Sample records for chlamydia muridarum

  1. Bioluminescence Imaging of Chlamydia muridarum Ascending Infection in Mice

    Jessica Campbell; Yumeng Huang; Yuanjun Liu; Robert Schenken; Bernard Arulanandam; Guangming Zhong


    Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intrav...

  2. Transformation of Chlamydia muridarum Reveals a Role for Pgp5 in Suppression of Plasmid-Dependent Gene Expression

    Liu, Yuanjun; Chen, Chaoqun; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming


    Transformation of Chlamydia trachomatis should greatly advance the chlamydial research. However, significant progress has been hindered by the failure of C. trachomatis to induce clinically relevant pathology in animal models. Chlamydia muridarum, which naturally infects mice, can induce hydrosalpinx in mice, a tubal pathology also seen in women infected with C. trachomatis. We have developed a C. muridarum transformation system and confirmed Pgp1, -2, -6, and -8 as plasmid maintenance factor...

  3. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    Jessica Campbell

    Full Text Available Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  4. Plasmid-Encoded Pgp3 Is a Major Virulence Factor for Chlamydia muridarum To Induce Hydrosalpinx in Mice

    Liu, Yuanjun; Huang, Yumeng; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Yina; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Chen, Chaoqun; Li, Zhongyu; Liu, Quanzhong; Wu, Yimou; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming


    Hydrosalpinx induction in mice by Chlamydia muridarum infection, a model that has been used to study C. trachomatis pathogenesis in women, is known to depend on the cryptic plasmid that encodes eight genes designated pgp1 to pgp8. To identify the plasmid-encoded pathogenic determinants, we evaluated C. muridarum transformants deficient in the plasmid-borne gene pgp3, -4, or -7 for induction of hydrosalpinx. C. muridarum transformants with an in-frame deletion of either pgp3 or -4 but not -7 f...

  5. Outcome of urogenital infection with Chlamydia muridarum in CD-14 gene knockout mice

    Ramsey Kyle H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD14 has been postulated to play a role in chlamydial immunity and immunopathology. There is evidence to support this role in human infections but its function in a mouse model has not been investigated. Methods Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. The infection course was monitored by detection of viable chlamydiae from serially collected cervical-vaginal swabs. The sequela of tubal factor infertility was assessed using hydrosalpinx formation as a surrogate marker. Results A significantly abbreviated infection course was observed in the CD14 gene knockout mice but hydrosalpinx formation occurred at similar rates between the two groups. Conclusion Involvement of CD14 during chlamydial infection impedes infection resolution but this does not affect the sequela of infertility as assessed by hydrosalpinx formation.

  6. Intravenous Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum Leads to a Long-Lasting Infection Restricted to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Dai, Jin; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Luying; Shao, Lili; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Yuyang; Failor, Courtney; Schenken, Robert; Baseman, Joel; He, Cheng; Zhong, Guangming


    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, it remains unclear whether the chlamydial organisms can be introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via pathways independent of the oral and anal routes. We have recently shown that Chlamydia muridarum spreads from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract potentially via the circulatory system. To test whether hematogenous C. muridarum can spread to and establish a long-lasting colonization in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we inoculated mice intravenously with a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum strain and monitored its distribution. After tail vein inoculation, most luciferase-generated bioluminescence signals were detected in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiment. The ex vivo imaging revealed that the abdominal signals came from the gastrointestinal tract tissues. Simultaneous monitoring of chlamydial organisms in individual organs or tissues revealed an initial stage of systemic spreading followed by a long-lasting infection in the gastrointestinal tract. A retro-orbital vein inoculation of the C. muridarum organisms at a lower dose in a different mouse strain also led to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated that intravenous C. muridarum inoculation can result in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the chlamydial organisms may use the sexual behavior-independent circulation pathway to infect the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27271744

  7. Plasmid-Encoded Pgp5 Is a Significant Contributor to Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Hydrosalpinx

    Huang, Yumeng; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Conrad, Turner; Liu, Yuanjun; Zhong, Guangming


    We have previously shown that the plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is a major virulence factor for C. muridarum induction of hydrosalpinx. We now report that Pgp5 also plays a significant role in the development of hydrosalpinx following C. muridarum induction. Pgp5 deficiency was introduced via either in-frame deletion (CM-Δpgp5) or premature stop codon installation (CM-pgp5S). Mice infected with either CM-Δpgp5 or CM-pgp5S developed hydrosalpinges at significantly reduced levels with an incidence rate ...

  8. Separate base usages of genes located on the leading and lagging strands in Chlamydia muridarum revealed by the Z curve method

    Yu Xiu-Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleotide compositional asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in bacterial genomes has been the subject of intensive study in the past few years. It is interesting to mention that almost all bacterial genomes exhibit the same kind of base asymmetry. This work aims to investigate the strand biases in Chlamydia muridarum genome and show the potential of the Z curve method for quantitatively differentiating genes on the leading and lagging strands. Results The occurrence frequencies of bases of protein-coding genes in C. muridarum genome were analyzed by the Z curve method. It was found that genes located on the two strands of replication have distinct base usages in C. muridarum genome. According to their positions in the 9-D space spanned by the variables u1 – u9 of the Z curve method, K-means clustering algorithm can assign about 94% of genes to the correct strands, which is a few percent higher than those correctly classified by K-means based on the RSCU. The base usage and codon usage analyses show that genes on the leading strand have more G than C and more T than A, particularly at the third codon position. For genes on the lagging strand the biases is reverse. The y component of the Z curves for the complete chromosome sequences show that the excess of G over C and T over A are more remarkable in C. muridarum genome than in other bacterial genomes without separating base and/or codon usages. Furthermore, for the genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in which distinct base and/or codon usages have been observed, closer phylogenetic distance is found compared with other bacterial genomes. Conclusion The nature of the strand biases of base composition in C. muridarum is similar to that in most other bacterial genomes. However, the base composition asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in C. muridarum is more significant than that in

  9. Enhanced upper genital tract pathologies by blocking Tim-3 and PD-L1 signaling pathways in mice intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    Peng Bo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Tim-3 & PD-L1 signaling pathways play important roles in negatively regulating immune responses, their roles in chlamydial infection have not been evaluated. Methods Neutralization antibodies targeting Tim-3 and PD-L1 were used to treat mice. Following an intravaginal infection with C. muridarum organisms, mice with or without the dual antibody treatment were compared for live chlamydial organism shedding from the lower genital tract and inflammatory pathology in the upper genital tract. Results Mice treated with anti-Tim-3 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies displayed a time course of live organism shedding similar to that of mice treated with equivalent amounts of isotype-matched IgG molecules. The combined antibody blocking failed to alter either the lower genital tract cytokine or systemic humoral and cellular adaptive responses to C. muridarum infection. However, the antibody blocking significantly enhanced C. muridarum-induced pathologies in the upper genital tract, including more significant hydrosalpinx and inflammatory infiltration in uterine horn and oviduct tissues. Conclusions The Tim-3 and PD-L1-mediated signaling can significantly reduce pathologies in the upper genital tract without suppressing immunity against chlamydial infection, suggesting that Tim-3 and PD-L1-mediated negative regulation may be manipulated to attenuate tubal pathologies in women persistently infected with C. trachomatis organisms.

