maintainability of software products. We also argue for the creation of a curated...

  13. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Brammer, S.H.


    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  14. Designing pathways

    Scheuer, John Damm


    The theoretical background in this chapter is organizational studies and especially theories about design and design processes in organizations. The concept of design is defined as a particular kind of work aimed at making arrangements in order to change existing situations into desired ones. The...... illustrative case example is the introduction of clinical pathways in a psychiatric department. The contribution to a general core of design research is the development of the concept of design work and a critical discussion of the role of technological rules in design work....

  15. The randomized complexity of maintaining the minimum

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Chaudhuri, Shiva; Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar


    The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for FindMin. If F......The complexity of maintaining a set under the operations Insert, Delete and FindMin is considered. In the comparison model it is shown that any randomized algorithm with expected amortized cost t comparisons per Insert and Delete has expected cost at least n/(e22t)-1 comparisons for Find......Min. If FindMin is replaced by a weaker operation. FindAny, then it is shown that a randomized algorithm with constant expected cost per operation exists; in contrast, it is shown that no deterministic algorithm can have constant cost per operation. Finally, a deterministic algorithm with constant amortized...

  16. Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures

    Dwight E. Lynn


    Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

  17. Management Indicators: Assessing Product Reliability and Maintainability

    Rosson, Constance V.


    This report discusses the role of Management Indicators in validating the predictive capability of the bottom-up evaluation process, which is defined by the Procedural Approach to the Evaluation of Software Development Methodologies. The bottom-up evaluation process provides a framework for determining the extent to which software engineering objectives, e.g., reliability and maintainability, are present in a software product from a design perspective of the code and supporting documentation....

  18. Impact of Design Patterns on Software Maintainability

    Fatimah Mohammed Alghamdi; M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi


    This paper mainly studies the effect of design patterns on the Software maintainability. Design patterns describe solutions for common design problems and they were introduced to improve software quality and accelerate software development. However, there are some difficulties to choose an optimal pattern adapted to a certain application and problem. So until now the results on the effect of design patterns on software quality are controversial. In this context, we propose a tool for design ...

  19. The Chordin Morphogenetic Pathway.

    De Robertis, Edward M; Moriyama, Yuki


    The ancestral Chordin/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway that establishes dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning in animal development is one of the best understood morphogenetic gradients, and is established by multiple proteins that interact with each other in the extracellular space-including several BMPs, Chordin, Tolloid, Ont-1, Crossveinless-2, and Sizzled. The D-V gradient is adjusted redundantly by regulating the synthesis of its components, by direct protein-protein interactions between morphogens, and by long-range diffusion. The entire embryo participates in maintaining the D-V BMP gradient, so that for each action in the dorsal side there is a reaction in the ventral side. A gradient of Chordin is formed in the extracellular matrix that separates ectoderm from endomesoderm, called Brachet's cleft in Xenopus. The Chordin/BMP pathway is self-organizing and able to scale pattern in the dorsal half of bisected embryos or in Spemann dorsal lip transplantation experiments. PMID:26970622

  20. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Anca Doloc-Mihu


    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  1. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula


    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  2. Take Control of Maintaining Your Mac

    Kissell, Joe


    Keep your Mac running smoothly with our easy maintenance program! Regular maintenance is necessary to avoid problems and to ensure your Mac runs at peak performance, but it's hard to know what to do and when to do it. Best-selling author Joe Kissell has now applied his commonsense approach to the task of maintaining your Mac, whether you use Tiger or Leopard! Learn how to start on the right foot; what you should do daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly; and how to prepare for Mac OS X updates. Joe even explains how to monitor your Mac's health and debunks common panaceas. Read this book to lea

  3. Maintaining Intergenerational Solidarity in Mexican Transnational Families

    Catherine A. Solheim


    Full Text Available This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documentation. Functional solidarity was expressed through financial support to parents. This involved remittances sent to parents. However, it should be noted that it was often migrants’ siblings in Mexico who managed these remittances. Affectual solidarity was expressed through statements of love and concern for one another. Normative solidarity and consensual solidarity reflected the value of familismo through financial support and the desire to live together. Several dimensions of intergenerational solidarity are interconnected. This study provides evidence for the relevance of the intergenerational solidarity framework in transnational families and suggests that geographic context is relevant when studying intergenerational relationships.

  4. Maintaining extensivity in evolutionary multiplex networks

    Antonopoulos, Chris G


    In this Letter, we explore the role of network topology on its extensive character. We study analytically and numerically how the topology contributes to maintaining extensivity of entropy in multiplex networks, i.e. networks of subnetworks, by means of the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents, $H_{KS}$, a quantity related to entropy. We show that extensivity relies not only on the interplay between the coupling strengths of the dynamics associated to the intra (short-range) and inter (long-range) interactions, but also on the sum of the intra-degrees of the nodes of the subnetworks. For the analytically treated networks of size $N$, if the sum of the intra-degrees (and the sum of inter-degrees) scales as $N^{\\theta+1}$, extensivity can be maintained if the intra-coupling (and the inter-coupling) strength scales as $N^{-\\theta}$, when evolution is driven by the maximization of $H_{KS}$. We then verify our analytical result by doing numerical simulations in multiplex networks formed by electrically and chemi...

  5. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.


    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  6. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang


    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  7. Asada-Halliwell pathway maintains redox status in Dioscorea alata tuber which helps in germination.

    Sharma, Shruti; Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu


    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important regulatory molecules governing physiological processes. In the present study a biochemical and proteome level comparison of two contrasting growth stages of Dioscorea alata tuber namely germinating and mature tuber was performed in order to understand the tuber physiology and biochemistry. Existence of all the component enzymes [APx (ascorbate peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase), DHAR (dehydroascorbate reductase), MDHAR (mono-dehydroascorbate reductase)] and major products [ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH)] of the cycle showed an operational Asada-Halliwell cycle in the tuber. A 2.65 fold increase in ASC content & a 3.8 fold increase in GR activity fortified the redox milieu during germination. In contrast a 5 fold higher H2O2 content (due to 3.08 fold lower APx activity) and accumulation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO, 2.4-fold) and S-nitrosothiol (SNO, 2.08 fold) contributed to overall oxidative conditions in the mature tuber. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, 7.5 fold), DHAR (5.31 fold) and MDHAR (7 fold) activities were higher in the germinating tuber in comparison with the mature tuber. GSNO negatively regulated the CA (3.6 & 3.95 fold), MDHAR (7.5 & 1.5 fold) and APx (2.3 & 1.81 fold) while another NO donor, CysNO negatively regulated the DHAR (2.24 & 1.32 fold) activity in the mature and germinating stages respectively indicating again that the lesser inhibition by NO (via nitrosylation) may be because of overall reducing environment in the germinating tuber. Increased SNO leading to S-nitrosylation of dioscorin was confirmed by Biotin switch assay. This is the first report showing dioscorin nitrosylation. The present analysis showed differential redox regulation and also suggests the physiological relevance of CA, DHAR, MDHAR, APx & GR in tuber germination for the first time. These enzymes may be used as potential markers of tuber germination in future. PMID:27457980

  8. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.


    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  9. Maintaining and improving accredited training programs

    The US nuclear industry's mission has been to upgrade its training efforts. The industry chose the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations accreditation program as the vehicle to help it accomplish this goal. The result is that operational training programs are now in use at all the operating plants for ten key plant positions. This is just the beginning of the industry's quest for training excellence. The ultimate objective to be achieved is to maintain high quality training and the professionalism of the personnel who operate the nuclear power plants. These training programs must now be implemented with qualified instructors. The training materials and equipment, such as the simulator, must be kept current. The feedback on the effectiveness of training must be obtained

  10. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    Zhang, X.


    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  11. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    Bell, Charles


    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  12. Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment

    The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping

  13. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    Full text: The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30% of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC (previously PNC). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present

  14. Maintaining nuclear competence and expertise in Japan

    The fundamental law of atomic energy, which strictly restricts the application of atomic energy to the peaceful use, was established in 1955 in Japan. Since then, during the past five decades, great efforts were made to develop atomic energy. So far 52 units of light water reactors, 29 BWRs and 23 PWRs, have been built and in operation, 5 units are under construction and 6 units are planed to be built. Total capacity of presently operated NPPs amounts to 45.7 Gwe and the nuclear energy shares 30 % of the total electricity generation in Japan. During the past 10 years, several accidents occur in the nuclear facilities of electric power companies, and JNC ( previously PNC ). In spite of these accidents, including the accident of Kansai Electric Power Co. this year, the important role of nuclear energy to sustain the lives of people in Japan is intact. In the nuclear energy projection, the construction of NPPs continues till 2010. Thereafter reconstructions of NPPs are foreseen in the decade 2030's for the replacement of present NPPs in operation after 60 years services. Attention has been directed to the technology preservation: how competence and expertise of nuclear engineering can be maintained till the next period of replacement construction, in particular, the period between years 2010 and 2030. The present paper reviews the status of nuclear engineering programs in universities in Japan. The nuclear education programs started in graduate schools in 1957 and expanded to undergraduate schools of major national universities. Presently nine universities are providing systematic nuclear education programs in their graduate schools, although the corresponding department have been changed their names from 'nuclear' to more broaden terms of 'quantum', 'energy' and 'system' in several universities. Under the conditions of shrinking nuclear industries, how to maintain the present education system is seriously concerned matter in the universities. The present paper

  15. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.


    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  16. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao


    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  17. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young


    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  18. Sociable Robots through Self-maintained Energy

    Henrik Schioler


    Full Text Available Research of autonomous mobile robots has mostly emphasized interaction and coordination that are natually inspired from biological behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, and sharing. However, most research has been only focused on autonomous behaviors in order to perform robots like animals, whereas it is lacked of determinant to those behaviours: energy. Approaching to clusted amimal and the higher, collective and sharing food among individuals are major activity to keep society being. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in cooperative mobile robots, which is dominantly inspired from swarm behavior of collecting and sharing food of honey-bee and ant. Autonomous mobile robots are usually equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the finitude, we describe practical deployment of mobile robots that are capable of carrying and exchanging fuel to other robots. Mechanism implementation including modular hardware and control architecture to demonstrate the capabicities of the approach is presented. Subsequently, the battery exchange algorithm basically based on probabilistic modeling of total energy on each robot located in its local vicinity is described. The paper is concluded with challenging works of chain of mobile robots, rescue, repair, and relation of heterogeneous robots.

  19. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    Fisher, Melanie T


    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  20. Achieving and maintaining cognitive vitality with aging.

    Fillit, Howard M; Butler, Robert N; O'Connell, Alan W; Albert, Marilyn S; Birren, James E; Cotman, Carl W; Greenough, William T; Gold, Paul E; Kramer, Arthur F; Kuller, Lewis H; Perls, Thomas T; Sahagan, Barbara G; Tully, Tim


    Cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life and survival in old age. With normal aging, cognitive changes such as slowed speed of processing are common, but there is substantial interindividual variability, and cognitive decline is clearly not inevitable. In this review, we focus on recent research investigating the association of various lifestyle factors and medical comorbidities with cognitive aging. Most of these factors are potentially modifiable or manageable, and some are protective. For example, animal and human studies suggest that lifelong learning, mental and physical exercise, continuing social engagement, stress reduction, and proper nutrition may be important factors in promoting cognitive vitality in aging. Manageable medical comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, also contribute to cognitive decline in older persons. Other comorbidities such as smoking and excess alcohol intake may contribute to cognitive decline, and avoiding these activities may promote cognitive vitality in aging. Various therapeutics, including cognitive enhancers and protective agents such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories, may eventually prove useful as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline with aging. The data presented in this review should interest physicians who provide preventive care management to middle-aged and older individuals who seek to maintain cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:12108606

  1. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.


    ...) Accounting and internal control systems and financial records. (1) An institution must maintain accounting... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section... Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a)(1) Bank or investment account. An institution must maintain title...

  2. Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells

    Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of β1-integrin and β-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3β were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available β-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon

  3. Coinhibitory Pathways in Immunotherapy for Cancer.

    Baumeister, Susanne H; Freeman, Gordon J; Dranoff, Glenn; Sharpe, Arlene H


    The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity. Tumors exploit these coinhibitory pathways to evade immune eradication. Blockade of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints is proving to be an effective and durable cancer immunotherapy in a subset of patients with a variety of tumor types, and additional combinations are further improving response rates. In this review we discuss the immunoregulatory functions of coinhibitory pathways and their translation to effective immunotherapies for cancer. PMID:26927206

  4. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim


    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  5. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost


    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  6. Fuzzy Maintainability Model for Object Oriented Software System

    Soumi Ghosh


    Full Text Available In recent years for achieving considerable success in software system, maintainability plays a very crucial role and it is considered as an important quality characteristics. In this paper a maintainability model has been proposed to compare maintainability of object-oriented software system. Attempts have been made on software developed in different programming languages to make comparison of maintainability pattern using AHP and Fuzzy Index method.

