Sample records for chlormerodrin

  1. Simultaneous tracing of 131-I-hippuran and 197-Hg-chlormerodrin uptake curve in obstructive uropathy

    With a double isotope technique, simultaneous tracing of 131I-hippuran renogram and 197Hg-chlormerodrin uptake curve are routinely carried out. This procedure not only saved the time required for each tracing, but served to quantitatively evaluate renograms in patients with urinary tract abnormalities. The dose of 197Hg used was more than 5 times larger than that of 131I, since the rate of 131I counts in the 197Hg window was experimentally confirmed to be less than 10 per cent at these doses. The changes of urine flow from the pelvis to the bladder caused by acute ureteral obstruction, voiding in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux, and bladder filling, altered the hippuran renogram pattern. These alterations were characterized by a delay in excretory phase, a sudden elevation of slow down curve, and a prolongation or renal transit time. However, the chlormerodrin uptake curves were not affected by these changes in urine flow. Bladder emptying by catheterization in patients with large amounts of residual urine produced a renogram pattern with shortened transit time, and revealed that the T 1/2 value of the slow component of blood disappearance curve was also decreased. However, changes of the chlormerodrin uptake curve and its blood disappearance curve after bladder emptying were negligible. Problems of computer assessment of 131I-hippuran renograms in patients with urinary tract abnormalities were investigated, and the advantages of simultaneous tracing of 197Hg-chlormerodrin uptake curve were emphasized. (auth.)

  2. Drug: D03466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D03466 Drug Chlormerodrin Hg 203 (USAN); Neohydrin-203 (TN) C5H11ClHgN2O2 369.0238 367.196 D03466.gif Diagno...stic aid [renal function determination]; Radioactive agent CAS: 2042-50-4 PubChem:

  3. Consecutive Renal Scanning with 131I And 203Hg in Obstructive Uropathy

    Two patients with obstructive uropathy were scanned after injections of 131I sodium orthoiodohippurate (OlH) and 203Hg chlormerodrin. The 131I OIH scan was performed 30 min after the injection with the patient in the prone position. The 203Hg chlormerodrin was injected as soon as a negligible amount of 131I OIH was detected over the kidney, and the patient was scanned again 30 min later. A third patient and a normal subject were scanned 20 min after the simultaneous injection of 131I OIH and 203Hg chlormerodrin. Three scans with different analyser settings were done in sequence. The first scan was done with a window setting for 131I, and the second scan included both 131I and 203Hg; in the third scan, the analyser was set for 203Hg only. Evidence of hydronephroses, hydroureter and the residual functioning renal tissue were demonstrated by this scanning technique. The intravenous pyelograms in all three cases had failed to give satisfactory results. The simultaneous injection technique was found advantageous over the separate injection technique. (author)

  4. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  5. Renal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-DMS(dimercaptosuccinate)

    203Hg-chlormerodrin has been widely used for renal scintigraphy in Japan, but it is not the best scintigraphic agent because of the large exposure dose to the kidneys. Renal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-DMS (dimercaptosuccinate) was performed on 36 patients suspected of having various renal disorders. The scintigraphic images with sup(99m)Tc-DMS were similar to those with 203Hg-chlormerodrin. Urinary excretion and kidney accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-DMS were measured, and the renal images were obtained at various times ranging from 5 min to 24 hr after injection in 6 normal subjects. Approximately 30% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine within 24 hr of injection. Kidney-to-background ratios rose sequentially with time, and renal image quality was better on scintiphotos obtained 2 hr or more after injection. No side effects were observed in this study. In conclusion, sup(99m)Tc-DMS was proved to be useful for renal static imaging and also for vascular dynamic studies. (auth.)

