Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular inflammatory process; however, the inciting cause for inflammation remains unclear. Two decades ago, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was proposed as a putative etiologic agent. We performed a PubMed search using the keywords Chlamydia and atherosclerosis in a Boolean query to identify published studies on C. pneumoniae and its role in atherogenesis, and to understand research interest in this topic. We found 1,652 published articles on this topic between 1991 and 2011. We analyzed relevant published studies and found various serological, molecular, and animal modeling studies in the early period. Encouraged by positive results from these studies, more than a dozen antibiotic clinical-trials were subsequently conducted, which did not find clinical benefits of anti-Chlamydophila drug therapy. While many researchers believe that the organism is still important, negative clinical trials had a similar impact on overall research interest. With many novel mechanisms identified for atherogenesis, there is a need for newer paradigms in Chlamydophila-atherosclerosis research.
seen in infected birds. Transmission of infection to humans occurs through inhalation or direct contact and transmission through bird bites or human-to-human is rare. C. psittaci usually leads to the systemic infection associated with pneumonia in humans. In recent years, PCR based molecular methods are used as well as serological methods such as ELISA, CFT, MIF in diagnosis. Both of infected birds and humans, tetracyclines and macrolides are preferred for treatment of infection. In order to prevent the disease, due to there isn't any commercial vaccine for especially using in birds, applying biosafety rules is very important in terms of human health and economical aspects. Especially, veterinarians, bird breeders and dealers, poultry farmers and slaughterhouse workers are at high risk for C. psittaci infection. Due to the transmission to humans of psittacosis infection and accepting it as a potential biological weapon, it is thought to be important for public health. In this review, it is aimed to give detailed information about infection in human and birds, because it can be missed at the diagnosis, hence there is low awareness about disease and it has got variable clinical symptoms.
Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a number of different acute and chronic infections. The recent deepening of knowledge on the biology and the use of increasingly more sensitive and specific molecular techniques has allowed demonstration of C. pneumoniae in a large number of persons suffering from different diseases including cardiovascular (atherosclerosis and stroke and central nervous system (CNS disorders. Despite this, many important issues remain unanswered with regard to the role that C. pneumoniae may play in initiating atheroma or in the progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence concerns the involvement of this pathogen in chronic neurological disorders and particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Monocytes may traffic C. pneumoniae across the blood-brain-barrier, shed the organism in the CNS and induce neuroinflammation. The demonstration of C. pneumoniae by histopathological, molecular and culture techniques in the late-onset AD dementia has suggested a relationship between CNS infection with C. pneumoniae and the AD neuropathogenesis. In particular subsets of MS patients, C. pneumoniae could induce a chronic persistent brain infection acting as a cofactor in the development of the disease. The role of Chlamydia in the pathogenesis of mental or neurobehavioral disorders including schizophrenia and autism is uncertain and fragmentary and will require further confirmation.
Full Text Available The Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis has low fecundity and high incidence of abortion. Several studies have associated reproductive failure of water buffalo with viral infections but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. To investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a farm where, in the arch of 11 months, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% in the 3rd and 5th month of pregnancy. Antibodies to Chlamydiaceae were detected in 57% of the aborted cows, while the rate of positivity was 0% in overtly healthy cows used as control. By a PCR assay 3 of 14 vaginal swabs from aborted animals tested positive for Chlamydophila agents and, additionally, 3 out of 7 aborted foetuses tested positive for Chlamydophila spp., with two being co-infections by Cp. abortus and Cp. pecorum and one being characterised as Cp. abortus. The presence of anti-Chlamydiaceae antibodies in 57% of the aborted animals and the detection of Chlamydophila agents in foetal organs and in vaginal swabs is consistent with the history of abortions (P<0.002 observed in the herd and may suggest a pathogenic role by Chlamydophila spp. in water buffalo.
Raso, Tânia Freitas; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Carrasco, Adriano Oliveira Torres; Araújo, João Pessoa; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
The hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest species of psittacine birds. It is considered endangered and illegal trade is one of the main factors involved in its decline. In this study, 26 hyacinth macaws maintained under poor husbandry conditions and destined for the illegal trade were confiscated in São Paulo State, Brazil. These birds were evaluated for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila psittaci by complement fixation test and C. psittaci DNA by seminested polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that 65.4% of the macaws were positive for at least one test. Birds with subclinical infections can shed chlamydiae intermittently over long periods, contributing to the dissemination of the agent. Global trade is one of the most important drivers of disease emergence. The high percentage of positive samples in this study emphasizes the potential risk that the illegal trade of wild birds represents for both human and animal health. PMID:23505721
Smith, Kathleen A; Bradley, Kristy K; Stobierski, Mary G; Tengelsen, Leslie A
Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection of humans that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems. It is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci. From 1988 through 2003, 935 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the CDC and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling avian chlamydiosis in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary. PMID:15742693
Coon, Robert G; Balansay, Melinda S; Faix, Dennis J; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Patterson, Matthew B; Blair, Patrick J
Community-acquired pneumonia can compromise readiness of recruits and service members operating in confined spaces. Often respiratory pathogens are implicated in outbreaks. In July 2008, 5 Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL students entering an intense period of training at Naval Amphibious Base Coronado reported with clinical symptoms and chest radiographs consistent with pneumonia. Throat and nasal swabs were tested for respiratory pathogens. Molecular evidence indicated that they were infected with the atypical bacterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Thirty contemporaneous Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL students were tested to determine the extent of C pneumoniae infection burden. Five additional cases were captured within this group. The 10 individuals diagnosed with C pneumoniae were treated with a course of azithromycin, Avelox (moxifloxacin hydrochloride), and doxycycline. The cases ended following the isolation of cases and prophylaxis with oral antibiotics. This work highlights the importance of rapid respiratory disease diagnoses to guide the clinical response following the emergence of respiratory infections among military trainees. PMID:21456360
Corrente, M.; D. Buonavoglia; G. Campanile; R. Di Palo; M. D’Abramo; Greco, G.
The Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has low fecundity and high incidence of abortion. Several studies have associated reproductive failure of water buffalo with viral infections but there is limited information on the role of chlamydial infections. To investigate the presence and the role of Chlamydiaceae in water buffalo a retrospective study was performed in a farm where, in the arch of 11 months, the pregnant heifers suffered an abortion rate of 36.8% in the 3rd and 5th mon...
Osman, K M; Ali, H A; ElJakee, J A; Galal, H M
This work is an example of cooperation between veterinary and human medicine being fully complementary and at the same time, indispensable to improve our knowledge on animal chlamydiosis. This study investigated the existence of ocular chlamydiae and determined the prevalence of its presence, chlamydiosis, in asymptomatic and diseased farm animals and adjacent humans. Data were obtained by the omp2 gene family Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. Two hundred cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and 44 human specimens were also examined. Conjunctival swabs from both the eyes were collected from all animals and humans using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for chlamydiae by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, modified Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining (FA), immunoperoxidase, CFT and PCR. The PCR-RFLP revealed that Chlamydophila psittaci demonstrated in the conjunctival samples of cattle (68% asymptomatic and 88% diseased), of buffalo (68% asymptomatic and 72% diseased), of sheep (68% asymptomatic and 80% diseased), of goat (76% asymptomatic and 92% diseased) and of humans (77% asymptomatic and 82% diseased). The Cp. psittaci was the only chlamydiae demonstrated in all of the ocular conjunctival samples, which confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. Statistically, the animal species factor was calculated and was found to be of no significance. Yet, there appeared to be a significant difference in the percentage of animal that tested positive using the different methods. Detection of Cp. psittaci in most samples confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. PMID:22584046
Everson, J. S.; Garner, S. A.; Fane, B.; Liu, B.-L.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N
A number of bacteriophages belonging to the Microviridae have been described infecting chlamydiae. Phylogenetic studies divide the Chlamydiaceae into two distinct genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, containing three and six different species, respectively. In this work we investigated the biological properties and host range of the recently described bacteriophage Chp2 that was originally discovered in Chlamydophila abortus. The obligate intracellular development cycle of chlamydiae has prec...
Mitchell, Stephanie L.; Wolff, Bernard J.; Thacker, W. Lanier; Ciembor, Paula G.; Gregory, Christopher R.; Everett, Karin D. E.; Ritchie, Branson W.; Winchell, Jonas M.
Human infection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci can lead to psittacosis, a disease that occasionally results in severe pneumonia and other medical complications. C. psittaci is currently grouped into seven avian genotypes: A through F and E/B. Serological testing, outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis are currently used for distinguishing these genotypes. Although accurate, these methods are time-consuming and require mu...
