Sample records for chorionic gonadotropin

  1. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

    Michael J. Russell


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  2. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    I.W. Santos; Binsfeld, L. C.; Weiss, R. R.; Kozicki, L. E.


    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg) for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G): (1) receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n = 30), (2...

  3. Beta-Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Malignant Lymphoma : An Immunohistochemical Study

    Senba, Masachika; Watanabe, Masami


    We present a rare case of a 77-year-old Japanese man with malignant lymphoma associated with production of beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the cytoplasms of lymphoma cells in the lymph nodes. By immunoperoxidase staining, numerous tumor cells were reacted with beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. To the best of our knowledge, production of beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the cytoplasm of lymphoma cells has not been reported. This patient evidences that...

  4. [Demonstration and evolution of chorionic gonadotropin in ewes].

    Lacroix, M C; Martal, J


    Occurrence of ovine Chorionic Gonadotropin (oCG) is demonstrated in placenta and amniotic fluid with the use of a radioreceptor assay (corpus luteum membranes) in ewes. Identification of oCG is possible as early as 15th day of pregnancy. It should be secreted at a constant rate, and its maximum concentration is recorded on the 130th day. This hormonal factor might be one of the major components accountable for high progesteronemia observed during the 100 last days of pregnancy. PMID:110484

  5. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    I. W. Santos


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  6. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

    Strakova Zuzana


    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  7. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches.

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T


    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p similar in all groups. In accordance with the above-mentioned alteration, the progesterone concentration in the gonadotropin group (II) was increased (p similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies. PMID:27321641

  8. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter


    hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the...

  9. Secretion of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin by non-small cell lung cancer: a case report

    Varma Seema; Vivekanandarajah Abhirami; Khattri Saakshi; Kong Frank


    Abstract Introduction We describe a case of non-small cell lung cancer that was found to stain positive for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. Only a few case reports have described lung cancers that secrete beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian man presented with symptoms of weakness, fatigue and weight loss for the past two months. On examination, he was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy, and radiologic workup revealed n...

  10. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Stančić Ivan B; Bošnjak Darko V; Radović Ivan B; Stančić Blagoje L.; Harvey Roger B; Anderson Robin C


    Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty) is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal) or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on the...

  11. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study

    Murhekar Kanchan; Anuratha Jayaram; Majhi Urmila; Rajkumar Thangarajan


    Context: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG), a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas. Its role in disease progression remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor. Setting and Design: A hospital-based, immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty formali...

  12. A test of maternal human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy as an adaptive filter of human gestations

    Bruckner, Tim A; Saxton, Katherine B.; Pearl, Michelle; Currier, Robert; Kharrazi, Martin


    The risk of abnormalities and morbidity among live births increases with advanced maternal age. Explanations for this elevated morbidity invoke several maternal mechanisms. The relaxed filter stringency (RFS) hypothesis asserts that mothers, nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, reduce the stringency of a screen of offspring quality in utero based on life-history traits of parity and interbirth interval (IBI). A separate line of research implicates human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...

  13. An unexpected reason for elevated human chorionic gonadotropin in a young woman. Cervical squamous carcinoma.

    Mustafa, Aynur; Bozdag, Zehra; Tepe, Neslihan B; Ozcan, Husiyen C


    Human chorionic gonadotropin has been used for decades, in addition to specific investigations, to detect pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, as well as congenital defects. Rarely, it can be elevated in  non-trophoblastic tumors such as squamous cell cancers and germ cell tumors. A 33-year-old Asian Syrian female had irregular menses accompanied with feelings of heaviness in the vagina. In addition to routine investigations, we measured the serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) level (based on the patient's complaint of amenorrhea), which was 50.05 ml UI/ml. Cervical biopsy revealed a non-keratinized large cell squamous carcinoma. After excluding other causes, ß-hCG elevation was explained by the ectopic secretion of cancer cells line. Cervical biopsy was suggestive of large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and positive for human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. As a result, we manage the possibility of ectopic secretion of ß-HCG from non- trophoblastic disease. PMID:27464870


    WangHaifeng; XuYutai; 等


    Separation and purification of human chorionic gonadotropion(HCG) in the urine sample of early pregnant women by D3520 resin adsorption chromatography is reported.The crude product obtained by DEAE-Cellulose 23 and DEAE-Sephadex A50 column chromatography showed a high activity of HCG. Further purification of the sample by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G75 column gives a final preparation of 6000-6500 IU/mg.The preparation meets the requirements of the pyrogn test in Chinese Law of Pharmacopeia.

  15. Quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin with the Abbott IMx immunochemistry analyzer.

    van Oers, R J; Leerkes, B; Bertschi, I


    The analytical performance of the Abbott IMx automated system was studied and initial results from the human chorionic gonadotropin assay are presented: Within run and between day precision was good, the majority of all CVs lying between 3 and 5%; Patient results showed excellent comparability with our routine method; No significant specimen-related carry-over was detected; The automated IMx dilution protocol was found to be superior to the manual procedure; The usefulness of the instrument in routine use and as a "Stat" analyzer was very good. PMID:2179460

  16. Stimulation of vitellogenin uptake in Stage IV Xenopus oocytes by treatment with chorionic gonadotropin in vitro

    Ovarian fragments from Xenopus laevis were incubated with various concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and Stage IV oocytes were subsequently tested for their ability to incorporate vitellogenin. Such oocytes displayed incorporation rates up to 350% greater than controls. This was accompanied by increased endocytotic activity. hCG-stimulated uptake is dose dependent and reaches a maximum at 100 IU/ml, at which concentration ovulation also occurs. At 100 IU/ml of hCG, there is a lag period of at least 12 h between gonadotropin treatment and increased vitellogenin incorporation. Because hCG has little effect on isolated (dissected) cultured Stage IV oocytes which have lost their follicle cells, it is postulated that intact follicle cells are required for the induction of vitellogenin uptake

  17. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    Møller, Michael Boe


    Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (s-beta-hCG) is a widely used tumor marker in patients with testicular neoplasia. When elevated in patients with an enlarged testis it is considered as a strong indication of a germ cell tumor. Elevation of S-hCG-like material (S-hCG-1) has been reported in...

  18. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with {beta}-emitting radionuclides

    Maiti, Moumita [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Kamalika [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sen, Souvik [Malda Town Divisional Railway Hospital, Malda 732102 (India); Lahiri, Susanta, E-mail: [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)


    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added {beta}-emitting isotopes of {sup 61}Cu (3.3 h), {sup 62}Zn (9.2 h), {sup 90}Nb (14.60 h) and {sup 99}Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid.

  19. Kinetic Studies on the Total Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) IRMA Assay

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a two chains glycoprotein hormone normally found in blood and urine, only during pregnancy. It is secreted by placental tissue, beginning with the primitive trophoblast, almost from the time of implantation. The kinetics of the interaction between the hCG antigen and two matched antibodies, one labelled with radioactive isotope 125I (tracer) and the other is unlabelled and attached to a solid support (tube) , are studied using, two-sites (sandwich) Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) technique. A new method for determining the rate constants, using an advanced computer program (RKY) based on the Nelder-Mead optimisation principle is introduced. The rate constants, at three variable temperatures and three different antigen concentrations as well as the half time of exchange (t) were calculated

  20. Choriocarcinoma with negative urinary and serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β HCG : A case report

    Mehra Reeti


    Full Text Available This was a rare case where a patient presented clinically as a case of post abortal sepsis and ultrasound showing the picture of an intramural degenerating fibroid. Her serum and urine both were negative for b human chorionic gonadotropin (bHCG. Patient succumbed to choriocarcinoma 1 month later. Failure to detect urinary and serum bHCG lead to maternal mortality due to the choriocarcinoma. The failure to detect, certain degradation products of HCG which may predominate in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, by many common HCG testing kits lead to the error of diagnosis. Only 3 of the 7 common commercial serum HCG tests appropriately detects nicked HCG and its free bHCG, DPC immulite assay, being the most sensitive method. Though of rare occurrence, this awareness is important for diagnosis and follow-up of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and could have been life saving in our case.

  1. Evidence for, and Associated Risks with, the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Supplemented Diet.

    Butler, Stephen A; Cole, Laurence A


    Trend diets can be commonplace amongst those who are trying to lose weight but in most cases there is some shred of evidence to suggest they might be of some benefit. Seldom is there a diet which is such a fad that it is not only completely unfounded but also potential harmful. The human chorionic gonadotropin or "hCG diet" is such a diet, which after half a century still has no evidence to support its efficacy; in fact all scientific publications subsequent to the original article counter these claims. In this short communication, we review the literature and present data on exactly what some of the hCG diet preparations actually contain and highlight that, based on current data, these may do more harm than good. It is worrying that more consideration is not given to the possible danger of administration of hCG preparations to individuals without an evidence-based rational. PMID:27010890

  2. Inhibin and activin modulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone from cultured human placental cells.

    Petraglia, F; Vaughan, J.; Vale, W


    Although it is clear that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone play fundamental roles in pregnancy, the regulation of placental production of these hormones remains to be defined. Recent evidence suggests that the human placenta expresses proteins related to inhibin (alpha beta subunits) or activin (beta beta subunits). Inhibin and activin (follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein) possess opposing activities in several biological systems including pituitary follicle-stim...

  3. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function.

    Nagayama, Y; Wadsworth, H L; Chazenbalk, G D; Russo, D.; Seto, P; Rapoport, B


    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction we constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese ...

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya; Mitwally Mohamed F; Casper Robert F


    Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI). After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in timing ...

  5. Polymer nanoparticles as fluorescent labels in a fluoroimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin

    A sensitive fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) was developed for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG). It is based on fluorescent polymer nanoparticles (PFNPs) coated with anti-β-HCG monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich type of fluoroimmunoassay. The PFNPs were synthesized by precipitation polymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linker, azobisisobutyronitrile as the radical initiator, and fluorescein as the fluorophore. Anti-β-HCG monoclonal antibody was labeled with the PFNPs and then used in a FIA of β-HCG in human serum samples using low-fluorescent transparent 96-well microtiter plates. The calibration graph for β-HCG is linear over the range from 1. 25 to 300 mIU mL-1 with a detection limit of 0. 3 mIU mL-1 (3σ). The relative standard deviation for seven parallel measurements of 10 mIU mL-1 of β-HCG is 3. 8%. The method has the specificity of an immunoassay and the sensitivity of fluorescent nanoparticle label technology. (author)

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p=0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p>0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.(Author)

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in Sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p= 0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p> 0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values. (Authors)

  8. Solid-phase competitive and sandwich-type erythro-immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Gupta, S K; Guesdon, J L; Avrameas, S; Talwar, G P


    A simple '1-step' competitive erythro-immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) employing V-shaped well microtitration plates coated with monoclonal anti-beta-hCG antibody has been described. hCG of the test sample competes with the antigen-coupled sheep erythrocytes for binding to the antibody on the solid surface. The assay is able to detect up to 31.25 ng hCG/ml. A higher sensitivity enabling detection up to 0.25 ng hCG/ml is attained by the sandwich erythro-immunoassay using a chimera antibody prepared by coupling monoclonal anti-alpha-hCG antibody to an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody specific for sheep erythrocytes. This assay is amenable to the qualitative as well as quantitative use as described. The urinary components do not interfere in the assay. Results obtained by this assay on 47 human urine samples correlated well with the values obtained by '2-step' sandwich enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. PMID:2409175

  9. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  10. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Maryam Eftekhar


    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  11. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody interaction in BIAcore

    Banerjee Ashish; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy


    Kinetic studies of macromolecular ligand-ligate interaction have generated ample interest since the advent of plasmon resonance based instruments like BIAcore. Most of the studies reported in literature assume a simple 1 : 1 Langmuir binding and complete reversibility of the system. However we observed that in a high affinity antigen-antibody system [human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody (hCG-mAb)] dissociation is insignificant and the sensogram data cannot be used to measure the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. At low concentrations of mAb the complete sensogram could be fitted to a single exponential. Interestingly we found that at higher mAb concentrations, the binding data did not conform to a simple bimolecular model. Instead, the data fitted a two-step model, which may be because of surface heterogeneity of affinity sites. In this paper, we report on the global fit of the sensograms. We have developed a method by which a single two-minute sensogram can be used in high affinity systems to measure the association rate constant of the reaction and the functional capacity of the ligand (hCG) immobilized on the chip. We provide a rational explanation for the discrepancies generally observed in most of the BIAcore sensograms.

  12. Value of human chorionic gonadotropin compared to CEA in discriminating benign from malignant effusions.

    Lamerz, R; Stoetzer, O J; Mezger, J; Brandt, A; Darsow, M; Wilmanns, W


    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is expressed in germ cell tumors and urothelial, breast, lung and colon cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate if the determination of HCG in comparison with CEA is able to discriminate between malignant and benign effusions. Effusion and partially serum samples of 61 patients with benign (g.i., heart/kidney isnuff.) and 116 patients with malignant diseases (g.i., gynec., lung, misc., CUP) were investigated. HCG was specifically determined by an IRMA using 2 monoclonal antibodies, CEA by a conventional double Ab RIA. Cytological staining was preformed using the Pappenheim-method on cytospin preparations. Significant differences (p gynec. (32.1%) gynec. (60%) pleural effusions with high specificity (90% at 5 IU/l) but low sensitivity of 31% increasing in g.i., lung and gynecologic cases, CEA a more general TM with higher sensitivity of 45% increasing in g.i., gynecologic and lung cases (sp. 100% at 9 ng/ml) both adding significantly to cytology-negative effusions. PMID:10470169

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin: Different glycoforms and biological activity depending on its source of production.

    Fournier, Thierry


    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the first hormonal message from the placenta to the mother. It is detectable in maternal blood two days after implantation and behaves like a super LH agonist stimulating progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. In addition to maintaining the production of progesterone until the placenta itself produces it, hCG also has a role in myometrial quiescence and local immune tolerance. Specific to humans, hCG is a complex glycoprotein composed of two highly glycosylated subunits. The α-subunit is identical to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH, TSH), contains two N-glycosylation sites, and is encoded by a single gene (CGA). By contrast, the β-subunits are distinct for each hormones and confer both receptor and biological specificity, although LH and hCG bind to the same receptor (LH/CG-R). The hCG ß-subunit is encoded by a cluster of genes (CGB) and contains two sites of N-glycosylation and four sites of O-glycosylation. The hCG glycosylation state varies with the stage of pregnancy, its source of production and in the pathology. It is well established that hCG is mainly secreted into maternal blood, where it peaks at 8-10weeks of gestation (WG), by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST), which represents the endocrine tissue of the human placenta. The invasive extravillous trophoblast (iEVT) also secretes hCG, and in particular hyperglycosylated forms of hCG (hCG-H) also produced by choriocarcinoma cells. In maternal blood, hCG-H is elevated during early first trimester corresponding to the trophoblastic cell invasion process and then decreases. In addition to its endocrine role, hCG has autocrine and paracrine roles. It promotes formation of the ST and angiogenesis through LH/CG-R but has no effect on trophoblast invasion in vitro. By contrast, hCG-H stimulates trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis by interacting with the TGFß receptor in a LH/CG-R independent signalling pathway. hCG is largely used in antenatal screening

  14. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Stančić Ivan B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  15. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study

    Murhekar Kanchan


    Full Text Available Context: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG, a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas. Its role in disease progression remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor. Setting and Design: A hospital-based, immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from histopathologically confirmed cases of gastric carcinoma were immunostained using an indigenously developed antibody against βHCG. Tumors with diffuse reactivity to βHCG were considered as positive. Those with occasional, focal or no reactivity to βHCG were considered as negative. Statistical Analysis: Differences in βHCG staining were compared according to the histological grade and surgical stage using the χ2 test. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the time till the onset of development of an adverse outcome after surgery (defined as death, local or distant metastasis was compared between the bHCG positive and negative tumors. Results: Twenty-eight (18.7% of the 150 specimens were βHCG positive. No association was found between the histological grade (P=0.49 and the surgical stage (P=0.19 with βHCG positivity. The median disease-free survival after surgery was not different among bHCG positive and negative tumors. Risk of an adverse outcome after surgery was significantly associated with the stage of the tumor (Hazard ratio=2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.4. No association was observed with grade or βHCG positivity. Conclusion: βHCG immunoreactivity was observed in about one-fifth of the gastric cancers. bHCG reactivity, however, played no role in the biological behavior.

  16. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  17. Binding domains of stimulatory and inhibitory thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies determined with chimeric TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin receptors.

    Nagayama, Y; Wadsworth, H L; Russo, D.; Chazenbalk, G D; Rapoport, B


    We examined the relative effects of thyrotropin (TSH) and TSH receptor autoantibodies in the sera of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease on three TSH-lutropin/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor extracellular domain chimeras. Each chimera binds TSH with high affinity. Only the chimera with TSH receptor extracellular domains ABC (amino acids 1-260) had a functional (cAMP) response to thyroid stimulatory IgG. The chimeras with TSH receptor domains CD (amino acids 171-360) and DE (amino...

  18. Separation of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and immunoglobulin G by a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column

    Yang, Yongmo; Chae, Junseok


    This report describes a miniaturized size exclusion chromatography column that effectively preseparates raw samples for medical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The minicolumn is constructed of polydimethylsiloxane fabricated on a glass slide. The minicolumn separates 300 ng/ml of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) from an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-rich solution (100 μg/ml) in 7.7 min, with 2.23 resolution and 0.018 mm plate height. The complete analyte discrimination shows potential for the sample preparation stage of POCT devices for cancer screening, prognosis, and monitoring.

  19. Evaluation of melengestrol acetate and equine chorionic gonadotropin for out-of-season breeding in sheep on Prince Edward Island.

    Keefe, G P; Wichtel, J J


    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a recommended protocol of oral melengestrol acetate (MGA) to intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), for out-of-season breeding of sheep on Prince Edward Island. One hundred and twenty ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 groups in a factorial design and were treated with either an intravaginal MPA sponge or oral MGA. Ewes received either an intramuscular injection of eCG or a saline ...

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin and implantation%人绒毛膜促性腺激素与胚胎种植

    李洁; 陈晓燕; 徐少元


    Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)is a glycoprotein hormone comprised of 2 subunits a and b that are noncovalently joined. HCG is primarily produced by the embryo and later by the syncytiotrophoblast. HCG has been detected at variable levels both in pre-implantation embryo culture media in vitro and in women serum after fertilization around implantation period or early pregnancy. HCG is not only considered to assess embryo competence both in anatomic and biochemical,but also contributes to improve luteal function and endometrial modification or placenta construction for supporting early pregnancy.

  1. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Cole Laurence A


    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  2. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth


    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women wi...

  3. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.


    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have d

  4. Atypical Presentations of Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Roles of Imaging, β-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Measurement, and p57 Immunostaining.

    Mohamed, Sara A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Ghamande, Sharad; Chaffin, Joanna; Browne, Paul


    In modern practice , the diagnosis of molar pregnancy is made at an early gestational age. The opportunity to diagnose gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) using sonography alone occurs less frequently. The classic appearance of a "snowstorm" in the endometrial cavity and bilateral theca lutein cysts still applies to the diagnosis of second-trimester GTD. The diagnosis of first-trimester GTD requires increased clinical suspicion. If the sonographic appearance of the pregnancy is atypical, GTD should be included in the differential diagnosis. Additional nonimaging criteria such as serial quantitative β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, pathologic examination, and p57 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C protein) immunostaining can accurately confirm the diagnosis of GTD. PMID:26860483

  5. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Clulow John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  6. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and laparoscopic artificial insemination on embryo, endocrine, and luteal characteristics in the domestic cat.

    Roth, T L; Wolfe, B A; Long, J A; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E


    The effects of gonadotropin treatment and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI) on embryo quality, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and luteal progesterone content were examined in the domestic cat. These data were compared to similar historical data reported for naturally estrual, mated queens. All queens in this study (n = 32) were treated with eCG followed by 1) natural breeding (eCG-NB), 2) NB and hCG (eCG-NB-hCG), 3) NB and a sham AI procedure (eCG-NB-sham AI), or 4) hCG and actual AI (eCG-hCG-AI). Queens ovulating in response to treatment were ovariohysterectomized, and oviducts and uteri were flushed to collect embryos. Ovarian structures were recorded, corpora lutea (CL) were excised and evaluated for progesterone content, and serum was analyzed for estradiol-17beta and progesterone. Follicle and CL numbers ranged from 0 to 28 and 2 to 42 per cat, respectively, and treatment means did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. Embryos were recovered from oviducts and uterine horns in all treatment groups, and recovery ranged from 60-96%. Mean embryo number per queen ranged from 8.2 +/- 2.6 to 23.2 +/- 3.8 and did not differ (p > or = 0.05) among groups. However, the proportions of unfertilized oocytes were greater (p or = 0.05) among treatments. Compared to historical controls (naturally estrual, mated queens), eCG-NB queens produced > 4 times as many good-quality embryos and blastocysts. Similarly, eCG-hCG-AI-treated queens produced > 4 times the number of oocytes and embryos, although a high proportion of these were poor quality and did not develop to blastocysts. Together, these results indicate that queens treated with eCG are capable of consistently producing many good-quality embryos, at least half of which develop to blastocysts in culture. These data support the use of eCG in felids and suggest that other factors are responsible for reduced pregnancy success and small litter sizes following assisted reproduction. PMID:9209095

  7. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Nalini Mahajan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  8. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Mahajan, Nalini; Sharma, Shilpa; Arora, Puneet Rana; Gupta, Shalu; Rani, Kumkum; Naidu, Padmaja


    BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH) 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816), the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588), fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390), and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991). CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. PMID:27382235

  9. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    N. K. J. Pandey; Gupta, H. P.; Shiv Prasad; S. K. Sheetal


    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 μg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 15...