  7. Fuzzy Maintainability Model for Object Oriented Software System

    Soumi Ghosh; Sanjay Kumar Dubey; Ajay Rana


    In recent years for achieving considerable success in software system, maintainability plays a very crucial role and it is considered as an important quality characteristics. In this paper a maintainability model has been proposed to compare maintainability of object-oriented software system. Attempts have been made on software developed in different programming languages to make comparison of maintainability pattern using AHP and Fuzzy Index method.

  8. Dual Pathways to Prospective Remembering

    Mark A Mcdaniel


    Full Text Available According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000, the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top-down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically spontaneous retrieval is assumed to not require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM.

  9. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory


    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product.At last, a case study is given based upon the main landing gear system of a certain type civil aircraft, and the result indicates that the model is suitable for maintainability qualitative evaluation and can support maintainability concurrent design.

  10. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.


    ... maintained at all times, including maintenance of accountability records showing disposition of input and output documents. (3) All persons whose duties require access to processing and maintenance...

  11. Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and Renovation

    ... and Allergies Chemical Safety Construction Safety and Health Emergency Preparedness for Business Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance ... Share Compartir Maintaining Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) during Construction and ...

  12. The Role of Clinical Pathways in Reducing the Economic Burden of Stroke

    Lanska, Douglas J.


    Clinical pathways are a potentially beneficial, but largely untested, management strategy for both improving healthcare efficiency and decreasing costs while also maintaining or improving quality of care. Although relatively few clinical pathways for stroke have been described in the medical literature and although the reported benefits have been mixed, more and more hospitals are adopting clinical pathways as a management strategy for patients with stroke. In published clinical pathways for ...

  13. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing...

  14. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6... maintain performance standards. ABI participants must adhere to the performance requirements and... Support Services Division, of any action to place the participant on probation. The notice...

  15. Immunomodulatory Pathways and Metabolism

    Bhargava, Prerna


    Energy metabolism plays a vital role in normal physiology, adaptive responses and host defense mechanisms. Research throughout the last decade has shown evidence that immune pathways communicate with metabolic pathways to alter the metabolic status in response to physiological or pathological signals. In this thesis, I will explore how immunomodulatory molecules affect metabolic homeostasis and conversely, how metabolic sensing pathways modulate immune responses. The first part my work utiliz...

  16. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.


    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  17. Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students

    ... Preparedness and Response Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... died. Having upsetting thoughts or pictures in your mind of what happened. They can pop into your ...

  18. Developing maintainability for fusion power systems. Final report

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Previous phases evaluated several commercial tokamak reactor design concepts. This final phase compares the maintainability of a tandem mirror reactor (TMR) commercial conceptual design with the most maintainable tokamak concept selected from earlier work. A series of maintainability design guidelines and desirable TMR design features are defined. The effects of scheduled and unscheduled maintenance for most of the reactor subsystems are defined. The comparison of the TMR and tokamak reactor maintenance costs and availabilities show that both reactors have similar costs for scheduled maintenance at 19.4 and 20.8 million dollars annually and similar scheduled downtime availability impacts, achieving approximate availabilities of 79% at optimized maintenance intervals and cost of electricity


    Rimmi Saini


    Full Text Available The interest in software system is increasing day by day. Dealing with the software systems is a complex task. Software must have some qualities on the basis of which it can be applied to any software system. Every software quality model has some characteristics and sub-characteristics, which affect software quality. In this Paper the main emphasis is given on maintainability characteristics. Every system requires that maintainability measure should be done in early stages of development life-cycle which will help the designers to correct the software, if there is any fault, in early phases of designing. By doing this, cost of the development of software will be reduced. The paper gives the overview of various quality models in which maintainability is described. Paper provides the analysis of maintainability in various quality models.

  20. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping


    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  1. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters as of May 2013

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  2. Reliability and maintainability data acquisition in equipment development tests

    The need for collection of reliability, maintainability, and availability data adds a new dimension to the data acquisition requirements of equipment development tests. This report describes the reliability and maintainability data that are considered necessary to ensure that sufficient and high quality data exist for a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of equipment and system availability. These necessary data are presented as a set of data collection forms. Three data acquisition forms are discussed: an inventory and technical data form, which is filed by the design engineer when the design is finished or the equipment is received; an event report form, which is completed by the senior test operator at each shutdown; and a maintainability report, which is a collaborative effort between senior operators and lead engineers and is completed on restart. In addition, elements of a reliability, maintainability evaluation program are described. Emphasis is placed on the role of data, its storage, and use in such a program

  3. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark


    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  4. A cryogenic optical feedthrough using polarization maintaining fibers

    Nelson, M. J.; Collins, C. J.; Speake, C. C.


    Polarization maintaining optical fibers can be used to transmit linearly polarized light over long distances but their use in cryogenic environments has been limited by their sensitivity to temperature changes and associated mechanical stress. We investigate experimentally how thermal stresses affect the polarization maintaining fibers and model the observations with Jones matrices. We describe the design, construction, and testing of a feedthrough and fiber termination assembly that uses polarization maintaining fiber to transmit light from a 633 nm HeNe laser at room temperature to a homodyne polarization-based interferometer in a cryogenic vacuum. We report on the efficiency of the polarization maintaining properties of the feedthrough assembly. We also report that, at cryogenic temperatures, the interferometer can achieve a sensitivity of 8 × 10-10 rad/ √{ Hz } at 0.05 Hz using this feedthrough.

  5. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin; Vincent Goëb


    Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance ...

  6. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Trouvin, Anne-Priscille; Goëb, Vincent


    Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, ...

  7. Telomeric circles are abundant in the stn1-M1 mutant that maintains its telomeres through recombination

    Evelina Y Basenko; Cesare, Anthony J.; Iyer, Shilpa; Griffith, Jack D.; McEachern, Michael J.


    Some human cancers maintain their telomeres using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism; a process thought to involve recombination. Different types of recombinational telomere elongation pathways have been identified in yeasts. In senescing yeast telomerase deletion (ter1-Δ) mutants with very short telomeres, it has been hypothesized that copying a tiny telomeric circle (t-circle) by a rolling circle mechanism is the key event in telomere elongation. In other cases more cl...

  8. Plant Layout Method Considering Material Handling Cost and Maintainability

    Fujihara, Yutaka; Osaki, Hirokazu


    This paper presents a method using simulated annealing(SA) and genetic algorithm(GA) to solve the plant layout problem in which the layout is evaluated by material handling cost and maintainability. In the former study about facility layout problem, it was either the minimization of the objeective function consisting of transport cost or the maximization of the objective function consisting of closeness rating. In this paper, both transport cost and maintainability were included in the object...


    Rimmi Saini; Sanjay Kumar Dubey; (Dr.) Ajay Rana


    The interest in software system is increasing day by day. Dealing with the software systems is a complex task. Software must have some qualities on the basis of which it can be applied to any software system. Every software quality model has some characteristics and sub-characteristics, which affect software quality. In this Paper the main emphasis is given on maintainability characteristics. Every system requires that maintainability measure should be done in early stages of development life...

  10. Maintainability of Functional Reactive Programs in a Telecom Server Software

    Toczé, Klervie; Vasilevskaya, Maria; Sandahl, Patrik; Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin


    Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is claimed to be a good choice for event handling applications. Current object- oriented telecom applications are known to suffer from additional complexity due to event handling code. In this paper we study the maintainability of FRP programs in the tele- com domain compared to traditional object-oriented programming (OOP), with the motivation that higher maintainability increases the service quality and decreases the costs. Two implementations of the sa...

  11. Evaluation of the Maintainability of Object-Oriented Software

    Henry, Sallie M.; Humphrey, Matthew C.; Lewis, John A.


    Empirical research is one way of testing software engineering methodologies. Many claims of the advantages of the object oriented paradigm have been made by research. Our work involves empirical projects in an attempt to validate these claims. This paper describes an experiment which compares the maintainability of the two functionally equivalent systems in order to explore the claim that systems developed with object-oriented languages are more easily maintained than those programmed with...

  12. Maintaining Sibling Relationships for Children in Foster and Adoptive Placements

    James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Leslie, Laurel K.


    To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) childr...

  13. Deficiency of human BRCA2 leads to impaired homologous recombination but maintains normal nonhomologous end joining.

    Xia, F; Taghian, D G; DeFrank, J S; Zeng, Z C; Willers, H; Iliakis, G; Powell, S N


    Carriers of BRCA2 germline mutations are at high risk to develop early-onset breast cancer. The underlying mechanisms of how BRCA2 inactivation predisposes to malignant transformation have not been established. Here, we provide direct functional evidence that human BRCA2 promotes homologous recombination (HR), which comprises one major pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. We found that up-regulated HR after transfection of wild-type (wt) BRCA2 into a human tumor line with mutant BRCA2 was linked to increased radioresistance. In addition, BRCA2-mediated enhancement of HR depended on the interaction with Rad51. In contrast to the tumor suppressor BRCA1, which is involved in multiple DNA repair pathways, BRCA2 status had no impact on the other principal double-strand break repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining. Thus, there exists a specific regulation of HR by BRCA2, which may function to maintain genomic integrity and suppress tumor development in proliferating cells. PMID:11447276

  14. Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth


    Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

  15. Migration pathways in soils

    This study looked at diffusive migration through three types of deformation; the projectile pathways, hydraulic fractures of the sediments and faults, and was divided into three experimental areas: autoradiography, the determination of diffusion coefficients and electron microscopy of model projectile pathways in clay. For the autoradiography, unstressed samples were exposed to two separate isotopes, Pm-147 (a possible model for Am behaviour) and the poorly sorbed iodide-125. The results indicated that there was no enhanced migration through deformed kaolin samples nor through fractured Great Meteor East (GME) sediment, although some was evident through the projectile pathways in GME and possibly through the GME sheared samples. The scanning electron microscopy of projectile pathways in clay showed that emplacement of a projectile appeared to have no effect on the orientation of particles at distances greater than two projectile radii from the centre of a projectile pathway. It showed that the particles were not simply aligned with the direction of motion of the projectile but that, the closer to the surface of a particular pathway, the closer the particles lay to their original orientation. This finding was of interest from two points of view: i) the ease of migration of a pollutant along the pathway, and ii) possible mechanisms of hole closure. It was concluded that, provided that there is no advective migration, the transport of radionuclides through sediments containing these defects would not be significantly more rapid than in undeformed sediments. (author)

  16. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in infl


    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini


    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.

  18. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Evaluation of the Software Architecture Styles from Maintainability Viewpoint

    Gholamreza ShahMohammadi


    Full Text Available In the process of software architecture design, different decisions are made that have systemwide impact. An important decision of design stage is the selection of a suitable software architecture style. Lack of investigation on the quantitative impact of architecture styles on software quality attributes is the main problem in using such styles. So, the use of architecture styles in designing is based on the intuition of software developers. The aim of this research is to quantify the impacts of architecture styles on software maintainability. In this study, architecture styles are evaluated based on coupling, complexity and cohesion metrics and ranked by analytic hierarchy process from maintainability viewpoint. The main contribution of this paper is quantification and ranking of software architecture styles from the perspective of maintainability quality attribute at stage of architectural style selection.


    Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini


    The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1) to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2) to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3) to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4) to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the I...

  1. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.


    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  2. A new pathway for lower limb ulceration

    Atkin, Leanne; Tickle, Joy


    Leg ulceration is a common cause of suffering for patients, additionally it places a significant burden on the NHS. As the NHS continues to face times of austerity, services need to find other ways of working to reduce cost and release nursing time whilst maintaining standards of care. The implementation of a pathway for the treatment of leg ulceration, which aids diagnosis and uses compression hosiery kits as a first-line management for venous leg ulceration, can form part of the solution by...