Binu K Mani
Full Text Available Chlamydiae are of microbiological interest because of their mode of interaction with eukaryotic host cells and their specialized life cycle with unique features of parasitism. Reports regarding prevalence of infections of Chlamydophila abortus, the causative organism for chlamydial abortions in livestock, was the basis of the study. Two isolates, one each from cattle and goat abortion along with a reference isolate, were used for characterization with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Elementary bodies infected Mc Coy cells, harvested from bottle cultures were disrupted by Teflon coated magnetic pellet. Urografin-76 diluted with Tris-Potassium hydrochloride was used for purification of Elementary bodies of Chlamydophila abortus organism. On protein estimation of Elementary bodies by Biuret method, all the three isolates revealed protein concentration between 500-1000 mg/100ml, which were sufficient for electrophoresis. Ten percent of resolving gel and five percent of stacking gel of polyacrylamide in which 10g of processed isolate samples along with standard protein marker and Mc Coy cell protein (control were electrophoresed. Using Alpha Imager Gel Documentation System, the protein bands were analyzed. Twelve bands each for local bovine isolate and reference isolate were noticed while only 10 bands were there in the caprine isolate. Additional bands of 148 kDa and 135 kDa were present in bovine isolate, compared to the reference isolate, while 152 kDa and 137 kDa bands were unique for caprine isolate. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 470-472
Jencek, Jacqueline E; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N; Garner, Michael M; Dunker, Freeland H; Baszler, Timothy V
An outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci occurred in an outdoor colony of 63 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at the San Francisco Zoo. Affected penguins presented with inappetence, lethargy, and light green urates. Hematologic and serum biochemical findings were consistent with chronic inflammation. Penguins did not respond to initial supportive and antimicrobial therapy, and 3 died. Necropsy results of the 3 birds revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and histologic lesions included necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and vasculitis. Chlamydophila psittaci infection was confirmed by results of Gimenez staining, immunohistochemistry, and tissue polymerase chain reaction assay. As additional birds continued to present with similar clinical signs, the entire colony of penguins was prophylactically treated with a 30-day minimum course of doxycycline, administered orally or intramuscularly or as a combination of both. Despite treatment, 9 additional penguins died during a 3-month period. Pathologic results from these birds revealed renal and visceral gout (n = 4), cardiac insufficiency (n = 2), sepsis from a suspected esophageal perforation (n = 2), and no gross lesions (n = 1). During the outbreak, 4 birds presented with seizures, 5 developed dermatitis, and nearly 90% of birds in the colony showed severe keratoconjunctivitis, believed to be related to drug therapy with doxycycline. We report the clinical and pathologic features of Chlamydophila psittaci infection in an outdoor colony of penguins and the associated challenges of treatment. PMID:23409434
Juan M. Jiménez-Estrada
Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus is one of the pathogens which induce abortion in small ruminants; this pathogen has a tropism for ruminant placenta and causes the disease commonly referred to as Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA. In Europe are estimated economic losses of around 20 million pounds a year by OEA. In the American Continent the disease has been reported only in Canada, the United States, Colombia and Chile while in Mexico it is unknown whether OEA is common and it is causing abortions in flocks of sheep from Estado de Mexico. The objective of this study was investigating the prevalence of anti-Chlamydophila abortus IgG antibodies and detection of C. abortus DNA in sheep with clinical abort history by mean of ELISA assay (C. abortus ELISA, Institute Pourquier, Montpellier, France and molecular identification of the principal outer membrane protein (POMP 90-91B gene by PCR, respectively. A cross-sectional study was carried out to enroll and random sample of ewes from november 2003 until march 2005. A total of 349 sera and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 35 flocks of sheep from Xalatlaco. The results showed that the seropositive rate was 31.1% (14/45 for healthy and 21.3% (65/304 for sheep with history clinical of abort. In vaginal swabs, the PCR showed 0% (0/45 for healthy animals and 0.65% (2/304 for aborted sheep. Samples from the lungs and liver of the fetus of one of these animals were also positive for C. abortus. In conclusion, these results confirmed that infection with C. abortus is common and is affecting sheep flocks in the Mexican highlands. Therefore, is necessary that the authorities responsible for animal welfare in Mexico (SAGARPA to set up appropriate epidemiological surveillance and control programs to eradicate this disease.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal bacterium that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, and respiratory psittacosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult by culture. This study was design to investigate the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci in collected pharyngeal swabs from asyptomatic pigeons by PCR.Materials and Methods: Pharyngeal samples from pigeons with no symptoms of disease (n=280 were collected during hot and cold seasons in different parts of Ahvaz. DNA was extracted from specimens and subjected to PCR targeting pmp genes and 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer of Cp. psittaci and chlamydiales specific primers.Results: Of 280 samples 2 (0.7% harbor were positive for chlamydiales (16s-23s intergenic spacer and Cp. psittaci specific genes (pmp gene.Conclusions: In this research the pigeons were asymptomatic carriers for Cp. psittaci in their respiratory discharges. These results suggest that Cp. psittaci infection of human can occur in very close and continuous contact with pigeons.
Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias; Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Kledir Anderson Hofstaetter Spohr; Bruna Azevedo de Carvalho Lima; Rosângela Claret de Oliveira; Carlo Turilli; Michele Lunardi; Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel; Julio Cesar de Freitas
Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) infection is related to reproductive failure in domestic ruminants. Although it has not been well characterized worldwide, this pathogen has already been identified in some European countries and in the USA. In Brazil, preliminary studies have shown serological evidence of C. abortus infection in herds with low antibody prevalence. Until now, the identification of C. abortus in biological samples from females presenting reproductive failures has not been des...
Full Text Available Until now there is no evidence that chlamydiosis does exist among cats in the Republic of Croatia regardless of the fact that feline chlamydiosis is a worldwide disease. This report describes the clinical examination of a one year old cat with bilateral conjunctivitis, as well as the diagnostic methods used to confirm infection with Chlamydophila (Cp. felis. We have used rapid enzyme immunoassay test (EIA for antigen detection, in order to examine the swabs taken from the eyes and nostrils. The positive result was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF made on scrapings from cat's conjunctivas. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR made on swabs taken from cat's conjunctivas and nostrils and sequencing the PCR product was used to confirmed infection of cat precisely with Chlamydophila felis. No increase of IgG antibodies against chlamydias was noted using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA method.
Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias; Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Kledir Anderson Hofstaetter Spohr; Bruna Azevedo de Carvalho Lima; Fábio Juliano Negrão; Michele Lunardi; Julio Cesar de Freitas
Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) is associated with reproductive problems in cattle, sheep, and goats. Diagnosis of C. abortus using embryonated chicken eggs or immortalized cell lines has a very low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been used to detect C. abortus infection in clinical specimens and organ fragments, such as placenta, fetal organs, vaginal secretions, and semen. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR assay for the amplification of an 856-bp fragmen...
Mohamad, Khalil Yousef; Rekiki, Abdessalem; Berri, Mustapha; Rodolakis, Annie
Abstract Chlamydophila pecorum strains are commonly found in the intestine and vaginal mucus of asymptomatic ruminants and may therefore induce a positive serological response when the animals are tested for C. abortus. They have also been associated with different pathological diseases in ruminants, swine and koala. The aim of this study was to identify specific C. pecorum immunodominant antigens which could be used in ELISA tests allowing to distinguish between animals infected w...
Francielle Gibson da Silva
Full Text Available A Chlamydophila abortus (anteriormente classificada como Chlamydia psittaci sorotipo 1 tem sido descrita em muitos países, associada principalmente com distúrbios reprodutivos em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos. O aborto enzoótico dos ovinos e caprinos e o aborto epizoótico dos bovinos são as doenças mais importantes causadas por esta bactéria. No Brasil, as pesquisas com C. abortus são praticamente inexistentes. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar informações sobre modificações taxonômicas, ciclo de vida, epidemiologia, patogenia, sinais clínicos e diagnóstico da infecção por C. abortus principalmente em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos.Chlamydophila abortus (previously known as Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 has been reported in many countries, associated with reproductive disorders in sheep, cattle, and goats. The enzootic abortion of sheep and goats and the epizootic bovine abortion are the most important diseases produced by this bacterium. In Brazil, there is scarce information about C. abortus. The objective of this review is to show information about taxonomic changes, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and diagnosis of C. abortus in sheep, cattle and goats.
Park, Chan-Sun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Keun Ae; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Hee Ran; Jang, Min Kyoung; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook
Purpose Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in the airways is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of asthma, especially in non-atopic severe asthma with irreversible airway obstruction that may be related to airway remodeling. Here, we investigated whether C. pneumoniae infection enhances the secretion of critical chemical mediators for airway remodeling, such as VEGF, TGF-β, and TIMP-1, in human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) in a Th2-dominant microenvironment. Methods Human bro...
Vanrompay, Daisy; Harkinezhad, Taher; van de Walle, Marijke; Beeckman, Delphine; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Verminnen, Kristel; Leten, Ruud; Martel, An; Cauwerts, Katty
We studied zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci in 39 breeding facilities for Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) that frequently used antimicrobial drugs. Genotypes A or E/B were detected in 14.9% of humans at these facilities. Information on antimicrobial drug use in Psittaciformes and a C. psittaci vaccine are urgently required.
Masoud Ghorbanpoor; Naghmeh-Moori Bakhtiari; Mansoor Mayahi; Hana Moridveisi
Background and Objective: Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal bacterium that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, and respiratory psittacosis. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci is difficult by culture. This study was design to investigate the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci in collected pharyngeal swabs from asyptomatic pigeons by PCR.Materials and Methods: Pharyngeal samples from pigeons with no symptoms of disease (n=280) were collected during hot and cold seasons in different ...
Prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydophila spp. em propriedades rurais com histórico de aborto bovino no estado do Paraná Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydophila spp. in herds with bovine abortion of Paraná state, Brazil
Francielle G. Silva-Zacarias
373 herds were analyzed by complement fixation test. Totally, 44 (1.42% animal were positive with titers > 32. The seroprevalence of Chlamydophila spp. in the herds was 8.82% (6.15%-12.17%. Four variables were associated with seroprevalence for Chlamydophila spp. in the final model of logistic regression: confined or semi-confined breeding (OR=3.339, P=0.004, farms with less than 35 cows (OR=3.339, P=0.017, abortion in the pasture (OR=2.372, P=0.037 and pasture rent (OR=3.398, P=0.006 were risk factors for Chlamydophila spp. This bacterium infected a small number of cattle from herds with abortion in Paraná state. Chlamydophila spp impact as abortion cause is reduced in this state.
Dovč Alenka; Vlahović Ksenija; Suhadolc-Scholten Sara; Tozon Nataša
The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of Ig G antibodies against Chlamydophila felis (Cp. felis) in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and/or feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and possible higher incidence of any clinical symptoms. A group of 30 cats which had been exposed to FIV and/or FeLV were tested for chlamydial antibodies presence. FIV and FeLV exposure were established by commercial ELISA rapid tests. The results of serological testing to antibodies against C...
Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Nozomu; Inoue, Miyuki; Sato, Kozue; Kishimoto, Toshio
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG. PMID:16595921
Yakubu Boyi Ngwai; Izebe KS; Ijele IG; Ishaleku D; Inyang US
Objective:To detect IgG antibody toChlamydophila pneumoniae(CP)in sera ofHIV/AIDS patients and provide rationale for inclusion of routine screening for anti-CP antibodies and anti-chlamydial agents in the Nigerian NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan.Methods: Serum samples from34 consentingHIV/AIDS patients attended a Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment Facility in Abuja were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-CP IgG antibody using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel).Results:Anti-CP IgG antibody was detected in20 (58.8%)of34 patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the males(8/13; 61.5%) than the females (12/21; 57.1%). Patients of the age group 16-30 years had the highest(7/10; 70%) detection of anti-CP IgG antibody.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CP antibodies in sera of the HIV/AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CPantibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden ofChlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infections and to reduceHIV-positive morbidity in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan to provide prophylaxis against or treat activeC. pneumoniae infections.
Full Text Available The aim of our study was to confirm the presence of Ig G antibodies against Chlamydophila felis (Cp. felis in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and/or feline leukemia virus (FeLV and possible higher incidence of any clinical symptoms. A group of 30 cats which had been exposed to FIV and/or FeLV were tested for chlamydial antibodies presence. FIV and FeLV exposure were established by commercial ELISA rapid tests. The results of serological testing to antibodies against Cp. felis in cats with immunofluorescence assay (IFA are shown. In 16.7% (5/30 of tested cats Ig G antibodies against Cp. felis were found. No correlation with FIV and/or FeLV infection neither with clinical symptoms of upper respiratory tract could be confirmed.
Rešidbegović Emina; Kavazović Aida; Gagić A.; Kustura Aida; Goletić T.; Vlahović Ksenija; Šatrović E.; Dovč Alenka
In the article are presented the results of our research on chlamydophilosis in parrots, free-living and breeding pigeons, and intensive breeding chickens in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For detection of the antigen two immunoenzyme tests for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila psittaci and a complement fixation test by a Kolmer and indirect immunofluorescence method (BioMerieux, France) were used. From a total of 275 samples of cloacal swabs the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that Chlamydophila (C. pneumoniae is involved in the initiation and promotion of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD. Surprisingly, the effect of C. pneumoniae on airway function has never been investigated. Methods In this study, mice were inoculated intranasally with C. pneumoniae (strain AR39 on day 0 and experiments were performed on day 2, 7, 14 and 21. Results We found that from day 7, C. pneumoniae infection causes both a sustained airway hyperresponsiveness and an inflammation. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and macrophage inflammatory chemokine-2 (MIP-2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid were increased on all experimental days with exception of day 7 where MIP-2 concentrations dropped to control levels. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were only increased on day 7. From day 7 to 21 epithelial damage and secretory cell hypertrophy was observed. It is suggested that, the inflammatory cells/mediators, the epithelial damage and secretory cell hypertrophy contribute to initiation of airway hyperresponsiveness. Conclusion Our study demonstrates for the first time that C. pneumoniae infection can modify bronchial responsiveness. This has clinical implications, since additional changes in airway responsiveness and inflammation-status induced by this bacterium may worsen and/or provoke breathlessness in asthma and COPD.
Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular gram negative bacterium, is involved in a wide spectrum of symptomatic respiratory tract diseases. However more recently it has been reported to be a pathogenic agent in the mechanism leading to atherosclerosis. In the present study the presence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae was assessed, using nested PCR and in situ PCR, while the viability of the microorganism was investigated using RT in situ PCR.The results obtained demonstrated that Chlamydophila pneumoniae was present and alive in the tissues examined.The global concordance of results in the three techniques used was 100%. RT in situ PCR can be considered a precious tool to detect bacterial mRNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples provided an optimal standardization of the key variables is achieved.
Harkinezhad, Taher; Verminnen, Kristel; Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Vanrompay, Daisy
Thirty-six birds from a parrot relief and breeding centre, as well as the manager, were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. In the relief unit, 5 of 20 African grey parrots showed depression, ruffled feathers, loss of weight and mild dyspnoea. The birds received no antibiotic treatment. Birds of the breeding unit, 14 blue and gold macaws and 2 green-winged macaws, were healthy. They received doxycycline at the start of each breeding season. The manager complained of shortness of breath but took no medication. Using a nested PCR enzyme immunoassay (EIA), Cp. psittaci was detected in the faeces of all five sick birds, as well as in a nasal and pharyngeal swab from the manager. The veterinarian and her assistant became infected while sampling the parrots, as pharyngeal and nasal swabs from both were positive by nested PCR/EIA after visiting the parrot relief and breeding centre, but they showed no clinical signs of infection. Bacteria could be isolated from three of five nested PCR/EIA-positive birds, the manager and the veterinarian, but not from the veterinary assistant. Using an ompA genotype-specific real-time PCR, Cp. psittaci genotype E/B was identified as the transmitted strain. All breeding birds tested negative for Cp. psittaci. This is believed to be the first report on Cp. psittaci genotype E/B transmission from parrots to humans. In contradiction to genotype A strains, which are thought to be highly virulent to both birds and men, the currently described genotype E/B strain apparently caused no severe clinical symptoms in either parrots or humans. PMID:17644718
Full Text Available A total of 411 samples from birds of different species originating from all counties of the Republic of Croatia have been tested for the presence of Chlamydophila psittaci. The sampling was conducted in pet stores, breeders' aviaries, in a specialized bird clinic and in zoos. The testing included 177 parrots, 169 pigeons, 58 canaries and 7 finches. For the detection of specific C. psittaci antigen a commercial ELISA kit was used- IDEIATM PCE Chlamydia (DAKO Cytomation Ltd., United Kingdom. The samples that were non-specifically positive or doubtful in the ELISA test (a total of 26 samples were analyzed also by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Diagnostic ELISA method found a total of 17.03% birds positive for chlamydiosis, and after additional testing by PCR a total of 12.65% positive ones were found. According to bird species, the most frequently positive ones were canaries and pigeons (15.52% and 13.02%, and according to the sampling location most of the positive birds were found in pet stores (16.52%, but a high percentage of positive samples were also found in breeders’ aviaries (11.76%. The average positive result for chlamydiosis in 12.65% of tested birds is alarming and it confirms the importance of monitoring bird health and of prescribed legal regulations when it comes to chlamydial diseases, as well as education of persons involved in breeding, keeping or selling birds.
Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae is an ubiquitous intracellular pathogen which causes acute respiratory diseases and may be associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. C. pneumoniae is rarely cultured from the synovial fluid or blood, and serology is seldom useful. So far most of the studies concerning the possible association between C. pneumoniae and arthritis have been made by molecular methods. Recent advances in the standardization of polymerase chain reaction techniques have shown to confirm a role of C. pneumoniae not only in reactive arthritis (ReA but also in chronic arthritis. In this study, we investigated whether C. pneumoniae could be isolated in synovial fluid and PBMC specimens of patients with different forms of arthritis including ReA.Advanced PCR and Reverse transcriptase PCR techniques targeting different chlamydial genes associated to a novel culture method based on combination of additional centrifugation and extension of culture time, were applied to detect C. pneumoniae in 6 patients with chronic synovitis including one with Anchylosing Spondylitis and relapsing joint swelling. For this patient, serological, coltural as well as molecular assays did detect C. pneumoniae only. Particularly, a high expression of Heat shock protein 60 and 70 of C. pneumoniae was found in the PBMC and the synovial compartments, thus confirming the ability of C. pneumoniae to survive inside blood ad synovia in vital and metabolically active forms. By contrast, the selective decrease of MOMP and 16sRNA, leads to hypotesize a different expression of Chlamydophyla genes during the different phases of infection.
de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil. PMID:16893616
E.R. Heddema; S. van der Sluis; J.A. Buys; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; J.H. van Wijnen; C.E. Visser
In many cities, the feral rock dove is an abundant bird species that can harbor Chlamydophila psittaci. We determined the prevalence and genotype of C. psittaci in fresh fecal samples from feral pigeons in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The prevalence was 7.9% overall (26/331; 95% confidence interval,
E.R. Heddema; E.J. van Hannen; B. Duim; B.M. de Jongh; J.A. Kaan; R. van Kessel; J.T. Lumeij; C.E. Visser; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls
An outbreak of psittacosis in a veterinary teaching hospital was recognized in December 2004. Outbreak management was instituted to evaluate the extent of the outbreak and to determine the avian source. Real-time PCR, serologic testing and sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydophila psittaci were p
Harkinezhad, Taher; Schautteet, Katelijn; Vanrompay, Daisy
Plasmid DNA (pcDNA1::MOMP A) expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila psittaci genotype A strain 89/1051 has been tested for its ability to induce protective immunity against Cp. psittaci challenge in budgerigars. Eight pairs of male and female budgerigars were housed in eight separate bird cages placed in two negative pressure isolators, four cages per group. All budgerigars were immunised twice intramuscularly with 100 μg plasmid DNA. Both groups received a primar...
Dickx, V.; Geens, T.; Deschuyffeleer, T.; Tyberghien, L.; Harkinezhad, T.; Beeckman, D.S.A.; L. Braeckman; VANROMPAY, D.
Chlamydophila psittaci causes respiratory disease in poultry and can be transmitted to humans. We conducted a C. psittaci zoonotic risk assessment study of a chicken and turkey slaughterhouse. Eighty-five percent of the slaughtered chicken flocks tested positive by PCR and culture. Genotype D was discovered. Fifty-seven percent of the slaughtered turkey flocks tested positive by PCR and culture. Genotype D was present. For the chicken slaughterhouse employees, 7.5% and 6% tested positive for ...