  10. Comparison of Pregnancy Rate in Simultaneous Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Administration with Intrauterine Insemination Vs. Standard intrauterine Insemination

    Sahar Molaee


    Full Text Available Objective: Artificial insemination (AI has been used to treat infertile couples for approximately 200 years. Time interval between administration of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG and intrauterine insemination (IUI is one of controversial subjects in AI. Fertility rate is in the highest level on the day before ovulation. The aim of study is to compare pregnancy rate in standard IUI versus simultaneous HCG administration with IUI. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, 141 women 20-35 years selected for IUI among patients referring to infertility clinic of Al-Zahra hospital in Tabriz, Iran in 2013.they were entered into study in two groups of simultaneous (n= 71 and standard (n = 70. After ovulation stimulation by clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG and creating up to 3 dominant follicles in each patient, a single dose of HCG was administered; thereafter, IUI was done in the simultaneous group instantly and 34-40 hours following HCG injection in the standard group. Results: In the standard and simultaneous groups, mean pregnancy rate per patient was 25.7% and 21.1% respectively (p= 0.52 and pregnancy rate per IUI cycle was 16.4% and 15.3% respectively (p= 0.82 that was not significantly different. Furthermore, between two groups in terms of age, the number of mature follicles, and endometrial thickness, there was no significant difference. Conclusion: Although difference in pregnancy rate between two groups was not statistically significant, simultaneous HCG with IUI is a comfort method for patients due to less cost and fewer patient's referrals to clinic.

  11. Effect of adding human chorionic gonadotropin to frozen thawed embryo transfer cycles with history of thin endometrium

    Robab Davar


    Full Text Available Background: Embryo implantation process is a complex phenomenon and depends on fetal and maternal factors interaction. Endometrial thickness is needed for successful implantation. Objective: We designed this study in order to assess adding human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG to the conventional protocol in endometrial preparation in women with thin endometrium and a history of in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET failure. Materials and Methods: The non-randomized clinical trial study (quasi experimental design was performed on 28 patients. Participants were women who were candidate for frozen-thawed (ET and had two previous failed ET cycles because of thin endometrial. HCG was administrated (150 IU, intramuscular from the 8th day of cycle and when endometrial thickness reached at least 7mm HCG was discontinued and frozen thawed ET was done. Results: Totally 28 patients were included. The mean ± SD age of participants was 30.39±4.7. The mean of endometrium thickness before and after HCG were 5.07±0.43 and 7.85±0.52, respectively p<0.001. Also, there were five clinically and chemically pregnant women. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that adding HCG to the conventional preparation method was an effective protocol and significantly improved endometrial thickness and pregnancy outcomes in women with previous embryo transfer failure because of thin endometrium.

  12. The effect of β-human chorionic gonadotropin, Nitric oxide and endothelin-1 on pregnancy induced hypertension

    To study the role of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), nitric oxide (NO) and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), serum β-HCG and ET-1 were determined by radioimmunoassay, and plasma NO was determined with Cortas' method in 58 patients with PIH, 27 normal pregnant women and 20 normal non-pregnant women. Results: the levels of β-HCG and ET-1 in patients with PIH were significantly higher than those in healthy pregnancies (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the β-HCG and ET-1 levels; the higher the β-HCG and ET-1 levels, the more severe of the PIH. The levels of serum NO in patients with moderate and severe PIH decreased significantly than those in healthy pregnancies (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between the β-HCG and ET-1 levels (r=+0.577, P<0.01). There was a negative correlation between the NO and ET-1 (r=-0.608, P<0.01). The results suggest that the dysfunction of the placental cells may be associated with the endothelial cell damage in PIH patients

  13. Evaluation of radioimmunoassays using mono- and polyclonal antibodies for the quantitation of human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnancy

    Five commercial kits for the quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were evaluated for use in an In Vitro Fertilization program. We focused on practicability, precision, sensitivity and the early detection of pregnancy. The IRE method uses purified antiserum against complete hCG and requires overnight incubation. Precision is poor but hCG results agree closely with the other assays. Three other kits use a β-subunit specific antiserum (Amersham, Becton-Dickinson, Clinical Assays). All these assays have acceptable precision especially in their mid-range. The Amersham assay has the shortest assay time, while the Clinical Assays method requires the least manipulation. The Becton Dickinson assay is precise, less sensitive and has the highest frequency of slightly elevated hCG levels in males and non pregnant females. The Hybritech kit is an immunoradiometric assay based on two monoclonal antibodies. It was tested with a two-step incubation procedure needing a longer assay time than the β-subunit specific assays but it has the best precision at low hCG levels and is the most sensitive test with the least interference in samples obtained from males and non-pregnant females. For the early detection of pregnancy all assays performed equally well

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  15. Mutations in a novel, cryptic exon of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene cause male pseudohermaphroditism.

    Nina Kossack


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male pseudohermaphroditism, or Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH, is an autosomal recessive disorder in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype, characterized by a predominantly female phenotype, a blind-ending vagina, absence of breast development, primary amenorrhea, and the presence of testicular structures. It is caused by mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR, which impair either LH/CG binding or signal transduction. However, molecular analysis has revealed that the LHCGR is apparently normal in about 50% of patients with the full clinical phenotype of LCH. We therefore searched the LHCGR for novel genomic elements causative for LCH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study we have identified a novel, primate-specific bona fide exon (exon 6A within the LHCGR gene. It displays composite characteristics of an internal/terminal exon and possesses stop codons triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD in LHCGR. Transcripts including exon 6A are physiologically highly expressed in human testes and granulosa cells, and result in an intracellular, truncated LHCGR protein of 209 amino acids. We sequenced exon 6A in 16 patients with unexplained LCH and detected mutations in three patients. Functional studies revealed a dramatic increase in the expression of the mutated internal exon 6A transcripts, indicating aberrant NMD. These altered ratios of LHCGR transcripts result in the generation of predominantly nonfunctional LHCGR isoforms, thereby preventing proper expression and functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The identification and characterization of this novel exon not only identifies a new regulatory element within the genomic organization of LHCGR, but also points toward a complex network of receptor regulation, including events at the transcriptional level. These findings add to the molecular diagnostic tools for LCH and extend our understanding of the endocrine regulation of sexual differentiation.

  16. A unique case of growth hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin treatment in a 45,X male with Y: autosome translocation and literature review.

    Mareri, Arianna; Iezzi, MariaLaura; Salvatore, Alessia; Ligas, Claudio; D'Alessandro, Elvira


    Maleness associated with a 45,X karyotype is a rare condition in childhood. It is usually diagnosed in adult age because of infertility. We report a unique case of an unbalanced translocation t(Y;21) in a 14-year-old boy with 45,X karyotype referred because of short stature, thin habitus and puberty delay. Hormone analysis showed low serum levels of basal testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and gonadotrophins. Diagnosis of GH deficiency and puberty delay were made. He was treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and GH therapy, respectively, for 6 and 24 months. PMID:27054600

  17. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin adjunct to an antagonist protocol in assisted reproductive technology: a randomized trial study.

    Marzieh Aghahosseini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adding low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin, as an LH active supplement, to a GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. In this parallel-group randomized clinical trial, 137 infertile female outpatients aged 20 - 39 years were randomized into two groups: hCG group and non-hCG group. All patients received r-FSH (150-300 IU and then a GnRH-antagonist, Cetrorelix (0.25 mg/day. Concomitantly with Cetrorelix, patients in the hCG group received low-dose hCG (200 IU daily, but the patients in the non-hCG group did not. 10,000 IU Urinary hCG (10,000 IU was injected to all patients, and ICSI was performed after oocyte retrieval. The primary outcome of this study was comparing the pregnancy rates between two study groups. Other differences between two groups such as serum estradiol concentration, fertilization rate, etc. were considered as secondary outcomes. A total of 130 patients completed this trial. No significant difference was detected between pregnancy rates of the two groups (P=0.52 as well as the fertilization, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.11, P=0.75 and P=0.06 respectively. The only significant difference between two groups was a higher concentration of estradiol in the hCG-treated patients (P<0.05. HCG-treated patients experienced a shorter treatment duration and a lower r-FSH required dose than the non-hCG group, but none of these differences were statistically significant (P=0.19 and P=0.10, respectively. The findings of the current study did not support advantages of adding low-dose hCG to GnRH antagonist plus r-FSH protocol in an unselected population of patients. Well-designed trials with a larger sample size for specific patients' subgroups are warranted.

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto


    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  19. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  20. Squelching of ETS2 transactivation by POU5F1 silences the human chorionic gonadotropin CGA subunit gene in human choriocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells.

    Gupta, Rangan; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael


    The subunit genes encoding human chorionic gonadotropin, CGA, and CGB, are up-regulated in human trophoblast. However, they are effectively silenced in choriocarcinoma cells by ectopically expressed POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1). Here we show that POU5F1 represses activity of the CGA promoter through its interactions with ETS2, a transcription factor required for both placental development and human chorionic gonadotropin subunit gene expression, by forming a complex that precludes ETS2 from interacting with the CGA promoter. Mutation of a POU5F1 binding site proximal to the ETS2 binding site does not alter the ability of POU5F1 to act as a repressor but causes a drop in basal promoter activity due to overlap with the binding site for DLX3. DLX3 has only a modest ability to raise basal CGA promoter activity, but its coexpression with ETS2 can up-regulate it 100-fold or more. The two factors form a complex, and both must bind to the promoter for the combination to be transcriptionally effective, a synergy compromised by POU5F1. Similarly, in human embryonic stem cells, which express ETS2 but not CGA, ETS2 does not occupy its binding site on the CGA promoter but is found instead as a soluble complex with POU5F1. When human embryonic stem cells differentiate in response to bone morphogenetic protein-4 and concentrations of POU5F1 fall and hCG and DLX3 rise, ETS2 then occupies its binding site on the CGA promoter. Hence, a squelching mechanism underpins the transcriptional silencing of CGA by POU5F1 and could have general relevance to how pluripotency is maintained and how the trophoblast lineage emerges from pluripotent precursor cells. PMID:22446105




    The Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis has initiated a study on the possibilities of first-trimester screening for fetal chromosomal disorders. We report on maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS-hCG) measurements in 1348 pregnancies with a chromosomally normal fetus and 53 pregnanc

  2. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    Pandey, N. K. J.; Gupta, H. P.; Prasad, Shiv; Sheetal, S. K.


    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 µg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 1500 IU i.m., n=8), and Group 4 (progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device at 958 mg, n=8). All the treatme nts were given on 5th daypostbreeding and in Group 4 intra-vaginally implanted device was withdrawn on 9th day (i.e., implant inserted for total 4 days) of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 5, 10, 15, and day 20 of estrous cycle, and plasma was separated for progesterone estimation. Results: Accessory corpus luteum was not formed in crossbred cows of Group4 and control group. However, total 6 and 8 accessory corpora lutea were found in Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. In pregnant cows, the plasma progesterone concentration increased continuously from day 0 to day 20. In non-pregnant cows, it increased from day 0 to day 15 and then declined. The conception rate on day 60 in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 was 37.5%, 50%, 75%, and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Treating repeat-breeder cows with hCG is effective in increasing conception rate by developing accessory corpora lutea and higher progesterone level.

  3. A Novel Targeted Therapy of Leydig and Granulosa Cell Tumors through the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Using a Hecate-Chorionic Gonadotropin β Conjugate in Transgenic Mice

    Gabriel Bodek


    Full Text Available We investigated the antitumoral efficacy, endocrine consequences, and molecular mechanisms underlying cell death induced by the Hecate-chorionic gonadotropin (CGβ conjugate, a fusion protein of a 23-amino acid lytic peptide Hecate with a 15-amino acid (81-95 fragment of the human CGβ chain. Transgenic (TG mice expressing the inhibin α-subunit promoter (inhα/Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag transgene, developing luteinizing hormone (LH receptor (R expressing Leydig and granulosa cell tumors, and wild-type control littermates were treated either with vehicle, Hecate, or Hecate-CGβ conjugate for 3 weeks. Hecate-CGβ conjugate treatment reduced the testicular and ovarian tumor burden (P < .05, whereas a concomitant increase (testis; P < .05 or no change (ovary in tumor volumes occured with Hectate treatment. A drop in serum progesterone, produced by the tumors, and an increase in LH levels occured in Hecate-CGβ treated mice, in comparison with vehicle and Hecate groups, providing further support for the positive treatment response. Hecate-CGβ conjugate induced a rapid and cell-specific membrane permeabilization of LHR-expressing cells in vitro, suggesting a necrotic mode of cell death without activation of apoptosis. These results prove the principle that the Hecate-CGβ conjugate provides a novel specific lead into gonadal somatic cell cancer therapy by targeted destruction of LHR-expressing tumor cells.

  4. A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus

    Kouba Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. Methods Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU, or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. Results The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU, 100% of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35% for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms. In addition to having a greater number of responders (P  Conclusion There is a clear dichotomy between the two hormones’ physiological responses on gamete production and stimulation of amplexus. Understanding how these two hormones influence physiology and reproductive behaviors in amphibians will have direct bearing on establishing similar breeding protocols for endangered species.

  5. The Higher Response of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiotensin-II to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Junwei Qu


    Full Text Available Background: This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin-II (AT-II to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation. Results: After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed. Conclusion: The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861.

  6. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS AI. In experiment 3, extended progesterone treatment combined with eCG increased the size of the dominant follicle (P = 0.01). Both extended progesterone treatment (P = 0.02) and eCG (P = 0.03) increased pregnancy per AI. In conclusion, an extended progesterone treatment stimulated follicular growth postpartum and improved fertility only in cows with low BCS. PMID:26944539

  7. Preliminary evidence for associations between second-trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated oestriol levels with pregnancy outcome in Down syndrome pregnancies.

    Benn, P A


    Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester Down syndrome risk to define the screen-positive group, 42 affected pregnancies were screen-positive (medians: AFP = 0.79 MOM, hCG = 2.13 MOM, uE3 = 0.62 MOM, age 34.6 years) and 14 pregnancies were screen-negative (medians: AFP = 0.82 MOM, hCG = 1.57 MOM, uE3 = 0.92 MOM, age 24.2 years). Four affected pregnancies were associated with in utero death and each of these cases was associated with relatively extreme values of AFP, hCG, and uE3, including the three highest levels of hCG in the entire series of Down syndrome pregnancies. Twenty-nine (15 screen-positive and 14 screen-negative) affected pregnancies resulted in liveborns. Down syndrome pregnancies had a significantly shorter gestational term than controls, and Down syndrome babies were also lighter than controls, even after adjustment for sex and gestational age. In affected pregnancies, a low uE3 level appeared to be associated with a greater chance of a small-for-gestational age baby. No correlations could be demonstrated between AFP or hCG levels and gestational age-adjusted term weight. Based on this small series, it would appear that uE3 may be particularly useful in detecting those Down syndrome cases associated with small-for-gestational age fetuses. A very high hCG value may indicate a higher probability of fetal death. PMID:9602476

  8. Inhibition of choriocarcinoma by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin nanoparticles containing antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of heparanase

    Huining L


    Full Text Available Liu Huining,1 Zhang Yi,1 Tang Dihong,2 Pan Yifeng,3 Xia Man,2 Yang Ting,2 Cai Jingting1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Provincial Tumor Hospital, 3National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China Objective: To observe the influence of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG carrying heparanase (Hpa antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN, via the invasion, proliferation, and Hpa expression of JEG-3 cell lines and inhibitory effect of transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth. Methods: The different abilities of invasion and proliferation between transfected JEG-3 and untransfected JEG-3 were measured by Matrigel invasion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in vitro. The effect of Hpa ASODN transfection on the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The transplanted choriocarcinoma tumors were taken out to calculate the inhibitory effect on tumor growth of Hpa ASODN. Results: In this study, we found that: (1 the invasive ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN; (2 after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN at 48 and 72 hours, the proliferative ability of JEG-3 cells was inhibited sufficiently (P < 0.05; (3 the expression of Hpa mRNA and protein in JEG-3 cells was inhibited efficiently after JEG-3 cells were transfected by Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN (P < 0.05; and (4 Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN had an inhibitory effect on the transplanted choriocarcinoma tumor growth (P < 0.05 and was harmless on nude mice. Conclusion: Fe3O4-dextran-anti-βHCG carrying Hpa ASODN weakened the invasive and

  9. Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles containing Fe3O4-dextran- anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin, a new generation choriocarcinoma-specific gene vector

    Cai Jingting


    Full Text Available Cai Jingting1,2, Liu Huining1, Zhang Yi11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecological Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG nanoparticles as a gene vector for cellular transfections.Study design: Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The configuration, diameter, and iron content of the nanoparticles were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, light scatter, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A3-(4,5-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence were used to evaluate immunoreactivity. The efficiency of absorbing DNA and resisting deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I digestion when bound to Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles to absorb heparanase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN nanoparticles in different cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry. The tissue distribution of heparanase AS-ODN magnetic nanoparticles in choriocarcinoma tumors transplanted in nude mice was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Results: TEM demonstrated that the shape of nanoparticles is irregular. Light scatter revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 75.5 nm and an iron content of 37.5 µg/mL. No cytotoxicity was observed when the concentration of Fe3O4-dextran-anti-β-HCG nanoparticles was <37.5 µg/mL. Fe3O4-dextran nanoparticles have a satisfactory potential to combine with β-HCG antibody. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of binding

  10. Iodine-123-labeled radiotracers for cardiovascular and testicular imaging studies: labeling of phenyl fatty acids for myocardial studies, fibronectin for thrombus localization, and human chorionic gonadotropin for testicular studies

    Development and evaluation of iodine-123-labeled compounds for potential applications in certain imaging studies are described. A new method utilizing an organothallium intermediate has been developed to radioiodinate phenyl fatty acids. The method is simple, and consistently high yields (80 to 90%) can be obtained on a routine basis. The biodistribution patterns of the product prepared by this method were found to be very similar to those produced by the direct electrophilic substitution method. Radioiodinated fibronectin (FN) localized in experimental thrombi and pulmonary emboli. In dogs the deep-vein thrombi could be visualized within 3 hr of postinjection of the tracer. Radioiodinated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) localized in rat testes which permitted the scintigraphic visualization of scrotal as well as abdominal testes in rats. The localization appears to be receptor mediated

  11. Epitope mapping from real time kinetic studies – Role of cross-linked disulphides and incidental interacting regions in affinity measurements: Study with human chorionic gonadotropin and monoclonal antibodies

    Nonavinakere Seetharam Srilatha; P Tamil Selvi; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy


    Real time kinetic studies were used to map conformational epitopes in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The epitopes were identified in the regions (5–14 and 55–62). The association rate constant (+1) was found to be altered by chemical modification of hCG, and the ionic strength of the reaction medium. Based on these changes, we propose the presence of additional interactions away from the epitope-paratope region in the hCG-MAb reaction. We have identified such incidental interacting regions (IIRs) in hCG to be the loop region 35–47 and 60–84. The IIRs contribute significantly towards the of the interaction. Therefore, in a macromolecular interaction of hCG and its MAb, is determined not only by epitopeparatope interaction but also by the interaction of the nonepitopic-nonparatopic IIRs. However, the specificity of the interaction resides exclusively with the epitope-paratope pair.

  12. Treatment of cystic ovarian disease in dairy cattle. Comparative observation of the effects of an intramuscular injection of corticosteroids and an intravenous injection of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone.

    Nakao, T; Ono, H


    Of 67 cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD), 34 were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg of betamethasone of 10 mg of dexamethasone (CC) and 33 intravenously with a combination of 3,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin and 125 mg of progesterone (HCG -P). Pregnancy rates and intervals between treatment and conception were 32.4% and 32.1 +/- 30.5 days, respectively, in the CC-treated cows and 30.3% and 51.6 +/- 29.5 days in the HCG -P-treated ones. Cows which had not responded to gonadotropin treatment showed a considerably higher pregnancy rate when treated with CC and a lower pregnancy rate when administered with HCG -P than those which had received no treatment before. There was a trend that the earlier a cow was treated, the more readily she recovered. CC injection gave a satisfactory result even when performed long after calving. The estrous behaviour seemed to be related with prognosis in cows with COD. In both CC-treated and HCG -P-treated cows, the pregnancy rate was the highest in cows showing anestrus and the lowest in those exhibiting irregular estrus. PMID:64331

  13. Fluorescence-based immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotropin based on polyfluorene-coated silica nanoparticles and polyaniline-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    We report on an ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin antigen (hCG). It is based on the use of silica nanoparticles coated with a copolymer (prepared from a fluorene, a phenylenediamine, and divinylbenzene; PF.SiO2) that acts as a fluorescent label for the secondary monoclonal antibody to β-hCG antigen. In parallel, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with polyaniline, and these magnetic particles (Fe3O4.PANI) served as a solid support for the primary monoclonal antibody to β-hCG antigen. The PF.SiO2 exhibited strong fluorescence and good dispersibility in water. A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay was developed that enables hCG concentrations to be determined in the 0.01–100 ng·mL−1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 3 pg·mL−1. (author)

  14. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (tR) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG R = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  15. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    The association between abnormal levels of maternal serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin (b-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL) measured in early pregnancy and future poor pregnancy outcome is fairly well established. Little is known on how such prognostic information can be used to avoid future complications of pregnancy and improve their outcome. We undertook a prospective study, which was designed to assess the efficiency of maternal serum biochemical markers b-HCG and HPL for the detection of different pregnancy and labor complications. The blood samples were taken from pregnant patients who attended the antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, from December 2001 to October 2002. These patients were selected randomly. A total of 200 Omani women, none diabetic, with singleton pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks gestation were recruited into the study. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, unless ultrasonography showed a discrepancy of more than 14 days. Excluded from the study were pregnancies with fetal anomalies, multiple gestations and insulin dependent maternal diabetes. Biochemical analysis of both maternal serum markers was performed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory using an automated immunometric technique supplied by Beckman Coulter for b-HCG and manual radioimmunoassay utilizing a gamma radiation scintillation counter for HPL. Both assays underwent internal, trilevel quality controls. The selected patients were monitored for the following complications: pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (birth weight <10th per centile for gestation), low Apgar score (7 or less) and emergency cesarean section. 75 patients did not develop any pregnancy complications and delivered vaginally. This was our control group. 85 patients developed one of the above mentioned problems

  16. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice.