  10. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank;


    BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been...

  11. Chlamydia

    ... you may not notice them until several weeks after you get chlamydia. Signs and symptoms may include: Bleeding ... you may not notice them until several weeks after you get chlamydia. Signs and symptoms may include: Bleeding ...

  12. Immunization with Dendritic Cells Pulsed ex vivo with Recombinant Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Induces Protective Immunity Against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge

    Bernard eArulanandam


    Full Text Available We have shown that immunization with soluble recombinant (r chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF and a T helper (Th 1 type adjuvant can induce significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and protection against Chlamydia–induced pathological sequelae in the genital tract. In this study, we investigated the use of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs pulsed ex vivo with rCPAF+CpG in an adoptive subcutaneous immunization for the ability to induce protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection. We found that BMDCs pulsed with rCPAF+CpG efficiently up-regulated the expression of activation markers CD86, CD80, CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II, and secreted interleukin-12, but not IL-10 and IL-4. Mice adoptively immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs produced elevated levels of antigen-specific IFN- and enhanced IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, mice immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs exhibited significantly reduced genital Chlamydia shedding, accelerated resolution of infection, and reduced oviduct pathology when compared to infected mock-immunized animals. These results suggest that adoptive subcutaneous immunization with ex vivo rCPAF-pulsed BMDCs is an effective approach, comparable to that induced by UV-EB-BMDCs, for inducing robust anti-Chlamydia immunity.

  13. Chlamydia

    ... with new or multiple sexual partners, particularly if protection with condoms is inconsistent. Re-infection of chlamydia happens easily if a sex partner is not treated. Signs and ... with oral antibiotics (usually azithromycin or doxycycline). All sexual partners ...

  14. Chlamydia

    ... you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, your health care provider will collect a culture or perform a test called a PCR: The culture will be collected during a pelvic exam in women, or from the ... back. Your health care provider may also check you for other ...

  15. Chlamydia

    ... behaviors and biological factors common among young people. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men are also at risk since chlamydia can be spread through oral and anal sex. Have an honest and open talk with your health care provider and ask whether ...

  16. Critical Role of the Interleukin-17/Interleukin-17 Receptor Axis in Regulating Host Susceptibility to Respiratory Infection with Chlamydia Species▿

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Chen, Qiangwei; Moore, Jessica; Kolls, Jay K.; Halperin, Scott; Wang, Jun


    The specific contribution of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses in regulating host susceptibility against obligatory intracellular Chlamydia infection was investigated in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice during Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection. We demonstrated that Chlamydia stimulated IL-17/IL-17R-associated responses in both Chlamydia-resistant C57BL/6 and Chlamydia-susceptible C3H/HeN mice. However, C3H/HeN mice developed a significantly greater IL-17...

  17. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  18. Chlamydia Testing

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  19. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and ... FAQ071, February 2016 PDF Format Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? ...

  20. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław


    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better. PMID:23903989

  1. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry.

    Cherilyn A Elwell


    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. This conclusion was verified by deep sequencing and by PCR using species-specific primers. All data presented in the results section that refer to C. trachomatis should be interpreted as referring to C. muridarum. Since C. muridarum TARP lacks the consensus tyrosine repeats present in C. trachomatis TARP, we cannot make any conclusions about the role of TARP phosphorylation and C. muridarum entry. However, the conclusion that C. trachomatis L2 TARP is a target of Abl kinase is still valid as these experiments were performed with C. trachomatis L2 TARP [corrected]. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in early events in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we conducted a large scale unbiased RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. This allowed identification of candidate host factors in a simple non-redundant, genetically tractable system. From a library of 7,216 double stranded RNAs (dsRNA, we identified approximately 226 host genes, including two tyrosine kinases, Abelson (Abl kinase and PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related (Pvr, a homolog of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. We further examined the role of these two kinases in C. trachomatis binding and internalization into mammalian cells. Both kinases are phosphorylated upon infection and recruited to the site of bacterial attachment, but their roles in the infectious process are distinct. We provide evidence that PDGFRbeta may function as a receptor, as inhibition of PDGFRbeta by RNA interference or by PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibodies significantly reduces bacterial binding, whereas depletion of Abl kinase has no effect on binding. Bacterial internalization can occur through activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent

  2. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    Gibbons, Wendy


    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  3. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen.

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah


    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. PMID:27576537

  4. Chlamydia and Women


    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  5. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi


    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  6. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU


    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  7. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Maria Agnese Latino


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  8. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Boman, Jens


    Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. Th...

  9. Endometritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Mårdh, P A; Møller, B. R.; Ingerselv, H J; Nüssler, E; Weström, L; Wølner-Hanssen, P


    Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be the aetiological agent of endometritis in three women with concomitant signs of salpingitis. All patients developed a significant antibody response to the organism. Chlamydia were recovered from aspirated uterine contents of two patients and darkfield examination of histological sections showed chlamydial inclusions in endometrial cells in one patient. Thus, C trachomatis can be recovered from the endometrium of patients in whom the cervical culture resul...

  10. IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy.

    Munir A Al-Zeer

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection of the host cell induces Gamma interferon (IFNgamma, a central immunoprotector for humans and mice. The primary defense against Chlamydia infection in the mouse involves the IFNgamma-inducible family of IRG proteins; however, the precise mechanisms mediating the pathogen's elimination are unknown. In this study, we identify Irga6 as an important resistance factor against C. trachomatis, but not C. muridarum, infection in IFNgamma-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We show that Irga6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 accumulate at bacterial inclusions in MEFs upon stimulation with IFNgamma, whereas Irgb6 colocalized in the presence or absence of the cytokine. This accumulation triggers a rerouting of bacterial inclusions to autophagosomes that subsequently fuse to lysosomes for elimination. Autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- MEFs and lysosomal acidification impaired cells surrender to infection. Irgm2, Irgm3 and Irgd still localize to inclusions in IFNgamma-induced Atg5-/- cells, but Irga6 localization is disrupted indicating its pivotal role in pathogen resistance. Irga6-deficient (Irga6-/- MEFs, in which chlamydial growth is enhanced, do not respond to IFNgamma even though Irgb6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 still localize to inclusions. Taken together, we identify Irga6 as a necessary factor in conferring host resistance by remodelling a classically nonfusogenic intracellular pathogen to stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, thereby rerouting the intruder to the lysosomal compartment for destruction.

  11. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Busse, Reinhard


    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  12. Immunization with a MOMP-based vaccine protects mice against a pulmonary Chlamydia challenge and identifies a disconnection between infection and pathology.