Piasecki Tomasz; Chrząstek Klaudia; Wieliczko Alina
Abstract Background Psittacosis, an avian disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, can manifest as an acute, protracted, or chronic illness, but can also be asymptomatic. C. psittaci can persist in the host for months to years, often without causing obvious illness, and therefore poses a threat for zoonotic outbreak. We investigated the prevalence of C. psittaci from 156 tracheal swab samples from 34 different species of parrots in Poland, and determined the genotype of strains from the posi...
Yousef Mohamad, Khalil; Rekiki, Abdessalem; Myers, Garry; Bavoil, Patrick M; Rodolakis, Annie
Bacteria of the family Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens of human and animals. Chlamydophila pecorum is associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koala. To characterize a coding tandem repeat (CTR) identified at the 3' end of incA gene of C. pecorum, 51 strains of different chlamydial species were examined. The CTR were observed in 18 of 18 tested C. pecorum isolates including symptomatic and asymptomatic animals from diverse geographical origi...
Barnes Jennifer; Alzhanov Damir; Hruby Dennis E; Rockey Daniel D
Abstract Background Chlamydiae produce a set of proteins, termed Inc proteins, that are localized to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the host cell cytosol. Little information exists regarding the interaction of Inc proteins with the eukaryotic cell. To examine these interactions, Vaccinia virus vectors and mammalian plasmid-based systems were used to express inc genes in mammalian cells. Results Cells transfected with plasmids expressing Chlamydophila caviae incA were not productively i...
Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica
Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621
Santiago Monsalve; Jorge Miranda; Salim Mattar
Objetivo Establecer la seroprevalencia de Chlamydophila psittaci en aves del género Amazona spp y en trabajadores de algunos zoológicos y CAV (centros de atención y valoración de fauna silvestre). Metodología Se analizaron 138 sueros de aves del género Amazona spp, 24 sueros de otras especies de aves y 39 sueros humanos por ELISA indirecta. Se utilizó el antígeno RMOMP (major outer membrane protein of Chlamydophila psittaci). Para el conjugado de aves se utilizo una anti-IgG de turkey-chicken...
Goddeeris Bruno M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci, an important turkey respiratory pathogen, is difficult. To facilitate the diagnosis, a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA was developed to detect the Cp. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA gene in pharyngeal swabs. Methods The fluorescein-biotin labelled PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and detected with anti-fluorescein peroxidase conjugate and a colorimetric substrate. An internal inhibition control was included to rule out the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification. The diagnostic value of the ompA nested PCR-EIA in comparison to cell culture and a 16S-rRNA based nested PCR was assessed in pharyngeal turkey swabs from 10 different farms experiencing respiratory disease. Results The sensitivity of the nested PCR-EIA was established at 0.1 infection forming units (IFU. Specificity was 100%. The ompA nested PCR-EIA was more sensitive than the 16S-rRNA based nested PCR and isolation, revealing 105 out of 200 (52.5% positives against 13 and 74 for the latter two tests, respectively. Twenty-nine (23.8% out of 122 ompA PCR-EIA negatives showed the presence of inhibitors of DNA amplification, although 27 of them became positive after diluting (1/10 the specimens in PCR buffer or after phenol-chloroform extraction and subsequent ethanol precipitation. Conclusion The present study stresses the need for an internal control to confirm PCR true-negatives and demonstrates the high prevalence of chlamydiosis in Belgian turkeys and its potential zoonotic risk. The ompA nested PCR-EIA described here is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assay and will help to facilitate the diagnosis of Cp. psittaci infections in both poultry and man.
Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA vaccination has been shown to elicit specific cellular and humoral immune responses to many different agents in a broad variety of species. However, looking at a commercial use, the duration of the immune response against the vaccine is critical. Therefore the persistence of the DNA vaccine, as well as its expression, should be investigated. We conducted these investigations on a DNA vaccine against Chlamydophila psittaci, a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium which causes respiratory disease in turkeys and humans. Previous studies showed that the DNA vaccine confers partial protection against C. psittaci infection in turkeys. Turkeys were injected intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine : a eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA1::MOMP expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP of an avian C. psittaci serovar D strain. Over a period of 11 weeks, cellular uptake of the DNA vaccine was examined by PCR, transcription of the insert by reverse transcript-PCR (RT-PCR and mRNA translation by immunofluorescence staining of muscle biopsies. Results The results indicate that the DNA vaccine persists in turkey muscle for at least 10 weeks. Moreover, during this period of time MOMP was continuously expressed, as evidenced by the immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR. Conclusion Since C. psittaci infections occur at the age of 3 to 6 and 8 to 12 weeks, a vaccine persistence of 10 weeks seems adequate. Therefore, further research should concentrate on improving the elicited immune response, more specifically the cell-mediated immune response, rather than prolonging the lifespan of the plasmid.
Mattar, Salim; Monsalve, Santiago; Miranda R., Jorge
Objetivo Establecer la seroprevalencia de Chlamydophila psittaci en aves del género Amazona spp y en trabajadores de algunos zoológicos y CAV (centros de atención y valoración de fauna silvestre). Metodología Se analizaron 138 sueros de aves del género Amazona spp, 24 sueros de otras especies de aves y 39 sueros humanos por ELISA indirecta. Se utilizó el antígeno RMOMP (major outer membrane protein of Chlamydophila psittaci). Para el conjugado de aves se utilizo una anti-IgG de turkey-chicke...
R. Villagra-Blanco; Dolz, G.; Montero-Caballero, D.; Romero-Zúñiga, J.J.
A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two...
Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias
Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus is associated with reproductive problems in cattle, sheep, and goats. Diagnosis of C. abortus using embryonated chicken eggs or immortalized cell lines has a very low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays have been used to detect C. abortus infection in clinical specimens and organ fragments, such as placenta, fetal organs, vaginal secretions, and semen. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR assay for the amplification of an 856-bp fragment of the rRNA gene of the Chlamydiaceae family. The PCR assay was evaluated using organs from 15 mice experimentally infected with the S26/3 reference strain of C. abortus. The results of the rRNA PCR were compared to the results from another PCR system (Omp2 PCR that has been previously described for the Omp2 (outer major protein gene from the Chlamydiaceae family. From the 15 C. abortus-inoculated mice, 13 (K=0.84, standard error =0.20 tested positive using the rRNA PCR assay and 9 (K=0.55, standard error=0.18 tested positive using the Omp2 PCR assay. The detection limit, measured using inclusion-forming units (IFU, for C. abortus with the rRNA PCR (1.05 IFU was 100-fold lower than for the Omp2 PCR (105 IFU. The higher sensitivity of the rRNA PCR, as compared to the previously described PCR assay, and the specificity of the assay, demonstrated using different pathogenic microorganisms of the bovine reproductive system, suggest that the new PCR assay developed in this study can be used for the molecular diagnosis of C. abortus in abortion and other reproductive failures in bovines, caprines, and ovines.Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus é frequentemente associada a distúrbios reprodutivos em bovinos, ovinos e caprinos. Para o diagnóstico, os métodos de cultivo em ovo embrionado de galinha e em células de linhagem contínua apresentam baixa sensibilidade. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR tem sido utilizada em placenta, órgãos fetais, secre
Nordentoft, Steen; Kabell, Susanne; Pedersen, Karl
Chlamydiaceae and differentiate the most prevalent veterinary Chlamydophila species: Cp. psittaci, Cp. abortus, Cp. felis, and Cp. caviae. By adding bovine serum albumin to the master mixes, target DNA could be detected directly in crude lysates of enzymatically digested conjunctival or pharyngeal swabs or...
Jun LIU; Jian-Hua LIU
Ubiquinone is an essential electron carrier in prokaryotes. Ubiquinone biosynthesis involves at least nine reactions in Escherichia coli. 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase (UbiD) is an important enzyme on the pathway and deletion of the ubiD gene in E. coli gives rise to ubiquinone deficiency in vivo.A protein from Chlamydophila pneumoniae AR39 had significant similarity compared with protein UbiD from E. coli. Based on this information, the protein-encoding gene was used to swap its counterpart in E. coli, and gene expression in resultant strain DYC was confirmed by RT-PCR. Strain DYC grew using succinate as carbon source and rescued ubiquinone content in vivo, while ubiD deletion strain DYD did not.Results suggest that the chlamydial protein exerts the function of UbiD.
Bruna Azevedo de Carvalho Lima
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydophila abortus in ewes from the Londrina region of Paraná state. Blood samples from 267 adult ewes from eight herds were submitted to complement fixation testing. Tests were considered positive when the titers ? 32. Nineteen animals (7.11% in 7 (87.50% herds tested positive for antibodies against C. abortus. The titers were 32 in 17 animals and were 64 and 128 in the other two animals. The clinical signs recorded were abortion, stillbirth, weak newborns and heat repetition. The high frequency of herds with at least one positive animal and a seroprevalence of 7.11% suggest the presence of Chlamydophila abortus in the animals of studied herds.
Herrera, I; Khan, S R; Kaleta, E F; Müller, H; Dolz, G; Neumann, U
From 1998 to 1999, a total of 128 blood samples were collected from scarlet macaws (Ara macao), kept in captivity in 11 different aviaries located in six provinces of Costa Rica. The sera were examined for antibodies directed against Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian polyoma virus (APV), and Pacheco disease virus (PDV). Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed 16 (12.39%) of the samples (n = 129) exhibited antibodies directed against C. psittaci. Employing haemagglutination inhibition tests for NDV antibodies, all of the samples were found to be negative. The prevalence of antibodies specific for APV was tested with a blocking ELISA and serum neutralization tests (SNT) and 12 of 128 samples (9.37%) were found to be positive with both tests. In SNT, two out of 128 samples (1.56%) were positive for PDV. This is the first description of the serological status in scarlet macaws in captivity in Costa Rica. The study demonstrates the absence of NDV antibodies in the birds investigated on one hand, but also indicates a health hazard for numerous avian species due to the risk of infections with C. psittaci, APV or PDV. PMID:11846016
Goddeeris Bruno M; Volckaert Guido; Messmer Trudy O; Verminnen Kristel; Van Loock Marnix; Vanrompay Daisy
Abstract Background Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydophila psittaci, an important turkey respiratory pathogen, is difficult. To facilitate the diagnosis, a nested PCR-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) was developed to detect the Cp. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene in pharyngeal swabs. Methods The fluorescein-biotin labelled PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and detected with anti-fluorescein peroxidase conjugate and a colorimetric substrate. An int...
Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank
Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector protei...
Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias
Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus infection is related to reproductive failure in domestic ruminants. Although it has not been well characterized worldwide, this pathogen has already been identified in some European countries and in the USA. In Brazil, preliminary studies have shown serological evidence of C. abortus infection in herds with low antibody prevalence. Until now, the identification of C. abortus in biological samples from females presenting reproductive failures has not been described in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the C. abortus in a collection of abortions from cattle (n=85, sheep (n=12, and goats (n=8, in samples of vaginal mucus from cows (n=13, sheep (n=90, and goats (n=20, and in semen from sheep (n=10 and goats (n=5. The specimens (n=243 were evaluated using a PCR assay developed to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space of C. abortus. A PCR assay with an internal control, which amplifies a fragment from the ND5 gene of bovine mitochondrial DNA, was used in order to evaluate the efficiency of the DNA extraction and of the PCR reaction. All biological samples (n=243 included in this study were negative for C. abortus in the PCR assay. The internal control enabled the amplification of a product from the bovine mitochondrial ND5 gene in all cattle abortion samples (n=85. Given the serological evidence indicating the presence of C. abortus infection in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants, and considering the wide sampling evaluated, the failure to identify C. abortus in this survey suggests that the frequency of clinical signs in infected animals may be low or even absent.A infecção pela Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus em ruminantes domésticos está relacionada com distúrbios reprodutivos. Apesar de ainda pouco estudada em todo o mundo, a infecção já foi identificada em alguns países europeus e também nos EUA. No Brasil, estudos preliminares
Full Text Available A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29% sheep from 12 (80% flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females, embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended.
Villagra-Blanco, R; Dolz, G; Montero-Caballero, D; Romero-Zúñiga, J J
A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psittacosis, an avian disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, can manifest as an acute, protracted, or chronic illness, but can also be asymptomatic. C. psittaci can persist in the host for months to years, often without causing obvious illness, and therefore poses a threat for zoonotic outbreak. We investigated the prevalence of C. psittaci from 156 tracheal swab samples from 34 different species of parrots in Poland, and determined the genotype of strains from the positive samples. Results An overall prevalence of 10.3% was observed using two different PCR assays, both providing similar results. Thirteen of the PCR-positive samples were genotype A, two were genotype B, and one could not be classified. Conclusions These results indicate widespread dissemination of C. psittaci in Polish psittacine populations, without any clinical signs of chlamydiosis, and hence could pose a zoonotic hazard. PCR screening provided a definitive diagnosis of psittacosis, and subsequent ompA gene analysis could be helpful for better understanding the epidemiology of the C. psittaci genotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the incidence of C. psittaci in parrots in Poland.
Bruna Azevedo de Carvalho Lima; Kledir Anderson Hofstaetter Spohr; Francielle Gibson da Silva Zacarias; Sergio Mangano de Almeida Santos; Mario de Luca Neto; Carlo Turilli; Julio Cesar de Freitas
The aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydophila abortus in ewes from the Londrina region of Paraná state. Blood samples from 267 adult ewes from eight herds were submitted to complement fixation testing. Tests were considered positive when the titers ? 32. Nineteen animals (7.11%) in 7 (87.50%) herds tested positive for antibodies against C. abortus. The titers were 32 in 17 animals and were 64 and 128 in the other two animals. The clinical signs recorded w...
Full Text Available Some difficult microorganisms, including Chlamydophila pneumoniae, are associated with the atherosclerotic tissue damage.The aim of this study was to evaluate the employment of culture together molecular techniques in order to define the possible role of C. pneumoniae in the atherosclerotic tissue damage. Atheromatous carotid plaques (ACP were obtained by endoarterectomies from 10 patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Each specimen was divided in three parts: a proximal tract to heart, without stenosis, a medial tract, corresponding to the atheromatous plaque, and a distal tract, above the plaque.Aliquots were employed to perform cultures for C. pneumoniae on Hep - 2 cell line in DMEM. DNA and total RNA were extracted from 50-70 mg. of tissue sample and from Hep - 2 106 cultures to investigate 16S rRNA, momp and hsp60 genes.The PCR and RT-PCR resulted negative for momp gene of C. pneumoniae in all samples. PCR and RT-PCR resulted positive for 16S rRNA or hsp60 genes of C. pneumoniae in the proximal portion of two ACPs with hemorrhagic evolution in two patients, one of which complicated with a retinal tromboembolic outcome. Molecular analyses on C. pneumoniae growing from the cultures are in progress.The DNA and RNA amplification of different portions from ACP seems to be useful to evidence the effective localization of C. pneumoniae in the atheromatous arterial tissue. The highly gene expression of C. pneumoniae hsp60 in a patient with acute hemorrhagic evolution of the carotid plaque may suggest that C. pneumoniae might partecipate in the atherogenesis and induce atherosclerosis complications by inflammatory pathways (activation of cytokines, endothelial factors and matrix-degrading metalloproteinases.
Anticuerpos contra Chlamydophilaen pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio y riesgo coronario, y su relación con la muerte Antibodies against Chlamydophila in patients with acute myocardial infarction and coronary risk and their association with mortality
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar si los anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae en pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio y factores de riesgo coronario se asocian con la muerte. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio observacional, prospectivo, transversal y comparativo. Se incluyeron en el estudio 100 sujetos que, entre 1999 y 2000, estuvieron hospitalizados en la Unidad Coronaria del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se trataba de una muestra constituida por pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con infarto agudo del miocardio y riesgo coronario. Mediante microinmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psitacii y Chlamydia trachomatis. De entre los 100 sujetos, se eligieron al azar 33, a quienes se les determinaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila, no sólo durante su estancia en el hospital, sino también al salir de éste y a los tres meses de haber sufrido el infarto agudo del miocardio. Se calcularon las medias y las desviaciones geométricas estándares para los títulos de anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila, y se determinó la razón de momios y el intervalo de confianza al 95% entre los factores de riesgo coronario y la muerte. RESULTADOS: Setenta por ciento de los pacientes de la muestra inicial presentaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae; no se identificaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila psitacii y Chlamydia trachomatis. No se observó una fuerza de asociación estadísticamente significativa con la muerte en pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio y factores de riesgo coronario. De los 33 individuos de la submuestra, 25 presentaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae, y en 83% de estos últimos casos, se registró un descenso de dichos anticuerpos a los tres meses de haberse presentado el infarto agudo del miocardio. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que en pacientes con infarto agudo del
Prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydophila spp. em propriedades rurais com histórico de aborto bovino no estado do Paraná Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydophila spp. in herds with bovine abortion of Paraná state, Brazil
Francielle G. Silva-Zacarias; Kledir A.H Spohr; Bruna A.C. Lima; Juliana A. Dias; Ernst E. Müller; José S. Ferreira Neto; Carlo Turilli; Julio C. Freitas
Chlamydophila abortus é o agente etiológico do aborto epizoótico bovino, cujas manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes são aborto, nascimento de bezerros prematuros e de animais fracos, natimorto e repetição de cio em intervalos irregulares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydophila spp. em fêmeas bovinas de propriedades rurais com histórico de aborto, selecionadas dentro do delineamento amostral do Plano Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelos...
Ladawan; Sariya; Phirom; Prompiram; Siriporn; Tangsudjai; Kanaporn; Poltep; Tatiyanuch; Chamsai; Chalisa; Mongkolphan; Kamolphan; Rattanavibul; Verachai; Sakdajivachareon
Objective:To detect and characterize Chlamydophila psittaci(C.psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in central Thailand.Methods:A total 814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of 407non-clinical feral pigeons in central Thailand were collected and tested for the presence of C.psittaci.Results:A 10.8%of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nested PCR primer specific to C.psittaci.The outer membrane protein A(orupA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity of C.psittaci ranging from 71 to 100%and were grouped in genotype B.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related to Chlamydia avium with99%identification of the I6 S ribosomal(r) RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report on C.psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons in Thailand,which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations in Thailand.
Hala Awadalla; salah eldemerdash; Maha Ezz El Din; Hesham Abo El Naga
AIM: A potential link between infectious agents and atherosclerosis has been suggested. Data obtained from several seroepidemiological studies have suggested that infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Cytomegalovirus can initiate or maintain the atherosclerotic process. Aim of this study is to evaluate the probable relationship between serum titers of some various infectious agents and the development of acute coronary syndrome and to investigate the relationship b...
Hermans, K; Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Godard, C; Haesebrouck, F
Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from internal organs of 13 different psittacine birds submitted for necropsy over a period of 6 years. The birds all had lesions consistent with septicaemia. S. aureus isolates included three different phage types. In seven of the 13 birds, concurrent infections with Chlamydophila species, Enterococcus hirae, Candida species, unidentified streptococci and coagulasenegative staphylococci were detected. One bird also had lesions of lymphoid leucosis. Few indications were found that staphylococcosis associated problems may spread epidemically. The present studies suggest that S. aureus is pathogenic for psittacine birds, although it does not seem to be a frequent cause of disease. PMID:19184832
... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...