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy


    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  17. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3)

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE3) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE3 were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p3 weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE3 between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67±27.44, vs 54.65±126.36, 46.45±30.08 vs 51.33±38.50 and 8.01±11.01 vs 6.68±7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP or 2.1 MOM and E3 2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other. Among screen positive 26 patients, three and nine were normal karyotype and normal phenotype, respectively and five patients had still births. Reamining 9 patients underwent terminations. In conclusion, compared with the other group's data even in Koreans (Whang et al, and Song et al, 1996

  18. 21 CFR 522.1081 - Chorionic gonadotropin.


    ... repeated in 14 days if the animal's behavior or examination of the ovaries per rectum indicates retreatment... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1079 - Serum gonadotropin and chorionic gonadotropin.


    ... freeze-dried powder to be reconstituted with 5 milliliters of sterile aqueous diluent. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in swine—(1) Amount. 400 I.U. serum.... (i) Gilts. For induction of fertile estrus (heat) in healthy prepuberal (noncycling) gilts. (ii)...

  20. Radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey gonadotropins

    Heterologous double-antibody radioimmunoassay methods are described for the measurement of circulating levels of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) FSH and LH; the latter assay is also applicable to rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (CG) estimations. The FSH assay utilizes purified rat FSH for trace, either of two anti-human FSH antisera and a semipurified rhesus pituitary standard. The LH assay utilizes purified ovine LH for trace, an anti-human CG antiserum and the same rhesus pituitary standard. The use of these systems obviates the necessity of purifying rhesus gonadotropins which are required for the development of homologous radioimmunoassay systems. (U.S.)

  1. Messenger RNAs encoding the beta subunits of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) luteinizing hormone (gpLH) and putative chorionic gonadotropin (gpCG) are transcribed from a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene.

    Sherman, G B; Heilman, D F; Hoss, A J; Bunick, D; Lund, L A


    Neither gene locus nor gene sequence characterizations have been reported for the beta subunits of guinea pig (gp) LH and putative gp chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Descriptions of this locus would allow comparison with functionally relevant molecular genetic features of other species' homologous loci including the single-copy equid LH/CGbeta gene and the primate LHbeta-CGbeta gene cluster locus. Contiguous cDNA and genomic DNA fragments spanning the entire mature coding sequence of gpLHbeta mRNA, gpCGbeta mRNA and a homologous gpLH/CGbeta gene were amplified using PCR methodologies. With the exception of one silent mutation, the two cDNA and the genomic sequences were identical where they overlapped. Comparison of guinea pig coding sequence with LHbeta, CGbeta and LH/CGbeta sequences of other vertebrate species revealed the following order of similarity expressed as per cent coding sequence identity: rhinoceros LHbeta (83.6%)>pig LHbeta (81.8%)>donkey LH/CGbeta=bovine LHbeta (81.5%)> horse LH/CGbeta (80.6%)>dog LHbeta (79.7%)>human LHbeta (78.2%)>rat LHbeta (77.9%)>human CGbeta (75.8%)>turkey LHbeta (52.7%); values that are generally consistent with recently postulated phylogenetic relationships. Like the consensus mammalian LHbeta gene, the 5'-flanking region of the gpLH/CGbeta gene contains a single TATA sequence 37 bp upstream of the translation start codon. The first in-frame stop codon occurred at codon position +122 which is consistent with the 121 amino acid residue length of the consensus mammalian mature LHbeta peptide. To estimate gene copy number, full-length gpLHbeta cDNA was radiolabeled and hybridized to Southern blots of guinea pig genomic DNA digested with a panel of six restriction endonucleases. The resulting simple hybridization pattern strongly suggested that there is a single-copy gpLH/CGbeta gene. Northern analysis of total pituitary RNA using the same probe indicated that gpLHbeta transcript size is indistinguishable from that of consensus

  2. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)


    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  3. Progestin Exposure Before Gonadotropin Stimulation Improves Embryo Development after In Vitro Fertilization in the Domestic Cat1

    Pelican, Katharine M.; Spindler, Rebecca E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary A.; Howard, JoGayle


    This study investigated the influence of progestin priming and ovarian quiescence on response to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation in the cat. Because a subpopulation of cats routinely ovulated spontaneously, there also was the opportunity to examine the ovary's reaction to the added impact of endogenously secreted progestagen. Queens were given 1) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) only (control; n = 9 cats), 2) GnRH antagonist (antide) injections fo...

  4. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle


    As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) f...

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist assisted reproductive technology cycles

    M.A.F.M. Youssef; F. van der Veen; H.G. Al-Inany; G. Griesinger; M.H. Mochtar; M. van Wely


    Background Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols for pituitary down regulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) allow the use of GnRH agonists for triggering final oocyte maturation. Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is stil

  6. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    Sarhan, Abbaa


    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  7. Regulation of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase expression and activity in the hypophysectomized rat ovary: Interactions between the stimulatory effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and the luteolytic effect of prolactin

    The enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD) catalyzes an obligatory step in the conversion of pregnenolone and other 5-ene-3 beta-hydroxysteroids into progesterone as well as precursors of all androgens and estrogens in the ovary. Since 3 beta-HSD is likely to be an important target for regulation by pituitary hormones, we have studied the effect of chronic treatment with LH (hCG), FSH, and PRL on ovarian 3 beta-HSD expression and activity in hypophysectomized adult female rats. Human CG (hCG) [10 IU, twice a day (bid)], ovine FSH (0.5 microgram, bid), and ovine PRL (1 mg, bid) were administered, singly or in combination, for a period of 10 days starting 15 days after hypophysectomy. In hypophysectomized rats, PRL exerted a potent inhibitory effect on all the parameters studied. In fact, PRL caused a 81% decrease in ovarian 3 beta-HSD mRNA content accompanied by a similar decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity and protein levels. In addition, ovarian weight decreased by 40% whereas serum progesterone fell dramatically from 1.92 nmol/liter to undetectable levels after treatment with PRL. Whereas hCG alone had only slight stimulatory effects on 3 beta-HSD mRNA, protein content and activity levels, treatment with the gonadotropin partially or completely reversed the potent inhibitory effects of oPRL on all the parameters measured. FSH, on the other hand, had no significant effect on 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. In situ hybridization experiments using the 35S-labeled rat ovary 3 beta-HSD cDNA probe show that the inhibitory effect of PRL is exerted primarily on luteal cell 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. On the other hand, it can be seen that hCG stimulates 3 beta-HSD mRNA accumulation in interstitial cells

  8. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for chorionic gonadotropin in human urine

    The value of RIAs that measure hCG levels in human urine has been limited principally because of cross-reactivity with human LH. Recently, antisera generated to antigenic determinants on the intact hCGβ subunit and its carboxyl-terminal peptide have been shown to exhibit substantially reduced human LH cross-reactivity. To take maximal advantage of these antisera and to minimize interference by nonspecific substances in urine, a procedure for extracting and concentrating hCG from 24-h urine samples was developed. The procedure involves preparation of a standard kaolin-acetone urine concentrate and adsorption of the hCG in the concentrate to Concanavalin A covalently linked to agarose for purification and subsequent RIA. In urine samples obtained from patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, there was a direct correlation between hCG levels measured by RIA and those estimated by mouse uterine weight bioassy. In individual subjects, hCG levels were determined in serum and urine obtained the same day. When hCG was clearly detectable in the serum at levels greater than 1 ng/ml, the quantity of hCG measured in the urine concentrate exceeded 500 ng/24 h. The concentrates prepared from the urine of normal persons contained an hCG-like glycoprotein substance with antigenic determinants similar to those of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hCGβ. As the range of hCG immunoreactivity measured in the urine concentrates of normal subjects was 6 to 52 ng/24 h, specific and sensitive detection of urinary hCG could be accomplished in patients whose sera contained hCG undetectable by conventional RIA. Partial purification and concentration of urinary hCG by this procedure with subsequent RIA provides a sensitive and reliable method for detecting hCG in urine

  9. 妊娠早期检测血清E2、P、HCG的动态变化对妊娠结局的预测价值%Dynamic Changes of Serum Estradiol,Progesterone and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Predictive Value of Early Pregnancy Outcome

    龚衍; 曾玖芝; 陈德新; 万虹


    目的:探讨妊娠早期检测孕酮(P)、雌二醇(E 2)、血绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)的动态变化对妊娠结局的预测价值。方法选择自然周期监测排卵后怀孕者228例,根据妊娠结局分为3组:正常妊娠组、流产组、宫外孕组。以排卵日为0d,首次检测排卵后15~17d 的血清雌二醇、孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素,间隔2~3d 后第2次检测,再间隔7d 第3次检测,间隔10d 以上第4次检测。比较不同间隔时间3种激素的差异。进一步比较雌二醇差值的增减比例。结果正常宫内孕组雌二醇、绒毛膜促性腺激素呈增长趋势,孕酮变化较小。流产组雌二醇、孕酮下降,绒毛膜促性腺激素有增有降,且增幅明显小于正常宫内孕组。宫外孕组雌二醇波动小,孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素呈下降趋势。雌二醇增加者在正常宫内孕组为91.3%,流产组为6.12%,宫外孕组为73.17%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论在妊娠早期尚不能靠B 超确定妊娠结局前,检测血清雌二醇、孕酮、绒毛膜促性腺激素的动态变化对妊娠结局有预测价值。%Objective To investigate the dynamic changes of serum estradiol(E 2 ),progesterone(P)andhuman chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)on the predictive value of early pregnancy. Methods Choose 228 pregnant women after ovulation monitoring in natural cycle. According pregnancy outcomes,they were divided into 3 groups: normal pregnancy group,abortion,ectopic preg-nancy group. Set the ovulation day is 0 day,test the serum level of E 2 ,P and HCG on 15 ~ 17 day firstly,the second test after 2 ~3 days,third test after 7 days,and last test after 10 days. Compare the differences of hormonal on different intervals in three groups. Results E 2 and HCG had growing trends in normal pregnancy group,however P had small changes. E 2 and P decreased in abor-tion group,P was fluctuated,and the increase was significantly less than in the normal group. P and HCG were

  10. Association of human chorionic gonadotropin level in embryo culture media with early embryo development%人胚胎源性人绒毛促性腺激素在胚胎培养液中的水平与早期胚胎发育的关系

    王海英; 张仁礼; 韩冬; 刘彩霞; 蔡佳杰; 毕燕玲; 闻安民; 全松


    Objective To investigate the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level on day 3 of embryo culture with embryo development. Methods Spent culture media were collected from individually cultured embryos on day 3 of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. HCG concentration in the culture media was measured using an ELISA kit and its association with embryo development was assessed. Results In the 163 samples of embryo culture media from 60 patients, HCG was positive in 153 sample (93.8%) with a mean level of 0.85 ± 0.43 mIU/ml. The concentration of hCG in the culture media increased gradually as the number of blastomeres increased (F=2.273, P=0.03), and decreased as the morphological grade of the embryo was lowered (F=3.900, P=0.02). Conclusion ELISA is capable of detecting HCG levels in spent culture media of embryos on day 3 of in vitro culture. The concentration of HCG in spent culture media is positively correlated with the status of early embryo development and implantation rate and thus serves as a useful marker for embryo selection in IVF-ET procedure.%目的:探讨人胚胎源性人绒毛促性腺激素(HCG)在第3天胚胎培养液中的表达及其与早期胚胎发育间的关系。方法收集IVF-ET患者体外第3天单个培养胚胎培养液,通过ELISA方法检测培养液中HCG浓度,比较其与胚胎数目、分级、碎片等传统评分间的关系。结果在60个病人的163份第3天胚胎培养液标本中,胎源性HCG的检测率是93.8%(153/163),表达浓度是0.85±0.43 mIU/ml。HCG浓度与胚胎卵裂球细胞数呈正相关。随着细胞数增加,培养液中HCG表达也提高(P<0.05)。随着胚胎形态评分级别的下降,培养液中HCG表达下降(P<0.05)。结论 ELISA方法能检测出第3天胚胎培养液中胎源性HCG的微量表达。胚胎培养液中胎源性HCG水平与传统胚胎形态评估有相关性,提示它有可能作为新的评估胚胎发育的无创性方法。

  11. Perbaikan Fenotipe Pertumbuhan Anak Babi Lokal Melalui Penyuntikan Gonadotropin Sebelum Induk Dikawinkan (IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PHENOTYPE OF LOCAL PIGLET BY GONADOTROPHIN INJECTION OF SOW PRIOR TO MATING)

    1Debby Jacqueline Jochebed Rayer; Muladno; Hera Maheshwari; Wasmen Manalu


    An experiment was designed to study the growth phenotypes of piglets born to sows injected withpregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) prior to mating inorder to improve endogenous secretions of pregnant hormones during pregnancy. The experimental sowsused in this study were 10 local breed sows with body weight ranges of 30-40 kg. Before mating, estrouscycles of the experimental sows were synchronized by injecting 3.75 mg prostaglandin twice with 14 days...

  12. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during follicle development in the rat ovary. Effects of gonadotropin stimulation and hypophysectomy

    Gräs, Søren; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L;


    examined the ovaries of prepubertal rats, of prepubertal rats stimulated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and of hypophysectomised adult animals. Using quantitative reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridisation histochemistry and...... immunohistochemistry, we have demonstrated that the expression of the two clock genes is low and arrhythmic in ovarian cells during early gonadotropin-independent follicle development in prepubertal animals and in hypophysectomised animals. We have also demonstrated that the expression of the clock genes becomes...... rhythmic following eCG stimulation in the theca interna cells and the secondary interstitial cells and that, following additional hCG stimulation, the expression of the clock genes also becomes rhythmic in the granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. These findings link the initiation of clock gene...

  13. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; Analise de luteotrofina humana e de gonadotrofina corionica humana, recombinante e natural, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia em fase reversa

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de


    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t{sub R}) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG < alpha-hLH < hCG < hLH < -beta-hCG < beta-hLH. With basis on these conditions, a total of eleven preparations were studied: the International Standard of recombinant hLH-WHO 96/602, a commercial recombinant and two highly purified pituitary hLH, a recombinant and two urinary hCG preparations and four heterogeneous urinary products containing hLH + hFSH. All hLH preparations showed very similar retention times for the main peak (t{sub R} = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  14. 南昌地区妊娠14~20周妇女血清甲胎蛋白和游离绒毛膜促性腺激素的MOM值测定及临床应用%Detection and clinical application of MOM values of serum alpha-fetoprotein and free human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women during 14~20 gestational weeks in Nanchang region

    赖华; 刘艳秋; 刘淮


    目的:运用计算出的AFP及F-βHCG的MOM值与目前采用的MOM值对孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,期待能更有效地筛查出南昌地区胎儿神经管缺陷及唐氏综合征高危孕妇.方法:依据2005~2007年到江西省妇幼保健院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇各孕周AFP、F-βHCG的中位数,计算出AFP、F-βHCG的MOM值,用计算出的MOM值(研究组)和目前采用的MOM值(对照组)分别对2008年来该院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,对筛查出的高危孕妇进行羊水检测和随访,比较两种MOM值对胎儿神经管缺陷畸形和唐氏综合征筛查的阳性率、假阴性率及假阳性率.结果:神经管缺陷畸形、唐氏综合征阳性率研究组高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);假阴性率研究组与对照组比较,结果无统计学意义;假阳性率研究组较对照组降低,结果具有统计学意义,(神经管缺陷畸形P<0.05,唐氏综合征P<0.01).结论:应用本地区MOM值进行神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,能更有效地筛查出本地区的神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征胎儿.%Objective: To screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome by calculated MOM values and values currently used of serum alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free β human chorionic gonadotropin (F - β HCG) in pregnant women, in order to screen out the high risk pregnant women of fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome in Nanchang region.Methods: The MOM values of AFP and F - β HCG were calculated according to the medians of AFP and F - β HCG in pregnant women of different gostational weeks who visited the prenatal diagnosis outpatient of the hospital from 2005 to 2007, then the calculated MOM values ( study group) and the MOM values currently used ( control group) were used to screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome among the pregnant women who visited the prenatal

  15. Human chorionic ganodotropin binding sites in the human endometrium

    The existence of high-affinity and low-capacity specific binding sites for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been reported in porcine, rabbit and rat uteri. The authors have identified the hCG binding sites in the human endometrium collected from 35-42-year-old ovulatory and anovulatory women. The binding characteristics of hCG to endometrial tissue preparations from ovulatory and anovulatory women showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed the dissociation constant of specific binding sites in the ovulatory women to be 3.5x10-10 mol/l and in anovulatory women to be 3.1x10-10 mol/l. The maximum binding capacity varied considerably between ovulatory and anovulatory endometrium. Among the divalent metal ions tested Zn2+ effected a remarkable increase in [125I]hCG binding to the endometrium, whereas Mn2+ showed a marginal increase and other metal ions did not have any effect. Data obtained with human endometrium indicate an influence of the functional state of the ovary on [125I]hCG binding to endometrium. 14 refs., 3 figs

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    Hassan, T


    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  17. Rapid enlargement of an intracranial germ cell tumor after gonadotropin hormone therapy.

    Sasagawa, Yasuo; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakagawa, Athushi; Nakada, Satoko; Nojima, Takayuki; Koya, Daisuke; Iizuka, Hideaki


    We report a case of an intracranial germ cell tumor (iGCT) that showed rapid enlargement after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone therapy for pituitary hypogonadism. A 16-year-old boy presented with headache and was diagnosed with a suprasellar tumor. He was initially observed without surgery. Intranasal desmopressin therapy was started for central diabetes insipidus, but there was no change in the tumor size on MRI. The diagnosis of the tumor remained unknown for 4years. Levels of serum gonadotropin hormones (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone) and testosterone progressively decreased, and the patient developed pituitary hypogonadism and complained about his undeveloped beard, lack of underarm hair, and erectile dysfunction. Intramuscular gonadotropin injection (hCG 5000U×2/week) was started at age 20. Eight months after the first gonadotropin injection, the MRI showed tumor growth with vivid enhancement. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was partially resected. The histological diagnosis was immature teratoma. After surgery, the patient was treated with 5 cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. He also received radiation therapy of 50Gy (20Gy tumor bed and 30Gy whole ventricles) to the residual tumor, after which the tumor decreased in size. We postulate that iGCT may be at risk of progression during hCG hormone therapy. Thus, careful monitoring is required for a patient with iGCT who receives this therapy. PMID:27050912

  18. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    ... usually are used during fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Injections of gonadotropins ... Gestation. When using injectable gonadotropins alone or with IUI, up to 30% of pregnancies are associated with ...

  19. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity

    Marceau, Kristine; McMaster, Minni T. B.; Smith, Taylor F.; Daams, Joost G.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Valerie S. Knopik


    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order multiples. The main aim was to assess how frequently chorionicity has been examined in relation to heritability estimates, and to assess which phenotypes may be most sensitive to, or affected by, bias ...

  20. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito;


    cycles of chemotherapy was administered. The patient has been in remission for 24 months. PPC was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in both cases. Gestational origin of the tumor was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis (polymorphic microsatellite markers). CONCLUSION: The...

  1. Development of a radioreceptor assay for human chorion gonadotropin: Application in normal and pathological pregnancies

    Rats testes were homogenised, and the binding capacity of several dilutions of these were tested with iodine125-labelled human choriongonadotropin. Investigations about binding over a period of 36 hrs. with 3 different temperatures, inhibition tests and cross reaction analyses for determining the specificity were carried out. 2 assay systems could be developed. The highly sensitive assay was applied at early pregnancy, at suspected disturbed or ectopic gravidity and allowed to measure the hCG-serum concentration above the physiological basal secretion of hLH. The less sensitive assay was used for measuring hCG in later stages of pregnancy, chorionepitheliomas and other hCG producing tumours. With the highly sensitive and specific assay, hCG was determinable 8 to 10 days post conceptionem. (orig.)


    HANShou-Wei; LIUShah-Ling; CAOZe-Yi; CHENMan-Ling


    In recent years, the production and development of receptor monoclonal antibodies (McAB) have been attentively studied. Wc observed the effects of human ehorionicgonadotropin (HCG) and tyrosinc protein kinase (TPK) on the growth of two hybridoma

  3. Radioimmunodetection of choriocarcinoma in nude mouse by radiolabeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin. beta. -subunit

    Yamanaka, Nozomu (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Photoscans and organ radioactivity were assessed with radiolabeled antibodies to hCG or hCG-..beta.. subunit in nude mice bearing hCG-producing tumors. /sup 125/I-anti hCG or /sup 125/I-anti-hCG-..beta.. subunit was administered to nude mice bearing an hCG-producing tumor, GCH-lnu. Measurement of radioactivity revealed specific accumulation of both antibodies into the tumor. Especially the accumulation of /sup 125/I-anti hCG-..beta.. subunit on the 3rd day of administration was high, being about 4 times higher than the nonspecific accumulation in the liver. The localization of hCG in the tumor was examined by the indirect peroxidase-antiperoxidase method using anti-hCG. and anti hCG-..cap alpha.. subunit, and hCG-..beta.. subunit. The immunoperoxidase reaction was positive, and the accumulation of these radiolabeled antibodies in the tumor is suggested to be an immunologically specific phenomenon. The tumor in the tumor-bearing nude mouse injected with /sup 131/I-anti hCG or /sup 131/I-anti hCG-..beta.., subunit could be visualized as a hot area by external scintigraphy. Especially, the tumor image produced by the accumulation of anti hCG-..beta.. subunit was very clear against the background radiation.