    Connor P O'Meara

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN, sublingual (SL or transcutaneous (TC routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG. Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following

  13. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, G


    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were...

  14. TestPack Chlamydia, a new rapid assay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Coleman, P.; Varitek, V; Mushahwar, I K; Marchlewicz, B; Safford, J; Hansen, J.; Kurpiewski, G; Grier, T


    TestPack Chlamydia (Abbott Laboratories) is a rapid enzyme immunoassay for the direct antigen detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens. The assay is self-contained, requires no specialized equipment, and yields results in less than 30 min. The clinical performance of TestPack Chlamydia versus chlamydial cell culture was evaluated with a total of 1,694 paired endocervical specimens. Discordant samples were further investigated by immunofluorescent staining and by Chlamydiaz...

  15. Biology and intracellular life of chlamydia

    Ranin Lazar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae is specific and different from other bacteria. The elementary body is the infectious form of the organism, responsible for attaching to the target host cell and promoting its entry. The reticulate body is the larger, metabolically active form of the organism, synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and proteins. The elementary body and reticulate body represent evolutionary adaptations to extracellular and intracellular environments. Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia. Predisposition of Chlamydia to persist within the host cell has been recognized as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. The persistence implies a long-term association between chlamydiae and their host cell that may not manifest as clinically recognizable disease. The ability of chlamydia to remain within one morphological state for a long time in response to exogenous factors suggests an innate ability of these organisms to persist intracellulary in a unique developmental form. Chlamydiae induce interferon γ and exhibit growth inhibition in their presence. While the high levels of interferon γ completely restrict the development of chlamydia, its low levels induce the development of morphologically aberrant intracellular forms. The persistent forms contain reduced levels of major outer membrane protein but high levels of chlamydial heat shock protein. Conclusion. Immunopathogenesis of chlamydial infection is one of the main focal points of current research into Chlamydia. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent, usually asymptomatic and associated with serious sequelae. Screening programmes are the most important in the prevention of a long-term sequele.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development.

    Cherilyn A Elwell


    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. [corrected]. The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a membrane-bound inclusion that acquires host sphingomyelin (SM, a process that is essential for replication as well as inclusion biogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that SM is acquired by a Brefeldin A (BFA-sensitive vesicular trafficking pathway, although paradoxically, this pathway is dispensable for bacterial replication. This finding suggests that other lipid transport mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host SM. In this work, we interrogated the role of specific components of BFA-sensitive and BFA-insensitive lipid trafficking pathways to define their contribution in SM acquisition during infection. We found that C. trachomatis hijacks components of both vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking pathways for SM acquisition but that the SM obtained from these separate pathways is being utilized by the pathogen in different ways. We show that C. trachomatis selectively co-opts only one of the three known BFA targets, GBF1, a regulator of Arf1-dependent vesicular trafficking within the early secretory pathway for vesicle-mediated SM acquisition. The Arf1/GBF1-dependent pathway of SM acquisition is essential for inclusion membrane growth and stability but is not required for bacterial replication. In contrast, we show that C. trachomatis co-opts CERT, a lipid transfer protein that is a key component in non-vesicular ER to trans-Golgi trafficking of ceramide (the precursor for SM, for C. trachomatis replication. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis recruits CERT, its ER binding partner, VAP-A, and SM synthases, SMS1 and SMS2, to the inclusion and propose that these proteins establish an on-site SM biosynthetic

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  19. Risk of reproductive complications following chlamydia testing

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;


    individuals drawn from the population register (Danish Civil Registration System) who did not have a positive chlamydia test during this interval. The outcomes in the study were hospital episodes of health-care (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department) with a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease...... diagnosed chlamydia and episodes of hospital health care (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department) for a reproductive complication. METHODS: We constructed and analysed a retrospective population-based cohort of women aged 15-44 years from administrative records in Denmark (1995-2012). We used a...... subset of the national Danish Chlamydia Study. The master dataset contains all residents of Denmark (including Greenland) who had a positive chlamydia test recorded by a public health microbiology laboratory from Jan 1, 1992, to Nov 2, 2011. Individuals were randomly matched (by age and sex) to four...

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis - possible cause of preterm delivery

    Bogavac Mirjana


    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in patients "with preterm delivery in relation to those with term delivery. Material and methods The investigation included a random sample of 116 parturients. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF test was used to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis. Results In the investigated group (N=53, positive finding of Chlamydia trachomatis in the urogenital tract was established in 6 (11.32% patients in cervix and in 5 (9.43% patients in the urethra, whereas in the control group there were 3 (4.76% positive findings in the cervix and 1 (1.59% in the urethra. The control group included patients with term delivery (N=63. Discussion and conclusion Results of investigation point to the necessity of diagnostics and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in prevention of preterm delivery, particularly in women with previous unsuccessful pregnancies.

  1. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel;


    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... this paper verifies the applicability of the described method for the identification of secreted proteins. We extend the findings by Zhong et al. by proteome studies of expression and turnover of C. trachomatis CPAF showing that the degradation of C. trachomatis D CPAF in the host cell is very limited...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from...

  2. Progress in genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Xia Yong; Xiong Likuan


    Objective To review the common genotyping techniques of Chlamydia trachomatis in terms of their principles,characteristics,applications and limitations.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literatures of PubMed database.The search terms were "Chlamydia trachomatis" and "genotyping".Meanwhile,data from World Health Organization were also cited.Study selection Original articles and reviews relevant to present review's theme were selected.Results Different genotyping techniques were applied on different occasions according to their characteristics,especially in epidemiological studies worldwide,which pushed the study of Chlamydia trachomatis forward greatly.In addition,summaries of some epidemiological studies by genotyping were also included in this work for reference and comparison.Conclusions A clear understanding of common genotyping techniques could be helpful to genotype C.trachomatis more appropriately and effectively.Furthermore,more studies on the association of genotypes of Ch/amydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations should be performed.

  3. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;


    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...

  4. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V


    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  5. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend


    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  6. Identification of lectin-binding proteins in Chlamydia species.

    Swanson, A F; Kuo, C. C.


    Lectin-binding proteins of chlamydiae were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. All three Chlamydia species tested expressed two proteins when whole-elementary-body lysates were reacted with the biotinylated lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin. The protein with a molecular mass of 18 kilodaltons (kDa) responded strongly compared with a higher-molecular-mass protein that varied from 27 to 32 kDa with each chlamydia strain tested. Among six l...

  7. Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.

    Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R


    To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiol...

  8. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Birkelund, Svend


    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all are...... important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...

  9. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend;


    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were...... retrospective investigations in formalin-fixed tissues....... examined and the effect of autolysis and tetracycline treatment was evaluated. Furthermore, lung tissue from two patients who died of ornithosis was examined. Inclusions detected in lung sections showed a bright apple-green fluorescence, and had a characteristic and easily recognizable morphology...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend;


    chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed......A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... to demonstrate surface-exposed epitopes on infectious elementary bodies or reproductive reticulate body forms either by immunofluorescence or immuno-gold electron microscopy. However, a complement-dependent inhibition of up to 91% of infectivity for cell cultures was observed with antibodies to the N...