  6. Limulus test for pyrogens and radiometric sterility tests on radiopharmaceuticals. Part of a coordinated programme

    Sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals prepared at BARC were carried out using the radiometric technique (Radiometric detection of the metabolic product 14Co2). Batches of different radiopharmaceuticals were tested for pyrogen using the limulus lysate method and the results were compared with the rabbit method. The results of sterility test on 202 batches of 19 different radiopharmaceuticals show that the radiometric method can be used for sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 35S, 51Cr, 57Co, 59Fe, 82Br, 86Rb, sup(99m)Tc, sup(113m)In, 125I and 169Yb. The radiometric test proves to be more rapid than the conventional one for the sterility testing of such radiopharmaceuticals. Detection time is between 6-21 hours. In the case of 131I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and in the case of chlormerodrin-Hg-203, it was found an interference due to volatile species (sup(131m)Xe in the case of 131I and some volatile mercury form in the case of chlormerodrin). In these cases it would be possible to carry out the radiometric sterility test after separation of the microorganisms from the radioactive material (by filtration). The limulus lysate method can be employed for control of various pyrogen-prone raw materials and radiopharmaceuticals. Such method is the only method at present available for detecting the low level pyrogen contamination in intrathecal injections. The limulus test is more rapid than the rabbit test

  7. /sup 99m/pertechnetate uptake in the transplanted kidney

    Acute renal failure is a common complication of kidney transplantation. The major causes are acute tubular necrosis (ATN), arterial or venous thrombosis, rejection, ureteral obstruction, and extravasation. Each situation requires a different treatment and demands prompt diagnosis to prevent loss of the graft and patient morbidity or mortality. The clinical problem is further complicated by the possible coincidence of more than one of these pathologies, in particular the development of graft rejection superimposed on ATN in the post-transplant period. The diagnostic studies used in this differential diagnosis may include retrograde ureteral catheterization, renal arteriography, open or closed renal biopsy, isotope studies with 133xenon, 131I-hippuran, 203Hg-chlormerodrin, and more recently /sup 99m/pertechnetate. Only the latter methods with hippuran, chlormerodrin, and pertechnetate avoid direct manipulation of the graft or its artery or ureter with the inherent risks of such procedures. We present results of serial studies of sodium /sup 99m/pertechnetate photoscanning(Tc scan) in 38 renal homografts. In some studies computer determined graphs of renal radioactivity versus time (Tc renogram) were obtained

  8. Use of a 10-Channel Linear Scanner in the Differential Diagnosis of Arterial Hypertension

    The need for a simple clinical test for singling out patients suffering from arterial hypertension due to renovascular causes has long been recognized. Over the past year, the authors have been using a linear scintillation scanner with ten detectors in parallel for delineating lesions within the kidney and estimating the rate of renal accumulation of 203Hg-labelled chlormerodrin. With this apparatus one can obtain very satisfactory renal images within two or three minutes after intravenous administration of 100 - 250 mCi of a radioactive drug. Scintigraphic images of both kidneys were obtained at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after administration of the radioactive compound without supression of the background radioactivity. All data were recorded on magnetic tape to permit subsequent selection of the technical parameters required for the reproduction of an image of optimum contrast and intensity. The pulse integrator included in the instrument was used to assess radioactivity in both kidneys during each scanning. Results were expressed as the ratio of renal radioactivity at a given time (Ct) to renal radioactivity after five minutes (C5); this value was called the renal concentration index (RCI). To distinguish bilateral renal ischaemia from essential arterial hypertension, the RCI of the right kidney (RK) was divided by the RCI of the left kidney (LK), which gave a comparative index for the two kidneys (Icomp.). The authors conclude that the procedure as described could be used as a selective test for arterial hypertension of renovascular origin, since it furnishes an index directly correlated with the individual renal plasma flow and a series of images representative of the regional blood flow in each of the kidneys. As renal concentration of chlormerodrin requires both good renal blood flow and tubular cell efficiency, in cases of unilateral tubular necrosis results will be obtained similar to those for cases of unilateral renal ischaemia. The authors

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals for quantitative study of renal function

    Some topics discussed are as follows: the role of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption in renal function; measurement of glomerular filtration rate using inulin and derivatives labeled with 14C, 125I, 131I, and 51Cr, radioactive vitamin B12, contrast agents such as diatrizoate labeled with 125I and 131I and iothalamate labeled with 125I, and complexes of EDTA, DTPA, and citrate with 57Co, 58Co, 68Ga,/sup 99m/Tc, 111In, /sup 113m/In, /sup 114m/In, /sup 115m/In, 169Yb, and 197Hg; tubular secretion; measurement of renal plasma flow using 131I-labeled orthoiodohippurate; and measurement of renal blood flow using 197Hg-chlormerodrin, /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate, /sup 99m/Tc-Fe-ascorbic acid, /sup 99m/Tc-penicillamine-acetazolamide, /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate, and /sup 99m/Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid

  10. Adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol

    The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical experience of adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol and discuss its clinical usefulness. Adrenal scanning was performed for 21 patients with hypertension. One millicurie of 131I-19-cholesterol was injected intravenously and adrenal scannings were taken 6 to 11 days after injection with a rectilinear scanner or a gamma camera. No patient had an untoward reaction to the radiopharmaceutical. Confirmed diagnosis was obtained in 7 of 21 patients, i.e., 3 cases of primary aldosteronism, 1 idiopathic aldosteronism, 1 Cushing's syndrome and 2 cases of the essential hypertension. Among all of the primary aldosteronism and Cushing's syndrome, adrenal scanning gave clear evidence of concentration of radioactivity at the site of tumor. In the idiopathic aldosteronism of our study, uptake of radioactivity was brightly visible on the right, while uptake by the left gland was inhibited, so this case was diagnosed incorrectly as primary aldosteronism. The kidney scan with 203Hg-chlormerodrin obtained without moving the patient after an adrenal scan was very useful for getting information of anatomical site of the activity. The effective half-life was calculated as 1.83 days by means of sequential profile whole-body scannings, and the total-body absorbed radiation dose was estimated as 0.65 rad/mCi by using MIRD pamphlets. Our conclusion is that the adrenal scanning with 131I-19-cholesterol is very useful for localization of the functional adrenal cortical tumor. (author)

  11. Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging: a screening test for renovascular hypertension

    Computer-assisted static/dynamic renal imaging with [197Hg] chlormerodrin and [/sup 99m/Tc] pertechnetate was evaluated prospectively as a screening test for renovascular hypertension. Results are reported for 51 patients: 33 with benign essential hypertension and 18 with renovascular hypertension, and for 21 normal controls. All patients underwent renal arteriography. Patients with significant obesity, renal insufficiency, or renoparenchymal disease were excluded from this study. Independent visual analyses of renal gamma images and time-activity transit curves identified 17 of the 18 patients with renovascular hypertension; one study was equivocal. There were five equivocal and three false-positive results in the essential hypertension and normal control groups. The sensitivity of the method was 94% and the specificity 85%. Since the prevalence of the renovascular subset of hypertension is approximately 5%, the predictive value is only 25%. Inclusion of computer-generated data did not improve this result. Accordingly, this method is not recommended as a primary screening test for renovascular hypertension

  12. Radioaerosol lung imaging - history and pharmaceuticals

    The first use of a radioactive tracer to study lung function was made by Knipping and others in 1955. They used radioactive 133Xe (xenon) gas as an inhalation agent in a patient with lung cancer and found that distal to a tumor no radioactivity was detected indicating no ventilation although chest x-rays appeared as if there was active ventilation. Subsequently with advance in technology a number of radioactive gases such as 81mKr (krypton) and cyclotron produced 15O2 (oxygen), 11C (carbon) and 13N2 (nitrogen) became available to assess regional lung function. The advantages of these gases are manifold, but their utility is mostly limited due to high cost. An alternative to the use of radioactive gases to study regional ventilation is the use of particulate radioactive aerosol. Radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging technique was developed in 1965 almost simultaneously by Taplin and others and Pircher and others just 2 years following Taplin's invention of 131I-MAA for perfusion lung imaging. Their main aim was to use 131I-human serum albumin (HSA), and 99mTc-HSA, 131I-rose bengal, 197Hg-chlormerodrin and colloidal 198Au as agents for radioaerosol generation, and Taplin himself preferred 198Au colloids for serial studies from economical reasons. Already in 1965, however, Taplin said that the best agent would be 99mTc-HSA. Pircher used 131I-HSA aerosol. Taplin already noted at that time that the inhaled aerosol was removed from the lungs mainly by ciliary action and that it was not absorbed either from the lungs or the intestine. Anyway it is noteworthy that the idea of radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging was proposed soon after the advent of perfusion lung imaging. Besides 131I-HSA and colloidal 198Au, the following agents have been or are currently being used. The superiority of 99mTC over other radioisotopes used in the past is beyond dispute