  4. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Ren, S.G.; Braunstein, G.D. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))


    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and (35S)methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable (35S)methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable (35S)methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells.

  5. Insulin stimulates synthesis and release of human chorionic gonadotropin by choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Recent studies have shown that insulin regulates placental lactogen, progesterone, and estrogen production from human trophoblast cells. This study was performed to examine whether insulin also regulates the production of hCG by this type of cell. After 24-36 h of preincubation, JEG-3 and JAR cells (2-3 x 10(5) cells/ml.well) or human term trophoblast cells (1 x 10(6) cells/ml.well) were exposed to the test hormone in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium for 24-96 h. Secretion of hCG from JEG-3 cells was stimulated by human insulin, human proinsulin, or porcine insulin in a dose-dependent manner, with lowest effective doses of 6.7, 96, and 53 mg/L, respectively. Time-course studies showed that hCG secretion peaked at 72-96 h with insulin exposure; in contrast, no decernable peak was seen without insulin in serum-free media. Exposure of JEG-3 cells for 24 h to 209 mg/liter insulin stimulated hCG synthesis, with 40 +/- 3% more immunoreactive intracellular hCG (P less than 0.05). Cells grown in the presence of insulin and [35S]methionine had 47 +/- 21% more labeled intracellular hCG and 56 +/- 13% more immunoprecipitable [35S]methionine-hCG secreted into the medium than the control cultures (P less than 0.05). During this time period, human placental lactogen release and total trichloroacetice acid-precipitable [35S]methionine protein were not increased. The insulin-induced stimulation of hCG synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. Additionally, insulin did not significantly affect total intracellular protein during 24-96 h of incubation. Insulin also increased hCG release from JAR cells, but not from human term trophoblast cells. A mouse monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor inhibited the stimulation of insulin in JEG-3 cells

  6. 77 FR 55481 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone...


    ... Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl... redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, and in accordance with Sec. 514.116 Notice of withdrawal of... Dunham, Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  7. 77 FR 55413 - New Animal Drugs; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Naloxone; Oxymorphone; Oxytocin


    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Alterman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug... Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR parts 510 and 522 are amended as... Veterinary Medicine. BILLING CODE 4160-01-P...

  8. Myth vs. Fact: The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Diet

    ... 500 calories per day on the diet. Experts worry that this diet puts people’s health at risk. In general, women need 1,600 to 2,400 calories per day and men need 2,000 to 3,000 calories per day to maintain a healthy weight. Following a healthy diet when eating only ...

  9. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Ümit Gul


    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  10. Midtrimester serum B-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the subsequent development of preeclampsia

    Moghaddami Tabrizi N


    Full Text Available The pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the commonest conditions peculiar to pregnancy, to describe the occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in pregnancy. It is about seven times more frequent in first gestation and uncommon before 20 week's gestation. Serum BhCG levels were prospectively determined in 260 midtrimester singleton pregnancies where admitted from October 1999 until September 2000 at Mirza Kouchak Khan hospital, prenatal clinic. Obstetric chart review was undertaken after delivery to identify cases in which pre eclampsia developed. The median maternal age was 26.0 years, and the median gestational age at the time of blood collection was 19.0 weeks. Of these, 17 cases (6.5 percent had pre eclampsia. The median level of the BhCG was 35060.5 mlu/ml in those with pre eclampsia, whereas that in those without pre eclampsia was 33755.1 mlu/ml. The difference was not significant (P=0.28. Although elevated midtrimester serum BhCG levels in clinically normal patients was reported in severaly pre eclampsia women, this is not a good test for early detection of mild pre eclampsia.

  11. Graded hyperthyroidism and serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration in patients with trophoblastic disease

    Serum thyroid hormone and basal and post TRH stimulated levels of TSH were measured in 48 female subjects of mean age 29.3 ± 9.2 and mean gravida 2.9 ± 2.6 with trophoblastic disease (TD), both benign and malignant. Normal pregnant women (n=21) served as controls. Twenty-five patients showed a normal response to TRH (Group i) while the rest (Group ii) had subnormal response while thyroid hormone levels were increased. Two subgroups iiA and iiB were formed within Group ii on the basis of the free T4 levels (measured by equilibrium dialysis) falling below or above the 25th percentile. hCG levels were higher in Group ii than in Group i and a stepwise significant increase in the mean level of this hormone was observed in Group i to iiA and iiB. Significant correlation between hCG levels and those of thyroxine, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine were found in TD patients as a whole, but not within the different subgroups. Clinical signs were minimal, with proximal muscle weakness and fine finger tumours observed in 10 patients in Group iiB. The study shows that the incidence of biochemical hyperthyroidism is higher than was reported before sensitive methods for TSH measurement were available, and postulates that increased hCG concentrations in themselves and/or abnormal metabolic variants of hCG produced by trophoblastic tumours may act as thyroid stimulators in this condition. 64 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Correlation between second trimester beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels and pregnancy outcome in high risk group

    Praveen Sharma


    Conclusions: Women with bad obstetric history and unexplained elevation of serum beta hCG during second trimester are at an increased risk for PIH and IUGR. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2358-2361

  13. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (estrus not detected until 8 mo of age, i.e. delayed puberty) is the major reason for culling about 30% of the total number of gilts selected for reproduction at the large breeding farm units in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). It is important to determine whether...

  14. Candida Sepsis Following Transcervical Chorionic Villi Sampling

    Israel Potasman; Roni Gonen; Alona Paz


    Background: The use of invasive devices and broad spectrum antibiotics has increased the rate of candidal superinfections.Candida sepsis associated with pregnancy is rare. Candida sepsis following chorionic villi sampling (CVS) has never been reported. Case: A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented with signs of sepsis one day after undergoing transcervical CVS. Blood culture and curettage material yielded C. albicans. She was treated with 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 4 weeks and completely ...

  15. Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)


    textabstractThe recent unraveling of structures of genes for the gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors has provided reproductive endocrinologists with new tools to study normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rare inacti

  16. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    Uesaka Miki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E, such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild

  17. Transabdominal chorion villus biopsi ved abnormt ultralydfund i 2. trimester

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P K; Henriques, U;


    . Three patients with abnormal ultrasonic findings in the second trimester were, therefore, submitted to transabdominal chorion villus biopsy and, in all three cases, a karyotype was available within 48 hours. Chorion villus biopsy in the second (and third) trimester is indicated in pregnancies in which...

  18. The Prenatal Environment in Twin Studies: A Review on Chorionicity.

    Marceau, Kristine; McMaster, Minni T B; Smith, Taylor F; Daams, Joost G; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Knopik, Valerie S


    A literature search was conducted to identify articles examining the association of chorionicity (e.g., whether twins share a single chorion and thus placenta or have separate chorions/placentas) and genetics, psychiatry/behavior, and neurological manifestations in humans twins and higher-order multiples. The main aim was to assess how frequently chorionicity has been examined in relation to heritability estimates, and to assess which phenotypes may be most sensitive to, or affected by, bias in heritability estimates because of chorionicity. Consistent with the theory that some chorionicity effects could lead to overestimation and others to underestimation of heritability, there were instances of each across the many phenotypes reviewed. However, firm conclusions should not be drawn since some of the outcomes were only examined in one or few studies and often sample sizes were small. While the evidence for bias due to chorionicity was mixed or null for many outcomes, results do, however, consistently suggest that heritability estimates are underestimated for measures of birth weight and early growth when chorionicity is not taken into account. PMID:26944881

  19. The relationship between the single level of serum human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) at 14~15th day after embryo transfer and the multiple-pregnancy, the gender of fetal, the clinic abortion%胚胎移植术14~16天后单次血HCG值与多胎,胎儿性别和临床流产之关系

    贾婵维; 王树玉; 马延敏; 兰永连; 周丽颖; 刘英; 张军; 余兰


    Objective: To determine the relationship between serum human chorionic gonadotrop (HCG) at 14 days - 16 days after embryo transfer and pregnancy outcome in long run. Methods: The pregnancy outcomes of 329 cases whose gestational sacs were detected and the serum HCG levels of 14 days - 16 days after fresh cycle IVF/ICSI - ET were retrospectively analyzed. Among 329 cases, there were 145 case detected the serum HCG level at the 14th day after embryo transfer, 102 cases detected the serum HCG level at the 15th day after embryo transfer and 82 cases at the 16th day after embryo transfer. According to the day of detecting serum HCG. We divided the 329 cases into four groups by their outcomes: multiple pregnancy, singleton female infant, singleton male infant, clinical abortion. And according the day of detecting serum HCG we compared their levels of serum HCG after embryo transfer using One - Way ANOVA test. Results: 1. The levels of serum HCG went down according to multiple pregnancies, singleton female infants, singleton male infants, clinical abortions. There was the significant difference between multiple pregnancies and other groups. 2. At the 14th day after embryo - transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and singleton male infants, clinical abortions but there was no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions. 3. At 15th and 16th day after embryo -transfer, there was the significant difference of the serum HCG levels between singleton female infants and clinical abortions but no significant difference between singleton male infants and clinical abortions.There was also no significant difference between singleton female infants and singleton male infants. Conclusion: 1. The levels of serum HCG at the 14 - 16th day after embryo - transfer were correlated with their pregnancy outcome. The mean levels of serum HCG step down according multiple pregnancy, singleton female

  20. Conservative management of a pituitary tumor during pregnancy following induction of ovulation with gonadotropins.

    Jewelewicz, R; Zimmerman, E A; Carmel, P W


    Ovulation induced with human menopausal gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin in a 27-year-old woman who had been amenorrheic for 7 years resulted in pregnancy. Although pretreatment neurologic evaluation was normal, significant loss of vision was found at 30 weeks' gestation, and a skull x-ray revealed enlargement and erosion of the sella turcica. As an attempt to delay surgery, 12 mg of dexamethasone daily arrested further visual deterioration, and the pregnancy continued uneventful for 36 weeks, when triplets were born. Five days after delivery the visual fields were normal. Trans-sphenoidal resection of a prolactin-secreting chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary was carried out 6 months later. It is suggested that when disturbance in visual perception due to a pituitary tumor occurs during pregnancy, a course of high-dose corticosteroids with frequent monitoring of visual fields and acuity might be tried before surgical intervention. Although further rapid deterioration in vision may dictate immediate surgical decompression, conservative management may result in stabilization, allowing the patient to carry the pregnancy to term and obviating the need for emergency surgery. PMID:832714

  1. Gonadotropins in Infertile Men with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Homayoun Abbasi


    Full Text Available Background: Stimulatory therapy with gonadotrpins is an effective treatment to inducespermatogenesis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotroptic hypogonadism (IHH. The aim ofthis study was to assess the effectiveness of human chorionic gonadotropin / human menopausalgonadotropin on hypogonadotropic infertile men.Materials and Methods: This study included fifty-six azoospermic infertile men with IHH treatedwith hCG / hMG. All patients received hCG (5000 IU, IM3 times /week for three months. Afterthat, treatment was continued combined with hMG (75 IU, IM 3 times/week. Semen analysis wasperformed every 3 months. After 15 months, fine needle aspiration was performed if the patientswere azoospermic. Treatment continued if mature spermatozoa were present in FNA, otherwisetreatment was discontinued. In the former cases, semen analysis was requested 24months afterthebeginning of treatment.Results: In this study, spermatozoa were present in the ejaculate in 50 out of 56 patients (89.2%after combined treatment. Average time of sperm appearance was 9.2 months. Mean spermconcentration was 9.12 x 106/ml. FNA carried out after 15 months of treatment in 23(41% ofpatients with persistent azoospermia, 91.3% of these latter patients had mature spermatozoa on fineneedle aspiration. Pregnancy occurred in 23 (41% cases.The mean sperm concentration in patients whose spouses became pregnant was 15.56x 10.6Conclusion: hCG/ hMG combination therapy is effective treatment for fertility in patients withIHH. FNA can be used as a safe and suitable tool to evaluate patients that remains azoospermicafter 15 month of treatment.

  2. Serum insulin-like factor 3 is highly correlated with intratesticular testosterone in normal men with acute, experimental gonadotropin deficiency stimulated with low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin

    Roth, Mara Y; Lin, Kat; Bay, Katrine;


    To study the potential role for using serum biomarkers, including insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, antimüllerian hormone, and inhibin B, as correlates of intratesticular T (IT-T) concentrations in men....

  3. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G;


    . PATIENT(S): Patients under observation previously had been recruited into two concurrently performed, independent, randomized controlled trials (comparing hCG with GnRH-agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist multiple-dose protocols in normal responder patients) encompassing a......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...... ET was 18.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-36.7) and 30.0% (95% CI, 14.5-51.9) after hCG and GnRH-agonist triggering, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per patient starting a frozen-embryo replacement cycle was 16.1% (95% CI, 7.1-32.6) and 26.1% (95% CI, 12.5-46.5) for hCG and Gn...

  4. Chorionic Villus Sampling and Marked Membrane Separation

    Sh. Akhlaghpoor


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The major concern about the invasive prenatal diagnostic tests is the"nfrequency of procedure induced pregnancy loss. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS is the invasive"ntest of choice in the first trimester after the 10th gestational week. Our experience suggests"nmarked chorioamniotic separation is an uncommon finding after the 10th gestational week. This"nstudy assesses the rate of marked membrane separation in a 10 to 14-week gestational period"nand its effect on post CVS fetal loss."nPatients and Methods: Forty-one patients (5.2% were selected among 782 patients as cases"nwith marked membrane separation (mean maternal age, 26.9 years. CVS procedures were"nperformed with a 20-gauge Chiba needle attached to a 20-ml syringe under ultrasound guidance."nFollow-up was performed by phone call and clinical visits until 24 weeks of gestation. For the"ncontrol group, the follow-up was performed for only 2 weeks. Early fetal loss in the first two"nweeks of post procedural period, and late fetal loss from 2 weeks after procedure till the 24th"ngestational week were considered as CVS complications."nResults: We detected 2.4% early fetal losses after the procedure. Fourteen cases voluntarily"nunderwent therapeutic abortion due to beta-thalassemia or hemophilia. One fetus with"nmicrocephaly was spontaneously aborted in the 21st gestational week. Twenty-five neonates"nwere delivered alive at term and one prematurely at the 32nd week. Marked membrane separation"nhad no significant effect on early post CVS fetal loss rate."nConclusion: The procedure does not have a major impact on the early post CVS fetal loss in"npatients with marked membrane separation.

  5. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A;


    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment o...

  6. Regulation of gonadotropin receptor gene expression

    A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); R. Kraaij (Robert); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)


    textabstractThe receptors for the gonadotropins differ from the other G protein-coupled receptors by having a large extracellular hormone-binding domain, encoded by nine or ten exons. Alternative splicing of the large pre-mRNA of approximately 100 kb can result in mRNA species that encode truncated

  7. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E;


    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...... seminiferous tubule function. It is not known if inhibin B can be used to demonstrate early damage of seminiferous tubules in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism....

  8. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen


    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGβ and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGβ and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... intervals between sampling. From our data that showed high correlation of hCGβ and PAPP-A in the first and second sample, we found no reason to recommend retesting. However, new studies should clarify whether PAPP-A should be collected early, and hCGβ late, in the first trimester of pregnancy....

  9. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen


    protein A (PAPP-A). However, little knowledge exists regarding the biological variation of hCGß and PAPP-A when the time interval between sampling increases. Methods: We estimated these variations from double mea-surements of hCGß and PAPP-A in first trimester pregnancies in 167 women. Data were divided...... intervals between sampling. From our data that showed high correlation of hCGß and PAPP-A in the first and second sample, we found no reason to recommend retesting. However, new studies should clarify whether PAPP-A should be collected early, and hCGß late, in the first trimester of pregnancy....

  10. Placental-Derived Mesenchyme Influences Chorionic Gonadotropin and Progesterone Secretion of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Trophoblasts

    Giakoumopoulos, Maria; Siegfried, Leah M.; Dambaeva, Svetlana V.; Garthwaite, Mark A.; Glennon, M. Clay; Golos, Thaddeus G.


    Studies of early placental development in humans are difficult because of limitations on experimental material availability from the perimplantation period. We used a coculture system to determine the effects of various effector cell types on trophoblast differentiation. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing H1 human embryonic stem cells were used in co-suspension with human term placental fibroblasts (TPFs) and dermal fibroblasts (CI2F) to form combination embryoid bodies (EBs...

  11. Induction of Gonadotropins for Reproductive Control

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari


    Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.

  12. Four years' cytogenetic experience with the culture of chorionic villi

    Sikkema-Raddatz, B; Bouman, K; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Stoepker, M; Mantingh, A; Beekhuis, [No Value; de Jong, B


    In 1958 chorionic villus samples, investigated by culture method, we found 137 (7%) abnormalities. The abnormal results were classified in certain abnormal (generalised abnormal at high probability) and uncertain abnormal (potentially confined to the placenta) results. Certain abnormal were 73 cases


    Yousuf Sarwar


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  14. Perspectives on fish gonadotropins and their receptors

    Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Bogerd, Jan; Mañanós, Evaristo L.; Gómez Peris, Ana María; Lareyre, Jean Jacques


    Teleosts lack a hypophyseal portal system and hence neurohormones are carried by nerve fibers from the preoptic region to the pituitary. The various cell types in the teleost pituitary are organized in discrete domains. Fish possess two gonadotropins (GtH) similar to FSH and LH in other vertebrates; they are heterodimeric hormones that consist of a common α subunit non-covalently associated with a hormone-specific β subunit. In recent years the availability of molecular cloning techniques all...

  15. The dynamics of connexin expression, degradation and localisation are regulated by gonadotropins during the early stages of in vitro maturation of swine oocytes.

    Nicolas Santiquet

    Full Text Available Gap junctional communication (GJC plays a primordial role in oocyte maturation and meiotic resumption in mammals by directing the transfer of numerous molecules between cumulus cells and the oocyte. Gap junctions are made of connexins (Cx, proteins that regulate GJC in numerous ways. Understanding the dynamic regulation of connexin arrangements during in vitro maturation (IVM could provide a powerful tool for controlling meiotic resumption and consequently in vitro development of fully competent oocytes. However, physiological events happening during the early hours of IVM may still be elucidated. The present study reports the dynamic regulation of connexin expression, degradation and localization during this stage. Cx43, Cx45 and Cx60 were identified as the main connexins expressed in swine COC. Cx43 and Cx45 transcripts were judged too static to be a regulator of GJC, while Cx43 protein expression was highly responsive to gonadotropins, suggesting that it might be the principal regulator of GJC. In addition, the degradation of Cx43 expressed after 4.5 h of IVM in response to equine chorionic gonadotropin appeared to involve the proteasomal complex. Cx43 localisation appeared to be associated with GJC. Taken together, these results show for the first time that gonadotropins regulate Cx43 protein expression, degradation and localisation in porcine COC during the first several hours of IVM. Regulation of Cx43 may in turn, via GJC, participate in the development of fully competent oocytes.

  16. Multiple Pregnancy after Gonadotropin-Intrauterine Insemination: An Unavoidable Event?

    Fong, Shirley A.; Vidya Palta; Cheongeun Oh; Cho, Michael M.; Loughlin, Jacquelyn S.; McGovern, Peter G.


    Objective. Determine which factors predict multiple pregnancy in gonadotropin-intrauterine insemination cycles so that cancellation criteria might be developed. Study Design. Retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing gonadotropin-intrauterine insemination over a continuous 36 month period. Results. No factors examined were able to predict the occurrence of multiple pregnancy. Conclusion. Multiple pregnancy is an unavoidable complication of gonadotropin-intrauterine insemination tr...

  17. Feasibility and safety of transabdominal chorionic villus sampling

    Background: Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is the technique of choice for prenatal diagnosis prior to 12 weeks gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, and pattern of complications following first trimester Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (TA-CVS). Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from Jan 2007 to July 2008. Couples at risk of giving birth to a child with genetic disorder were identified and counselled. Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling was done using double needle technique under ultrasound guidance. Immediate and late complications were followed up. Data was analysed using SPPS-10. Results: On 200 cases chorionic villus sampling was done as an outdoor procedure. Most common indication was thalassaemia trait 75 (37.5%). Most procedures were done between 12-13 weeks. All placental positions including 104 (52%) posterior and 71 (35.5%) anterior were approachable. Most aspirations were easy, however, in 30 (15%) the aspiration was difficult. Overall success rate was 100%. In 158 (79%) of the cases sample yield was good. One (0.5%) patient had vaginal bleeding and three (1.5%) had placental haematoma formation. Most patients (84%) experienced mild pain during the procedure. The procedure related miscarriage occurred in 2 (1%) patients while another patient developed this complication after 6 weeks. Conclusion: First trimester TA-CVS is an accurate and safe invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure. Placentas in almost any position can be approached without any significant risk to mother and the foetus. (author)

  18. Chorionic Villus Sampling Complications in Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia Major

    R Monzavi Sani; F Savadkuhi; Z Rohani


    Background/Objective: Early diagnosis of thalassemia with chorionic villus sampling has an important role in fetal evaluation. Because of the increasing risk of fetal loss and other probable risks, it seems there are some considerations about the safety of this method. Since different studies have mentioned variable complications of this method for the mother and her fetus and also the fact that this information is limited in most areas of our country, this study was performed to compare the ...