  11. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K; van Bergen, J; Ward, H; Uüskula, A; Andersen, Berit; Götz, H; Herrmann, B; van den Broek, I; Woodhall, S

    inclusion of all or only sexually experienced participants. • Four EU/EEA Member States (France, Germany, Slovenia, UK) have reported findings from nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults ≤25 years, with response rates from 46 to 71%. Chlamydia point prevalence estimates in women...... aged 15–24 years ranged from 3.0% (18–24 year olds in UK) to 4.7% (18–24 year olds in Slovenia). Point prevalence estimates in men aged 15–24 years ranged from 0.4% (16–17 year olds in Germany) to 4.7% (18–24 year olds in Slovenia). Estimates of chlamydia prevalence in EU/EEA Member States were...

  12. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung


    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  13. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage

    Baud D.; Goy G.; Jaton K.; Osterheld M.C.; Blumer S.; Borel N.; Vial Y.; Hohlfeld P.; Pospischil A.; Greub G


    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of...

  14. Therapeutic abortion and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Qvigstad, E; Skaug, K; Jerve, F; Vik, I S; Ulstrup, J C


    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the cervix of 30 of 218 (13.8%) women admitted for legal termination of pregnancy. During the first two weeks after the abortion seven of the 30 (23.3%) patients developed pelvic inflammatory disease. Four of these had serological evidence of recent active chlamydial infection. Thus, routine examination of patients for genital chlamydial infection before termination of pregnancy is recommended.

  15. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    Adams, E; Lamontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W.


    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system.

  16. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.


    ... prepared from chlamydia-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed which has... section. Master Seed propagated in chicken embryos shall be tested for pathogens by the chicken embryo...). Blood samples shall be drawn and individual serum samples tested. The cats shall be considered...

  17. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna


    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...... forms of MOMP without LPS, was observed. A totally different membrane structure must be present in reticulate bodies, since there, MOMP was so heavily cross-linked that it did not enter the polyacrylamide gel and thus became impossible to analyze. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody, which reacted with...

  18. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    Skulnick, M; Small, G. W.; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; FRASER, S.; Chua, R


    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificit...

  19. A family outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Ghosh, K; Frew, C E; Carrington, D


    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described Chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. Here we present a family outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. No history of exposure to birds, pets or animals was obtained. As C. pneumoniae isolation from respiratory secretions is not without difficulty, diagnosis usually relies currently on serum-based tests. In this study C. pneumoniae specific IgM determined by the micro-immunofluorescence test was detected in the three clinical cases. All three cases had an elevated complement-fixing antibody titre to Psittacosis-LGV antigen, which may have suggested psittacosis, if type-specific tests had not been performed. In addition, three other members of the family had C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody although specific IgM was absent. These three younger members of the family had been symptomatic in the month preceding symptoms in their older sibling and their parents. All the symptomatic members of the family made a complete recovery on tetracycline therapy. PMID:1522345

  20. Postgonococcal conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis:Case report

    Møller, Birger R


    Autoinoculation of the eye from a genital infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis occurred in a young girl. Patients presenting with genital infection and conjunctivitis should, therefore, be examined for infection with both organisms and treated accordingly.

  1. Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia

    ... page: Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia Bacteria's ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new Canadian study with mice suggests there is hope for a vaccine to ...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women


    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  3. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Matthew A Pettengill

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia.

  4. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Pettengill, Matthew A; Lam, Verissa W; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M


    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  5. Sex and sport: chlamydia screening in rural sporting clubs

    Chen Marcus Y; Link Chris K; Hocking Jane S; Kong Fabian YS; Hellard Margaret E


    Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and confidentiality of sexual health services being problematic in rural and regional areas. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of establishing a pilot chlamydia testing outreach program among 16–25 year old males and females in rural Victoria (Australia) undert...

  6. Study on Drug Resistance and Relative Mechanisms of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    侯淑萍; 刘全忠


    Abstract: Chlamydia Trachomatis (C.T.) is one of the most common pathogens of human sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment of C.T. infection primarily depends on Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Quinolones, but with the wide use of antibiotics an increasing number of drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis cases have been reported. This review summarizes the resistant conditions and the possible resistance mechanisms of C.T..

  7. [Current aspects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    de Barbeyrac, Bertille


    The number of detection and diagnosis of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing among both men and women. Three-quarters involve young people between 15 and 24 years. Infection, often asymptomatic, is more common in women. It is necessary to identify it to avoid complications.The number of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is also growing. The affected patients are homo/bisexuel men frequently co-infected with HIV. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the tests of choice to the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection regardless of the clinical situation. Most of tests simultaneously detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The recommended treatment regimens for a non-complicated infection to C. trachomatis is azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose or doxycyline 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Doxycyclin for 21 days remains the treatment of choice for LGV. Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for treatment. PMID:23419460

  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

    Shinsaku Imashuku


    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  9. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth


    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  10. Characterization of native and recombinant 75-kilodalton immunogens from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna


    A 75-kilodalton (kDa) immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was characterized. The 75-kDa protein was localized in the cytoplasm of chlamydiae and was shown to be a protein synthesized early in the developmental cycle of chlamydiae. A gene library was made by the recombinant DNA technique...

  11. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M;


    .04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs of...

  12. Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.

    Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R


    To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiologic concentrations of estrogen (proliferative phase) and of estrogen plus progesterone (secretory phase), despite the finding that association of chlamydiae with secretory-phase HEGEC is significantly reduced (P = 0.025; A.S. Maslow, C.H. Davis, J. Choong, and P.B. Wyrick, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:1006-1014, 1988). In contrast, chlamydiae were rarely observed in the clathrin-associated structures if the HEGEC were cultured on plastic surfaces. The same pattern of coated pit versus noncoated pit entry was reproducible in HeLa cells. The quantity of coated pits associated with isolated membrane sheets derived from HeLa cells, grown on poly-L-lysine-coated cover slips in medium containing the female hormones, was not significantly different as monitored by radiolabeling studies and by laser scanning microscopy. These data suggest that culture conditions which mimic in vivo cellular organization may enhance entry into coated pits for some obligate intracellular pathogens. Images PMID:2744852

  13. Conversant or clueless? Chlamydia-related knowledge and practice of general practitioners in Western Australia

    Bastian Lisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A survey of Western Australia's general practitioners' (GPs' knowledge and practices relating to genital chlamydia infection was conducted in mid-2005, prior to a multi-media campaign which encouraged 15–24 year olds to seek chlamydia testing through their general practitioner (GP. The survey aimed to raise GPs' awareness of chlamydia in preparation for the campaign and to establish a baseline measure of their chlamydia-related knowledge and practices. Methods All 2038 GPs registered on the Australian Medical Publishing Company's database as practising in Western Australia were sent a survey which covered clinical features of chlamydia, investigations, treatment and public health issues; 576 (29% responded. Results Most GPs were aware of chlamydia being common in the 20–24 year old age group, but less than half were aware that it is common in 15–19 year olds. GPs missed many opportunities for chlamydia testing in patients likely to be at risk of STIs, largely because they thought the patient would be embarrassed. It is of concern that public health responsibilities in relation to chlamydia, ie notification and contact tracing, were not undertaken by all GPs. Conclusion Australia is currently piloting chlamydia screening. For this to be successful, GPs will need to maintain current knowledge and clinical suspicion about chlamydia, and be comfortable in asking and receiving information about sexual behaviours. Only then will GPs have a significant impact on curbing Australia's ever-increasing rates of chlamydia.