  3. Apoptosis signaling pathways and lymphocyte homeostasis

    Guangwu Xu; Yufang Shi


    It has been almost three decades since the term "apoptosis" was first coined to describe a unique form of cell death that involves orderly, gene-dependent cell disintegration. It is now well accepted that apoptosis is an essential life process for metazoan animals and is critical for the formation and function of tissues and organs. In the adult mammalian body, apoptosis is especially important for proper functioning of the immune system. In recent years, along with the rapid advancement of molecular and cellular biology, great progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. It is generally accepted that there are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: extrinsic signaling through death receptors that leads to the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), and intrinsic signaling mainly through mitochondria which leads to the formation of the apoptosome. Formation of the DISC or apoptosome, respectively, activates initiator and common effector caspases that execute the apoptosis process. In the immune system, both pathways operate; however, it is not known whether they are sufficient to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis. Recently, new apoptotic mechanisms including caspase-independent pathways and granzyme-initiated pathways have been shown to exist in lymphocytes. This review will summarize our understanding of the mechanisms that control the homeostasis of various lymphocyte populations.

  4. High salt recruits aversive taste pathways.

    Oka, Yuki; Butnaru, Matthew; von Buchholtz, Lars; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S


    In the tongue, distinct classes of taste receptor cells detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, sodium salt and umami. Among these qualities, bitter and sour stimuli are innately aversive, whereas sweet and umami are appetitive and generally attractive to animals. By contrast, salty taste is unique in that increasing salt concentration fundamentally transforms an innately appetitive stimulus into a powerfully aversive one. This appetitive-aversive balance helps to maintain appropriate salt consumption, and represents an important part of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. We have shown previously that the appetitive responses to NaCl are mediated by taste receptor cells expressing the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, but the cellular substrate for salt aversion was unknown. Here we examine the cellular and molecular basis for the rejection of high concentrations of salts. We show that high salt recruits the two primary aversive taste pathways by activating the sour- and bitter-taste-sensing cells. We also demonstrate that genetic silencing of these pathways abolishes behavioural aversion to concentrated salt, without impairing salt attraction. Notably, mice devoid of salt-aversion pathways show unimpeded, continuous attraction even to very high concentrations of NaCl. We propose that the 'co-opting' of sour and bitter neural pathways evolved as a means to ensure that high levels of salt reliably trigger robust behavioural rejection, thus preventing its potentially detrimental effects on health. PMID:23407495

  5. Maintaining Functional Safety under an Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) Attack

    Ängskog, Per; Oakes, Ben


    The importance of protection against IEMI effects in civilian applications is growing rapidly as more and more societal infrastructure is equipped with electronic devices. This paper discusses methods to help maintaining functional safety in the event of an IEMI attack. QC 20160104

  6. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  7. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  8. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter

  9. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.


    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  10. Maintaining ecological soil functions - techniques in organic farming systems

    Beste, Andrea


    The ecological soil functions (e.g. habitat and living space, production and utilization, ecological regulation) have to be taken into account and maintained by farming systems. Organic farming systems can provide for this by using suitable crop rotations, manure management methods and tillage techniques.

  11. Keeping Ourselves Well: Strategies for Promoting and Maintaining Counselor Wellness

    Cummins, Paige N.; Massey, Linda; Jones, Anita


    This article describes challenges to wellness that counselors face when working with clients. Autobiographical reflections are used to illustrate the personal nature of some of these challenges and how this affects counselor effectiveness and wellness. Additionally, assessment measures and theoretical models for promoting and maintaining wellness…

  12. Beijing's Convention and Exhibition Industry Maintains Good Momentum

    Xiong Jiuling


    @@ In recent years, Beijing's conven-tion and exhibition industry has maintained a good development momentum with expanding scale and improving facilities, becoming an inseparable part of the city's modern service sector.The development of the convention and exhibition industry has played an active role in perfecting the capital's functions, optimizing the industrial structure and enhancing the city's radiation capabilities.

  13. [Maintaining the proper distance for nurses working in the home].

    Estève, Sonia


    Health professionals must be able to respond to many different situations which require technical knowledge and self-control. Particularly when working in the patient's home, nurses must know how to maintain a proper distance to protect themselves from burnout. In this respect, the practice analysis constitutes an adapted support tool. PMID:27393988

  14. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    Gawali, Ajay R.


    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  15. Working memory benefits creative insight, musical improvisation, and original ideation through maintained task-focused attention.

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Baas, Matthijs; Wolsink, Inge; Roskes, Marieke


    Anecdotes from creative eminences suggest that executive control plays an important role in creativity, but scientific evidence is sparse. Invoking the Dual Pathway to Creativity Model, the authors hypothesize that working memory capacity (WMC) relates to creative performance because it enables persistent, focused, and systematic combining of elements and possibilities (persistence). Study 1 indeed showed that under cognitive load, participants performed worse on a creative insight task. Study 2 revealed positive associations between time-on-task and creativity among individuals high but not low in WMC, even after controlling for general intelligence. Study 3 revealed that across trials, semiprofessional cellists performed increasingly more creative improvisations when they had high rather than low WMC. Study 4 showed that WMC predicts original ideation because it allows persistent (rather than flexible) processing. The authors conclude that WMC benefits creativity because it enables the individual to maintain attention focused on the task and prevents undesirable mind wandering. PMID:22301457

  16. The free energy cost of reducing noise while maintaining a high sensitivity

    Sartori, Pablo


    Living systems need to be highly responsive, and also to keep fluctuations low. These goals are incompatible in equilibrium systems due to the Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem (FDT). Here, we show that biological sensory systems, driven far from equilibrium by free energy consumption, can reduce their intrinsic fluctuations while maintaining high responsiveness. By developing a continuum theory of the E. coli chemotaxis pathway, we demonstrate that adaptation can be understood as a non-equilibrium phase transition controlled by free energy dissipation, and it is characterized by a breaking of the FDT. We show that the maximum response at short time is enhanced by free energy dissipation. At the same time, the low frequency fluctuations and the adaptation error decrease with the free energy dissipation algebraically and exponentially, respectively.

  17. Rwanda Economic Update, May 2013 : Maintaining Momentum with a Special Focus on Rwanda's Pathway Out of Poverty

    World Bank


    The Rwanda economic update reports and synthesizes recent economic developments and places them in a medium term and global context. It analyzes the implications of these developments and policies for the outlook of Rwanda's economy. In this way, these reports contribute to the implementation of the Bank's Africa strategy. The economic update reports cover in each edition a special feature...

  18. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.


    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  19. Fertilization test performance using Arbacia punctulata maintained in static culture

    Serbst, J.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Wright, L.; Sheehan, C.V.; Fitzpatrick, K. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)


    The sea urchin fertilization test using the Atlantic urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is widely utilized in evaluating toxicity of receiving waters and effluents as part of the NPDES program. While this species is easily maintained in uncontaminated, flow-through seawater systems, laboratories without access to flowing seawater either obtain new urchins for each test or maintain populations in static cultures. This study was conducted to assess test success and reproducibility of fertilization tests conducted using urchins maintained in separate-sex, static, temperature-controlled aquaria containing filtered natural seawater. Test performance was evaluated by periodically conducting the standard sea urchin fertilization test (EPA 600/4-87-028) using a common reference toxicant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Thirteen tests were conducted between September 1993 and May 1994 using one population of urchins, and five tests were conducted between June and December 1994 with a second population of urchins. Test success was 100% (control fertilization > 50%) with a control fertilization mean of 96.4% (S.D. = 3.3). There were no differences between mean EC{sub 50} values calculated for each set of tests (p < 0.05). The running mean value for toxicity was 7.1 mg/L (S.D. = 1.26) for 18 tests, with a CV of 17.7%, comparing favorably with values generated using urchins maintained in flowing seawater. The running mean value for toxicity in these tests was 2.4 mg/L (S.D. = 0.9) for 18 tests conducted between November 1987 and July 1989 (ASTM STP 1124). Data from all urchin tests were used to construct a control chart defining normal ranges for SDS toxicity. This study demonstrated that fertile, adult sea urchins can produce consistent toxicity responses with low variability while being maintained in static, temperature regulated culture facilities.

  20. Important DNA repair proteins in DNA double-strand break repair pathways

    DNA double-strand break repair pathway is one of DNA damage repair pathways. DNA repair genes can repair DNA damage, maintain the integrity of the genetic information and inhibit the formation of tumors. There are two mechanisms-non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination to repair DNA double-strand break. In this review, an overview of important repair proteins of non--homologous end joining and homologous recombination pathways was introduced. (authors)

  1. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun


    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm. PMID:27151950

  2. Proanthocyanidins Inhibit Seed Germination by Maintaining a High Level of Abscisic Acid in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Liguo Jia; Jianhua Zhang; Qiuyu Wu; Nenghui Ye; Rui Liu; Lu Shi; Weifeng Xu; Hui Zhi; A. N. M. Rubaiyath Bin Rahman; Yiji Xia


    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the main products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in seeds,but their biological function during seed germination is still unclear.We observed that seed germination is delayed with the increase of exogenous PA concentration in Arabidopsis.A similar inhibitory effect occurred in peeled Brassica napus seeds,which was observed by measuring radicle elongation.Using abscisic acid (ABA),a biosynthetic and metabolic inhibitor,and gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction,we found that the inhibitory effect of PAs on seed germination is due to their promotion of ABA via de novo biogenesis,rather than by any inhibition of its degradation.Consistent with the relationship between PA content and ABA accumulation in seeds,PA-deficient mutants maintain a lower level of ABA compared with wild-types during germination.Our data suggest that PA distribution in the seed coat can act as a doorkeeper to seed germination.PA regulation of seed germination is mediated by the ABA signaling pathway.

  3. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N


    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways. PMID:27382185

  4. End of living: maintaining a lifeworld during terminal illness.

    Wrubel, Judith; Acree, Michael; Goodman, Steffanie; Folkman, Susan


    The narrative responses of 32 people with AIDS or cancer with survival prognoses of 6 months to a year to monthly interview questions about their daily lives were analysed with a team-based qualitative methodology. Two groups emerged: (a) a Maintained Lifeworld Group characterised by one or more of the following: continued engagement with family, friends, and community; the ability to relinquish untenable goals and substitute new, realistic ones; engagement in spirituality and a spiritual practice; and, (b) a Lifeworld Interrupted Group characterised by one or more of the following: relocation just before or during the study, cognitive impairment, commitment to untenable goals, ongoing substance abuse. Understanding how people with a terminal illness can maintain a lifeworld and experience well-being while also managing the physical challenges of their illness could help inform the support offered by professional and family caregivers to improve care recipients' quality of life. PMID:20204990

  5. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo


    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  6. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty


    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  7. Experimental control for initiating and maintaining rotation of parametric pendulum

    Vaziri, V.; Najdecka, A.; Wiercigroch, M.


    In this paper, the authors have studied experimentally the control methods of a parametric pendulum excited harmonically to initiate and maintain a period one rotation - the most superior response for energy harvesting. For initiating the period one rotation inherent in the system, first the bang-bang method is applied. Then a new method where velocity is monitored is proposed and applied and finally the time-delayed feedback method with multi-switching is considered. Ultimately the problem of maintaining the rotation of the pendulum is addressed. For first time, robustness and sensitivity of the latter method to change of frequency and amplitude of excitation and added noise are studied. Finally, it has been demonstrated how the delayed feedback method can be applied in a system of two pendula to ensure synchronized rotation.

  8. The importance of university research in maintaining the nuclear option

    The role of the university in maintaining and revitalizing the nuclear option should have four goals. First, it must attract highly skilled students who have an interest in math and science and help foster their interest in nuclear science and engineering. Next, it must present a state-of-the-art educational program that contains meaningful research to maintain these students. The third goal of nuclear engineering departments is to provide the nontechnical student a fair assessment of benefits and risks associated with commercial nuclear power relative to other sources of electricity. Lastly, it must effectively communicate to all students a compelling vision of nuclear power as a vital energy resource that will grow. The most difficult role for the university is to successfully convey a future for those in the nuclear science and engineering program

  9. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    Egija eZaura; Nicu, Elena A; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Bart JF Keijser


    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis – a microbial shift towards a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are p...

  10. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.


    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poor...

  11. Comprehensive Complexity-Based Failure Modeling for Maintainability and Serviceability

    Meselhy, K. T.; ElMaraghy, H. A.; ElMaraghy, W. H.


    Failures are the primary triggers for repair and maintenance actions. A clear definition of failure events is important in order to improve maintainability and serviceability. A comprehensive complexity-based mathematical definition of failure is introduced. The applicability of the developed failure model to different complexity definitions is discussed. A new metric is introduced to capture the change in complexity associated with function degradation. A case study is present...