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis by Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Biopsy

    Reynolds, J.L.


    Prenatal diagnosis forms only a small part of day-to-day family practice, but the techniques are of critical importance to couples at risk of having a child affected by genetic disorder. Second trimester amniocentesis will probably be replaced by first trimester chorionic villus biopsy and recombinant DNA technology, but the ethical and moral problems related to prenatal diagnosis are not so easily solved. Family physicians need to examine their own attitudes toward the handicapped before the...

  20. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    TONG Xiao-mei; ZHANG Song-ying; SONG Tao; XU Wei-hai; LIN Xiao-na; SHU Jing; LIU Liu


    Background Ovadan hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is one of the most life-threatening complications of assisted reproduction treatments.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRHanta) are thought to be effective in preventing this complication,and some clinical tdals have found lower incidences of OHSS in patients treated with GnRHanta.Our aim was to investigate the effects of GnRHanta on vascular permeability and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors in a rat model of OHSS.Methods An immature early OHSS rat model was established.Three ovarian stimulation protocols were used:pregnant mare serum gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) alone,with a GnRHanta,or with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa).Blood and tissue samples were collected at 48 hours after hCG administration.Vascular permeability was evaluated by measuring the Evans-Blue content of extravasated peritoneal fluids.The expression of VEGF and its receptors,including fit-1 and KDR,were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Results Treatment with both a GnRHanta and a GnRHa resulted in significant reductions in serum estradiol and peritoneal vascular permeability,as well as decreased ovarian expression of VEGF and its two receptors.However,GnRHanta treatment caused a greater reduction in serum estradiol concentrations,and in VEGF receptor mRNA expression than GnRHa.There were no significant reductions in the expression of VEGF or its receptors in extra-ovarian tissues,including the liver,lungs and peritoneum.Conclusion Our results reveal that GnRHanta are more potent than GnRHa in preventing early OHSS through down-regulation of the expression of VEGF and its receptors in hyperstimulated ovaries.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed. PMID:18089592

  2. Chorionic plate arterial function is altered in maternal obesity

    Hayward, C.E.; Higgins, L.; Cowley, E.J.; Greenwood, S. l.; Mills, T.A.; Sibley, C. P.; Wareing, M.


    Objectives To characterise Chorionic Plate Artery (CPA) function in maternal obesity, and investigate whether leptin exposure reproduces the obese CPA phenotype in normal-BMI women. Study design CPA responses to the thromboxane-A2 mimetic U46619 (pre/post leptin incubation), to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the occurrence of tone oscillations (pre/post leptin incubation) were assessed in 46 term placentas from women of normal (18.5–24.9) or obese (>30) Body Mass Index ...

  3. Gonadotropins in European sea bass: Endocrine roles and biotechnological applications.

    Mazón, María José; Molés, Gregorio; Rocha, Ana; Crespo, Berta; Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Espigares, Felipe; Muñoz, Iciar; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana


    Follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are central endocrine regulators of the gonadal function in vertebrates. They act through specific receptors located in certain cell types found in the gonads. In fish, the differential roles of these hormones are being progressively elucidated due to the development of suitable tools for their study. In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), isolation of the genes coding for the gonadotropin subunits and receptors allowed in first instance to conduct expression studies. Later, to overcome the limitation of using native hormones, recombinant dimeric gonadotropins, which show different functional characteristics depending on the cell system and DNA construct, were generated. In addition, single gonadotropin beta-subunits have been produced and used as antigens for antibody production. This approach has allowed the development of detection methods for native gonadotropins, with European sea bass being one of the few species where both gonadotropins can be detected in their native form. By administering recombinant gonadotropins to gonad tissues in vitro, we were able to study their effects on steroidogenesis and intracellular pathways. Their administration in vivo has also been tested for use in basic studies and as a biotechnological approach for hormone therapy and assisted reproduction strategies. In addition to the production of recombinant hormones, gene-based therapies using somatic gene transfer have been offered as an alternative. This approach has been tested in sea bass for gonadotropin delivery in vivo. The hormones produced by the genes injected were functional and have allowed studies on the action of gonadotropins in spermatogenesis. PMID:26002037

  4. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Danilo Demeterco


    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  5. Use of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective study

    Xi W


    Full Text Available Wenyan Xi,1 Shankun Liu,2 Hui Mao,1 Yongkang Yang,1 Xiang Xue,1 Xiaoning Lu1 1The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an City, Shaanxi, 2Taian City Central Hospital, Shandong, Taian, People’s Republic of China Background: Gonadotropin has been used to stimulate ovulation in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but it is associated with overstimulated cycles with the development of many follicles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG in CC-resistant infertile women with PCOS.Methods: Ninety-four women received the letrozole + HMG, 90 women received CC + HMG, and 71 women received HMG only. All women received one treatment regimen in one treatment cycle. All patients were given HMG 75 IU on alternate days daily starting on day 3 or day 7 until the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin.Results: The rate of monofollicular development was 80.2% in the letrozole + HMG group, 65.3% in the CC + HMG group, and 54.7% in the HMG-only group (P<0.05 for letrozole + HMG vs the other two groups. The number of developing follicles (≥14 mm follicles and the cycle cancellation rate due to ovarian hyperresponse were the lowest in the letrozole + HMG group, but the difference was not significant. The ovulation and pregnancy rate were similar among the three protocols. The HMG dose needed and the mean duration of treatment were significantly lower in the letrozole + HMG and CC + HMG groups compared with the HMG-only group.Conclusion: Letrozole in combination with HMG is an effective protocol for reducing the risks of hyperstimulation for ovarian induction in CC-resistant women with PCOS. This combination may be more appropriate in patients who are particularly sensitive to gonadotropin. Keywords: letrozole, clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin

  6. Activation of the chicken gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor reduces gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor signaling.

    Shimizu, Mamiko; Bédécarrats, Grégoy Y


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic peptide from the RFamide peptide family that has been identified in multiple avian species. Although GnIH has clearly been shown to reduce LH release from the anterior pituitary gland, its mechanism of action remains to be determined. The overall objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R) signaling pathway, (2) to evaluate potential interactions with gonadotropin releasing hormone type III receptor (GnRH-R-III) signaling, and (3) to determine the molecular mechanisms by which GnIH and GnRH regulate pituitary gonadotrope function during a reproductive cycle in the chicken. Using real-time PCR, we showed that in the chicken pituitary gland, GnIH-R mRNA levels fluctuate in an opposite manner to GnRH-R-III, with higher and lower levels observed during inactive and active reproductive stages, respectively. We demonstrated that the chicken GnIH-R signals by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase cAMP production, most likely by coupling to G(alphai). We also showed that this inhibition is sufficient to significantly reduce GnRH-induced cAMP responsive element (CRE) activation in a dose-dependent manner, and that the ratio of GnRH/GnIH receptors is a significant factor. We propose that in avian species, sexual maturation is characterized by a change in GnIH/GnRH receptor ratio, resulting in a switch in pituitary sensitivity from inhibitory (involving GnIH) to stimulatory (involving GnRH). In turn, decreasing GnIH-R signaling, combined with increasing GnRH-R-III signaling, results in significant increases in CRE activation, possibly initiating gonadotropin synthesis. PMID:20350548

  7. Bleeding as a consequence of chorion villus sampling.

    Liu, D T; Jeavons, B; Preston, C; Slater, E; Symonds, E M


    A series of 4 separate studies were conducted to assess the incidence and short term consequence of bleeding associated with chorion villus sampling. Results support previous reports that risk of foetal-maternal transfusion as suggested by a rise in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) can occur. This occurrence is not consistent and need not be obvious even after therapeutic abortion. It is also transient and did not complicate mid-trimester neural tube screening or subsequent course of pregnancy. Eighty-seven percent of blood contaminating villus samples are of maternal origin. Following diagnosis 37% of patients reported some vaginal bleeding. This is mainly in the form of spotting which did not preclude normal pregnancy. Foetal loss occurred in 4 of the patients when bleeding considered heavier than spotting continued. In rhesus negative patients prophylactic anti-D gamma-globulin is advised, since neither Kleihauer counts nor MSAFP estimation reliably detect all foetal-maternal transfusions. PMID:2472129

  8. Chorionic Villus Sampling Complications in Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia Major

    R Monzavi Sani


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Early diagnosis of thalassemia with chorionic villus sampling has an important role in fetal evaluation. Because of the increasing risk of fetal loss and other probable risks, it seems there are some considerations about the safety of this method. Since different studies have mentioned variable complications of this method for the mother and her fetus and also the fact that this information is limited in most areas of our country, this study was performed to compare the complications of this procedure with other reports."nPatients and Methods: This prospective case series study was performed in the chorionic villus sampling (CVS center of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences from October 2003 till July 2006. One-hundred thirty seven patients who were referred to this center were sampled and examined by sonography regarding early complications of CVS in mothers and fetuses and deformities in their neonates. "nResults: The most common early complication of CVS was subchorionic hematoma (6.5%, of which one case finally resulted in placenta abruption and abortion. The fetal loss rate after CVS was the same as the abortion rate following subchorionic hematoma. In this study, we did not find any chorioamnionitis, oligohydramnios and fetal loss during the sampling. Furthermore, in the follow up control of their neonates, there were neither limb deficiency and oromandibular defects nor cutaneous hemangioma."nConclusion: Results show that minor complications of CVS such as subchorionic hematoma can be dangerous and may increase the risk of fetal loss. In addition, this study agrees that sampling after 10 weeks of pregnancy on the hands of an expert is a safe procedure.    

  9. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...


    ... Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug... NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid... releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution for Injection for temporary...

  10. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  11. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Navneet Magon


    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.


    P. Mehdipour


    Full Text Available A total number of 66 chorionic villus samples were cytogenetically investigated. The samples consisted of 30 experimental cvs from spontaneously aborted materialand 36 from live gestations.80% of the samples were successfully grown, of the 30 cases 40% (12 and 33% (10contained a normal female and a normal male karyotype, respectively, 3.3% (1 and3.3% (1 had abnormal karyotypes (47,XX, + 21; 47, XY, + 18, respectively, and 16% (6 of the cultures did not grow of the 36 CVS, 80. 5% of the trophoblasts grew. 50% and 30.5% had normal karyotypes with 46, XY and 46, XX chromosome constitutions respectively, of those with a male karyotype, one case was revealed to have two mitoses with 47+Xy, +21 karyotype and was considered to be a Mosaic with a minor abnormal clone. One case (2.7% was a twin; 5.5% of the samples did not grow and 11.1% of the villi were inadequate. No serious complications occurred after CVS. 12 girls and 9 biys were delivered at term and cytogenetic findings on the CVS were postnatally confirmed for normal cases and even for a Mosaic case.

  13. The impact of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) on growth and food conversion efficiency in Royal Danio, Barilius bakeri Day.

    Antony, Jomol; Natarajan, P


    In aquaculture, growth hormones attract many researchers as they play a key role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. In this study, we observed the influence of hCG on growth in Barilius bakeri, a common ornamental fish endemic to the Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Juveniles of B. bakeri 2.19 ± 0.92 g were selected and stocked in the experimental tanks of size 90 x 45 x 45 cm. Water quality parameters were examined periodically and were maintained under tolerable limits. The feeds were formulated at 40% protein level. Different levels of hCG i.e. @ 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 ppm were tested for both short term and long term. Fishes were fed with experimental diets twice daily at the rate of 5% body weight. Fishes were examined fortnightly and their length and weight documented. Their gross body compositions were also analyzed. The results of the study were subjected to ANOVA using statistical package SPSS version 10.1. Feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG showed the best result in providing percentage gain in length, weight and SGR. The FCE, FAE, PER and protein digestibility values were highest in fishes given feed incorporated with 12.5 ppm hCG. PMID:27145636

  14. Serum biomarkers for predicting pregnancy outcome in women undergoing IVF: human chorionic gonadotropin, progesterone, and inhibin A level at 11 days post-ET

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Shin, Mi Sun; Yi, Gwang; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun


    Objective This study was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum hCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels measured at 11 days post-ET for predicting pregnancy outcome in women participating in IVF. Methods Between May 2005 and April 2008, sera were obtained from 70 infertile women who underwent IVF-ET at 11 days post-ET and stored. HCG, progesterone, and inhibin A levels were measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The predictive accuracy of hCG, progesterone, ...

  15. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN


    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  16. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Ejdrup Bredkjaer, Helle; Westergaard, Lars Grabow;


    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...

  17. Development of ovine chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-deficient pregnancies.

    Baker, Callie M; Goetzmann, Lindsey N; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Jeckel, Kimberly M; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V


    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone (CSH), a placenta-specific secretory product found at high concentrations in maternal and fetal circulation throughout gestation, is significantly reduced in human and sheep IUGR pregnancies. The objective of this study was to knock down ovine CSH (oCSH) expression in vivo using lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA to test the hypothesis that oCSH deficiency would result in IUGR of near-term fetal lambs. Three different lentiviral oCSH-targeting constructs were used and compared with pregnancies (n = 8) generated with a scrambled control (SC) lentiviral construct. Pregnancies were harvested at 135 days of gestation. The most effective targeting sequence, "target 6" (tg6; n = 8), yielded pregnancies with significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in oCSH mRNA (50%) and protein (38%) concentrations, as well as significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in placental (52%) and fetal (32%) weights compared with the SC pregnancies. Fetal liver weights were reduced 41% (P ≤ 0.05), yet fetal liver insulin-like growth factor-I (oIGF1) and -II mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) 82 and 71%, respectively, and umbilical artery oIGF1 concentrations were reduced 62% (P ≤ 0.05) in tg6 pregnancies. Additionally, fetal liver oIGF-binding protein (oIGFBP) 2 and oIGFBP3 mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas fetal liver oIGFBP1 mRNA concentration was not impacted nor was maternal liver oIGF and oIGFBP mRNA concentrations or uterine artery oIGF1 concentrations (P ≥ 0.10). Based on our results, it appears that oCSH deficiency does result in IUGR, by impacting placental development as well as fetal liver development and function. PMID:26887431

  18. Perbaikan Fenotipe Pertumbuhan Anak Babi Lokal Melalui Penyuntikan Gonadotropin Sebelum Induk Dikawinkan (IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PHENOTYPE OF LOCAL PIGLET BY GONADOTROPHIN INJECTION OF SOW PRIOR TO MATING

    1Debby Jacqueline Jochebed Rayer


    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to study the growth phenotypes of piglets born to sows injected withpregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG prior to mating inorder to improve endogenous secretions of pregnant hormones during pregnancy. The experimental sowsused in this study were 10 local breed sows with body weight ranges of 30-40 kg. Before mating, estrouscycles of the experimental sows were synchronized by injecting 3.75 mg prostaglandin twice with 14 daysinterval. The experimental sows were then divided into two groups, each consisted of 5 sows. The firstgroup was injected with 200 IU PMSG and 100 IU hCG per sow at the same time with the secondprostaglandin injection (day 15th, while the second group was not injected with PMSG and hCG but it wasinjected with NaCl 0.95% as a control. After showing estrous behavior, the experimental sows were mixedwith selected boars for natural mating. The pregnant sows were maintained until farrowing and weaning. Variable measured were body weights and body lengths and leg heights of the piglets at birth andweaning. The results showed that injection of the sows with PMSG and hCG prior to the mating, increasedbirth weight by 76.92% and total birth weight of live piglets per sow by 265.6% as compared to control.Piglets born to sows injected with PMSG and hCG prior to mating had higher survival rate with adramatically decreased mortality and a higher pre-weaning growth rate that finally increased total weightof weaned pigs per sows dramatically by 107.44% (increased 2 times as compared to control. It is concludedthat the growth phenotypes of local piglets could be improved by injecting the sows with gonadotropinbefore mating.

  19. Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist

    Wignall Jacqui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Methods Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. Results We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus. Conclusion Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura.

  20. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor sequence from fish

    G Kumaresan; T Venugopal; A Vikas; T J Pandian; S M Athavan


    A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding for a putative transmembrane domain of gonadotropin hormone receptor. The amplified DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the available turkey and human luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone receptor coding sequences. This is the first report on cloning such sequences of piscine origin.

  1. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons by glucose

    Roland, Alison V.; Moenter, Suzanne M.


    Reproduction is influenced by energy balance, but the physiological pathways mediating their relationship have not been fully elucidated. As the central regulators of fertility, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons integrate numerous physiological signals, including metabolic cues. Circulating glucose levels regulate GnRH release and may in part mediate the effects of negative energy balance on fertility. Existing evidence suggests that neural pathways originating in the hindbrain, a...

  2. Direct action of gonadotropin in brain integrates behavioral and reproductive functions

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Nasipak, Brian T.; Kelley, Darcy B.


    Essential roles for gonadotropins in gonadal development and reproduction are well established. Over the past decade, however, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) has also been reported in the brain of various mammals and birds. Although suggestive, it has not yet been determined whether this expression pattern supports a novel function for gonadotropins. Here, we demonstrate a CNS-mediated role of gonadotropins in a reproductive behavior: the courtship songs of the South Afr...

  3. Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides influence gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    Haluk Kelestimur; Emine Kacar; Aysegul Uzun; Mete Ozcan; Selim Kutlu


    The hypothalamic Arg-Phe-amide-related peptides, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and orthologous mammalian peptides of Arg-Phe-amide, may be important regulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal reproductive axis. These peptides may modulate the effects of kisspeptins because they are presently recognized as the most potent activators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, their effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons have not been investigated. In the current study, the GT1–7 cell line-expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone was used as a model to explore the effects of Arg-Phe- amide-related peptides on kisspeptin activation. Intracellular calcium concentration was quantified using the calcium-sensitive dye, fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone released into the medium was detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that 100 nmol/L kisspeptin-10 significantly increased gonadotropin-releasing hormone levels (at 120 minutes of exposure) and intracellular calcium concentrations. Co-treatment of kisspeptin with 1 μmol/L gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone or 1 μmol/L Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 significantly attenuated levels of kisspeptin-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone but did not affect kisspeptin-induced elevations of intracellular calcium concentration. Overall, the results suggest that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and Arg-Phe-amide-related peptide-1 may have inhibitory effects on kisspeptin-activated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons independent of the calcium signaling pathway.

  4. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.


    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  5. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

    Trohimovych O.V.


    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  6. Usefulness of chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis of thalassaemia: a clinical study in eastern India

    Sujoy Dasgupta


    Conclusions: Thalassaemia is a prevalent condition in Eastern India. Chorionic villus sampling is an effective and safe method for early diagnosis of fetal thalassaemia that helps to prevent birth of thalassaemic babies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 790-794

  7. Influence of chorionicity on perinatal outcome in a large cohort of Danish twin pregnancies

    Oldenburg, Anna; Rode, Line; Bødker, Birgit;


    Objective To assess outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. Methods A cohort was retrieved from local ultrasound databases at 14 obstetric departments in Denmark, comprising all twin pregnancies with two live fetuses scanned between weeks 11 to 14 in the period 1 January 2004 to 31...

  8. Kisspeptin regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats

    Haogang Xue; Chunying Yang; Xiaodong Ge; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Mingyu Qi


    Kisspeptin is essential for activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this study, we established gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Rats were injected with 1, 10, or 100 pM kisspeptin-10, a peptide derived from full-length kisspeptin, into the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area, and with the kisspeptin antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle. The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion was suppressed after injection of antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle, and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone level was observed after kisspeptin-10 injection into the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that luteinizing hormone levels during the first hour of kisspeptin-10 infusion into the arcuate nucleus were significantly greater in the 100 pM kisspeptin-10 group than in the 10 pM kisspeptin-10 group. These findings indicate that kisspeptin directly promotes gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and luteinizing hormone release in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. The arcuate nucleus is a key component of the kisspeptin-G protein-coupled receptor 54 signaling pathway underlying regulating luteinizing hormone pulse secretion.

  9. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  10. Physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membranes sterilized by γ irradiation

    Physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membranes sterilized by γ-irradiation. Investigation on physical and chemical properties of freeze-dried amnio-chorion membrane as well as the total number of bacteria contained were done on irradiated and unirradiated membranes. Parameters observed to evaluate the membranes were tensile strength, water vapour transmission rate, Aw, infrared spectra and total bacterial count before irradiation. These membranes will be used as biological burn dressing. The effects of storage time up to 1 month at room temperatures, i.e. 29 +- 20C on mechanical properties of freeze-dried membranes were also done. No significant change could be observed on physical and chemical properties of radiation sterilized membranes compared to unirradiated ones (p. 0.1). To protect the physical properties of freeze-dried membranes it is suggested that the membranes be processed as quickly as possible after delivery. (author). 10 figs, 7 refs

  11. A positive feedback loop involving Gcm1 and Fzd5 directs chorionic branching morphogenesis in the placenta.

    Jinhua Lu

    Full Text Available Chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis is a key milestone during placental development, creating the large surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, and is therefore critical for the success of term pregnancy. Several Wnt pathway molecules have been shown to regulate placental development. However, it remains largely unknown how Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd signaling spatiotemporally interacts with other essential regulators, ensuring chorionic branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis during placental development. Employing global and trophoblast-specific Fzd5-null and Gcm1-deficient mouse models, combining trophoblast stem cell lines and tetraploid aggregation assay, we demonstrate here that an amplifying signaling loop between Gcm1 and Fzd5 is essential for normal initiation of branching in the chorionic plate. While Gcm1 upregulates Fzd5 specifically at sites where branching initiates in the basal chorion, this elevated Fzd5 expression via nuclear β-catenin signaling in turn maintains expression of Gcm1. Moreover, we show that Fzd5-mediated signaling induces the disassociation of cell junctions for branching initiation via downregulating ZO-1, claudin 4, and claudin 7 expressions in trophoblast cells at the base of the chorion. In addition, Fzd5-mediated signaling is also important for upregulation of Vegf expression in chorion trophoblast cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Fzd5-Gcm1 signaling cascade is operative during human trophoblast differentiation. These data indicate that Gcm1 and Fzd5 function in an evolutionary conserved positive feedback loop that regulates trophoblast differentiation and sites of chorionic branching morphogenesis.