  14. Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis Plasmid-Encoded Open Reading Frames

    Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Lei, Lei; Shen, Li; Zhong, Guangming


    The recent success in transformation of Chlamydia trachomatis represents a major advancement in Chlamydia research. Plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar L2 organisms can be transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT. Deletion of plasmid genes coding for Pgp1 to Pgp8 in pBRCT led to the identification of Pgp1, -2, -6, and -8 as plasmid maintenance factors; Pgp4 as a transcriptional regulator of chlamydial virulence-associated gene expression; and Pgp3, -5, and...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Suvi Niemi


    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  16. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.;


    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  17. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René


    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  18. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  19. Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis by Microsphere Suspension Array▿

    Huang, Chung-Ter; Wong, Wing-Wai; Li, Lan-Hui; Chiang, Chien-Chou; Chen, Bor-Dong; Li, Shu-Ying


    The identification of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes is important for both the study of molecular epidemiology and infection control. We have developed a microsphere suspension array assay that can identify C. trachomatis genotypes rapidly and accurately and also discriminate among multiple genotypes in one clinical specimen.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika;


    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  1. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán


    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  2. Sex and sport: chlamydia screening in rural sporting clubs

    Chen Marcus Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and confidentiality of sexual health services being problematic in rural and regional areas. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of establishing a pilot chlamydia testing outreach program among 16–25 year old males and females in rural Victoria (Australia undertaken at local sporting clubs and to determine the prevalence of chlamydia and acceptability of the program in this population. Methods We aimed to recruit young people from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample, completed a brief questionnaire regarding risk taking behaviour and were then provided with condoms and health promotion materials about sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. Results A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female, 77% being sexually active. All provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire. Participation rate on recruitment nights was over 95%. Overall chlamydia prevalence in those sexually active was 5.1% (95%CI: 3.4–7.3, 7.4% in females (95%CI: 3.5–13.6 and 4.5% in males (95%CI: 2.7–6.9. Conclusion Sporting clubs represent a feasible, acceptable and innovative community based setting to screen, treat and educate young people in a rural and regional setting, especially for males.

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in domestic ruminants in Mexico, determined by an indirect ELISA and isolation of Chlamydiae

    An indirect ELISA was developed and standardized for detection of anti-Chlamydia-psittaci antibodies in domestic ruminants in Mexico. Two chlamydial antigens (Ags) were evaluated. The particulated Ag consisted of partially-purified infectious chlamydial elementary bodies. The soluble Ag was a heat-treated deoxicholate extract from L-cells infected with Chlamydia. The test standardization included the comparison of different substrates (OPD vs ABTS) and different washing solutions (1M NaC1 vs PBS), the OPD and the PBS giving higher specific absorbance (A) values. 395 sera from apparently healthy cows and 84 sera from cows that aborted were assayed with a HRP-antibovine IgG conjugate. 529 sera from apparently healthy sheep, 444 from apparently healthy goats, and 65 sera from goats experiencing an outbreak of abortions were tested with a HRP-antisheep IgG conjugate. All sera were screened with the particulated Ag, but only the sera from animals with a history of abortion and 245 sera from sheep were screened with the soluble Ag. No evidence was found to incriminate Chlamydia as a cause of abortion in the population studied, but a high prevalence of seropositive animals was found. The serological studies suggested a wide exposure of the populations assayed to Chlamydia psittaci perhaps due to the presence of animals bearing subclinical intestinal infections and shedding the organism in the feces. This hypothesis was confirmed by isolating chlamydiae in cell cultures and mice. Four (13.3%) out of 30 sheep were found infected by either procedure, 2 of them being also positive by ELISA. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Rachael Powell; Pattison, Helen M; Marriott, John F.


    Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for futu...

  5. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010

    Michelle Cretikos; Darren Mayne; Roderick Reynolds; Paula Spokes; Daniel Madeddu


    Introduction: Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods: We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from ...

  6. Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women

    Parvin Hassanzadeh; Hosein Sharifi; Abdollah Bazargani; Reza Khashei; Amir Emami; Mohammad Motamedifar


    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain r...

  7. Investigation Correlates of Chlamydia Anti-Body Testing and Hysterosalpingography among Women with Tubal Infertility

    Afolabi Korede Koledade; Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun


    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important preventable cause of infertility. In women, up to 70% of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis are asymptomatic. In the management of infertility patients, a lot of clinicians or centres do not routinely screen for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Hence all patients being investigated for infertility may potentially be at risk of tubal blockage in addition to non-tubal factor aetiology. Those with pri...

  8. External Quality Assessment Program for Chlamydia trachomatis Diagnostic Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    Land, Sally; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Gust, Anthony; Johnson, Elizabeth; Garland, Susan; Dax, Elizabeth M.


    We report the results from 57 Australian diagnostic laboratories testing two external quality assessment panels using either the Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test (R-PCR) or the Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay (A-ligase chain reaction [LCR]). Panel samples were either normal urine spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis antigen or clinical urine specimens. There was no significant difference between laboratories or between assays in detection of C. trachomatis-positive clinical sampl...

  9. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Scot P Ouellette

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Xiaoting Ni


    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  11. [Purulent keratoconjunctivitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis coinfection].

    Arvai, Mariann; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mihalik, Noémi; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Marschalkó, Márta


    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is a rare infection induced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and it usually manifests as a hyperacute purulent conjunctivitis. Ocular access of the infectious secretion during sexual intercourse is the way of transmission among adults. Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by the serovars D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis also affects the sexually active population. Authors present a case of a 33-year-old homosexual man who was treated for late latent syphilis formerly. Clinical symptoms were yellow purulent discharge for 3 weeks without any urological or upper respiratory tract symptoms. Conjunctival Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified using cultures and polymerase chain reaction; pharyngeal swab culture and polymerase chain reaction showed positive results for both pathogens. The patient was probably under influence of party drugs at the time of sexual abuse when he became infected. After parenteral and oral cephalosporin and azithromycin therapy the patient had complete recovery within three weeks. PMID:23692878

  12. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    Gold Judy; Sacks-Davis Rachel; Aitken Campbell K; Hellard Margaret E


    Abstract Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a...