  12. Lhx2 Maintains Stem Cell Character in Hair Follicles

    Rhee, Horace; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine


    During embryogenesis, stem cells are set aside to fuel the postnatal hair cycle and repair the epidermis after injury. To define how hair follicle stem cells are specified and maintained in an undifferentiated state, we developed a strategy to isolate and transcriptionally profile embryonic hair progenitors in mice. We identified Lhx2 as a transcription factor positioned downstream of signals necessary to specify hair follicle stem cells, but upstream from signals required to drive activated ...

  13. Rewarding Peer Reviewers: Maintaining the Integrity of Science Communication

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N.; Voronov, Alexander A.; Kitas, George D.


    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and ass...

  14. Maintaining compassion and preventing compassion fatigue: a practical guide.

    Baverstock, Anna Charlotte; Finlay, Fiona Olwen


    Compassion is innate in us as human beings. Compassion can be defined as a deep awareness of the suffering of another individual, coupled with the wish to relieve it. It has been increasingly topical, recently, in situations where an apparent breathtaking absence of compassion has allowed great harm to come to patients. So, how do we sustain compassion and prevent this loss? Central to our ability to maintain compassion is how we look after ourselves and those in our teams. PMID:26510446

  15. Maintaining NASTRAN :the politics and technics of aerospace computing

    Hu, Minghui


    This thesis describes a process of how NASA maintained the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. Chapter one addresses my theoretical concern and suggests to learn from both critical theorists and social constructivists. Chapters Two and Three tell the story of NASA and NASTRAN, a computer program developed by NASA for solving problems of airframes and space structures. The story of NASA and NASTRAN demonstrates a structural imbalance between social groups of NAS...

  16. Maintaining Customer Loyalty : Case company: Industrail Securities Ltd (China)

    Zhang, Wenqing


    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how customer relationship management can be applied in maintaining customer loyalty. The study will assist the case company to find the way to develop a long-term relationship with existing customers. The better relationship with customers, the higher customer loyalty will be obtained. The theoretical background of the thesis begins with general view of customer relationship management, which embodies the concept of managing customer relations...

  17. Creating, Maintaining and Managing an Information Security Culture

    Fagerström, Alex


    In the last decade a new threat to information security within an organisation has risen: data loss by personnel mistakes or maliciousness now rank among the top threats to a company's data. By creating a strong information security culture, the management can reduce the risk of data loss. This thesis investigates how to create, maintain and manage an information security culture. Literature analysis, interviews with management members at KPMG, the company for which this thesis was written, a...

  18. Maintaining High-Level Focus on Nuclear Security

    Fitzpatrick, Mark; Pandza, Jasper


    This paper explores how nuclear security can be maintained at the top of the international agenda following the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul and the third summit to be held in 2014 in the Netherlands. The attention of senior government officials may be vital to catalyzing the implementation of national nuclear security commitments. But continuing the summit process beyond 2014 requires finding novel topics that capture world leaders’ attention and willingness to making the necessary ...

  19. How can Indonesia maintain creditworthiness and noninflationary growth ?

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chhibber, Ajay


    Despite external shocks, Indonesia has maintained creditworthiness through swift adjustment. Indonesia's flexible economic management and clear policy signals have lent stability to the economy, in contrast to the stop and go reforms, uncertainty, and constant debt renegotiations in many high debt countries. The authors use an econometrically estimated macroeconomic model to analyze open economy adjustment in Indonesia - particularly the interaction between the exchange rate, the interest rat...

  20. Knowledge management: knowledge and competence maintaining; problematics; Fast reactor example

    In this expose are examined two representative aspects, with a first part reserved to the general problematics of the knowledge and competence maintaining as it looks at Framatome, in its activities of pressurized water boiler supplier (PWR) and as provider of nuclear services, and a second part treating the solutions used by the different actors intervening in fast neutrons reactors, that is to say, the Cea, Framatome and EDF. (N.C.)

  1. Maintaining Adherence Programme: evaluation of an innovative service model

    Lewis, Llewellyn; O'Keeffe, Christine; Smyth, Ian; Mallalieu, Judi; Baldock, Laura; Oliver, Sam


    Aims and method The Maintaining Adherence Programme (MAP) is a new model of care for patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder which aims to encourage adherence and prevent relapse. This evaluation, conducted by retrospective and prospective data collection (including patient questionnaires and staff interviews), aimed to describe MAP's impact on healthcare resource use, clinical measures and patient and staff satisfaction, following its implementati...

  2. Human Sclera Maintains Common Characteristics with Cartilage throughout Evolution

    Yuko Seko; Noriyuki Azuma; Yoriko Takahashi; Hatsune Makino; Toshiyuki Morito; Takeshi Muneta; Kenji Matsumoto; Hirohisa Saito; Ichiro Sekiya; Akihiro Umezawa


    BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have dem...

  3. Maintaining the Brain: Insight into Human Neurodegeneration From Drosophila Mutants

    Lessing, Derek; Bonini, Nancy M.


    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has brought significant advances to research in neurodegenerative disease, notably in the identification of genes that are required to maintain the structural integrity of the brain, defined by recessive mutations that cause adult-onset neurodegeneration. Here, we survey these genes in the fly and classify them according to five key cell biological processes. Over half of these genes have counterparts in mouse or human that are also associated with neurod...

  4. Maintaining Interoperability in a Target-Rich Environment

    Ng, Mei Ling Venessa


    Achieving interoperability in a net-centric environment is fundamental to maximizing the potential of information sharing and effective use of resources in military operations. With the increasing reliance on unmanned platforms worldwide, there is a need to study the limitations of existing Command and Control (C2) Systems in dealing with the increasing number of objects. More processing power would be required to achieve or maintain a certain level of efficiency and effectiveness of the C2 s...

  5. Strategies for maintaining penile size following penile implant

    Lee, King Chien Joe; Gerald B Brock


    Introduction Loss of penile size is a common complaint that can negatively affect patient satisfaction rates following successful penile prosthetic implant surgery. Objective The aim of this review is to describe the various strategies that have been used to maintain penile length or girth after the insertion of a penile prosthetic implant. Methods An extensive systematic literature review was performed, based on a search of the PUBMED database for articles published between 2002 to 2012. The...

  6. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

    Piller Sabine C; Warrilow David; Apolloni Ann; Bodetti Tracey J; Hitchen Eleanor M; Willemsen Nicole M; Harrich David


    Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx) was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be asses...

  7. Catecholamine-induced excitation of nociceptors in sympathetically maintained pain.

    Jørum, Ellen; Ørstavik, Kristin; Schmidt, Roland; Namer, Barbara; Carr, Richard W; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Hilliges, Marita; Handwerker, Hermann; Torebjörk, Erik; Schmelz, Martin


    Sympathetically maintained pain could either be mediated by ephaptic interactions between sympathetic efferent and afferent nociceptive fibers or by catecholamine-induced activation of nociceptive nerve endings. We report here single fiber recordings from C nociceptors in a patient with sympathetically maintained pain, in whom sympathetic blockade had repeatedly eliminated the ongoing pain in both legs. We classified eight C-fibers as mechano-responsive and six as mechano-insensitive nociceptors according to their mechanical responsiveness and activity-dependent slowing of conduction velocity (latency increase of 0.5+/-1.1 vs. 7.1+/-2.0 ms for 20 pulses at 0.125 Hz). Two C-fibers were activated with a delay of several seconds following strong endogenous sympathetic bursts; they were also excited for about 3 min following the injection of norepinephrine (10 microl, 0.05%) into their innervation territory. In these two fibers, a prolonged activation by injection of low pH solution (phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, 10 microl) and sensitization of their heat response following prostaglandin E2 injection were recorded, evidencing their afferent nature. Moreover, their activity-dependent slowing was typical for mechano-insensitive nociceptors. We conclude that sensitized mechano-insensitive nociceptors can be activated by endogenously released catecholamines and thereby may contribute to sympathetically maintained pain. No evidence for ephaptic interaction between sympathetic efferent and nociceptive afferent fibers was found. PMID:16997471

  8. Reliability, availability, and maintainability: a key issue for ELTs

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.


    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and extremely sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. Component and system reliability does not only influence the acquisition costs of a product, it also defines the necessary maintenance work and the required logistic support. Taking the long operational life time of an ELT into account, reliability and maintainability are some of the main contributors to the system life cycle costs. Reliability and maintainability are key characteristics of any product and have to be designed into it from the early beginning; they can neither be tested into a product nor introduced by numerous maintenance activities. This presentation explains the interconnections between Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and outlines the necessary RAMS and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) processes and activities during the entire life cycle of an ELT and an ELT instrument from the initial planning to the eventual disposal phase.

  9. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  10. The importance of maintainability in maintenance cost management

    This paper provides specific examples and results from ongoing projects at Power Plants, and for offshore oil platforms. The paper describes the vital role maintainability has on plant availability. How the application of equipment maintainability principles, if addressed using state of the art computer tools and advanced business processes can bring annual return on investment results as high as 15 to 1. The maintenance process of today and for the future must provide for high plant availability at the lowest possible cost. The high cost of obtaining equipment reliability levels necessary to meet required availability demands has not proved to be sustainable. Therefore new business decision processes that address equipment failures as part of the maintenance process have been developed. Repair costs require that equipment failures be selective and controlled so that a high level of safety and plant availability is assurance. This can only be accomplished by the use of advanced computer tools in the hands of well trained maintenance-engineering specialist. The relationship between Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), Condition Directed Planned Maintenance (CDPM), and maintainability is also presented

  11. Hybrid-Based Maintainability Impact Analysis for Evolving Systems

    Samer I. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Software maintenance becomes an integral part of software life cycle and constitutes the most important fraction of the total cost of the software lifecycle. Around 50-80 percent of the total lifecycle cost is consumed by maintenance for evolving system. Thus systems with poor maintainability are difficult to modify and require more cost to maintain. This difficulty arises from the impact of the system components where the new requirements/goals will be implemented. These new goals will result in modification of existing components and creation of new components. In this paper, we present the foundation for a new Hybrid-Based Maintainability Impact Analysis (HBMIA methodology for assessing the impact of the new goals to be selected for implementation on the system new and existing components. (HBMIA uses not only the system history but it also gets benefit from the expert?s experience. (HBMIA balances between the system historical data and experts data based on the organization? maturity and experts experience for system components. A case study is performed to demonstrate the added value of the proposed (HBMIA.

  12. Effects of mazindol on behavior maintained or occasioned by cocaine.

    Mansbach, R S; Balster, R L


    The effects of mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine were studied in rhesus monkeys trained to self-administer cocaine, and in rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Non-contingent intravenous drug injections were administered to monkeys responding under a session consisting of a 5-min period during which lever-pressing produced food reinforcement and a 60-min session in which responding produced i.v. cocaine infusions (10 or 33 micrograms/kg per infusion). Acute i.v. injections of cocaine (0.1-1.7 mg/kg), D-amphetamine (0.1-1 mg/kg) and the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor mazindol (0.03-0.56 mg/kg) given 5 min before the session decreased self-administration of cocaine, but also decreased rates of behavior maintained by the presentation of food. In both rats and squirrel monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-maintained procedure, mazindol, cocaine and D-amphetamine substituted for cocaine in a dose-related manner. Despite a lack of selectivity to decrease cocaine self-administration as compared to behavior maintained by food, the present data provide some rationale for further consideration of mazindol as a potential pharmacotherapy for stimulant abuse, due to its relatively low abuse liability and cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:8436063

  13. Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.

    Lilia Perfeito


    Full Text Available Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation.

  14. Pathways of tau fibrillization.

    Kuret, Jeff; Chirita, Carmen N; Congdon, Erin E; Kannanayakal, Theresa; Li, Guibin; Necula, Mihaela; Yin, Haishan; Zhong, Qi


    New methods for analyzing tau fibrillization have yielded insights into the biochemical transitions involved in the process. Here we review the parallels between the sequential progression of tau fibrillization observed macroscopically in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions and the pathway of tau aggregation observed in vitro with purified tau preparations. In addition, pharmacological agents for further dissection of fibrillization mechanism and lesion formation are discussed. PMID:15615636

  15. New pathways into headship?

    Higham, Rob; Early, Peter; Coldwell, Michael; Stevens, Anna; Brown, Chris


    There continues to be something of a conundrum in the recruitment of headteachers in England. While “a very large majority of headteachers report being satisfied with their jobs” (Micklewright et al 2014: 17), headteacher recruitment and retention remain major challenges for school governors and policy makers. In this context, the New Pathways into Headship project was commissioned by the National College for Teaching and Leadership (NCTL) in January 2013. Tasked with considering new or a...