  12. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts in placental membranes: a histologic lesion of in utero hypoxia.

    Stanek, Jerzy; Weng, Eric


    Grossly apparent and microscopically intermediate trophoblast-lined subchorionic, septal, and cell island cysts are relatively common placental findings. To analyze the clinicopathologic correlations of histologically similar but grossly inapparent microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes (mccpm), selected placental and clinical parameters of all 172 consecutive placentas with mccpm (study group, sg) and all consecutive 3743 placentas without mccpm (comparative group, cg) from years 1994 through 2005 were statistically compared; mccpm were observed in 4.3% of all placentas and in 14.9% of placentas from preeclamptic mothers from 24- to 42-week pregnancies, their gestational weeks' distribution almost mirroring that of the distribution of preeclampsia, with a peak in the middle of the 3rd trimester. Microscopic chorionic pseudocysts (lakes) arising in the chorion laeve of placental membranes were statistically significantly more common in patients with preeclampsia and maternal diabetes mellitus. In placentas with mccpm, decidual arteriolopathy, homogeneous placental maturation, global hypoxic pattern of placental injury, chorangiosis, placental infarction, laminar necrosis of membranes, stem obliterative endarteritis, erythroblasts of fetal blood, and decidual hemosiderosis were statistically significantly more common, while acute chorioamnionitis, villous fibrosis, and villous edema were less common (P hematoma, perivillous fibrin deposition, intervillous thrombi, chronic villitis, chorangiomas, placenta accreta, amnion nodosum, and marginate/vallate placenta. Highly statistically significant associations of mccpm with preeclampsia and a cluster of placental lesions known to be linked to placental hypoxia indicate that the mccpm form in response to hypoxia, particularly in patients with preeclampsia; mccpm should therefore be regarded and reported as a hypoxia-associated placental lesion. PMID:17535086

  13. Synthesis of oxytocin in amnion, chorion, and decidua may influence the timing of human parturition.

    Chibbar, R; Miller, F D; Mitchell, B F


    Despite the widespread clinical use of oxytocin (OT) as a potent and specific stimulant of labor, previous research data have not supported a role for OT in the physiology of normal human parturition. We have demonstrated synthesis of OT mRNA in amnion, chorion, and decidua using Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assays, and in situ hybridization. Probes directed towards both the 3' and 5' ends of the gene have been used. Levels were highest in decidua with considerably less in ...

  14. Competitive enzyme immunoassay for human chorionic somatomammotropin using the avidin-biotin system

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) is determined by an enzyme immunoassay where HCS competes with biotin-labeled HCS for insolubilized anti-HCS antibodies. Enzyme-labeled avidin is then used to reveal the amount of bound HCS. The system proves to be sensitive (1 ng/ml of HCS can be detected) and results agree with radioimmunoassay determinations (correlation coefficient = 0.979). Kinetics of the avidin-biotin reaction and coating of polystyrene wells are also investigated

  15. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    Akanksha Gupta; Kedige, Suresh D.; Kanu Jain


    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have ...

  16. Method of sampling chorionic villi in first trimester of pregnancy under guidance of real time ultrasound.

    Ward, R H; Modell, B; Petrou, M; Karagözlu, F; Douratsos, E


    Samples of chorionic villi were obtained in the first trimester by aspiration using a cannula passed transcervically under the guidance of real time ultrasound. In initial studies in 47 anaesthetised patients immediately before therapeutic abortion a method was developed giving a success rate of 89%. In 10 patients successful sampling was performed as an outpatient procedure without anaesthesia. In all, seven diagnostic procedures were undertaken and four of the five unaffected pregnancies co...

  17. Review: regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved ...

  18. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    KazuyoshiTsutsui; GeorgeEBentley


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved ...

  19. Does Islamic Fasting Affect Gonadotropin around Female Ovulation?

    Tayebeh Esmaeili


    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of Islamic fasting differs from other forms of fasting, therefore its effecton health also differs. This research studies the effect of Islamic fasting on gonadotropin hormonesaround the time of the ovulatory cycle and ovulation.Materials and Methods: This self-controlled study was performed on 24 adult females. Bloodsampling was performed during Ramadan and two months later to determine the levels of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estrogen and progesterone. Ultrasonographywas done in order to detect ovulation and the results were compared.Results: The mean values of FSH, LH and estrogen during the 14th day of menstruation werecomparable with non-fasting values. There was no significant difference in ovulation.Conclusion: Islamic fasting causes neither significant variation in hormone secretion aroundovulation nor does it influence the occurrence of ovulation.

  20. Dexamethasone Supplementation to Gonadotropin Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization in Polycystic Ovarian Disease

    Bider, D.; Hourvitz, A; Tur Kaspa, I.; Dirnfeld, M.; Dor, J.


    Purpose:This study was conducted to determine whether glucocorticoid supplementation for patients with polycystic ovarian disease during ovulation induction with gonadotropins for in vitro fertilization (IVF) therapy is beneficial.

  1. Evaluation of predictive factors for multiple pregnancies during gonadotropin/IUI treatment

    Goldfarb, James M.; Peskin, Barry; Austin, Cynthia; Lisbona, Hanna


    Purpose: Our purpose was to analyze factors for their predictability of multiple pregnancies in patients treated with a combination of human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) and intrauterine insemination (IUI).

  2. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke;


    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  3. Growth and descent of the testes in infants with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism receiving subcutaneous gonadotropin infusion

    Lambert, Anne-Sophie; Bougneres, Pierre


    Background One third of infants with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) are said to have micropenis and/or bilateral or unilateral cryptorchidism leading many of them to orchiopexy. Our previous study in two patients suggests that prolonged subcutaneous infusion of large doses of gonadotropins might normalize testicular function and growth. Case presentation To confirm the effects of early and prolonged subcutaneous infusion of large doses of gonadotropins on growth and descent of...

  4. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    Maharaj, Chrisen H


    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  5. [Exclusion of Sandhoff disease (Tay-Sachs 0 variant) by chorion biopsy].

    Veszprémi, B; Baranyai, Z; Klujber, L; Arany, A


    Transcervical chorionic villus sampling with ultrasound guidance at the 11-th week of pregnancy was made at a woman with the history of one lethal case of Sandhoff disease. The total hexosaminidase and the hexosaminidase A were determined. At the 16-th week amniocentesis was performed and the characteristic enzymes were determined from the amniotic cell culture. The results of the examinations made possible to advise the patient to carry out the pregnancy. The examinations after delivery confirmed the newborn to be a carrier. PMID:1522989

  6. Internal dose-effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in gonadotropin-primed weanling rat model

    Shirota, Mariko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, Toyozo [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Okuyama, Mitsunobu [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); TEIZO Medical Co., Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan); Sakurada, Yosuke; Shirota, Kinji [Azabu University, Research Institute of Biosciences, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsuki, Yasuhiko [Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan)


    Single sc injection of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) induces ovulation in weanling female rats 3 days later. It has been shown that treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 24 h before eCG injection reduces eCG-stimulated ovarian hypertrophy and inhibits ovulation. The present study intended to compare internal dose-effects of TCDD between these endpoints and representative endpoints for TCDD toxicity, such as weights of the liver and thymus, in weanling female rats given orally 0, 1, 4 or 16 {mu}g/kg TCDD 24 h before eCG injection on postnatal day 25. Measurement of plasma TCDD concentrations by ELISA at 6, 72 and 96 h after TCDD revealed that significant levels of TCDD were maintained in systemic circulation until 96 h (on the day of induced ovulation) with the highest level at 6 h after TCDD treatment. Ovarian TCDD concentrations varied similarly and tended to be higher than those in the thymus at all time points, whereas hepatic concentrations of TCDD were the highest among the tissues. Although {>=} 4 {mu}g/kg TCDD affected the weights of the thymus and liver, no differences were observed in ovarian weights at any time point or in ovulation between corn oil-treated and TCDD-treated groups. Furthermore, ovarian levels of representative mRNAs in follicles were not affected by TCDD treatment. Since TCDD increased the amount of cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA in the ovary, the administered TCDD stimulated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-signaling pathway. From these results, we concluded that thymus weights of weanling female rats responded to TCDD at a lower internal dose as compared with that ovarian hypertrophy and follicular growth from early antral stage to ovulation would respond to. (orig.)

  7. Evolution of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor and its ligand.

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, which was first identified in the Japanese quail hypothalamus. GnIH peptides share a C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif in most vertebrates. The receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) is the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147) that inhibits cAMP production. GPR147 is also named neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor 1 (NPFFR1), because it also binds NPFF that has a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. To understand the evolutionary history of the GnIH system in the animal kingdom, we searched for receptors structurally similar to GnIHR in the genome of six mammals (human, mouse, rat, cattle, cat, and rabbit), five birds (pigeon, chicken, turkey, budgerigar, and zebra finch), one reptile (green anole), one amphibian (Western clawed flog), six fishes (zebrafish, Nile tilapia, Fugu, coelacanth, spotted gar, and lamprey), one hemichordate (acorn worm), one echinoderm (purple sea urchin), one mollusk (California sea hare), seven insects (pea aphid, African malaria mosquito, honey bee, buff-tailed bumblebee, fruit fly, jewel wasp, and red flour beetle), one cnidarian (hydra), and constructed phylogenetic trees by neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. A multiple sequence alignment of the receptors showed highly conserved seven-transmembrane domains as well as disulfide bridge sites between the first and second extracellular loops, including the receptor of hydra. Both NJ and ML analyses grouped the receptors of vertebrates into NPFFR1 and NPFFR2 (GPR74), and the receptors of insects into the receptor for SIFamide peptides that share a C-terminal YRKPPFNGSIFamide motif. Although human, quail and zebrafish GnIHR (NPFFR1) were most structurally similar to SIFamide receptor of fruit fly in the Famide peptide (FMRFamide, neuropeptide F, short neuropeptide F, drosulfakinin, myosuppressin, SIFamide) receptor families, the amino acid sequences and the peptide coding

  8. A 26-Year Experience in Chorionic Villus Sampling Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis

    Jorge, Paula; Mota-Freitas, Maria Manuela; Santos, Rosário; Silva, Maria Luz; Soares, Gabriela; Fortuna, Ana Maria


    This report describes the trends of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) referred for prenatal genetic diagnosis in the past two and a half decades in a Portuguese Center. Our cohort of 491 CVS was mostly performed by the transcervical method at the 12th gestational week. Data collected within the framework of this study relate to the following: sampling method, referral reason versus abnormality and incidence of procedure-related pregnancy loss, that declined to about 0.5% over the last 15 years. The year 2000 represented a change in referral reasons for chorionic tissue collection, shifting from almost exclusively for cytogenetic testing to an increasing number of molecular tests for monogenic disorders. Herein, success rates as well as cytogenetic and/or molecular DNA results are presented. These latter include not only tests for several monogenic disorders, but also aneuploidy and maternal cell contamination screening. This retrospective analysis reiterates that CVS is a safe and reliable first trimester technique for prenatal diagnosis in high genetic risk pregnancies. PMID:26237480

  9. Targeting Gonadotropins: An Alternative Option for Alzheimer Disease Treatment

    Gemma Casadesus


    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that, alongside oxidative stress, dysregulation of the cell cycle in neurons susceptible to degeneration in Alzheimer disease may play a crucial role in the initiation of the disease. As such, the role of reproductive hormones, which are closely associated with the cell cycle both during development and after birth, may be of key import. While estrogen has been the primary focus, the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition and dementia only during a “crucial period” led us to expand the study of hormonal influences to other members of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Specifically, in this review, we focus on luteinizing hormone, which is not only increased in the sera of patients with Alzheimer disease but, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy and also influences cognitive behavior and pathogenic processing in animal models of the disease. Targeting gonadotropins may be a useful treatment strategy for disease targeting multiple pleiotropic downstream consequences.

  10. Transdermal iontophoresis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (LHRH) and two analogues.

    Miller, L L; Kolaskie, C J; Smith, G A; Rivier, J


    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), as well as an antagonist [Ac-D2Nal,1 D4ClPhe,2 D3Pal,3 NicLys,5 DNicLys,6 ILys,8 DAla10] GnRH.HOAc (1) and a superagonist [DTrp6, Pro9-NHEt]GnRH (2), have been electrochemically driven across excised hairless mouse skin. Determined by HPLC analysis, the delivery rate from aqueous solution into isotonic saline at 0.5 mA cm-2 was as high as 19 nM cm-2 h-1 for 2. Because of its insolubility in water, analogue 1 could only be delivered from an acidic donor solution. Analogue 2 was also delivered in pulsatile fashion using current on/off cycles. For all three peptides, passive transport was negligible and stability is evident when in contact with the stratum corneum. Slow metabolism occurs when GnRH contacts the dermal side of hairless mouse skin. PMID:2203894

  11. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  12. Altered ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins in neonatally irradiated immature rats

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. In order to study the possibility that such an impaired reproductive performance could result from a reduced ovulation rate, neonatally irradiated females were treated with PMSG (12 iu/rat) at the age of 26 days. Another group of rats, similarly treated, was further injected with hCG (5 iu/rat) 48 hours later. Animals were killed 48, 55, 60 and 72 hours after PMSG treatment or 72 and 120 after hCG injection. The results indicated that PMSG treatment increased the ovarian weight of non-irradiated controls as well as of irradiated rats and in all animals induced a proestrus like profile of LH. Only a combined treatment of PMSG and hCG resulted in ovulation and corpora lutea formation with significantly increased numbers of corpora lutea in the ovaries of the irradiated rats. The latter was associated with higher progesterone plasma levels not correlated to the number of corpora lutea. The gradual decrease in the number of ovarian binding sites for hCG with increased radiation dose and the increased association constant in the 15R group could not explain the increased sensitivity of the ovary to exogenous gonadotropins which results from neonatal exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation

  13. The general and comparative biology of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH).

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Bentley, George E; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Saigoh, Etsuko; Yin, Hong; Osugi, Tomohiro; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Ciccone, Nick; Sharp, Peter J; Wingfield, John C


    The decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary factor responsible for the hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion. Gonadal sex steroids and inhibin inhibit gonadotropin secretion via feedback from the gonads, but a neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion was, until recently, unknown in vertebrates. In 2000, we identified a novel hypothalamic dodecapeptide that inhibits gonadotropin release in cultured quail pituitaries and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). To elucidate the mode of action of GnIH, we then identified a novel G protein-coupled receptor for GnIH in quail. The GnIH receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains and specifically binds to GnIH. The GnIH receptor is expressed in the pituitary and several brain regions including the hypothalamus. These results indicate that GnIH acts directly on the pituitary via GnIH receptor to inhibit gonadotropin release. GnIH may also act on the hypothalamus to inhibit GnRH release. To demonstrate the functional significance of GnIH and its potential role as a key regulatory neuropeptide in avian reproduction, we investigated GnIH actions on gonadal development and maintenance in quail. Chronic treatment with GnIH inhibited gonadal development and maintenance by decreasing gonadotropin synthesis and release. GnIH was also found in the hypothalamus of other avian species including sparrows and chickens and also inhibited gonadotropin synthesis and release. The pineal hormone melatonin may be a key factor controlling GnIH neural function, since quail GnIH neurons express melatonin receptor and melatonin treatment stimulates the expression of GnIH mRNA and mature GnIH peptide. Thus, GnIH is capable of transducing photoperiodic information via changes in the melatonin signal, thereby influencing the reproductive axis. It is concluded that GnIH, a newly discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide, is a key factor controlling avian reproduction. The discovery of avian GnIH opens


    Initial studies suggested that Siberian tiger gonadotropins are more homologous with those of porcine than any other commercially available preparation. Therefore the present study measured the efficacy of repeated ovarian stimulation with purified porcine gonadotropins on the follicular, hormonal a...

  15. Optimal timing for human chorionic gonadotrophin administration from the point of view of the mature/immature oocytes ratio in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles%从超排周期所获成熟卵与不成熟卵比例的临床结局评议hCG诱发排卵最佳时机



    In current controlled ovarian stimulation protocol, usage of recombination follicle stimulating hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue can to avert from the dominant follicle selection mechanism which results in single follicle maturation and ovulation. Because of this progress, multiple follicles can he recruited and develop simultaneously, so that more oocytes could he retrieved. Whereas because of the absence of endogenous luteinizing hormone surge, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has to be administrated to trigger final follicle maturation and induce ovulation. At the end of follicular phase, there would he a series of ovulatary follicles with different diameters. It is tricky to determine optimal timing of hCG administration due to lack of synchronization. The current criteria for hCG administration is arbitrary and not uniformed. Each IVF program would draft their own criteria and determine the timing according to the characteristics of each cycle. And in particular cases, immature oocyte rate is unbearable because of inappropriate hCG trigger timing. So far the relationship between hCG administration and IVF/ICSI outcome remains uncertain. It is seemingly that, generally the " trigger window" does exist and is not bitterly rigid. Based on our experience, oocytes with superior development capacity are aspirated from fairly large follicles with a diameter between 20 and 22 mm. At the same time, character of the patient, hormone levels and endometrium advancement should be considered. Because lack of knowledge of folliculogenesis and insufficiency of current monitoring methods, the exact timing of hCG administration could not be pinpointed. In the future, the development of perifollicular vascularization evaluation and serum/follicular anti-Mullerian hormone measurement will assist in identifying the optimal timing of hCG administration.

  16. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion

  17. Pubertal progression in the presence of elevated serum gonadotropins in girls with multiple endocrine deficiencies.

    Lucky, A W; Rebar, R W; Blizzard, R M; Goren, E M


    Pubertal progression in the presence of abnormally elevated serum gonadotropins was followed over several years in two girls with multiple endocrine deficiencies and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Both had hypoparathyroidism and one had adrenal failure as well. A serum level of progesterone (8 ng/ml) consistent with ovulation was documented in the one girl who had regular monthly menses. High serum levels of FSH (30--60 mIU/ml) at times when serum estradiol was in the normal pubertal range (100--200 pg/ml) may indicate partial ovarian end-organ resistance or failure. Since premature menopause is associated with this syndrome, we postulate that we are observing puberty in girls whose ovaries are in the early stages of a destructive process which may eventually result in irreversible ovarian failure. A possible explanation could be the existence of increased resistance to gonadotropins at the ovarian level because of gonadotropin receptor antibodies or an inherent receptor defect. PMID:914971

  18. Mussel adhesive enhances the immobilization of human chorionic gonadotrophin to a solid support.

    Burzio, V A; Silva, T; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O


    Polystyrene microtiter plates coated with 0.30 microgram/ well of the adhesive polyphenolic protein purified from the mussel Aulacomya ater showed enhanced capacity to immobilize antigens such as human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Uncoated and coated wells were activated with different amounts of hCG (from 2 to 500 ng), blocked with bovine serum albumin, and tested with anti-hCG monoclonal antibodies and antimouse IgG conjugated with peroxidase. The reading at 492 nm of the uncoated wells activated with 500 ng of hCG was similar to that obtained with coated wells but using 5 to 10 ng of antigen. The coating procedure also resulted in better sensitivity to detect low concentration of monoclonal antibodies and better signal-to-noise ratio. The capacity of the mussel coating to immobilize hCG, as well as the immunoreactivity of the attached antigen, remained stable for several months. PMID:8921186

  19. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester

    Therkelsen, A J; Jensen, P K; Hertz, Jens Michael;


    First trimester prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was attempted in 350 pregnancies after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling. The cytogenetic investigation was performed using both a short-term method (24 h incubation) and cell culture. Adequate samples were obtained in 99.1 per cent and in all...... these cases the fetal karyotype was established. A chromosome abnormality was found in 2.0 per cent of cases. A discrepancy between the karyotype obtained after 24 h incubation and the karyotype in cell culture was observed in 2.3 per cent. Maternal cell contamination in the cultures was confirmed in 13...... cytogenetic investigation until the problems with karyotype discrepancy and maternal cell contamination have been further clarified....

  20. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John


    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  1. Determination of chorionic gonadotrophin. Comparison of biological, immunological and radioimmunological methods

    Three types of analysis were used to quantify chorionic gonadotrophic hormone: biological determination (rana-reaction); immunological determination (simplified pregnosticon test of the Organon Teknika laboratories); radioimmunological determination (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA kits). While the immunochemical technique is specially suited to analysis of the urine, the radioimmunological measurement is carried out on the plasma. This method is extremely sensitive; when traditional biological and immunological methods are used the quantity of CGH detectable is of the order of some hundreds or at best a few tens of international units. The radioimmunological method is a thousand times more sensitive and can therefore measure CGH in amounts of the milli-unit order. Until recently it was not specific enough to differentiate between CGH and LH, but not long ago a β CGH-specific antibody was discovered and it is now possible to detect small amounts of CGH in the presence of LH

  2. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    Ricardo E. Fretes


    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  3. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu


    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  4. Integration of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion by timed urinary measurements: an accurate and sensitive 3-hour test

    The integration of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion by the radioimmunoassay of an acetone precipitation from a short-term urine sample was evaluated. FSH and LH excretion over a 3-h period was compared to the mean level of 10 blood samples obtained every 20 min for a similar time period from 71 patients. A highly significant correlation existed between blood and urine results. In addition, the gonadotropin levels obtained from a 3-h sample correlated well with the 24-h excretion of FSH and LH from the same individual. A 3-h urine collection can provide a simple, sensitive, and accurate means of assessing circulating FSH and LH levels. (U.S.)