  13. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, Nicola; Todisco, Gianluca; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Sparagano, Olivier; Camarda, Antonio


    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries w...

  14. Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?

    Parker Rhian M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56% or by phone (44%. Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction.

  15. Chronic respiratory disease in premature infants caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Numazaki, K; Chiba, S.; Kogawa, K; Umetsu, M; Motoya, H; Nakao, T.


    The relation between chronic respiratory disease and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in premature infants was investigated to ascertain the aetiological importance of intrauterine C trachomatis infection and chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. Serum IgM antibodies against C trachomatis were determined by enzyme linked fluorescence assay. Sections of lung tissues obtained by biopsy and at necropsy were also tested for the presence of antigens using fluorescein conjugated mon...

  16. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P;


    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By...

  17. Topological Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 Outer Membrane Protein 2

    Mygind, Per; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend


    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol, and protease digestions indicate that Omp2 has a possible two-domain structure.

  18. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend


    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  19. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: a cross-national survey

    Sfetcu, Otilia; van der Sande, Marianne A.; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, Björn; Ward, Helen; Götz, Hannelore M.; Uusküla, Anneli; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Redmond, Shelagh M.; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J.; Low, Nicola; van Bergen, Jan E.


    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) survey, and the findings were compared with those from a similar survey in 2007. Methods: Experts in the 30 EU/EEA countries were invited to respond to an online questionnaire; 28 countries responded, of which 25 participated in both the 2007 and 2012 surveys. Analyses focused on 13 indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities, whereas others may strengthen implementation and monitoring of existing activities. PMID:26498953

  20. Implementing chlamydia screening: what do women think? A systematic review of the literature

    Fairley Christopher K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences. It is universally agreed that screening for chlamydia infection should be offered to sexually active young women. We undertook a literature review to document the views, attitudes and opinions of women about being screened, tested and diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods Online databases (MEDLINE, Meditext, PsycINFO, Web of Science and reference lists searched up to August 2005. Search terms: chlamydia, attitude, attitude to health, interview, qualitative, women. Eligibility criteria: about chlamydia, included women, involved interviews/surveys/focus groups, looked at women's views/opinions/attitudes, published in English. Thematic analysis identified the main and recurrent themes emerging from the literature. We compared our thematic analysis with the Theory of Planned Behaviour to provide a model that could assist in planning chlamydia screening programs. Results From 561 identified articles, 25 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed. 22: USA, UK; 3: Holland, Sweden, Australia. Major themes identified: need for knowledge and information, choice and support; concerns about confidentiality, cost, fear, anxiety and stigma. Women are more likely to find chlamydia screening/testing acceptable if they think chlamydia is a serious, common condition which can cause infertility and if they understand that chlamydia infection can be asymptomatic. Women want a range of options for chlamydia testing including urine tests, self-administered swabs, pelvic exams and clinician-collected swabs, home-testing and community-based testing. Tests should be free, easy and quick. Women want support for dealing with the implications of a chlamydia diagnosis, they feel chlamydia diagnoses need to be normalised and destigmatised and they want assistance with partner notification. Women need to know that their confidentiality will be

  1. Subunit vaccines for the prevention of mucosal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C


    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common preventable cause of tubal infertility in women. In high-income countries, despite public health control efforts, C. trachomatis case rates continue to rise. Most medium and low-income countries lack any Chlamydia control program; therefore, a vaccine is essential for the control of Chlamydia infections. A rationally designed Chlamydia vaccine requires understanding of the immunological correlates of protective immunity, pathological responses to this mucosal pathogen, identification of optimal vaccine antigens and selection of suitable adjuvant delivery systems that engender protective immunity. Fortunately, Chlamydia vaccinology is facilitated by genomic knowledge and by murine models that reproduce many of the features of human C. trachomatis infection. This article reviews recent progress in these areas with a focus on subunit vaccine development. PMID:26938202

  2. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010

    Michelle Cretikos


    Full Text Available Introduction: Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW, Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods: We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Results: Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.93–0.96 for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00 and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.98 for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96–1.07. Discussion: It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates.

  3. Non-detection of Chlamydia species in carotid atheroma using generic primers by nested PCR in a population with a high prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody

    Bamford Kathleen B; Wyatt Dorothy E; O'Neill Hugh J; Duprex W; McCluggage W Glenn; Barros D'Sa Aires AB; Coyle Peter V; Ong Grace M; O'Loughlin Barney; McCaughey Conall


    Abstract Background The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae and other Chlamydia spp. in atheromatous carotid artery tissue. Methods Forty elective carotid endarterectomy patients were recruited (27 males, mean age 65 and 13 females mean age 68), 4 had bilateral carotid endarterectomies (n= 44 endarterectomy specimens). Control specimens were taken from macroscopically normal carotid artery adjacent to the ath...

  4. Molecular Characterization of a Bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci

    Liu, B. L.; Everson, J. S.; Fane, B.; Giannikopoulou, P.; Vretou, E.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N


    Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no...

  5. Chlamydia control in Europe - a survey of Member States

    Andersen, Berit; van Bergen, J; Ward, H; Uüskula, A; Herrmann, B; Redmond, S; Low, N; Alexander, K

    This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and coordinated by Otilia Sfetcu, Marita van de Laar and Andrew J. Amato-Gauci. Jan van Bergen and Marianne van der Sande (National Institute of Public Health (RIVM) and STI/AIDS Foundation, the......), contributed to the design and interpretation of the survey, commented on the draft report and approved the final report. Shelagh Redmond (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) provided technical support. Nicola Low (University of Bern) led the Chlamydia Control in...

  6. Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women

    Parvin Hassanzadeh


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women referred to a teaching hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were obtained from 210 pregnant women and investigated microscopically and macroscopically by urinalysis. Precipitants were also used for DNA extraction and PCR test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. Among 210 urine specimens from women aged 15-39 years, none were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR. In spite of the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR, and the elimination of inhibitory effects on PCR test, no pregnant woman was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. Here, we suggest that a larger sample should be studied and other sensitive methods could also be used in the future.

  7. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Kamel RM


    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  8. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Brandie D Taylor


    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  9. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B;


    %) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary...... prevention activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control...... activities, whereas others may strengthen implementation and monitoring of existing activities....