  16. Pathway analysis of IMC

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced into the...... syntax of IMC in order to make our analysis feasible. Finally we describe the analysis itself together with several theoretical results that we have proved for it....

  17. The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase, is caused by a deletion in the VRN1 gene

    The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase (mvp), was induced by nitrogen ion-beam treatment and was identified by its inability to transit from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In our previous study, we showed that WAP1 (wheat APETALA1) is a key gene in the regulatory pathway that controls phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in common wheat. WAP1 is an ortholog of the VRN1 gene that is responsible for vernalization insensitivity in einkorn wheat. The mvp mutation resulted from deletion of the VRN1 coding and promoter regions, demonstrating that WAP1/VRN1 is an indispensable gene for phase transition in wheat. Expression analysis of flowering-related genes in mvp plants indicated that wheat GIGANTIA (GI), CONSTANS (CO) and SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) genes either act upstream of or in a different pathway to WAP1/VRN1

  18. Characterization of cyanobacterial hydrocarbon composition and distribution of biosynthetic pathways.

    R Cameron Coates

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to naturally produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids. Hydrocarbon compositions of thirty-two strains of cyanobacteria were characterized to reveal novel structural features and insights into hydrocarbon biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. This investigation revealed new double bond (2- and 3-heptadecene and methyl group positions (3-, 4- and 5-methylheptadecane for a variety of strains. Additionally, results from this study and literature reports indicate that hydrocarbon production is a universal phenomenon in cyanobacteria. All cyanobacteria possess the capacity to produce hydrocarbons from fatty acids yet not all accomplish this through the same metabolic pathway. One pathway comprises a two-step conversion of fatty acids first to fatty aldehydes and then alkanes that involves a fatty acyl ACP reductase (FAAR and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO. The second involves a polyketide synthase (PKS pathway that first elongates the acyl chain followed by decarboxylation to produce a terminal alkene (olefin synthase, OLS. Sixty-one strains possessing the FAAR/ADO pathway and twelve strains possessing the OLS pathway were newly identified through bioinformatic analyses. Strains possessing the OLS pathway formed a cohesive phylogenetic clade with the exception of three Moorea strains and Leptolyngbya sp. PCC 6406 which may have acquired the OLS pathway via horizontal gene transfer. Hydrocarbon pathways were identified in one-hundred-forty-two strains of cyanobacteria over a broad phylogenetic range and there were no instances where both the FAAR/ADO and the OLS pathways were found together in the same genome, suggesting an unknown selective pressure maintains one or the other pathway, but not both.

  19. Maintaining Students’ Involvement in a Math Lecture Using Countdown Timers

    Ann Krizzel A. Aban


    Full Text Available Involving students in a lecture is an important but not an easy task that every lecturer must encourage. This task becomes even greater in a math class that is composed of eighty to a hundred sixty students. In 2007, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB started offering some of its basic math courses in lecture-recitation set-up. This shift and many other factors drove most math instructors of UPLB to widely use presentation software, such as the PowerPoint (PPT, to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators. On the other hand, adding countdown timers strategically on some parts of the discussion seems to lessen such negative effects. This study determined the effectiveness of using countdown timers in maintaining students’ involvement in a lecture of MATH 27 (Analytic Geometry and Calculus II, a course in UPLB commonly taken by sophomore students. Results show that the effectiveness of countdown timers, as perceived by the students, is independent to students’ genders and degree programs, but is dependent to the colleges where the students belong to. Also, some effects of countdown timers are significantly correlated to various data from students’ profiles. It was concluded in the study that the use of countdown timers is effective in maintaining student’s involvement in MATH 27 lectures and might also be useful in other math lecture classes

  20. Maintaining Traceability in an Evolving Distributed Computing Environment

    Collier, I.; Wartel, R.


    The management of risk is fundamental to the operation of any distributed computing infrastructure. Identifying the cause of incidents is essential to prevent them from re-occurring. In addition, it is a goal to contain the impact of an incident while keeping services operational. For response to incidents to be acceptable this needs to be commensurate with the scale of the problem. The minimum level of traceability for distributed computing infrastructure usage is to be able to identify the source of all actions (executables, file transfers, pilot jobs, portal jobs, etc.) and the individual who initiated them. In addition, sufficiently fine-grained controls, such as blocking the originating user and monitoring to detect abnormal behaviour, are necessary for keeping services operational. It is essential to be able to understand the cause and to fix any problems before re-enabling access for the user. The aim is to be able to answer the basic questions who, what, where, and when concerning any incident. This requires retaining all relevant information, including timestamps and the digital identity of the user, sufficient to identify, for each service instance, and for every security event including at least the following: connect, authenticate, authorize (including identity changes) and disconnect. In traditional grid infrastructures (WLCG, EGI, OSG etc.) best practices and procedures for gathering and maintaining the information required to maintain traceability are well established. In particular, sites collect and store information required to ensure traceability of events at their sites. With the increased use of virtualisation and private and public clouds for HEP workloads established procedures, which are unable to see 'inside' running virtual machines no longer capture all the information required. Maintaining traceability will at least involve a shift of responsibility from sites to Virtual Organisations (VOs) bringing with it new requirements for their

  1. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    Høy, Bente


    used to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Findings. The residents’ experiences revealed one main theme and seven sub-themes contributing to maintain dignity. The overall theme was: Coping with vulnerability and the subthemes were: Attention and care for basic needs; preserving a positive......Purpose. The overall purpose of this cross-country Nordic study was to gain further knowledge about dignity in nursing homes and the circumstances which may have an impact on it. The aim of this part of the study is to present the results, exploring nursing home residents’ experiences on how...

  2. Reliability of maintained systems under a semi-Markov setting

    A semi-Markov setting is considered in order to study the main dependability measures of a repairable continuous time system under the hypothesis that the evolution in time of its components is described by a continuous time semi-Markov process. Moreover, the main dependability measures of a periodically maintained system are studied. Finally, all the above systems are compared with the corresponding Markov systems where the general repair time distribution is replaced by the exponential distribution with the same mean which is the most commonly used approximation of the original system in practice

  3. The Importance of Maintaining Protected Zone Status against Bemisia tabaci.

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Vänninen, Irene


    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and plant produce is subjected to a policy of eradication. The impact of B. tabaci entering, and becoming established, is that it is an effective vector of many plant viruses that are not currently found in the protected zones. The Mediterranean species is the most commonly intercepted species of B. tabaci entering both the UK and Finland. The implications of maintaining Protected Zone status are discussed. PMID:26463194

  4. Maintaining BC's hydro endowment for the benefit of consumers

    This paper outlined the development of electricity market arrangements in British Columbia, as well as options and an approach for endowment. Endowment has been made possible by past provincial investment in hydroelectric facilities on the Peace and Columbia Rivers. The facilities on these rivers have met the electricity needs for BC without adding new generation. The annual value of endowment is estimated at more than $500 million. The challenge is to build and maintain an efficient power sector which keeps the benefits of past decisions while securing appropriate decisions for the future. In the past 2 years, BC has been a net importer and needs new generation and possible transmission capacity, depending on where the new generation will be located. It was emphasized that decisions are needed now in order to avoid shortfalls, particularly with the assumption that the Burrard Thermal power station will be shut down. The development of a wholesale electricity market is key to maintaining the endowment benefit in British Columbia. 3 figs

  5. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu


    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  6. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    Egija eZaura


    Full Text Available The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis – a microbial shift towards a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance towards the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research.

  7. Trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Chen, Hong-Bin; Yan, Hao; Mo, Li-Hua; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang


    Epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. The regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. This study aims to elucidate the role of the TWIK-related potassium channel-1 (Trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. In this study, the levels of Trek1 were assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by the Ussing chamber system. The results showed that Trek1 was detected in the human and rat nasal epithelia, which were significantly lower in patients and rats with allergic rhinitis than that in healthy controls. Exposure to the signature T helper 2 cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, markedly suppressed the expression of Trek1 in the nasal mucosa via up regulating the expression of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)1. The IL-4-induced rat nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction could be blocked by HDAC1 inhibitor (Trichostatin A), or sodium butyrate, or administration of Clostridium Butyricum. We conclude that Trek1 is critical to maintain the nasal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25778785

  8. Reliability, maintainability, and availability engineering for integrated community energy systems

    Wang, P.Y.; Mavec, J.; Wolosewicz, R.M.; Calm, J.M.; Chopra, P.S.


    The reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) engineering methodologies for integrated community energy systems (ICES) are reported. Since the tangible and intangible costs of a system failure may outweigh the benefits of the ICES approaches, RMA consideration must be an integral part of ICES engineering. The effectiveness of system planning and design depends on component reliability information and on forecasts of community load profiles. Supply subsystems must provide sufficient capacity to meet demands in spite of maintenance and unscheduled outages. This allowance is the major task of probabilistic system planning. Because reliability and maintainability performance is partially a random process, probabilistic methodology is required for analysis and comparison. Portions of a community energy system being modified or expanded may already be in use before additional portions reach the design stage. This situation presents an opportunity to extend the RMA assessment of the existing system and to improve the additions that will be made to it. RMA engineering is essential to all phases of planning, design, construction, and operation of ICES. The methodologies presented provide a systematic, disciplined approach to predict and analyze RMA, to determine corrective actions necessary, and to achieve performance goals.

  9. Multiple Relationships : Maintaining Professional Identity in Rural Social Work Practice

    Keith Brownlee


    Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.

  10. Extending Access Management to maintain audit logs in cloud computing

    Ajay Prasad


    Full Text Available Considering the most often talked about security risks in cloud computing, like, security and compliance, viability, lack of transparency, reliability and performance issues. Bringing strong auditability in cloud services can reduce these risks to a great extent. Also, auditing, both internally and externally is generally required and sometimes unavoidable looking into the present day competition in the business arena. Auditing in web based and cloud based usage environments focuses mainly on cost of a service which determines the overall expenditure of the user organization. However, the expenditure can be controlled by a collaborative approach between the provider company and the user organization by constantly monitoring the end user access and usage of subscribed cloud services. Though, many cloud providers will claim of having a robust auditable feature, the generic verifiability with sustainable long term recording of usage logs do not exist at all. Certain access management models can be perfectly extended to maintain audit logs for long terms. However, maintaining long term logs certainly has storage implications, especially with larger organizations. The storage implications need to be studied.

  11. Maintaining Genome Stability in Defiance of Mitotic DNA Damage

    Ferrari, Stefano; Gentili, Christian


    The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is based on prompt detection of the issue to be addressed, formulation and transmission of a correct set of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. While the first and the last are purely mechanical processes relying on the faithful functioning of single proteins or macromolecular complexes (sensors and effectors), information is the real cue, with signal amplitude, duration, and frequency ultimately determining the type of response. The cellular response to DNA damage is no exception to the rule. In this review article we focus on DNA damage responses in G2 and Mitosis. First, we set the stage describing mitosis and the machineries in charge of assembling the apparatus responsible for chromosome alignment and segregation as well as the inputs that control its function (checkpoints). Next, we examine the type of issues that a cell approaching mitosis might face, presenting the impact of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the correct and timely functioning of pathways correcting errors or damage before chromosome segregation. We conclude this essay with a perspective on the current status of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors and their potential use in cancer therapy. PMID:27493659

  12. Pathways with PathWhiz.

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S


    PathWhiz ( is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797

  13. Conservation of PHO pathway in ascomycetes and the role of Pho84

    Parul Tomar; Sinha Sinha


    In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phosphate signalling and response pathway, known as PHO pathway, monitors phosphate cytoplasmic levels by controlling genes involved in scavenging, uptake and utilization of phosphate. Recent attempts to understand the phosphate starvation response in other ascomycetes have suggested the existence of both common and novel components of the budding yeast PHO pathway in these ascomycetes. In this review, we discuss the components of PHO pathway, their roles in maintaining phosphate homeostasis in yeast and their conservation across ascomycetes. The role of high-affinity transporter, Pho84, in sensing and signalling of phosphate has also been discussed.