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediates gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release responses to endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormones in goldfish.

    Klausen, Christian; Booth, Morgan; Habibi, Hamid R; Chang, John P


    The possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mediating the stimulatory actions of two endogenous goldfish gonadotropin-releasing hormones (salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II) on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was examined. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of ERK and phosphorylated (p)ERK in goldfish brain, pituitary, liver, ovary, testis and muscle tissue extracts, as well as extracts of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells and HeLa cells. Interestingly, a third ERK-like immunoreactive band of higher molecular mass was detected in goldfish tissue and pituitary cell extracts in addition to the ERK1-p44- and ERK2-p42-like immunoreactive bands. Incubation of primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells with either a PKC-activating 4beta-phorbol ester (TPA) or a synthetic diacylglycerol, but not a 4alpha-phorbol ester, elevated the ratio of pERK/total (t)ERK for all three ERK isoforms. The stimulatory effects of TPA were attenuated by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and the MEK inhibitor PD98059. sGnRH and cGnRH-II also elevated the ratio of pERK/tERK for all three ERK isoforms, in a time-, dose- and PD98059-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with PD98059 reduced the sGnRH-, cGnRH-II- and TPA-induced increases in gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels in Northern blot studies and sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-elicited LH release in cell column perifusion studies with goldfish pituitary cells. These results indicate that GnRH and PKC can activate ERK through MEK in goldfish pituitary cells. More importantly, the present study suggests that GnRH-induced gonadotropin subunit gene expression and LH release involve MEK/ERK signaling in goldfish. PMID:18558406

  6. Gonadotropins Activate Oncogenic Pathways to Enhance Proliferation in Normal Mouse Ovarian Surface Epithelium

    Joanna E. Burdette


    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy affecting American women. The gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, have been implicated as growth factors in ovarian cancer. In the present study, pathways activated by FSH and LH in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE grown in their microenvironment were investigated. Gonadotropins increased proliferation in both three-dimensional (3D ovarian organ culture and in a two-dimensional (2D normal mouse cell line. A mouse cancer pathway qPCR array using mRNA collected from 3D organ cultures identified Akt as a transcriptionally upregulated target following stimulation with FSH, LH and the combination of FSH and LH. Activation of additional pathways, such as Birc5, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdkn2a identified in the 3D organ cultures, were validated by western blot using the 2D cell line. Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors blocked gonadotropin-induced cell proliferation in 3D organ and 2D cell culture. OSE isolated from 3D organ cultures stimulated with LH or hydrogen peroxide initiated growth in soft agar. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated colonies were further enhanced when supplemented with FSH. LH colony formation and FSH promotion were blocked by Akt and EGFR inhibitors. These data suggest that the gonadotropins stimulate some of the same proliferative pathways in normal OSE that are activated in ovarian cancers.

  7. Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Eugster, Erica A; Rogol, Alan; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Palmert, Mark R; Antoniazzi, Franco; Berenbaum, Sheri; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Chrousos, George P; Coste, Joël; Deal, Sheri; de Vries, Liat; Foster, Carol; Heger, Sabine; Holland, Jack; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Juul, Anders; Kaplowitz, Paul; Lahlou, Najiba; Lee, Mary M; Lee, Peter; Merke, Deborah P; Neely, E Kirk; Oostdijk, Wilma; Phillip, Moshe; Rosenfield, Robert L; Shulman, Dorothy; Styne, Dennis; Tauber, Maïthé; Wit, Jan M


    to the full assembly for final review. If consensus could not be reached, conclusions were based on majority vote. All participants approved the final statement. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in increasing adult height is undisputed only in early-onset (girls <6...

  8. Structural and functional divergence of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone from jawless fish to mammals.

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a novel hypothalamic peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release in the quail. The presence of GnIH-homologous peptides and its receptors (GnIHRs) have been demonstrated in various vertebrate species including teleosts, suggesting that the GnIH-GnIHR family is evolutionarily conserved. In avian and mammalian brain, GnIH neurons are localized in the hypothalamic nuclei and their neural projections are widely distributed. GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to inhibit reproductive functions by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. In addition, GnIH-GnIHR signaling is regulated by various factors, such as environmental cues and stress. However, the function of fish GnIH orthologs remains inconclusive because the physiological properties of fish GnIH peptides are debatable. This review summarizes the current research progress in GnIH-GnIHR signaling and their physiological functions in vertebrates with special emphasis on non-mammalian vertebrate species. PMID:25386165

  9. Ovarian refractoriness to gonadotropins in cases of inappropriate lactation: restoration of ovarian function with bromocryptine.

    Mroueh, A M; Siler-Khodr, T M


    In ten patients with amenorrhea-galactorrhea who had hyperprolactinemia, ovulation could not be induced clomiphene citrate or exogenous gonadotropins. Treatment with bromocryptine in eight of these patients resulted in suppression of PRL in all, cessation of galactorrhea and ovulation in seven and conception in five. PMID:1036743

  10. Effectiveness of Low Dose of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist on Hormonal Flare-Up

    Bständig, Bettina; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Hugues, Jean Noël


    Purpose: The hormonal response (flare-up) followingadministration of a standard dose (100 μg) or a low dose(25 μg) of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a) (Triptorelin) was compared in patients prior to an in vitrofertilization (IVF) cycle and during the early follicular phaseof a short-term IVF protocol.

  11. Effects of estrogens, clomiphene and castration in a male transsexual with as compared to those without hypersecretion of gonadotropins.

    Goh, H H; Ratnam, S S


    A 24-year-old male-to-female transsexual with hypersecretion of gonadotropins was studied with regard to his recovery from sex steroid hormone treatment before his sex change operation and the effects of castration, clomiphene tests and estrogens on the hypersecretion of gonadotropins. Computer-assisted tomography and X-ray results indicated that the possibility that the hypersecretion of gonadotropins was not associated with a pituitary adenoma could not be ruled out. After a period of recovery from previous sex steroid hormone therapy, inappropriately high FSH and LH levels in the presence of normal male levels of testosterone and estradiol were found. The latter normal levels failed to suppress both the FSH and LH levels. From the clomiphene challenge tests carried out before and after the sex reassignment operation, the estradiol infusion studies and treatment with ethinyl estradiol after the sex reassignment operation, it appears that the hypersecretion of gonadotropins was responsive to the negative feedback effect of estrogens. However, the sensitivity, especially that of FSH, was very attenuated. Even after 23 weeks of ethinyl estradiol treatment FSH remained well above the upper limit for normal men. The results showed that before his sex change operation the hypersecretion of gonadotropins in the patient was probably under autonomous control. Testicular factors at normal male concentrations appear to have a minimal negative feedback effect on the hypersecretion of gonadotropins. However, hypersecretion of gonadotropins can be suppressed by prolonged exposure to estrogens. PMID:2118708

  12. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

    Chun-fang Yan


    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  13. Gonadotropin ratio affects the in vitro growth of rhesus ovarian preantral follicles.

    Kim, Yoon Young; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chung Gyu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Liu, Hung Ching; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ku, Seung-Yup


    In vitro follicle growth (IVFG) strategy is critical in the fertility preservation of cancer survivors; however, its optimal protocol needs to be developed using primate models since the availability of human samples is limited. Only a few previous studies have reported the successful IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries using low-dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0.3 or 3 ng/mL) and long-term culture (up to 5 weeks) and it is still uncertain in regard to the optimal culture duration and effective dose of treated gonadotropins applicable to the IVFG of rhesus preantral follicles. Recently, we have reported that the FSH to luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio affects the in vitro growth of murine ovarian follicles. We aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin ratios affect the efficiency of rhesus follicular growth in vitro Ovaries were collected from six necropsied rhesus macaques (4-9 years) and preantral follicles were retrieved and cultured for 14 days using 200 mIU/mL FSH. The characteristics of follicular growth were compared between the FSH:LH=1:1 (n=24) and FSH:LH=2:1 (n=24) groups. High concentration gonadotropin treatment shortened the duration required for in vitro maturation of rhesus preantral follicles. The FSH:LH=2:1 group showed a faster follicular growth and enabled the acquisition of mature oocytes, although the expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taken together, high dose gonadotropin treatment can shorten the duration of IVFG and the gonadotropin ratio is important in the IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries. PMID:26980777

  14. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy


    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin. PMID:25756311

  15. Angiogenic properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion allografts: therapeutic potential for soft tissue repair and regeneration

    Koob, Thomas J; Lim, Jeremy J.; Massee, Michelle; Zabek, Nicole; Rennert, Robert; Gurtner, Geoffrey; Li, William W


    Background Chronic wounds are associated with a number of deficiencies in critical wound healing processes, including growth factor signaling and neovascularization. Human-derived placental tissues are rich in regenerative cytokines and have been shown in randomized clinical trials to be effective for healing chronic wounds. In this study, PURION® Processed (MiMedx Group, Marietta, GA) dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane tissue allografts (dHACM, EpiFix®, MiMedx) were evaluated for prope...

  16. Association between altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) production and the occurrence of cryptorchidism: a retrospective study

    Chedane, Carole; Puissant, Hugues; Weil, Dominique; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Coutant, Régis


    Background An increase in cryptorchidism has been reported in many countries. One mechanism could be low fetal testosterone production possibly secondary to altered placental human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) release. Our Objective was to compare hCG values from maternal blood between boys with cryptorchidism and normal boys. Methods Total hCG and α-fetoprotein (AFP) values [12–16 weeks of gestation; from the double test for Down syndrome screening) were compared between cases of cryptorchi...

  17. Changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in early pregnant women undergone artificial abortion

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum and chorion-villi contents of EGF in pregnant women undergone artificial abortion with drug (mifepristone) or surgery (curettage). Methods: Serum epidermal growth factor (EGF), E2, progesterone levels changes as well as chorion-villi EGF contents were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with drug abortion (before and after mifepristone 25mg bid x 3 days), 30 pregnant women undergone curettage (determined twice, 3 days apart) and 32 controls (serum only). Results: Serum EGF, E2, and progesterone contents in all pregnant women were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The chorion-villi contents of EGF in patients undergone drug abortion were significantly lower than those in patients undergone curettage (P<0.05). Both serum EGF and progesterone contents dropped after 3 days treatment with mifepristone (vs those in curettage group, P<0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone might exert the effect of abortion through decrease of EGF levels, which was detrimental to fetus growth. (authors)

  18. Pituitary and chorionic gonadotrophic control of ovarian function during early pregnancy in equids.

    Urwin, V E; Allen, W R


    Concentrations of FSH, LH, chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) and progesterone were measured during early pregnancy in mares and donkeys carrying normal intraspecies and transferred extraspecies conceptuses. A secondary rise in progesterone concentrations occurred in normal intraspecies horse and donkey pregnancy soon after the appearance of CG but FSH concentrations continued to fluctuate and were not influenced by CG production. In donkeys carrying transferred horse conceptuses FSH concentrations fell sharply and progesterone concentrations rose steeply, coincidental with the appearance of abnormally high levels of CG. In horses carrying donkey conceptuses, on the other hand, there was a complete absence of CG production and in 7 of the 8 mares studied there was no secondary progesterone rise; FSH levels fluctuated as in the intraspecies pregnancies. Pregnancy continued to term in only 1 of 8 mares carrying a donkey conceptus despite attempts to maintain it in 4 animals by exogenous progestagen therapy. Our findings indicate that pituitary FSH, not CG, stimulates secondary follicular growth during normal equine pregnancy and the LH-like activity of CG induces ovulation of these follicles to form secondary corpora lutea. PMID:6820064

  19. Review: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary



    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was first identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brains of birds including songbirds, and mammals including humans. The identified avian and mammalian GnIH peptides universally possess an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at their C-termini. Mammalian GnIH peptides are also designated as RFamide-related peptides from their structures. The receptor for GnIH is the G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147, which is thought to be coupled to Gαi protein. Cell bodies of GnIH neurons are located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMH in mammals. GnIH neurons in the PVN or DMH project to the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function. GPR147 is expressed in the gonadotropes and GnIH suppresses synthesis and release of gonadotropins. It was further shown in immortalized mouse gonadotrope cell line (LT2 cells that GnIH inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions by inhibiting adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA dependent ERK pathway. GnIH neurons also project to GnRH neurons in the preoptic area, and GnRH neurons express GPR147 in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons as well as directly acting on the gonadotropes. GnIH also inhibits reproductive behavior possibly by acting within the brain. GnIH expression is regulated by a nocturnal hormone melatonin and stress in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may play a role in translating environmental information to inhibit reproductive physiology and behavior of birds and mammals. Finally, GnIH has therapeutic potential in the treatment of reproductive cycle and hormone-dependent diseases, such as precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostatic and

  20. Pituitary gonadotropin and testicular gonadotropin receptor expression in Atlantic cod (Gadusmorhua L.) during the first reproductive season: Effects of photoperiod modulation.

    de Almeida, Fernanda Ferreira Loureiro; Andersson, Eva; Mittelholzer, Christian; Karlsen, Orjan; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W


    Pituitary mRNA levels of gonadotropin β-subunits and of their cognate receptors in the testis were studied during puberty in Atlantic cod under normal and experimental photoperiod conditions that suppressed, delayed or accelerated testis maturation. Results are discussed in context with changes in testicular histology and plasma androgen levels, considered as end points of gonadotropic regulation. Up-regulation of fshb was closely associated with the onset of puberty, decreased when spermatogenesis was completed and reached minimum levels after spawning. These results demonstrate, for the first time using an experimental approach, that activation of Fsh-dependent signaling is associated with spermatogonial proliferation and formation of spermatogenic cysts. Changes in fshr expression were less prominent and could be explained by changes in the cellular composition and RNA content of cod testis tissue. At more advanced stages of development (spermiogenesis, spermiation and spawning), lhb and, one month later, lhcgr transcript levels increased and reached peak values in spawning fish, in a positive feedback loop involving plasma androgens and Lh/Lhcgr-dependent signaling. This loop was broken by a loss of lhb expression at the end of the spawning season. Continuous light (LL) from summer solstice, ~8 months prior to spawning, suppressed the start of testis maturation and the changes in gonadotropin and receptor mRNA levels, while LL from winter solstice initially up-regulated lhb and lhcgr expression, before resulting in a precocious termination of the spawning season and low expression of all four genes. Our studies provide experimental evidence for a clear functional discrimination of cod gonadotropins. PMID:21605561

  1. Chorionicity and Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies: The Prenatal Environment of Twins and Their Resemblance Across a Large Number of Traits.

    van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Overbeek, L I H; Rozendaal, L; McMaster, M T B; Glasner, T J; Bartels, M; Vink, J M; Martin, N G; Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I


    There are three types of monozygotic (MZ) twins. MZ twins can either share one chorion and one amnion, each twin can have its own amnion, or MZ twins can-like dizygotic twins-each have their own chorion and amnion. Sharing the same chorion may create a more similar/dissimilar prenatal environment and bias heritability estimates, but most twin studies do not distinguish between these three types of MZ twin pairs. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of chorion sharing on the similarity within MZ twin pairs for a large number of traits. Information on chorion status was obtained for the Netherlands twin register (NTR) by linkage to the records from the database of the dutch pathological anatomy national automated archive (PALGA). Record linkage was successful for over 9000 pairs. Effect of chorion type was tested by comparing the within-pair similarity between monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) MZ twins on 66 traits including weight, height, motor milestones, child problem behaviors, cognitive function, wellbeing and personality. For only 10 traits, within-pair similarity differed between MCMZ and DCMZ pairs. For traits influenced by birth weight (e.g. weight and height in young children) we expected that MC twins would be more discordant. This was found for 5 out of 13 measures. When looking at traits where blood supply is important, we saw MCMZ twins to be more concordant than DCMZ's for 3 traits. We conclude that the influence on the MZ twin correlation of the intra-uterine prenatal environment, as measured by sharing a chorion type, is small and limited to a few phenotypes. This implies that the assumption of equal prenatal environment of mono- and DC MZ twins, which characterizes the classical twin design, is largely tenable. PMID:26410687

  2. Ovarian Cyst Formation Following Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Agonist Administration Decreases the Oocyte Quality in IVF Cycles

    Muammer Doğan; Sevtap Hamdemir; Fatma Nur Aksakal; Esma Sarıkaya; Özlem Gün Eryılmaz; Leyla Mollamahmutoğlu


    Objective: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-a) treatment during in vitro fertilization (IVF) sometimes causes a functional ovarian cyst during the administration period before gonadotropin stimulation, as an undesired event. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of these cysts on the IVF outcomes.Materials and Methods: Out of 981 IVF cycles, 78 with ovarian cysts were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the demographic characteristics, hormonal outcomes, and fer...

  3. Changes in plasma gonadotropin concentrations and urethral closure pressure in the bitch during the 12 months following ovariectomy.

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Pfeiffer, Esther; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi


    Urinary incontinence due to acquired urethral sphincter incompetence is a common side effect of spaying, for which the underlying cause remains unknown. Spaying not only results in a significant reduction in the urethral closure pressure within 1 year but also in an increase in the plasma gonadotropin concentrations. To investigate the possible link between the post-ovariectomy changes in plasma gonadotropins and in urethral closure pressure, gonadotropin and urodynamic measurements were performed in 10 Beagle bitches before and for a period of 1 year after spaying. Plasma gonadotropin concentrations rose quickly after ovariectomy and peak levels were seen within 3-5 weeks, followed by a sharp drop until week 10. A steady increase was observed subsequently until week 42, when a plateau was reached. One year after spaying, the mean FSH concentration was 75.3 +/- 32.1 ng/ml, a 17-fold increase, and the LH was 8.3 +/- 3.8 ng/ml, an eightfold increase over the pre-spaying values. Ten months after spaying, the mean urethral closure pressure (9.7 cm H2O) was significantly reduced when compared to the mean pre-operative value of 15.4 cm H2O. However, there was no clear relationship between the gonadotropin concentrations and the urethral closure pressure. From these results it seems unlikely that chronically elevated gonadotropins are the underlying cause for reduced urethral closure pressure after spaying resulting in urinary incontinence. PMID:15451248

  4. 人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)对杂交黄牛、水牛受胎率的影响%Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) on Pregnancy Rate in Hybrid Yellow Cattle and Water Buffalos

    吴师; 李华慧; 覃现才; 宾娟容



  5. Designing a Long Acting Erythropoietin by Fusing Three Carboxyl-Terminal Peptides of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β Subunit to the N-Terminal and C-Terminal Coding Sequence

    Fuad Fares


    Full Text Available A new analog of EPO was designed by fusing one and two CTPs to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of EPO (EPO-(CTP3, respectively. This analog was expressed and secreted efficiently in CHO cells. The in vitro test shows that the activity of EPO-(CTP3 in TFI-1 cell proliferation assay is similar to that of EPO-WT and commercial rHEPO. However, in vivo studies indicated that treatment once a week with EPO-(CTP3 (15 μg/kg dramatically increased (~8 folds haematocrit as it was compared to rHuEPO. Moreover, it was found that EPO-(CTP3 is more effective than rHuEPO and Aranesp in increasing reticulocyte number in mice blood. The detected circulatory half-lives of rHuEPO, Aranesp, and EPO-(CTP3 following IV injection of 20 IU were 4.4, 10.8, and 13.1 h, respectively. These data established the rational for using this chimera as a long-acting EPO analog in clinics. The therapeutic efficacy of EPO-CTP analog needs to be established in higher animals and in human clinical trials.

  6. Effect of intrauterine insemination after injecting human chorionic gonadotropin at different times on pregnancy rate%注射hCG后不同时间行宫腔内人工受精对妊娠率的影响

    江梅; 靳镭; 徐婕; 聂睿; 彭芳昕


    目的:探讨注射hCG后不同时间行宫腔内人工受精(Intrauterine insemination,IUI)对妊娠率的影响.方法:回顾性分析同济医院生殖中心472对夫妇实施IUI治疗的561个周期.根据注射hCG后行IUI的不同时间分为2组:hCG后24 hIUI组和36 h IUI组,比较两组IUI后的排卵时间及其对妊娠率的影响.结果:hCG后24 h IUI 359个周期和hCG后36 h IUI 202个周期的妊娠率分别为10.86%、10.89%,P>0.05,差异无统计学意义;两组24 h内排卵的344个周期妊娠率为13.08%,明显高于24 h内未排卵的217个周期妊娠串7.37%,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义.结论:影响IUI结局的因素并非注射hCG后IUI的时间,而是IUI后的排卵时间,距排卵时间越近妊娠率越高.阴道B超联合尿LH半定量试纸检测可以较准确预测排卵时间,有利于提高其周期妊娠率.

  7. Association of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on antral follicle count and oocyte production in Holstein and Tabapuã heifers

    Hévea de Morais


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of rbST and eCG prior to ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (OPU improves oocyte yield and quality in Tabapuã and Holstein heifers. The study was conducted in two phases, 20 days apart, in a change-over design. The dominant follicle was ablated two days (D-2 before two treatments: stimulation (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, 500 mg of rbST (Boostin® on D0 and 500 IU of eCG (Folligon on D2; and control (6 Holstein and 8 Tabapuã, in which heifers received injections of the excipient. Heifers were aspirated on D4. Oocytes were subjected to a well established commercial in vitro embryo production protocol (Vitrogen® and embryos were evaluated seven days after fertilization. There was an effect from the interaction of treatment and breed, so that hormonal stimulation increased antral follicle count (2-8 mm in Tabapuã (29.9±2.6 to 41.4±2.6, but not in Holstein heifers (14.4±2.6 to 15.5±2.6. Tabapuã heifers had higher mean antral follicle count than Holsteins (35.6±1.8 vs. 15.0±2.1. The number of viable oocytes was not increased by stimulation in Tabapuã (from 4.7±1.0 to 5.2±1.1 in control and simulation, respectively or in Holstein heifers (1.3±1.9 to 2.0±1.6 in control and simulation, respectively. There was no difference in the percentage of heifers with more than five viable oocytes in the group treated (33 vs 27%. The number of blastocysts was not affected by treatment (1.75 vs. 1.00 in hormonal stimulation and control, respectively. The increase in antral follicle count in the stimulated Tabapuã heifers did not reflect upon oocyte yield. The differential breed response to the hormonal treatment underscores the need for additional tests, especially for the Holstein breed, in order to enhance OPU efficiency.