  10. Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care

    Bilardi Jade E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care. Methods As part of a larger prospective, cross-sectional study of pregnant women aged 16-25 years attending antenatal services across Melbourne, Australia, 100 women were invited to participate in a face-to-face, semi structured interview on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia during pregnancy. Women infected with chlamydia were oversampled (n = 31. Results Women had low levels of awareness of chlamydia before the test, retained relatively little knowledge after the test and commonly had misconceptions around chlamydia transmission, testing and sequelae. Women indicated a high level of acceptance and support for chlamydia screening, expressing their willingness to undertake whatever care was necessary to ensure the health of their baby. There was a strong preference for urine testing over other methods of specimen collection. Women questioned why testing was not already conducted alongside other antenatal STI screening tests, particularly in view of the risks chlamydia poses to the baby. Women who tested positive for chlamydia had mixed reactions, however, most felt relief and gratitude at having had chlamydia detected and reported high levels of partner support. Conclusions Chlamydia screening as part of routine antenatal care was considered highly acceptable among young pregnant women who recognized the benefits of screening and strongly supported its implementation as part of routine antenatal care. The acceptability of screening is important to the uptake of chlamydia screening in future antenatal screening

  11. Secretion of Cpn0796 from Chlamydia pneumoniae into the host cell cytoplasm by an autotransporter mechanism

    Vandahl, Brian B S; Stensballe, Allan; Roepstorff, Peter;


    infected cells, whereas only the 65 kDa full-length Cpn0796 could be detected in purified Chlamydia. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Cpn0796 was localized in the Chlamydia membrane in young inclusions. However, at 36 h post infection and later Cpn0796 was detected in the cytoplasm...... of C. pneumoniae infected HEp-2 and BHK cells. Furthermore, Cpn0796 was detected in the cytoplasm of infected cells in the lungs of C. pneumoniae infected C57Bl mice. When cleavage was inhibited, Cpn0796 was retained in the chlamydiae. We propose that Cpn0796 is an autotransporter the N-terminal of...... which is translocated to the host cell cytoplasm. This is the first example of secretion of a Chlamydia autotransporter passenger domain into the host cell cytoplasm. Cpn0796 is specific for C. pneumoniae, where five homologous proteins are encoded by clustered genes. None of these five proteins were...

  12. Power of Knowledge: Effect of Two Educational Interventions on Readiness for Chlamydia Screening.

    Sagor, Rachel S; Golding, Jeremy; Giorgio, Margaret M; Blake, Diane R


    We compared (a) the effectiveness of print versus digital educational media for communicating information about Chlamydia trachomatis to adolescents and young adults and (b) the influence of media type on readiness for Chlamydia screening. Young men and women (n = 103), aged 15 to 24 years, were recruited from a youth center and university campus and randomized to receive the print or digital Chlamydia educational intervention. Participant mean knowledge score improved postintervention, but there was no association with type of intervention medium. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of sexually active participants endorsed an increased postintervention stage of readiness for screening; however, there was no association with type of intervention medium. Learning about Chlamydia infection may have positive effects on willingness to be screened. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of educational interventions for increasing actual screening rates. PMID:26350429

  13. Molecular Mechanism of Tryptophan-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming


    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for normal development in Chlamydia species, and tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in chlamydial persistence and tissue tropism. The ability to synthesize tryptophan is not universal among the Chlamydiaceae, but species that have a predicted tryptophan biosynthetic pathway also encode an ortholog of TrpR, a regulator of tryptophan metabolism in many gram-negative bacteria. We show that in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D, TrpR regu...

  14. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Kamel RM


    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...

  15. Molecular mechanism of tryptophan-dependent transcriptional regulation in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming


    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for normal development in Chlamydia species, and tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in chlamydial persistence and tissue tropism. The ability to synthesize tryptophan is not universal among the Chlamydiaceae, but species that have a predicted tryptophan biosynthetic pathway also encode an ortholog of TrpR, a regulator of tryptophan metabolism in many gram-negative bacteria. We show that in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D, TrpR regu...

  16. Why don’t young women go for Chlamydia testing? A qualitative study employing Goffman’s stigma framework

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; McGee, Hannah; O' Donovan, Diarmuid; Vaughan, Deirdre


    Many women who might be at risk of having the sexually transmitted infection(STI) Chlamydia trachomatis either delay going, or do not go, for testing. Weaimed to examine the factors that either prevent or discourage Irish young women from going for Chlamydia testing. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women in the Republic of Ireland who were between 18 and 29 years of age. Accounts were analysed using Goffman’s stigma framework. Study respondents strongly associated Chlamydia and Chlam...

  17. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes.

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E; Soderberg, L S


    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae (agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis), belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except t...

  18. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections: proposal of a cost-effective approach

    Gino Ciarrocchi


    Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.

  19. Rab6 and Rab11 regulate Chlamydia trachomatis development and golgin-84-dependent Golgi fragmentation.

    Anette Rejman Lipinski


    Full Text Available Many intracellular pathogens that replicate in special membrane bound compartments exploit cellular trafficking pathways by targeting small GTPases, including Rab proteins. Members of the Chlamydiaceae recruit a subset of Rab proteins to their inclusions, but the significance of these interactions is uncertain. Using RNA interference, we identified Rab6 and Rab11 as important regulators of Chlamydia infections. Depletion of either Rab6 or Rab11, but not the other Rab proteins tested, decreased the formation of infectious particles. We further examined the interplay between these Rab proteins and the Golgi matrix components golgin-84 and p115 with regard to Chlamydia-induced Golgi fragmentation. Silencing of the Rab proteins blocked Chlamydia-induced and golgin-84 knockdown-stimulated Golgi disruption, whereas Golgi fragmentation was unaffected in p115 depleted cells. Interestingly, p115-induced Golgi fragmentation could rescue Chlamydia propagation in Rab6 and Rab11 knockdown cells. Furthermore, transport of nutrients to Chlamydia, as monitored by BODIPY-Ceramide, was inhibited by Rab6 and Rab11 knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Rab6 and Rab11 are key regulators of Golgi stability and further support the notion that Chlamydia subverts Golgi structure to enhance its intracellular development.

  20. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Lewis Dyani


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  1. Developing a realistic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission in Britain

    Mercer Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A national chlamydia screening programme is currently being rolled out in the UK and other countries. However, much of the epidemiology remains poorly understood. In this paper we present a stochastic, individual based, dynamic sexual network model of chlamydia transmission and its parameterisation. Mathematical models provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key epidemiological features of chlamydia: sexual behaviour, health care seeking and transmission dynamics. Results The model parameters were estimated either directly or by systematic fitting to a variety of appropriate data sources. The fitted model was representative of sexual behaviour, chlamydia epidemiology and health care use in England. We were able to recapture the observed age distribution of chlamydia prevalence. Conclusion Estimating parameters for models of sexual behaviour and transmission of chlamydia is complex. Most of the parameter values are highly correlated, highly variable and there is little empirical evidence to inform estimates. We used a novel approach to estimate the rate of active treatment seeking, by combining data sources, which improved the credibility of the model results. The model structure is flexible and is broadly applicable to other developed world settings and provides a practical tool for public health decision makers.