  14. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools



    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective

  15. Aquatic pathway 1

    This first part of the study discusses problems of exposure due to the emission of radioactive substances into the environment via the water pathway. Discussion is started with a paper on the fundamentals of calculation and another paper on the results of preliminary radiological model calculations. The colloquium will assess the present state of knowledge, helps to find an agreement between divergent opinions and determine open questions and possible solutions. Ten main problems have been raised, most of which pertain to site conditions. They are trated as sub-investigations by individual participants or working groups. The findings will be discussed in further colloquia. (orig.)

  16. Ecuador to withdraw from OPEC; group to maintain present flow

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which has agreed to maintain its present combined production of 24.2 million b/d of oil in the fourth quarter, will soon see the first pullout of a member. The 13 member group will shrink to 12, probably in November, when Ecuador withdraws. Ecuador President Sixto Duran Ballen issued notice of the pullout Sept. 17, a little more than 1 month after he took office. Ecuador, strapped for cash, wants to save OPEC membership dues reported to be $2-3 million/year. It plans to remain an associate member, although it wasn't immediately clear what that means. No other countries are regarded as associate members

  17. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping


    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  18. Can we maintain our advanced expertise in nuclear technology?

    The paper explains why it is important in the light of the Federal Government's plans to wind down nuclear power generation, to provide for governmental or other programmes for ensuring that the advanced expertise in nuclear science and technology in Germany will be maintained well into the future and passed on to the next generation of scientists and (radiation protection) engineers, as a policy to accompany the present Government's plans for a national nuclear power phaseout. The necessity for hedging Germany's high standards and the know-how in nuclear science and technology is explained, not least with respect to protection of the population from the hazards emanating from the operation of nuclear facilities. (orig./CB)

  19. Rewarding peer reviewers: maintaining the integrity of science communication.

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Voronov, Alexander A; Kitas, George D


    This article overviews currently available options for rewarding peer reviewers. Rewards and incentives may help maintain the quality and integrity of scholarly publications. Publishers around the world implemented a variety of financial and nonfinancial mechanisms for incentivizing their best reviewers. None of these is proved effective on its own. A strategy of combined rewards and credits for the reviewers1 creative contributions seems a workable solution. Opening access to reviews and assigning publication credits to the best reviews is one of the latest achievements of digitization. Reviews, posted on academic networking platforms, such as Publons, add to the transparency of the whole system of peer review. Reviewer credits, properly counted and displayed on individual digital profiles, help distinguish the best contributors, invite them to review and offer responsible editorial posts. PMID:25829801

  20. Methods of achieving and maintaining an appropriate caesarean section rate.

    Robson, Michael


    Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide. The appropriate caesarean section rate remains a topic of debate among women and professionals. Evidence-based medicine has not provided an answer and depends on interpretation of the literature. Overall caesarean section rates are unhelpful, and caesarean section rates should not be judged in isolation from other outcomes and epidemiological characteristics. Better understanding of caesarean section rates, their consequences and their benefits will improve care, and enable learning between delivery units nationally and internationally. To achieve and maintain an appropriate caesarean section rate requires a Multidisciplinary Quality Assurance Programme in each delivery unit, recognising caesarean section rates as one of many factors that determine quality. Women will always choose the type of delivery that seems safest to them and their babies. Professionals need to monitor the quality of their practice continuously in a standardised way to ensure that women can make the right choice.

  1. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo


    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  2. Sociable mobile robots through self-maintained energy

    Ngo, Trung Dung; Schiøler, Henrik


    society, collecting and sharing are experimentally recognized as the highest property. This paper issues an approach to sociable robots using self-maintained energy in robot society, which is naturally inspired from swarm behavior of honey-bee and ant. Typically, autonomous mobile robots are usually......Research of sociable robots has emphasized interaction and coordination of mobile robots with inspiration from natural behavior of birds, insects, and fish: flocking, foraging, collecting, sharing and so forth. However, the animal behaviors are looking for food towards survival. In an animal...... equipped with a finite energy, thus they can operate in a finite time. To overcome the limitation, we describe practical deployment of a group of mobile robot with the possibility of carrying and exchanging fuel, e.g. battery to other robots. Early implementation that includes modular hardware and control...

  3. JWIG: Yet Another Framework for Maintainable and Secure Web Applications

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme


    Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server-oriented arch...... services.The resulting framework provides a novel foundation for developing maintainable and secure web applications.......Although numerous frameworks for web application programming have been developed in recent years, writing web applications remains a challenging task. Guided by a collection of classical design principles, we propose yet another framework. It is based on a simple but flexible server......-oriented architecture that coherently supports general aspects of modern web applications, including dynamic XML construction, session management, data persistence, caching, and authentication, but it also simplifies programming of server-push communication and integration of XHTML-based applications and XML-based web...

  4. Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis

    Hanczyc, Martin M.; Parrilla, Juan M.; Nicholson, Arwen;


    We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior...... of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results...... confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life....

  5. The effects of irradiation on Babesia maintained in vitro

    Blood infected with Babesia rodhaini, B major or B divergens was irradiated to different absorbed doses between 0 and 120 krad, and then maintained in vitro in the presence of 3H hypoxanthine for 24 h. The effects of irradiation were measured by the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3H hypoxanthine and, in the case of B rodhaini, by the ability of the parasite to infect mice. B major and B divergens were slightly more radioresistant than B rodhaini, but all showed a progressive fall in ability to incorporate 3H hypoxanthine with increasing does of irradiation when there was increased uptake of 3H hypoxanthine. In the case of B rodhaini there was close correlation between the ability of the parasites to incorporate 3H hypoxanthine and their infectivity for mice. Both types of activity were abolished at doses of 40 krad and above. (author)

  6. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory


    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  7. Distributed Amplify and Forward Cooperation While Maintaining Transmission Freedom

    L. Chen


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study proposes a novel Distributed Amplify and-Forward (DAF cooperative scheme, achieving higher diver¬sity order and yet maintaining the same transmission freedom as the conventional Amplify-and-Forward (AF scheme. In the DAF scheme, a user’s transmitted symbols are partitioned into several sequences in order to be relayed by different users. Approach: In the cooperative network, each user still uses half of their transmission for relaying others’ signals. But instead of relaying one user’s entire transmitted sequence, it helps different users for the relaying. Theoretical analysis of the DAF scheme is carried out in order to justify its advantages over the existing schemes. The outage behavior and Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT analyses of the DAF scheme are presented. Results: Through outage behavior analysis, it is shown the DAF scheme achieves substantial diversity gains over the AF scheme. Furthermore, the DMT analysis justices both the scheme’s achievable diversity gains and its ability to maintain the same multiplexing gain as the AF scheme. The theoretical analyses are then extended to a general cooperative network consisting of N (N≥2 relays, showing the diversity order can be increased with respect to the number of relays but not at the expense of each user’s multiplexing gain. Conclusion: Finally, a practical coded cooperative system that integrates the DAF scheme with the concatenated Reed-Solomon Convolution Codes (RSCC is proposed, validating the achievable performance gain offered by the DAF scheme.

  8. Human sclera maintains common characteristics with cartilage throughout evolution.

    Yuko Seko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived from the neural crest and mesoderm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated microarray data of cultured human infant scleral cells. Hierarchical clustering was performed to group scleral cells and other mesenchymal cells into subcategories. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed similarity between scleral cells and auricular cartilage-derived cells. Cultured micromasses of scleral cells exposed to TGF-betas and BMP2 produced an abundant matrix. The expression of cartilage-associated genes, such as Indian hedge hog, type X collagen, and MMP13, was up-regulated within 3 weeks in vitro. These results suggest that human 'sclera'-derived cells can be considered chondrocytes when cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study shows a chondrogenic potential of human sclera. Interestingly, the sclera of certain vertebrates, such as birds and fish, is composed of hyaline cartilage. Although the human sclera is not a cartilaginous tissue, the human sclera maintains chondrogenic potential throughout evolution. In addition, our findings directly explain an enigma that the sclera and the joint cartilage are common targets of inflammatory cells in rheumatic arthritis. The present global gene expression database will contribute to the clarification of the pathogenesis of developmental diseases such as high myopia.

  9. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  10. Columbia River pathway report

    This report summarizes the river-pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project is estimating radiation doses that could have been received by the public from the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the river-pathway dose reconstruction effort sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the area from above the Hanford Site at Priest Rapids Dam to below the site at McNary Dam from January 1964 to December 1966. Of the potential sources of radionuclides from the river, fish consumption was the most important. Doses from drinking water were lower at Pasco than at Richland and lower at Kennewick than at Pasco. The median values of preliminary dose estimates calculated by HEDR are similar to independent, previously published estimates of average doses to Richland residents. Later phases of the HEDR Project will address dose estimates for periods other than 1964--1966 and for populations downstream of McNary Dam. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  11. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis

    Stacey A. N. D’Mello


    Full Text Available Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis.

  12. Signaling Pathways in Melanogenesis.

    D'Mello, Stacey A N; Finlay, Graeme J; Baguley, Bruce C; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E


    Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. They arise from pluripotent neural crest cells and differentiate in response to a complex network of interacting regulatory pathways. Melanins are pigment molecules that are endogenously synthesized by melanocytes. The light absorption of melanin in skin and hair leads to photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display coloring. Melanins are also powerful cation chelators and may act as free radical sinks. Melanin formation is a product of complex biochemical events that starts from amino acid tyrosine and its metabolite, dopa. The types and amounts of melanin produced by melanocytes are determined genetically and are influenced by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as hormonal changes, inflammation, age and exposure to UV light. These stimuli affect the different pathways in melanogenesis. In this review we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in melanogenesis and explain how intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate melanin production. We will also explain the regulatory roles of different proteins involved in melanogenesis. PMID:27428965

  13. The Reactome pathway Knowledgebase.

    Fabregat, Antonio; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Garapati, Phani; Gillespie, Marc; Hausmann, Kerstin; Haw, Robin; Jassal, Bijay; Jupe, Steven; Korninger, Florian; McKay, Sheldon; Matthews, Lisa; May, Bruce; Milacic, Marija; Rothfels, Karen; Shamovsky, Veronica; Webber, Marissa; Weiser, Joel; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming; Stein, Lincoln; Hermjakob, Henning; D'Eustachio, Peter


    The Reactome Knowledgebase ( provides molecular details of signal transduction, transport, DNA replication, metabolism and other cellular processes as an ordered network of molecular transformations-an extended version of a classic metabolic map, in a single consistent data model. Reactome functions both as an archive of biological processes and as a tool for discovering unexpected functional relationships in data such as gene expression pattern surveys or somatic mutation catalogues from tumour cells. Over the last two years we redeveloped major components of the Reactome web interface to improve usability, responsiveness and data visualization. A new pathway diagram viewer provides a faster, clearer interface and smooth zooming from the entire reaction network to the details of individual reactions. Tool performance for analysis of user datasets has been substantially improved, now generating detailed results for genome-wide expression datasets within seconds. The analysis module can now be accessed through a RESTFul interface, facilitating its inclusion in third party applications. A new overview module allows the visualization of analysis results on a genome-wide Reactome pathway hierarchy using a single screen page. The search interface now provides auto-completion as well as a faceted search to narrow result lists efficiently. PMID:26656494

  14. Recommended techniques for effective maintainability. A continuous improvement initiative of the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee


    This manual presents a series of recommended techniques that can increase overall operational effectiveness of both flight and ground based NASA systems. It provides a set of tools that minimizes risk associated with: (1) restoring failed functions (both ground and flight based); (2) conducting complex and highly visible maintenance operations; and (3) sustaining a technical capability to support the NASA mission using aging equipment or facilities. It considers (1) program management - key elements of an effective maintainability effort; (2) design and development - techniques that have benefited previous programs; (3) analysis and test - quantitative and qualitative analysis processes and testing techniques; and (4) operations and operational design techniques that address NASA field experience. This document is a valuable resource for continuous improvement ideas in executing the systems development process in accordance with the NASA 'better, faster, smaller, and cheaper' goal without compromising safety.