Ladawan Sariya; Phirom Prompiram; Siriporn Tangsudjai; Kanaporn Poltep; Tatiyanuch Chamsai; Chalisa Mongkolphan; Kamolphan Rattanavibul; Verachai Sakdajivachareon
Objective:To detect and characterizeChlamydophila psittaci(C. psittaci) in asymptomatic feral pigeons in centralThailand.Methods:A total814 swabs from the trachea and cloacae of407 non-clinical feral pigeons in centralThailand were collected and tested for the presence ofC. psittaci.Results:A10.8% of feral pigeons in the sample group were positive as determined by nestedPCR primer specific toC. psittaci.The outer membrane proteinA(ompA) gene of positive samples exhibited amino acid identity ofC. psittaci ranging from71 to100% and were grouped in genotypeB.Exceptionally,BF1676-56 isolate was closely related toChlamydia avium with 99% identification of the16S ribosomal(r)RNA gene.Conclusions:This is the first report onC. psittaci isolated from asymptomatic feral pigeons inThailand, which provides knowledge for the disease status in pigeon populations inThailand.
Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G.; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole
BACKGROUND: Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. RESULTS: Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus in...
Zimmermann Dieter R; Doherr Marcus G; Kaiser Carmen; Psarrou Evgenia; Vretou Evangelia; Thoma Ruedi; Gerber Andrea; Polkinghorne Adam; Pospischil Andreas; Borel Nicole
Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abo...
Cristóvão, Luís Filipe Dinis
O aborto enzoótico dos ovinos é um importante problema nas explorações, provocando um elevado impacto económico na maioria dos países produtores. Tem como agente etiológico Chlamydophila abortus, uma bactéria Gram-negativa que induz infeção subclínica persistente em ovelhas não-gestantes, podendo ser posteriormente causa de aborto, sobretudo no último terço de gestação. Foram colhidas vinte zaragatoas vaginais de ovinos após aborto, em explorações na região da Serra da Estrela. As amostras...
Areano E.M. Farias
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as prevalências de propriedades positivas e animais soropositivos para Chlamydophila abortus em ovinos deslanados da região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil, bem como identificar fatores de risco. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 476 ovinos procedentes de 72 propriedades em 14 municípios na mesorregião do Sertão, Estado da Paraíba. Para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por Chlamydophila abortus foi utilizada a reação de fixação de complemento (RFC. Uma propriedade foi considerada positiva quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Das 72 propriedades usadas 38 (52,8% apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo, e dos 476 animais 94 (19,7% foram soropositivos. Participação em exposições (odds ratio =4,31; IC 95% =1,80-10,35; p=0,011 foi identificada como fator de risco. Sugere-se que a infecção por Chlamydophila abortus encontra-se disseminada em ovinos da região, e baseando-se na análise de fatores de risco, recomenda-se o controle sanitário nas exposições de animais.
Des cas d'avortements imputés à Chlamydophila abortus ont été décrits dans des élevages de brebis du rayon Roquefort (France, 12) alors que ces élevages pratiquaient la vaccination contre la chlamydophilose avec un vaccin vivant depuis plusieurs années. De brefs rappels bibliographiques concernant la chlamydophilose et la vaccination contre cette maladie sont présentés en première partie. Une enquête menée auprès de neuf éleveurs est ensuite exposée afin d'expliquer la persistance d'avortemen...
Evidence of zoonotic Chlamydophila psittaci transmission in a population at risk in Zulia state, Venezuela Evidencia de transmisión zoonótica de Chlamydophila psittacci en una población de riesgo del Estado Zulia, Venezuela
Full Text Available Objective This study was aimed at investigating the frequency of infection by Cp. psittaci and determining its genotype in individuals at potential risk of exposure to the bacteria. Methodology The study involved 170 individuals: a risk group (n= 96 and a low-risk control group (n=74. Cp. psittaci was detected and genotyped by single-tube nested PCR and ompA gene sequencing. Results Eight (8.3 % positive cases were detected in the risk group and 1 (1.4 % in the control group (pObjetivo El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la frecuencia de infecciones por Cp. psittaci y determinar su genotipo en individuos con potencial riesgo de exposición a la bacteria. Metodología Se incluyeron 170 individuos, un grupo de riesgo (n=96 y un grupo control (n=74. La detección y genotipificación de Cp. psittaci se llevó a cabo por PCR anidada y secuenciación del gen ompA. Resultados Se detectaron ocho (8,3 % casos positivos en el grupo de riesgo y 1 (1,35 % en el grupo control (p<0,04. Cp. psittaci fue detectada en 16,7 % muestras fecales de palomas. En el grupo de riesgo, la frecuencia de infección por Cp. psittaci fue 17,7 % en individuos sintomáticos y 6,3% en asintomáticos. El análisis de los genomas aislados de muestras humanas y aves, revelaron la presencia del genotipo B. Conclusión La presencia de Cp. psittaci genotipo B en la población evaluada podría ser atribuida a transmisión zoonótica de palomas a humanos, un potencial problema de salud pública en nuestra región que requiere la intervención de autoridades sanitarias.
Laila Maftoum Proença
Full Text Available A clamidiose ou ornitose é uma doença infecciosa, causada pela bactéria Chlamydophila psittaci, que acomete aves e mamíferos. Trata-se de uma das principais zoonoses de origem aviária. A transmissão ocorre principalmente por inalação de secreções contaminadas. Os sinais clínicos mais comuns incluem alterações no sistema gastrointestinal, respiratório e ocular, porém é possível encontrar aves infectadas sem sinais aparentes, dificultando a identificação da doença. O diagnóstico definitivo em aves vivas pode ser difícil, devido às características da infecção pela bactéria. Há duas principais abordagens para o diagnóstico, a primeira envolve a detecção direta da bactéria e a segunda implica a detecção de anticorpos anti-Chlamydophila sp. O tratamento é longo e envolve o uso de tetraciclinas, quinolonas ou macrolídeos, durante 21-45 dias, dependendo da espécie e do fármaco de escolha. Atualmente, o Brasil não dispõe de medidas padronizadas que visam a guiar o clínico na identificação, manejo e tratamento para a doença. Tais medidas tornam-se necessárias, bem como a pesquisa de novos métodos diagnósticos e auxiliares para a doença.Chlamydiosis or ornitosis is an infectious disease which affects birds and mammals caused by the bacteria Chlamydophila psittaci. It is one of the most important avian zoonosis. The transmission occurs through inhalation of infected secretions. The most common clinical signs include problems in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and ocular tracts. However, it is possible to find infected birds with no clinical signs, which hinders the diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis in live birds can be difficult, because of the bacteria's infection characteristic. There are two main approaches to the diagnosis, the first one involves the direct detection of the bacteria, the second one involves the detection of antibodies anti-Chlamydophila sp. The treatment is long and includes the use of
Jesús A Lemus
Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.
Lemus, Jesús A.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Vergara, Pablo; Parejo, Deseada; Banda, Eva
The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species. PMID:20976071
El tráfico ilegal de todas las especies de fauna silvestre Colombiana y en especial de aquellas catalogadas como objeto de conservación es considerado como una de las principales causas de disminución de las poblaciones naturales y uno de los mercados que más ingreso tiene, producto de compra y venta de especies vedadas. El negocio de suministrar al mercado estas mascotas, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, influye en mayor proporción en la disminución poblacional. Aves silvestre caut...
Full Text Available Interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors is considered important player in the genesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. Among environmental factors, a role for an infectious pathogen has long been considered central to the disease process. This opinion has support both from epidemiological data and the findings of immunological abnormalities in spinal fluid that reflect an immune response to an as yet undetermined antigen, possibly a pathogen, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our review will outline the current understanding of the role of infection in the causation and progression of MS. We will review the data that point to an infectious cause of MS and consider the specific agents Chlamydophila (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Human Herpes Virus 6, and Epstein-Barr Virus, that are implicated in either the development or progression of MS.
Rômulo M. B. Valença
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo calcular a prevalência e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção por Chlamydophila abortus em suínos criados em granjas tecnificadas no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil. Para compor a amostra do estudo foram utilizados 342 suínos, sendo 312 matrizes e 30 varrões oriundos de sete granjas de ciclo completo e distribuídas em cinco municípios do Estado de Alagoas. O diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por C. abortus foi realizado através da microtécnica de Fixação do Complemento (RFC. A análise dos fatores de risco foi realizada por meio da aplicação de questionários investigativos, constituídos por perguntas objetivas referentes ao criador, às características gerais da propriedade, ao manejo produtivo, reprodutivo e sanitário. Observou-se prevalência de 10,5% (36/342 de suínos soropositivos para a infecção por C. abortus, com 85,8% das granjas analisadas com animais positivos. As variáveis que demonstraram associação significativa foram: utilização de bebedouros comuns para jovens e adultos (p=0,024; OR=10,83; IC=1,36-86,03 e método de cobertura de monta natural associada à inseminação artificial (p=0,05; OR=7,62; IC=1,00-58,31. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de anticorpos anti-C. abortus em suínos no Brasil. Fatores como a introdução de reprodutores nos plantéis e a forma de fornecimento de água foram evidenciados como facilitadores da infecção das matrizes neste estudo. Dessa forma, medidas de controle da infecção devem ser enfocadas nesse aspecto para evitar a disseminação do agente nas granjas suinícolas e em outros plantéis da região.