  8. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva: dramatic response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy

    Azar Danesh


    Full Text Available

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that usually arises within the perineum. It often occurs as a vulvar mass and clinically simulates a Bartholin's gland cyst. Most patients are in the second or third decade of life, but some cases have also been reported in children. This is the report of a 21 year old woman with 4.5 × 3 × 1.5 cm mass in right labia major. The patient underwent wide local excision surgical treatment. Histological examination showed high vascular myxoid tumor containing spindle cells. Immunohistochemical study of cells showed positive reaction to estrogen and progesterone and negative reaction to S100, SMA and desmin. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to deal with residual tumor and prevent local recurrence for 6 months.
    KEY WORDS: Aggressive angiomyxoma, vulva, pregnancy, Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist.

  9. Treatment of canine pyometra with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline: a case series.

    Batista, Pablo R; Blanco, Paula G; Gobello, Cristina


    To describe the effect of the third-generation gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline in the treatment of 4 diestrous bitches with the cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex. The 4 bitches were treated with 330 μg/kg of subcutaneous acyline on day 0 and antibiotics, and followed up for 2 weeks. One closed-cervix case showed cervical dilatation 36 hours after treatment, and all the 4 animals showed resolution of clinical signs starting on day 3 posttreatment. Ultrasonographic uterine diameters and luminal contents decreased in the bitches having high progesterone serum concentrations before treatment but not in those with low levels. Serum progesterone importantly decreased from high to basal concentrations in the 3 "ultrasonographically cured" animals. No local or systemic side effects related to the treatment were observed. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline may have a promising place for the medical treatment of cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in dogs. PMID:26041594

  10. Effects of a Commercial Canine Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Vaccination on Intact Male Llamas and Alpacas


    We have investigated the effect of immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) using a commercial canine GnRH vaccine on testosterone concentration, testicular volume, testicular histology, and intermale behavior in intact male llamas and alpacas. Llamas (n=28) and alpacas (n=20) were either immunized (received 3 mL of vaccine given intramuscularly) or treated as controls (received 3 mL of sterile diluent given intramuscularly) at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. Blood samples and testicular...

  11. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone: New Insights into the Neuroendocrinology of Stress and Social Conditions

    Calisi, Rebecca Marie


    Stress is a known inhibitor of reproductive function and its associated behaviors. How and why stress acts to influence reproduction have been intensely studied and appear to be extremely varied, though we do not fully understand how these processes operate at the level of the brain. My dissertation work examined the role of the novel neurohormone gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in response to stress and social environment in reproductively active birds. To review the actions of GnIH i...

  12. Ontogenesis of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons: A Model for Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cell Development

    Stevenson, Erica L.; Corella, Kristina M.; Chung, Wilson C. J.


    The vertebrate hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis is the anatomical framework responsible for reproductive competence and species propagation. Essential to the coordinated actions of this three-tiered biological system is the fact that the regulatory inputs ultimately converge on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system, which in rodents primarily resides in the preoptic/hypothalamic region. In this short review we will focus on: (1) the general embryonic temporal and spatial...

  13. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco


    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary. PMID:26370242

  14. Identification and characterization of a gonadotropin-inhibitory system in the brains of mammals

    Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Mei, Dan Feng; Bentley, George E.; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mason, Alex O.; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Silver, Rae


    Successful reproduction requires maintenance of the reproductive axis within fine operating limits through negative feedback actions of sex steroids. Despite the importance of this homeostatic process, our understanding of the neural loci, pathways, and neurochemicals responsible remain incomplete. Here, we reveal a neuropeptidergic pathway that directly links gonadal steroid actions to regulation of the reproductive system. An RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release ...

  15. Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Geraghty, Anna C; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela


    The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail,...

  16. Apoptotic Death of Prostate Cancer Cells by a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-II Antagonist

    Park, Sumi; Han, Ji Man; Cheon, Jun; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Seong, Jae Young


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) has attracted strong attention as a hormonal therapeutic tool, particularly for androgen-dependent prostate cancer patients. However, the androgen-independency of the cancer in advanced stages has spurred researchers to look for new medical treatments. In previous reports, we developed the GnRH-II antagonist Trp-1 to inhibit proliferation and stimulate the autophagic death of various prostate cancer cells, including androgen-independent cells. We furt...

  17. The transabdominal chorionic villus sampling puncture guided by color Doppler ultrasound during early pregnancy

    Objective: To study the operation of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) guided by color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) via abdomen puncture during early pregnancy and investigate the advertences during the operation. Methods: CVS guided by CDU probe via abdomen puncture were operated on 28 pregnant women who had the indications of antenatal diagnosis. CDU was used to observe the implantation position of the fo1iaceous villis and help setting mark of the puncture point and puncture range on body surface before operation. The needle was punctured under real-time ultrasound guidance and villis were aspirated during the operation: The choice of the right time of puncture and the operation skills were emphasized in the study. Results: The CVS puncture approach should be set through CDU ob servation, which attend to avoid the surrounding blood vessels, intestinal canal and surrounding important organs. The puncture point should be chosen in a point where lobif0rmed villis distributed wider and with a larger scope. The operations were performed from 10 to13 weeks of pregnancy, with an average of 11 weeks. Among these 28 cases, 9.6 were successfully drawn materials in one time, 1 in twice and l failure, with the total ratio of achievement was 96.4%. For all the cases, fetal heart pulsating could be seen by real-time CDU observation fight after the operation, and no larger hematoma echo in the placental site occurred. Ultrasound reexamined one week after the operation, fetal heart pulsation could be found in all cases, and no abortion cases occurred after regular follow-up in 25 continued pregnant patients. Conclusion: Abdominal CVS puncture guided by CDU probe is conveniently operated, safe and available in clinic. It is an important method for antenatal diagnosis during early pregnancy. The puncture localization, skills and the time are the key points for the success in obtaining the materials. (authors)

  18. Control of puberty onset and fertility by gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    Herbison, Allan E


    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal network generates pulse and surge modes of gonadotropin secretion critical for puberty and fertility. The arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons that innervate the projections of GnRH neurons in and around their neurosecretory zone are key components of the pulse generator in all mammals. By contrast, kisspeptin neurons located in the preoptic area project to GnRH neuron cell bodies and proximal dendrites and are involved in surge generation in female rodents (and possibly other species). The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis develops embryonically but, apart from short periods of activation immediately after birth, remains suppressed through a combination of gonadal and non-gonadal mechanisms. At puberty onset, the pulse generator reactivates, probably owing to progressive stimulatory influences on GnRH neurons from glial and neurotransmitter signalling, and the re-emergence of stimulatory arcuate kisspeptin input. In females, the development of pulsatile gonadotropin secretion enables final maturation of the surge generator that ultimately triggers the first ovulation. Representation of the GnRH neuronal network as a series of interlocking functional modules could help conceptualization of its functioning in different species. Insights into pulse and surge generation are expected to aid development of therapeutic strategies ameliorating pubertal disorders and infertility in the clinic. PMID:27199290

  19. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from female pituitaries

    Sodium flufenamate, which inhibited gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion. Quartered pituitaries from diestrous II female rats were perifused at 370C, and sequential effluent fractions were collected every 10 min. Administration of GnRH resulted in a characteristic biphasic response for both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas 5 μM cycloheximide inhibited the secondary augmented responses (phase II) of both hormones. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate inhibited GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion in a manner similar to that of cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate resulted in the restoration of LH and FSH secretion. The dibutyryl cAMP-restored response appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP. These results suggest that although the cyclic nucleotide is not involved in the acute release of LH and FSH, it does appear to play a pivotal but indirect role in phase II release of the hormones, by effects involving the stimulation of de novo protein synthesis

  20. Responsiveness of gonadotropin secretion to infusion of an opiate-receptor antagonist in hypogonadotropic individuals.

    Veldhuis, J D; Kulin, H E; Warner, B A; Santner, S J


    We tested the hypothesis that suppressive effects of endogenous opiate substances are involved in certain hypogonadotropic states. For this purpose, we studied gonadotropin secretion in idiopathic hypopituitarism (five children), constitutionally delayed adolescence (five boys), and Kallmann's syndrome (three men). Endogenous opiate pathways were antagonized by the iv infusion of naloxone hydrochloride at a dose previously shown to elicit a prompt and significant increase in serum levels of LH in normal men. Under these conditions, naloxone did not increase serially sampled serum concentrations or mean urinary levels of LH: or FSH in eight patients with idiopathic hypopituitarism or Kallmann's syndrome. Gonadotropin concentrations in four of five patients with constitutional delay of adolescence also were unaffected. In one boy with clinical and biochemical indices of late pubertal development, naloxone elicited a significant increase in LH levels in blood and urine, similar to the pattern observed in normal men. In contrast to results in experimental animals, naloxone did not suppress serum PRL concentration significantly in any subject. These observations suggest that: 1) endogenous opiate mechanisms are unlikely to constitute a principal factor in maintaining hypogonadotropism in idiopathic hypopituitarism, delayed adolescence, or Kallmann's syndrome, at least acutely; 2) endogenous opiate mechanisms also cannot be implicated in the acute regulation or PRL secretion in children; and 3) the capability of adult men, but not early pubertal boys, to respond with increased gonadotropin secretion during inhibition of opiate receptors suggests that maturation of the opiate-related neuroendocrine system occurs during the course of sexual development in the human. PMID:6809778

  1. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling in Human Cumulus Cells according to Ovarian Gonadotropin Treatments

    Said Assou


    Full Text Available In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5. Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1. Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3 were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality.

  2. Success of frozen embryo transfer: Does the type of gonadotropin influence the outcome?

    Hesham Al-Inany


    Full Text Available Hesham Al-Inany1, Pieter van Gelder21Egyptian IVF-ET Center, Maadi, Egypt; 2PSCT BV, Den Haag, The NetherlandsObjectives: To determine whether there is a difference in outcome between different ovulationinduced cycles after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET.Methods: We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group’s trials register in May 2009, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2008, ISI Web of Knowledge (1985 to August 2009, and reference lists of articles. Relevant conference proceedings were hand-searched and researchers in the field were contacted. Randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies were included, comparing the various cycle regimens and different methods during FET in assisted reproductive technology, ie, in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Results: Using the agonist long protocol for downregulation, five trials provided extractable data for live-birth rates, ongoing pregnancy, and clinical pregnancy rates following FET. One trial provided extractable data for clinical pregnancy rate. There was no evidence of a significant difference in any outcome between the users of urinary gonadotropins versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone. Data on implantation and miscarriage rates following FET were not available for analysis.Conclusions: It seems that clinical pregnancy rate after FET is not influenced by the type of gonadotropins used. Research should be directed towards improving freezing and thawing techniques.Keywords: infertility, assisted reproductive technology, frozen embryo transfer, gonadotropins

  3. Central and direct regulation of testicular activity by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and its receptor



    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was first identified in Japanese quail to be an inhibitor of gonadotropin synthesis and release. GnIH peptides have since been identified in all vertebrates, and all share an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at their C-termini. The receptor for GnIH is the G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147, which inhibits cAMP signaling. Cell bodies of GnIH neurons are located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMH in most mammals. GnIH neurons in the PVN or DMH project to the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function via GPR147 expressed in gonadotropes. Further, GnIH inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH -induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcription by inhibiting the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA -dependent ERK pathway in an immortalized mouse gonadotrope cell line (LT2 cells. GnIH neurons also project to GnRH neurons that express GPR147 in the preoptic area (POA in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH can inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons as well as by directly inhibiting pituitary gonadotrope activity. GnIH and GPR147 can thus centrally suppress testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis by acting in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnIH and GPR147 are also expressed in the testis of birds and mammals, possibly acting in an autocrine/paracrine manner to suppress testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis. GnIH expression is also regulated by melatonin, stress and social environment in birds and mammals. Accordingly, the GnIH-GPR147 system may play a role in transducing physical and social environmental information to regulate optimal testicular activity in birds and mammals. This review discusses central and direct inhibitory effects of GnIH and GPR147 on testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis in birds and mammals.

  4. Spontaneous and induced chromosome breakage in chorionic villus samples: a cytogenetic approach to first trimester prenatal diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia syndrome.

    Llerena, J; Murer-Orlando, M; McGuire, M; Zahed, L; Sheridan, R J; Berry, A C; Bobrow, M


    Patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) syndrome exhibit a high level of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, with hypersensitivity to gamma radiation and radiomimetic chemicals at the chromosomal and cellular level. Previously pregnancies at risk for AT have been screened solely by analysis of amniotic fluid samples. In this report we describe a cytogenetic approach to the prenatal diagnosis of AT using chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Levels of spontaneous and induced (gamma radiation and bleomycin) chromosome breakage were established in direct, semidirect, and culture preparations of CVS samples from normal pregnancies. The methods developed were then successfully applied to the screening of a pregnancy at risk for AT. Semidirect preparations showed normal levels of chromosome breakage, and this result was further confirmed in chorion, amniotic fluid, and lymphocyte cultures. In chorion villus samples, gamma radiation is probably the easiest and most reliable way of discriminating between unaffected fetuses and those with AT. PMID:2468772


    刘宝莲; 邱忠君; 宁艳春; 于秀娟; 樊桂玲; 韩宝生; 陈茜松


    Objective To explore the effect of gonadotropin releaseing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)used in intrauterine insemination in patients with PCOS.Methods Totally 98 pa-tients were divided into two groups,and they received control edovarian stimulation by clomiphene or letro-zole or HMG.Group A(45 cases)took GnRH-a 0.1mg and group B (53 cases)took HCG 6 000~10 000IU for trigger when dominant follicle reach 18-22mm.The ovulation rate,luteinized unruptured folli-cle rate,corpus luteum insufficiency rate,pregnancy rate,multiplets rate,ovarian hyperstimulation syn-drome (OHSS)rate,next cycle cysts incidence were compared between the two groups.Results There were no significant differences in the ovulation rate,luteinized unruptured follicle rate,corpus luteum in-sufficiency rate,pregnancy rate,multiplets rate between the two group (P>0.05),but OHSS rate and next cycle cyst incidence were significant lower in group A than that in group B (P0.05。A组的 OHSS发生率、下周期囊肿发生率均低于 B组,P<0.05。结论在 PCOS不孕患者促排卵治疗中,可用 GnRH-a替代 hCG诱导卵泡成熟并排卵。

  6. A thicker chorion gives ova of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) the upper hand against Saprolegnia infections.

    Songe, M M; Willems, A; Sarowar, M N; Rajan, K; Evensen, Ø; Drynan, K; Skaar, I; van West, P


    Since the ban of malachite green in the fish farming industry, finding alternative ways of controlling Saprolegnia infections has become of utmost importance. Much effort has been made to elucidate the mechanisms by which Saprolegnia invades fish eggs. Little is known about the defence mechanisms of the hosts, making some eggs more prone to infection than others. One clue might lie in the composition of the eggs. As the immune system in the embryos is not developed yet, the difference in infection levels could be explained by factors influenced by the mother herself, by either transferring passive immunity, influencing the physical aspects of the eggs or both. One of the physical aspects that could be influenced by the female is the chorion, the extracellular coat surrounding the fish egg, which is in fact the first major barrier to be overcome by Saprolegnia spp. Our results suggest that a thicker chorion in eggs from Atlantic salmon gives a better protection against Saprolegnia spp. In addition to the identification of differences in sensitivity of eggs in a fish farm set-up, we were able to confirm these results in a laboratory-controlled challenge experiment. PMID:26644366

  7. Placental Hypoxia Developed During Preeclampsia Induces Telocytes Apoptosis in Chorionic Villi Affecting The Maternal-Fetus Metabolic Exchange.

    Bosco, Cleofina Becerra; Díaz, Eugenia Guerra; Gutierrez, Rodrigo Rojas; González, Jaime Montero; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón Salinas; Barja, Pilar Yañez


    Telocytes (TC) are a new type of stromal cells initially found and studied in digestive and extra- digestive organs. These cells have a small cell body with 2 to 5 thin and extremely long cytoplasmic prolongations named telopodes. In recent years, TC have also been described in placental chorionic villi, located in a strategical position between the smooth muscle cells from fetal vessels and the myofibroblasts in the stromal villi. Unlike other organs, the placenta is not innervated and considering the strategic location of TC is has been postulated that TC function would be related to signal transduction mechanisms involved in the regulation of the fetal vessels blood flow, as well as in the shortening/lengthening of the chorionic villi, providing the necessary rhythmicity to the process of maternal/fetal metabolic exchange. Preeclampsia (PE) is a systemic syndrome that affects 4%-6% of pregnancies worldwide. It is characterized by a placental state of ischemia-hypoxia which triggers an oxidative stress stage with the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase in the degree of placental apoptosis. Placental vascular tone is regulated by the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and, in PE cases, NO is diverted towards the formation of peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidative agent whose activity leads to an increase of placental apoptosis degree that compromises TC and myofibroblasts, a key feature we would like to emphasize in this work. PMID:25643124

  8. The effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin release in non-human mammals.

    Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Jayasena, Channa N; Dhillo, Waljit S


    The Kiss1 gene encodes a 145-amino acid pre-peptide, kisspeptin, which is cleaved into smaller peptides of 54, 14, 13, and 10 amino acids. This chapter reviews in detail the effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin secretion in non-human mammals. Studies of kisspeptin's effects have included both acute and chronic administration regimens via a number of administration routes. Acute kisspeptin stimulates gonadotropin secretion in a wide range of species of non-human mammals, including rats, mice, hamsters, sheep, pigs, goats, cows, horses, and monkeys. In general, the stimulatory effect of kisspeptin treatment is more pronounced for LH than FSH secretion. Kisspeptin is thought to exert its stimulatory effects on LH and FSH release via stimulation of GnRH release from the hypothalamus, since pre--administration of a GnRH antagonist prevents kisspeptin's stimulation of gonadotropin secretion. Although the kisspeptin receptor is also expressed on anterior pituitary cells of some species, and incubation of anterior pituitary cells with high concentrations of kisspeptin can stimulate in vitro LH release, the contribution of direct effects of kisspeptin on the pituitary is thought to be negligible in vivo. Continuous kisspeptin administration results in reduced sensitivity to the effects of kisspeptin, in some species. This desensitization is thought to occur at the level of the kisspeptin receptor, since the response of the pituitary gland to exogenous GnRH is maintained. Overall, the findings discussed in this chapter are invaluable to the understanding of the reproductive role of kisspeptin and the potential therapeutic uses of kisspeptin for the treatment of fertility disorders. PMID:23550002

  9. Negative feedback governs gonadotrope frequency-decoding of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse-frequency.

    Stefan Lim

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the gonadotropin subunits is directed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH from the hypothalamus, with the frequency of GnRH pulses governing the differential expression of the common alpha-subunit, luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK and p38, contribute uniquely and combinatorially to the expression of each of these subunit genes. In this study, using both experimental and computational methods, we found that dual specificity phosphatase regulation of the activity of the three MAPKs through negative feedback is required, and forms the basis for decoding the frequency of pulsatile GnRH. A fourth MAPK, ERK5, was shown also to be activated by GnRH. ERK5 was found to stimulate FSHbeta promoter activity and to increase FSHbeta mRNA levels, as well as enhancing its preference for low GnRH pulse frequencies. The latter is achieved through boosting the ultrasensitive behavior of FSHbeta gene expression by increasing the number of MAPK dependencies, and through modulating the feedforward effects of JNK activation on the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of changing GnRH pulse-frequency in controlling transcription of the pituitary gonadotropins, which comprises a crucial aspect in regulating reproduction. Pulsatile stimuli and oscillating signals are integral to many biological processes, and elucidation of the mechanisms through which the pulsatility is decoded explains how the same stimulant can lead to various outcomes in a single cell.

  10. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor signaling and its impact on reproduction in chickens.

    Bédécarrats, Grégoy Y; McFarlane, Heather; Maddineni, Sreenivasa R; Ramachandran, Ramesh


    In birds, as in other vertebrates, reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis with each component secreting specific neuropeptides or hormones. Until recently, it was believed this axis is exclusively under the stimulatory control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) which in turn, stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from the pituitary gland. However, the discovery of a novel inhibitory hypothalamic peptide able to reduce LH secretion (gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone: GnIH) challenged this dogma. Furthermore, with the characterization of its specific receptor (GnIHR), progress has been made to clarify the physiological relevance of GnIH in birds. This short review discusses the recent advances in GnIHR signaling at the level of the pituitary gland and the gonads. GnIHR is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family which couples to G(alphai) and, upon activation inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, thus reducing intracellular cAMP levels. This implies that GnIH interferes with signaling of any GPCR coupled to G(alphas), including GnRH, LH and FSH receptors. In the chicken pituitary gland, the GnRHR-II/GnIHR ratio changes during sexual maturation in favor of GnRHR-II that appears to result in hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion shifting from inhibitory to stimulatory, with corresponding changes in GnRH-induced cAMP levels. Within the gonads, GnIH and its receptor may act in an autocrine/paracrine manner and may interfere with LH and FSH signaling to influence ovarian follicular maturation and recruitment, as well as spermatogenesis. PMID:19332068