  15. Epigenetic Pathways of Oncogenic Viruses: Therapeutic Promises.

    El-Araby, Amr M; Fouad, Abdelrahman A; Hanbal, Amr M; Abdelwahab, Sara M; Qassem, Omar M; El-Araby, Moustafa E


    Cancerous transformation comprises different events that are both genetic and epigenetic. The ultimate goal for such events is to maintain cell survival and proliferation. This transformation occurs as a consequence of different features such as environmental and genetic factors, as well as some types of infection. Many viral infections are considered to be causative agents of a number of different malignancies. To convert normal cells into cancerous cells, oncogenic viruses must function at the epigenetic level to communicate with their host cells. Oncogenic viruses encode certain epigenetic factors that lead to the immortality and proliferation of infected cells. The epigenetic effectors produced by oncogenic viruses constitute appealing targets to prevent and treat malignant diseases caused by these viruses. In this review, we highlight the importance of epigenetic reprogramming for virus-induced oncogenesis, with special emphasis on viral epigenetic oncoproteins as therapeutic targets. The discovery of molecular components that target epigenetic pathways, especially viral factors, is also discussed. PMID:26754591

  16. Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability

    Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.


    Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS

  17. How to maintain nuclear competence and knowledge management in Europe

    possible measures envisaged at European level should especially support those candidate countries that are using nuclear power. All states must have their own access to the appropriate nuclear education and research programmes. This support is important for the whole European nuclear community to ensure the continued safe operation and decommissioning of nuclear plants in the future. Another aspect to be taken fully into consideration is the fact that assuring nuclear education and training and maintaining nuclear competence necessitates the existence of a significant infrastructure. This costly infrastructure has lasted several decades but over the past few years has undergone many changes in response to the needs of a changing nuclear sector. An appropriate infrastructure, which meets future needs, has to be maintained, but this has to be in a sustainable way and with the necessary means. Steps need to be taken to proactively define what are an appropriate infrastructure and the possible measures, which can be used to ensure its continued support. (authors)

  18. Pathways to Global Markets

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.


    . An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its......For marketing and economic researchers, an important aspect of globalization is the degree to which various consumer behavior dimensions and consumption patterns in different parts of the world are becoming similar, and how multinational companies have identified pathways to global success...

  19. Summer 2014 Pathways Report

    Hand, Zachary


    Over the summer I had the exciting opportunity to work for NASA at the Kennedy Space Center as a Mission Assurance Engineering intern. When I was offered a position in mission assurance for the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate's Launch Services Division, I didn't really know what I would be doing, but I knew it would be an excellent opportunity to learn and grow professionally. In this report I will provide some background information on the Launch Services Division, as well as detail my duties and accomplishments during my time as an intern. Additionally, I will relate the significance of my work experience to my current academic work and future career goals. This report contains background information on Mission Assurance Engineering, a description of my duties and accomplishments over the summer of 2014, and relates the significance of my work experience to my school work and future career goals. It is a required document for the Pathways program.

  20. Desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists.

    Shord, Stacy S; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Badowski, Melissa; Banderas, Julie; Burton, Michael E; Chapleau, Christopher A; Gallagher, Jason C; Matsuura, Gregory; Parli, Sara E; Yunker, Nancy


    The 2012 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Certification Affairs Committee was charged with developing guidelines for the desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists. This document summarizes recommendations for postgraduate education and training for graduates of U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy and describes the preferred pathways for achieving, demonstrating, and maintaining competence as clinical pharmacists. After initial licensure within the state or jurisdiction in which the pharmacist intends to practice, completion of an accredited PGY1 pharmacy residency is recommended to further develop the knowledge and skills needed to optimize medication therapy outcomes. An accredited PGY2 pharmacy residency should be completed if a pharmacist wishes to seek employment in a specific therapeutic area or practice setting, if such a residency exists. Clinical pharmacists intending to conduct advanced research that is competitive for federal funding are encouraged to complete a fellowship or graduate education. Initial certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) or other appropriate sponsoring organizations should be completed in the desired primary therapeutic area or practice setting within 2 years after accepting a position within the desired specific therapeutic area or practice setting. Clinical pharmacists subsequently will need to meet the requirements to maintain pharmacist licensure and board certification. Traineeships, practice-based activities, and certificate programs can be used to obtain additional knowledge and skills that support professional growth. Pharmacists are strongly encouraged to adopt a lifelong, systematic process for professional development and work with ACCP and other professional organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of innovative strategies to assess core practice competencies. PMID:23401084

  1. The Histone H3 Methyltransferase G9A Epigenetically Activates the Serine-Glycine Synthesis Pathway to Sustain Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation

    Ding, Jane; Li, Tai; Wang, Xiangwei; Zhao, Erhu; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Yang, Liqun; Zha, Yunhong; Zheng DONG; Huang, Shuang; John M. Asara; CUI, HONGJUAN; Ding, Han-Fei


    Increased activation of the serine-glycine biosynthetic pathway is an integral part of cancer metabolism that drives macromolecule synthesis needed for cell proliferation. Whether this pathway is under epigenetic control is unknown. Here we show that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase G9A is required for maintaining the pathway enzyme genes in an active state marked by H3K9 monomethylation and for the transcriptional activation of this pathway in response to serine deprivation. ...

  2. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  3. Combinatorial pathway assembly in yeast

    Khalil Essani


    Full Text Available With the emergence of synthetic biology and the vast knowledge about individual biocatalytic reactions, the challenge nowadays is to implement whole natural or synthetic pathways into microorganisms. For this purpose balanced enzyme activities throughout the pathway need to be achieved in addition to simple functional gene expression to avoid bottlenecks and to obtain high titers of the desired product. As the optimization of pathways in a specific biological context is often hard to achieve by rational design, combinatorial approaches have been developed to address this issue. Here, current strategies and proof of concepts for combinatorial pathway assembly in yeasts are reviewed. By exploiting its ability to join multiple DNA fragments in a very efficient and easy manner, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not only constitute an attractive host for heterologous pathway expression, but also for assembling pathways by recombination in vivo.

  4. Maintaining genetic integrity in aging: a zero sum game.

    Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan


    Aging of somatic cells can be defined as the gradual loss of the information embedded in the global and local properties of complex macromolecular networks. This loss of information may reflect the dynamic interplay between stochastic factors, such as the accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage, and gene-encoded programmatic responses. This would ultimately result in loss of function, impaired response to environmental challenge, and a progressively increased incidence of disease. Here the authors present the case for aging as a continuous battle between maintaining genomic integrity and ensuring sufficient cell functional mass. Focusing on aging of the liver in rodents, evidence is presented that normal aging is associated with a gradual accumulation of random alterations in the DNA of the genome as a consequence of imperfect DNA repair and a decrease in the rate of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis is the cell's genome maintenance mechanism of last resort and an imbalance towards apoptosis can contribute to manifestations of aging-related phenotypes, as exemplified by mouse models of premature aging due to genetic defects in genome maintenance. Prospects to reset the clock in this zero sum game between survival and the maintenance of phenotypic integrity will be discussed. PMID:16677100

  5. Reliability and maintainability analysis of electrical system of drum shearers

    SEYED Hadi Hoseinie; MOHAMMAD Ataei; REZA Khalokakaie; UDAY Kumar


    The reliability and maintainability of electrical system of drum shearer at Parvade.l Coal Mine in central Iran was analyzed. The maintenance and failure data were collected during 19 months of shearer operation. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the data were independent and identically distributed (iid) and therefore the statistical techniques were used for modeling. The data analysis show that the time between failures (TBF) and time to repair (TTR) data obey the lognormal and Weibull 3 parameters distribution respectively. Reliability-based preventive maintenance time intervals for electrical system of the drum shearer were calculated with regard to reliability plot. The reliability-based maintenance intervals for 90%, 80%, 70% and 50% reliability level are respectively 9.91, 17.96, 27.56 and 56.1 h. Also the calculations show that time to repair (TTR) of this system varies in range 0.17-4 h with 1.002 h as mean time to repair (MTTR). There is a 80% chance that the electrical system of shearer of Parvade.l mine repair will be accomplished within 1.45 h.

  6. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard


    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  7. Maintaining maximum valid data recovery from a meteorological monitoring system

    Meteorological monitoring at a nuclear plant is mandatory and must satisfy specific US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. Meteorological monitoring requirements have changed dramatically since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant accident, and it has become an integral part of nuclear emergency preparedness. The manner in which a meteorological monitoring network at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant is being maintained assures a maximum value of valid data recovery for all meteorological parameters. Only data that are reliable and valid can be used for making the proper decisions for safety in the event of an on-site plant emergency. The local weather conditions must be known at all times in the event of a radioactive release, so that plume dispersion can be satisfactorily evaluated and protective action recommendations can be taken. It an evacuation is deemed necessary, this evacuation must take place in the proper direction to fully protect the general public. By following the guidelines developed for use at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plants valid data recovery well in excess of 95% has been achieved during the plants 15 yr of operation

  8. Customer retention: maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market

    Wright, T. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)


    The current market environment in the electricity industry is one of changing regulations with many of the rules being developed. There is a great deal of customer confusion and uncertainty with some customers unaware of their contestable status and many are insecure about mixing retail and distribution supplies. This paper discusses customer retention and maintaining the competitive edge in the retail market. It draws on some conclusions from a survey released by the Australian Chamber of Manufacturers entitled `Customer feedback on Victoria`s competitive electricity market`. An overview is presented of the retail market in Australia which is one of very strong price-based competition, with as yet little differentiation. A process is described for retaining customers which involves asking the customer what he/she wants in a language which they understand. The best way to determine customer needs is through a combination of internal and external sources. Enhancing customer loyalty and differentiating and marketing the product are also discussed. As the market matures, customer retention and satisfaction will be based on value added services at a reasonable cost. (author). 6 figs.

  9. Mosquito C-type lectins maintain gut microbiome homeostasis.

    Pang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rudian; Liu, Jianying; Liu, Qiyong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong


    The long-term evolutionary interaction between the host immune system and symbiotic bacteria determines their cooperative rather than antagonistic relationship. It is known that commensal bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms to manipulate the mammalian host immune system and maintain homeostasis. However, the strategies employed by the microbiome to overcome host immune responses in invertebrates still remain to be understood. Here, we report that the gut microbiome in mosquitoes utilizes C-type lectins (mosGCTLs) to evade the bactericidal capacity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Aedes aegypti mosGCTLs facilitate colonization by multiple bacterial strains. Furthermore, maintenance of the gut microbial flora relies on the expression of mosGCTLs in A. aegypti. Silencing the orthologues of mosGCTL in another major mosquito vector (Culex pipiens pallens) also impairs the survival of gut commensal bacteria. The gut microbiome stimulates the expression of mosGCTLs, which coat the bacterial surface and counteract AMP activity. Our study describes a mechanism by which the insect symbiotic microbiome offsets gut immunity to achieve homeostasis. PMID:27572642

  10. A Cdc2 dependent checkpoint maintains diploidy in Drosophila.

    Hayashi, S


    DNA replication in G2 does not normally occur due to the checkpoint control. To elucidate its mechanism, the functions of the escargot and Dmcdc2 genes of Drosophila were studied. When escargot function was eliminated, diploid imaginal cells that were arrested in G2 lost Cyclin A, a regulatory subunit of G2/M cdk, and entered an endocycle. escargot genetically interacted with Dmcdc2 which encodes a catalytic subunit of G2/M cdk. The mutant phenotypes of Dmcdc2 itself was similar to those of escargot: many diploid cells in imaginal discs, salivary glands and the central nervous system entered an endocycle and sometimes formed polytene chromosomes. Since mitotically quiescent abdominal histoblasts still required Dmcdc2 to remain diploid, the inhibitory activity of G2/M cdk on DNA replication appeared to be separable from its activity as the mitosis promoting factor. These results suggest that in G2, escargot is required to maintain a high level of G2/M cdk that actively inhibits the entry into S phase. PMID:8620832

  11. Microstructure and properties of novel polarization maintaining fiber

    LI Mei-cheng; LIU Li-hua; XUE Jian-jun; XIAO Tian-peng; LIANG Le-tian; ZHAO Lian-cheng


    An improved type of elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber was developed by using a modified chemical vapor deposition method with special treatment. Different from conventional elliptical jacket, the shape of the stress jacket was transmuted. The cross-section of fiber consists of 5 layers: substrate, outer cladding, stress jacket, inner cladding and core. The cross sectional component distribution was investigated by electron probe microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum. The finite element method was used to calculate the stress birefringence. Based on the analyses of the microstructure, the technological process is improved. The temperature cycling test of the fiber wound into gyroscope coils was performed. The results show that the fiber possesses superior performance at high and low temperatures compared with other fibers. The high homogeneity is achieved by well-controlled modified chemical vapor deposition process. A homogeneous length of 8 km fiber is obtained. With advantages in homogeneity and length, the fiber has great potential in applications such as fiber gyroscopes, fiber hydrophone and other optical fiber sensors.