... the body they infect. Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the skin on the body. ("Corporis" is ... Causes & Risk Factors How did I get a fungal infection? You can get a fungal infection by touching ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of alveolar type II cells in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity is unclear. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been implicated in host defense. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether Chlamydophila pneumoniae (I alters the expression of TLR2 and/orTLR4 in type II cells in a (II Rho-GTPase- and (III NF-κB-dependent pathway, subsequently (IV leading to the production of (IV pro-inflammatory TNF-α and MIP-2. Methods Isolated rat type II pneumocytes were incubated with C. pneumoniae after pre-treatment with calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, inhibitors of NF-κB (parthenolide, SN50 or with a specific inhibitor of the Rho-GTPase (mevastatin. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expressions were analyzed by PCR. Activation of TLR4, Rac1, RhoA protein and NF-κB was determined by Western blotting and confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM and TNF-α and MIP-2 release by ELISA. Results Type II cells constitutively expressed TLR4 and TLR2 mRNA. A prominent induction of TLR4 but not TLR2 mRNA was detected after 2 hours of incubation with C. pneumoniae. The TLR4 protein expression reached a peak at 30 min, began to decrease within 1–2 hours and peaked again at 3 hours. Incubation of cells with heat-inactivated bacteria (56°C for 30 min significantly reduced the TLR4 expression. Treated bacteria with polymyxin B (2 μg/ml did not alter TLR4 expression. C. pneumoniae-induced NF-κB activity was blocked by TLR4 blocking antibodies. TLR4 mRNA and protein expression were inhibited in the presence of BAPTA-AM, SN50 or parthenolide. TNF-α and MIP-2 release was increased in type II cells in response to C. pneumoniae, whereas BAPTA-AM, SN50 or parthenolide decreased the C. pneumoniae-induced TNF-α and MIP-2 release. Mevastatin inhibited C. pneumoniae-mediated Rac1, RhoA and TLR4 expression. Conclusion The TLR4 protein expression in rat type II cells is likely to be mediated by a heat-sensitive C. pneumoniae protein that induces a
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95% at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion in nearly half (47% of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%, PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C. abortus (50% followed by C. pecorum (47% and C. psittaci genotype A (25%. Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep.
Zimmermann Dieter R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.
... staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Which of these infections do you worry about most? S. aureus most commonly causes skin infections like folliculitis, boils, ...
Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...
Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...
Azumagawa, Kohji; Nomura, Shohei; Shigeri, Yasushi; Jones, Leslie Sargent; Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Tanabe, Takuya; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Nakajima, Hideto; Tamai, Hiroshi
The mechanism of post-vaccination acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been hypothesized as resulting from vaccination-injected antigens cross-reacting with myelin components, however, a precise etiology has been uncertain. In this report, we describe the case of a 6-year-old Japanese boy who had multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and was positive for both anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and Chlamydophila pneumoniae antibodies. After vaccinations that were the second one for measles and rubella, and the booster immunization for Japanese encephalitis, the patient presented with fever, headache, vomiting, and a change in personality. He was treated with a high-dose of intravenous methylprednisolone in the diagnosis of ADEM. However, these symptoms recurred with different magnetic resonance imaging lesion, and he was diagnosed as MDEM. Retrospective testing for pathogens revealed C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies, and it was considered that he was infected with C. pneumoniae subclinically. The patient's serum indicated a positive response for the anti-MOG antibody from the onset of the ADEM diagnosis and in all recurrent episodes. Chlamydia species infection has been known to play a role in demyelinating diseases. It is also known that the anti-MOG antibody may be present but not exhibit its pathogenesis in the absence of a cell-mediated inflammatory response; however, the precise mechanism of action of the anti-MOG antibodies is not yet determined. We propose the possibility that post-vaccination demyelinating disease may result from the synergistic effects of a preceding anti-MOG antibody, possibly produced in response to a subclinical Chlamydia species infection. PMID:26922251
Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis
Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...
... genital tract. They can cause infections in various parts of the body in children and adults of all ages. The most common are dental infections, inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis), and ...
... staph food poisoning, and these infections: Folliculitis and Boils Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles, tiny ... But sometimes it goes on to become a boil (also called a furuncle). With a boil, the ...
A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst; Høiby, Niels
being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as......A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...
Full Text Available AIM: A potential link between infectious agents and atherosclerosis has been suggested. Data obtained from several seroepidemiological studies have suggested that infection with Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Cytomegalovirus can initiate or maintain the atherosclerotic process. Aim of this study is to evaluate the probable relationship between serum titers of some various infectious agents and the development of acute coronary syndrome and to investigate the relationship between these infectious agents and other risk factors of acute coronary syndrome (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and family history of CVD. METHOD: This is a hospital based case- control study was conducted on two groups: patients group included 86 patients, cases were collected from patients admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU of Cleopatra hospital, and Ain Shams University hospital with acute myocardial infarction between January 2010 and June 2010 and control group included 86 apparently healthy individuals. A questionnaire was designed to determine conventional coronary artery risk factors. The sero-prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori IgG antibodies were evaluated using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The results showed that there was an increased level of serum IgG antibodies of C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori among patients with acute coronary syndrome compared to control subjects CONCLUSION: C. pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori were expected to be predictors for the development of coronary artery disease, as there was significant elevation of the serum level of IgG antibodies against them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 715-722
Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.
Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...
... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...
Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.
2009188 Multi-slice spiral CT appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation.XIE Lixuan(谢丽璇),et al.Dept Imaging,Changzheng Hosp,2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Radiol,2009;43(1):8-11.
... days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in young children, developing most often during hot, humid summers and usually appearing on the face around the nose, mouth, and ears. It can be caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. (More often, it is caused by a ...
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages. Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 8/28/2012.
... ll know that you’re drinking enough if your urine (pee) is light yellow or almost clear. Avoid scented hygiene products like bubble bath, sprays, scented pads, and scented tampons. They can be irritating. Having sex may increase your odds of some infections even if they’re ...
Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...
Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q
Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539
Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina
Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...
Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.
Irina Clara Delgado Varela
Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.
930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-
Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400
... or skin cysts. Anyone can get a staph infection. Hospital patients can get staph infections of the skin: ... for and promptly reporting any sign of wound infections Many hospitals encourage patients to ask their providers if they ...
Moor, S.; Skrine, H.
This report describes a patient with psychosis due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Although he received specific treatment for this infection, the diagnosis was only confirmed after clinical recovery. The neuropsychiatric complications of mycoplasma infection are discussed.
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...
... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...
Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.
Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...
肖光文; 刘良专; 谢小平; 吴移谋
stimulated by different concentrations of the recombinant protein of Cpn0425 from Chlamydophila pneumonioe after sonication,after removal of endotoxin by purification columns of ToxinEraser;,the expression of IL-8 and IL-1β were tested and proirferation by ELISA.Zhe inhibition of cell treated with Cpn0425 was assessed by WST-1.Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin-V-FITC-PI.Results The recombinant protein of Cpn0425 stimulated THP-1 cell expressing the mRNA of IL-8 and IL-1 β and produce proinflamatory cytokines including IL-8 and IL-1 β in a dose and time-dependent manner,Cell proliferation of THP-1 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner of GST-Cpn0425;The apoptosis was induced 24 hours after treatment of THP-1 cells with GST-Cpn0425,its highest apoptosis rate reached 17.76 ± 4.2％.Conclusions The recombinant protein of Cpn0425 can induce the expression of THP-1 cells and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β,inhibit the proliferation and apoptosis of THP-1 cells;therefore may be an important virulence factor.
A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...
... include fever and abdominal distension and/or tenderness. Screening/Diagnosis C. difficile infection requires documenting the presence ... First, it would be ideal to stop the antibiotic that led to the infection in the first ...
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...
Grief, Samuel N
Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview ...
Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...
... infection spreads to your kidneys, symptoms may include: Chills and shaking or night sweats Fatigue and a ... kidney infection, such as: Back or side pain Chills Fever Vomiting Also call if UTI symptoms come ...
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are ... serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? ...
Palefsky, Joel M.
While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the ge...
Gerometta, Antoine; Olaverri, Juan Carlos Rodriguez; Bitan, Fabian
Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal instrumentation, age, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, operating-room environment and estimated blood loss are well established in the literature to affect the risk of infection. Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology. The reported infection rates range from 0.7% to 11.9%, depending on the diagnos...
Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske
Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity will be...
... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...
Madhavan, M.; Ratnakar, C.; Veliath, A. J.; Kanungo, R.; Smile, S. R.; Bhat, S
Among the fungal pathogens the species Fusariam solani causing systemic infection is very rare and generally causes systemic infection only in an immuno-compromised host. We report a systemic infection caused by F. solani in a non-immunocompromised adult male, to our knowledge the first such case report.
Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;
Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with...... Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....
Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K
central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... eventually leading to an ear infection. continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area ...
Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K
central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence of...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...
Flávia R. Miranda; Mariella Superina; Fernanda Vinci; Vanessa Hashimoto; Julio Cesar de Freitas; Eliana Reiko Matushima
Abstract:A serological survey for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans, Brucella abortus, and Chlamydophila abortus was conducted in 21 clinically healthy, free-ranging giant ant- eaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) from Parque Nacional das Emas (Goiás State, Brazil; n=6), Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais State, Brazil; n=9), and RPPN SESC Pantanal (Mato Grosso State, Brazil; n=6) between July 2001 and September 2006. Sera were screened for antibodies against 22 serovars o...
Ana Lucia L. Lima
Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.
Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold
Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800
Doyle, D J; Hanbidge, A E; O'Malley, M E
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented. PMID:16905380
Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented
Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L
HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...
Mallia, Patrick; Johnston, Sebastian L.
Influenza is a disease with global impact that causes enormous morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. It primarily infects the respiratory tract and causes a broad range of illness ranging from symptomless infection to fulminant primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The severity of infection depends on both the virus strain and a number of host factors, primarily age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiopulmonary disease. The mortality and utilization of healt...
Došen Radoslav; Gagrčin Mladen; Prodanov Jasna; Orlić Dušan B.
Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV) are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge o...
Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.
Wise, William S.
This report describes a set of microcomputer programs designed to streamline and assist with infection control monitoring. The system is designed to capture patient demographic and culture data as well as the infection control practitioner's (ICP) evaluation of whether the infection is hospital (nosocomial) or community acquired. Once the data are acquired, they can be sorted and printed in a multitude of ways to generate various detailed line reports and tables. Organism sensitivity profiles...
Stephen A. Geller
Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.
This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655
Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...
Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the
... infect the baby. This can happen when a pregnant woman experiences a first-time infection, a reinfection with a different CMV strain (variety), ... passed their newborn hearing test. Diagnosis Congenital CMV ... newborn babyâ€™s saliva, urine, or blood. Such specimens must be collected for ...
Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....
Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are widespread among the U.S. cattle population and it is generally accepted that these infections result in substantial economic loss for producers. There is a push in the U.S. to design BVDV control programs that will curb these losses. While ...
Beer, W. Nicholas
Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…
The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti
Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are serious problems in persons with diabetes, about 10 to 25 % of patients with dia-betes develop a foot ulcer and 60 % of them are infected. DFIs cause morbidity, limit mobility, worsen patients quality of life. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with Gram-positive cocci (especially staphylococci), Gram-negative bacilli and obligate anaerobes. Successful therapy of DFI requires proper topical care and often includes surgical interventions but appropriate antibiotic treatment plays a key role. Initial antimicrobial therapy of these infections is usually empirical, the antibiotic regimen should be based on the severity of the infection. Definitive therapy should then be tailored according to the results of culture and susceptibility tests from a reliably obtained specimen. PMID:26258977
... Disease Organizations . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wullt, Björn; Perletti, Gianpaolo
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and male genital infections are amongst the most prevalent infections. A prudent antibiotic policy therefore has a large impact on society. The clinical classification in uncomplicated cystitis, uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated UTI and genital infections is useful, also for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. In this regard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects have to be considered. Nowadays in uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics exclusively reserved for this indication are preferred, such as fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam, in order to reduce antibiotic pressure in this extremely frequent entity. In complicated UTI a broad bacterial spectrum has to be considered. Different antibiotic substances should be used for treatment, such as penicillins, with β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins or carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides or cotrimoxazole, if tested susceptible. For genital infections the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics should especially be considered, such as in prostatitis, where mainly fluoroquinolones and macrolides show sufficient pharmacokinetic parameters for treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore in genital infections fastidious organisms, such as Chlamydia or Mycoplasma spp. have to be considered with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:22019184
Smits, Wiep Klaas; Lyras, Dena; Lacy, D Borden; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J
Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of inflammation in C. difficile infection (CDI) are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and, in some bacterial strains, the binary toxin CDT. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis - the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood. Recurrent infections are common and can be debilitating. Toxin detection for diagnosis is important for accurate epidemiological study, and for optimal management and prevention strategies. Infections are commonly treated with specific antimicrobial agents, but faecal microbiota transplants have shown promise for recurrent infections. Future biotherapies for C. difficile infections are likely to involve defined combinations of key gut microbiota. PMID:27158839
Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.
Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.
Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...
Infection control is a dynamic and ever-changing subject and all dental staff should be kept aware of the most up-to-date procedures required to prevent the transmission of infection and should understand why these procedures are necessary. Regular monitoring and updating of all procedures in the light of new scientific evidence is necessary and all new staff must be trained in infection control procedures prior to working in the surgery. A practitioner who is routinely following an appropriate infection control policy, including the use of techniques and products of proven efficacy (perhaps through accreditation), is better placed to refute allegations arising in the course of civil litigation, health and safety at work prosecution, complaints and disciplinary procedures, or investigations by the GDC. PMID:16892574
Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p
Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P
Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147
Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...
Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TheÂ Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI)Â measures - state data. These measures are developed byÂ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Â and collected...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TheÂ Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI)Â measures - national data. These measures are developed byÂ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Â and...
Hochedez, Patrick; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Debruyne, Monique; Bossi, Philippe; Hausfater, Pierre; Brucker, Gilles; Bricaire, Francois; Caumes, Eric
The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.
Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.
Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic" viru
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TheÂ Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI)Â measures - provider data. These measures are developed byÂ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Â and...
Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...
Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: yur - ...
... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...
Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin
A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...
... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...
Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...
... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...
Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...
Rachel E. Marschang
Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...
Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...
Holtom, P D
Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...
Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C
Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963
Public Health Agency
This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infection�and highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the p...
Public Health Agency
This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infectionand highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the pr...
Geller, Stephen A.; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populatio...
Ivetić Vojin; Savić Božidar; Valter Dragoš; Milošević Bratislav
Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic w...
Marschang, Rachel E.
A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...
Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi
Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...
Stewart, Philip S.
This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofi...
Chung, Yun Kyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim
Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and m...
Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC),; Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)
... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...
Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A
It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187
Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J
• On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence
Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat
The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.
Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J
Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. PMID:22264261
Maria Agnese Latino
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.
Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.
Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A
Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907
Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.
Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.
Hörl, W H
Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538
Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Reinout A. Bem
Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S
Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976
Full Text Available Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis sp. from host to host has been demonstrated in rodent models and several observations suggest that interindividual transmission occurs in humans. Moreover, it is accepted that the Pneumocystis organisms infecting each mammalian species are host specific and that the hypothesis of an animal reservoir for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii, the human-specific Pneumocystis species, can be excluded. An exosaprophytic form of the fungus cannot be strictly ruled out. However, these data point toward the potential for the specific host to serve as its own reservoir and for Pneumocystis infection in humans as an anthroponosis with humans as a reservoir for P. jirovecii. This review highlights the main data on host-to-host transmission of Pneumocystis in rodent models and in humans by the airborne route and provides a rationale for considering the occurrence of nosocomial infections and measures for their prevention
Vukadinov Jovan S.
Full Text Available Epidemiology Aging is a natural process and a part of our lives, but nowadays there is an increase in the number of persons aged 65 and over. Today infectious diseases are still responsible for one-third of all deaths in the world. The elderly population is most vulnerable to serious infections and at greatest risk for death and complications. Among geriatric population pneumonia and influenza are the fourth most common cause of death Vaccination One of the goals of preventive medicine is to reduce the rate of complications and mortality from infectious diseases by increasing immunization rates. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for persons aged 65 and over. Despite well-recognized benefit of such vaccination, less than 50% of eligible patients receive the vaccine each year. Infections Older persons generally have increased susceptibility to infections because of multiple risk factors and they are the most vulnerable population to nosocomial and health-care associated infections. Older persons may manifest infectious diseases atypically, with acute confusion or delirium which can lead into delay in diagnosis and therapy. It is important to know that the older present with delayed or poor response to antimicrobial therapy and high rates of adverse reactions to drugs, including antibiotics Conclusion As elderly population is rapidly growing, majority of patients with serious or life-threatening infections are old. Geriatric issues have not typically been a focus of training in infectious diseases, but we must become aware of and knowledgeable about special and unique aspects of infections in this population.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David
Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort were 6.1%, 31.2%, and 30.8%, respectively. The presence of the most common inherited haplotype in the Irish population, HLA-A1, B8 was significantly associated with CMV seronegativity (OR = 1.278, P HLA-A1 in the Irish population may, in part, have a role in the reduced susceptibility to CMV infection. PMID:26871815
Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.
Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.
A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.
Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.
Dries David J
Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.
Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...
Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma. Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/28/2016.
... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...
use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
... Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal ... a UTI treated? Will a UTI hurt my kidneys? How can I keep from getting ... infection Nancy's story It was a normal day at work, but I was tired and ...
Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735
Seyed Hassan Mostafavi
Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.
MENU Return to Web version Group B Strep Infection Overview What is group B strep? Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a certain kind ... in the intestine, rectum, and vagina (in women). Group B strep doesn’t usually cause problems in ...
Stewart, Philip S
This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…
Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.
Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.
Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/21/2011.
Full Text Available ... your lower belly? Is there blood in your pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? ... your body. If the doctor finds germs in your pee, it's a sign of infection and he or ...
... oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women . Mycopathologia; 176(3–4): 175–81. Return to top This fact sheet was reviewed by: Michail S. Lionakis, M.D., Sc.D., Clinical Investigator, Chief, Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute ...
Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F
Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The
Yao, N A; Ngoran, N; de Jaureguiberry, J P; Bérard, H; Jaubert, D
The acquired immunosuppressed states are increasingly numerous. Pneumopathies are a frequent, serious complication and etiologic diagnosis is often difficult. The nature of the micro-organism in question is a function of the immunizing type of deficiency. In neutropenias, the infections are primarily bacterial, their potential gravity being correlated with the depth of the deficiency into polynuclear, or fungic, especially in prolonged neutropenias. The aspleened states are responsible for a deficit of the macrophage system and contribute to the infections with encapsulated germs (pneumococci, klebsiellas...). The organic grafts imply an attack of cell-mediated immunity, in the particular case of the auxiliary T lymphocytes (CD4)), with a special predisposition for viral and fungic infections. During VIH infection, the immunizing deficit of CD4 lymphocytes worsens with time. At the early stage, the infections are especially bacterial. At the more advanced stages, the pulmonary pneumocystosis and tuberculosis dominate. At the late stage, finally, deep immunosuppression allows emerging of the atypical mycobacteries. In the deficiencies of humoral immunity (congenital hypogammaglobulinemias, lymphoid hemopathies B), the germs to be mentioned are the pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, the salmonellas and the legionellas. Immunosuppressed pneumopathies are characterized by radio-clinical pictures of very variable gravity, ranging from focused acute pneumopathy to bilateral diffuse pneumopathy with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with phases of atypical tables with respiratory symptomatology larval or absent. The highlighting of the micro-organisms in question requires urgent complementary investigations: hemocultures, bronchiolo-alveolar washing. In certain cases, it will be possible to resort to the transtracheal puncture or transthoracic puncture guided by tomodensitometry, and if necessary to pulmonary biopsy under videothoracoscopy. Emergency of the anti
We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.
Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.
Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.
... Share | With attention increasing on the incidence of infection in hospitals, patients everywhere need sensible principles to manage their ... will reduce the chance of developing a lung infection while in the hospital and may also improve your healing abilities following ...
... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...
... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...
... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the ... fungus can grow. Doctors call this candida overgrowth candidiasis (pronounced: can-dih-DYE-uh-sis) Candida can ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...
Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M
To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....
J Gordon Millichap
A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.