  12. Polarization-maintaining amplifier based on 3C fiber structures

    Enokidani, Jun; Ito, Rumi; Sakurai, Tsutomu; Shin, Sumida; Tei, Kazuyoku


    Chirally-Coupled-Core (3C) fiber structure can preserve a single mode quality and even a linear polarization for a large core size. A principal advantage of fiber laser is its compatibility with monolithic integration and robust system. But so far, devices such as a combiner using the 3C fibers have not been reported. Here we report the first demonstration of such monolithic amplifier structure which contains an active fiber and a combiner based on 3C fibers. A single-stage amplifier is seeded by an EO Q-switched micro-laser and pumped by two high power fiber pigtailed 976-nm laser diodes via an in-house fabricated (2 + 1) × 1 pump signal combiner. The active fiber is based on a 3-m-long, 3C Yb-doped fiber (33 μm/250 μm core/cladding diameter with 0.06/0.46 NA). The amplifier demonstrates scaling up to 30W average power and 150 kW peak power in 0.3mJ, 2ns pulses. The beam profiles and beam qualities were characterized as its output power was varied up to 30W. The beam profile was maintained at a high beam quality of around M2=1.2. The spectral properties of the 3C fiber were also characterized as its output peak power was varied.

  13. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David


    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

  14. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie


    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  15. SMARCAL1 maintains telomere integrity during DNA replication.

    Poole, Lisa A; Zhao, Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G; Lovejoy, Courtney A; Eischen, Christine M; Cortez, David


    The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique cellular activities. Here, we present data showing that SMARCAL1 has an important function at telomeres, which present an endogenous source of replication stress. SMARCAL1-deficient cells accumulate telomere-associated DNA damage and have greatly elevated levels of extrachromosomal telomere DNA (C-circles). Although these telomere phenotypes are often found in tumor cells using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere elongation, SMARCAL1 deficiency does not yield other ALT phenotypes such as elevated telomere recombination. The activity of SMARCAL1 at telomeres can be separated from its genome-maintenance activity in bulk chromosomal replication because it does not require interaction with replication protein A. Finally, this telomere-maintenance function is not shared by ZRANB3 or HLTF. Our results provide the first identification, to our knowledge, of an endogenous source of replication stress that requires SMARCAL1 for resolution and define differences between members of this class of replication fork-repair enzymes. PMID:26578802

  16. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  17. Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells

    It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, led to reduced β-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate

  18. ATRX Plays a Key Role in Maintaining Silencing at Interstitial Heterochromatic Loci and Imprinted Genes.

    Voon, Hsiao P J; Hughes, Jim R; Rode, Christina; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A; Jenuwein, Thomas; Feil, Robert; Higgs, Douglas R; Gibbons, Richard J


    Histone H3.3 is a replication-independent histone variant, which replaces histones that are turned over throughout the entire cell cycle. H3.3 deposition at euchromatin is dependent on HIRA, whereas ATRX/Daxx deposits H3.3 at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres. The role of H3.3 at heterochromatic regions is unknown, but mutations in the ATRX/Daxx/H3.3 pathway are linked to aberrant telomere lengthening in certain cancers. In this study, we show that ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 is not limited to pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres but also occurs at heterochromatic sites throughout the genome. Notably, ATRX/H3.3 specifically localizes to silenced imprinted alleles in mouse ESCs. ATRX KO cells failed to deposit H3.3 at these sites, leading to loss of the H3K9me3 heterochromatin modification, loss of repression, and aberrant allelic expression. We propose a model whereby ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 into heterochromatin is normally required to maintain the memory of silencing at imprinted loci. PMID:25865896

  19. ATRX Plays a Key Role in Maintaining Silencing at Interstitial Heterochromatic Loci and Imprinted Genes

    Hsiao P.J. Voon


    Full Text Available Histone H3.3 is a replication-independent histone variant, which replaces histones that are turned over throughout the entire cell cycle. H3.3 deposition at euchromatin is dependent on HIRA, whereas ATRX/Daxx deposits H3.3 at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres. The role of H3.3 at heterochromatic regions is unknown, but mutations in the ATRX/Daxx/H3.3 pathway are linked to aberrant telomere lengthening in certain cancers. In this study, we show that ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 is not limited to pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres but also occurs at heterochromatic sites throughout the genome. Notably, ATRX/H3.3 specifically localizes to silenced imprinted alleles in mouse ESCs. ATRX KO cells failed to deposit H3.3 at these sites, leading to loss of the H3K9me3 heterochromatin modification, loss of repression, and aberrant allelic expression. We propose a model whereby ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 into heterochromatin is normally required to maintain the memory of silencing at imprinted loci.

  20. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin


    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  1. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling


    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism. PMID:26902078

  2. Estrogen Receptor α Is Required for Maintaining Baseline Renin Expression.

    Lu, Ko-Ting; Keen, Henry L; Weatherford, Eric T; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel; Sigmund, Curt D


    Enzymatic cleavage of angiotensinogen by renin represents the critical rate-limiting step in the production of angiotensin II, but the mechanisms regulating the initial expression of the renin gene remain incomplete. The purpose of this study is to unravel the molecular mechanism controlling renin expression. We identified a subset of nuclear receptors that exhibited an expression pattern similar to renin by reanalyzing a publicly available microarray data set. Expression of some of these nuclear receptors was similarly regulated as renin in response to physiological cues, which are known to regulate renin. Among these, only estrogen receptor α (ERα) and hepatic nuclear factor α have no known function in regulating renin expression. We determined that ERα is essential for the maintenance of renin expression by transfection of small interfering RNAs targeting Esr1, the gene encoding ERα, in renin-expressing As4.1 cells. We also observed that previously characterized negative regulators of renin expression, Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor, exhibited elevated expression in response to ERα inhibition. Therefore, we tested whether ERα regulates renin expression through an interaction with Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor. Renin expression did not return to baseline when we concurrently suppressed both Esr1 and Nr2f2 or Esr1 and vitamin D receptor mRNAs, strongly suggesting that Esr1 regulates renin expression independent of Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor. ERα directly binds to the hormone response element within the renin enhancer region. We conclude that ERα is a previously unknown regulator of renin that directly binds to the renin enhancer hormone response element sequence and is critical in maintaining renin expression in renin-expressing As4.1 cells. PMID:26928806

  3. Management of wound infection after lumbar arthrodesis maintaining the instrumentation

    Asdrubal Falavigna


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determinate whether a surgical protocol with immediate extensive debridement, closed irrigation system and antibiotic therapy would be effective to achieve healing of deep wound infection without removing the instrumentation.METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 19 patients presenting degenerative spinal stenosis or degenerative spondylolisthesis, who developed infection after posterior lumbar arthrodesis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a microbial culture from subfascial lumbar fluid and/or blood. Patients were treated with a protocol of wound exploration, extensive flushing and debridement, placement of a closed irrigation system that was maintained for five days and intravenous antibiotics. The instrumentation system was not removed.RESULTS: Mean age was 59.31 (±13.17 years old and most patients were female (94.7%; 18/19. The mean period for the identification of the infection was 2 weeks and 57.9% underwent a single wound exploration. White blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein showed a significant decrease post-treatment when compared to pre-treatment values. A significant reduction of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein was also observed at the final evaluation. No laboratory test was useful to predict the need for more than one debridement.CONCLUSION: Patients with wound infection after instrumentation can be treated without removal of the instrumentation through wound exploration, extensive flushing, debridement of necrotic tissue, closed irrigation system during 5 days and proper antibiotic therapy. The blood tests were not useful to predict surgical re-interventions.

  4. Maintaining staff competence-a NPP operator viewpoint

    For a nuclear power plant operator, it is crucial to guarantee the safe and economic operation of the power plant as well as to look after the general acceptability of nuclear power. As to human resources management, this requires continuous maintenance and enhancement of the performance of the individuals and organisation. To this end, several development projects have recently been implemented by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, which consists of twin 840 MWe BWR units that commenced their operation in 1978 and 1980. Systematic initial and continuing training programmes are needed to maintain the technical and managerial skills and know-how at a high level. The present stabile state of nuclear power, i.e. operation of ageing plants with personnel ageing as well, requires a variety of actions to reinforce the training efforts. At Olkiluoto NPP, we have carried out an extensive modernization programme that allowed the personnel to strengthen their knowledge and supplement it with the most recent results of development. We have also closely monitored the NPP development projects of the vendors, which has added to the preservation of know-how and understanding of advanced nuclear power technology. We have close contacts to the research institutes and universities, and have performed R and D activities to limited extent. In addition to the projects mentioned above, a co-ordinated development programme, 'TVO 2002', was initiated last year. The main objective of this programme is to ensure the functional preconditions and the competitiveness of the company in a changing environment. The management and operational procedures will be developed in such a way that the goals set for year 2002 will be achieved. The programme is organised as ten projects, which cover a variety of development subjects. One of the focal areas includes projects that can be characterised with the words 'Survey of competencies' and 'Preservation of know

  5. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl


    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  6. Human STEAP3 maintains tumor growth under hypoferric condition

    Isobe, Taichi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Baba, Eishi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arita, Shuji, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Komoda, Masato, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tamura, Shingo, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ariyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Takaishi, Shigeo, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kusaba, Hitoshi, E-mail: [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); and others


    Iron is essential in cellular proliferation and survival based on its crucial roles in DNA and ATP synthesis. Tumor cells proliferate rapidly even in patients with low serum iron, although their actual mechanisms are not well known. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of efficient tumor progression under the hypoferric condition, we studied the roles of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate family member 3 (STEAP3), which was reported to facilitate iron uptake. Using Raji cells with low STEAP3 mRNA expression, human STEAP3-overexpressing cells were established. The impact of STEAP3 expression was analyzed about the amount of iron storage, the survival under hypoferric conditions in vitro and the growth of tumor in vivo. STEAP3 overexpression increased ferritin, an indicator of iron storage, in STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells. STEAP3 gave Raji cells the resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis. These STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells preserved efficient growth even in hypoferric mice, while parental Raji cells grew less rapidly. In addition, iron deficiency enhanced STEAP3 mRNA expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, human colorectal cancer tissues exhibited more STEAP3 mRNA expression and iron storage compared with normal colon mucosa. These findings indicate that STEAP3 maintains iron storage in human malignant cells and tumor proliferation under the hypoferric condition. -- Highlights: {yields} STEAP3 expression results in increment of stored intracellular iron. {yields} Iron deprivation induces expression of STEAP3. {yields} Colorectal cancer expresses STEAP3 highly and stores iron much. {yields} STEAP3 expressing tumors preserves growth even in mice being hypoferremia.

  7. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

    Piller Sabine C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be assessed. Results: Two cell culture models were used: HIV-1-infected CEM T-cells and HEK293T cells transfected with a proviral DNA plasmid. In both models, AdOx treatment of cells increased the levels of virion in culture supernatant. However, these viruses had increased levels of unprocessed or partially processed Gag-Pol, significantly increased diameter, and displayed reduced infectivity in a MAGI X4 assay. AdOx reduced infectivity equally in both dividing and non-dividing cells. However, infectivity was further reduced if Vpr was deleted suggesting virion proteins, other than Vpr, were affected by protein methylation. Endogenous reverse transcription was not inhibited in AdOx-treated HIV-1, and infectivity could be restored by pseudotyping HIV with VSV-G envelope protein. These experiments suggest that AdOx affects an early event between receptor binding and uncoating, but not reverse transcription. Conclusion: Overall, we have shown for the first time that protein methylation contributes towards maximal virus infectivity. Furthermore, our results also indicate that protein methylation regulates HIV-1 infectivity in a complex manner most likely involving the methylation of multiple viral or cellular proteins and/or multiple steps of replication.

  9. Suppression of the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway by the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX

    Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Scott, Caroline; Mitson, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Higgs, Douglas R.; Gibbons, Richard J.


    Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in replica...

  10. Exploring the Symmetry and Mechanism of Virus Capsid Maturation Via an Ensemble of Pathways

    May, Eric R.; Feng, Jun; Brooks, Charles L.


    Many icosahedral viruses undergo large-scale conformational transitions between icosahedrally symmetric conformations during their life cycles. However, whether icosahedral symmetry is maintained along the transition pathways for this process is unknown. By employing a simplified and directed structure-based potential we compute an ensemble of transition pathways for the maturation transition of bacteriophage HK97. We observe localized symmetry-breaking events, but find that the large-scale d...