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Identification of bacterial DNA in the arterial wall

    Coutinho Mário Sérgio Soares de Azeredo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with atherosclerosis. The presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae has been investigated in fragments of the arterial wall with a technique for DNA identification. METHODS: Arterial fragments obtained from vascular surgical procedures in 58 patients were analyzed. From these patients, 39 were males and the mean age was 65±6 years. The polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the bacterial DNA with a pair of primers that codify the major outer membrane protein (MOMP of Chlamydia pneumoniae. The amplified product was visualized by electrophoresis in the 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide, and it was considered positive when migrating in the band of molecular weight of the positive controls. RESULTS: Seven (12% out of the 58 patients showed positive results for Chlamydia pneumoniae. CONCLUSION: DNA from Chlamydia pneumoniae was identified in the arterial wall of a substantial number of patients with atherosclerosis. This association, which has already been described in other countries, corroborates the evidence favoring a role played by Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherogenesis.

  3. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Sebastian Faro


    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  4. Relation between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection and coronary heart disease (CHD). CP-specific IgG antibodies were determined in 150 cases of CHD, and 50 healthy control subjects by using enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay (ELISA). Besides, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), D-dimer and fibrin degradation products(FDP) were also measured. In CHD cases the seropositivity rate for CP was 72 %, and that for hs-CRP was 73 %. The results of determination of D-dimer and the FDP showed that there was significant difference between the CP-positive group and the CP-negative group(P<0.05). Therefore, certain relation between CP infection and development of CHD might exist. (authors)

  5. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen;


    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the...... significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web...... overlap between sexual partners; OR = 3.1(95% CI:1.7-5.8) - 2 overlaps between sexual partners; OR = 4.3(95% CI:1.6-13.3) - 3 overlaps between sexual partners; OR = 4.7(95% CI:1.0-43.3) Results are preliminary. Multivariate analyses will be performed and presented at the poster session. Conclusion...

  6. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    Gold Judy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Results Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35% opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21% returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence. Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. Conclusions A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection.

  7. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J


    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  8. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Philip A. Chan


    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  9. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); L. Habbema; E. Stolz (Ernst); J.H. Wagenvoort


    textabstractThe Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital spec

  10. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Ford-Young William


    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  11. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  12. Genital forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos abortsøgende--korrelerer med ung alder og nulliparitet, men ikke tidligere underlivsbetoendelse

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E


    Out of 432 women applying for termination of pregnancy, 7.9% (34/428) had cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and 0.7% (3/431) genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 19.2% among the women applying for termination who were under 20 years and 12.8% among those aged 21-25 years. The...

  13. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E


    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  15. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F


    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  16. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;


    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks gestation) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included infertility treatment, subfertility and ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) and...... odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  18. Structure of CT584 from Chlamydia trachomatis refined to 3.05 Å resolution

    The crystal structure of CT584 from C. trachomatis is presented at 3.05 Å resolution. Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of various diseases, including blinding trachoma and pelvic inflammatory disease, and is the leading reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide. All pathogenic Chlamydiae spp. utilize a supramolecular syringe, or type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject proteins into their obligate host in order to propagate infection. Here, the structure of CT584, a T3SS-associated protein, that has been refined to a resolution of 3.05 Å is reported. The CT584 structure is a hexamer comprised of a trimer of dimers. The structure shares a high degree of similarity to the recently reported structure of an orthologous protein, Cpn0803, from Chlamydia pneumoniae, which highlights the highly conserved nature of this protein across these chlamydial species, despite different tissue tropism and disease pathology

  19. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A


    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans. PMID:21761223

  20. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P


    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported. PMID:25704292

  1. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Abebayehu N. Yilma


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces replication of latent HHV-6.

    Bhupesh K Prusty

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6. We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection.

  3. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and occurrence of bronchial asthma

    SHI Yi; ZHENG Wen; XIA Xi-rong; ZHANG Xi-long; TONG Mao-rong; FENG Gen-bao; ZHAO Bei-lei; HU Lan-ping


    Objective: To study the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. Pneumoniae) infection and asthma exacerbation. Methods: A prospective study of C. Pneumoniae infection was conducted in 75 patients with asthma and 63 patients with respiratory tract infection, and 100 blood donors served as controls.The presence of infection was convinced by the polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence assay for C. Pneumoniae DNA from throat swab specimens and micro-immunofluorescence testing for C. Pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Results: Prevalence of specific IgG in asthma patients (81.3%) was higher than that of the blood donors (68. 0%, P<0. 05) and was not significantly different from respiratory tract infection patients (68. 0%, P>0. 05). The acute C. Pneumoniae infection rate of symptomatic asthma patients (59.4%) was markedly higher than that of respiratory tract infection patients (34.9%, P<0. 05). The average titer of C. Pneumoniae IgG instead of IgA in asthma patients (48. 38±6. 94)was significantly higher than respiratory tract infection patients (24. 70±8. 77, P<0. 05). Other pathogens were identified in 12 of 21 (57. 1%) asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae. The symptoms of 7 asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae infection were improved through antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible role of C. Pneumoniae infection in asthma.

  4. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong


    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  5. Prevalência de anticorpos para chlamydia trachomatis em grupos populacionais do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak


    Full Text Available A prevalência de anticorpos IgG, grupo-específico para Chlamydia, em populações do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal foi determinada através do teste de imunofluorescência indireta, tendo-se como antígeno a cepa SA2 (f. Foram considerados positivos os soros com títulos de IgG >1:32. Dentre as populações brasileiras, a prevalência de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi maior em Serra Norte (76,2%, p < 0,01 do que nas das populações de Belém (53,6% e dos Índios Xicrins (51,3%. Entre os pacientes do Departamento de Medicina Genito-Urinária do University College Hospital (UCH e do quadro do mesmo Hospital, a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foi de 62% e 53,1%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foram detectados em 54% e 66% na Inglaterra e em 56% e 68% em Portugal, nas pacientes do sexo feminino que freqüentavam Clínicas de Pré-Natal e de Infertilidade, respectivamente, Os resultados encontrados mostram uma alta exposição das populações testadas, à Chlamydia, principalmente do grupo de baixo nível sócio-econômico de Serra Norte, Brasil. A evidência de infecção por Chlamydia é da mesma ordem, tanto no Brasil, quanto na Inglaterra e Portugal.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis: Aspectos microbiológicos, clínicos y epidemiológicos.

    Matta, Salim; Arango, Álvaro I.; Visbal, Jorge


    Se presenta una revisión completa de los principales aspectos microbiológicos, clínicos y epidemiológicos de Chlamydia trachomatis. Se hace énfasis en los mecanismos particulares de invasividad, tipo de receptores, aspectos epidemiológicos y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad entre otros. Se abordan las patologías que ocasiona Chlamydia trachomatis separando las infecciones en el hombre, mujer y niños. También se realiza una actualización sobre los diferentes métodos de diagnóstico d...

  7. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.


    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-γ both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks ...

  8. Pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection after therapeutic abortion. A prospective study.

    Qvigstad, E; Skaug, K; Jerve, F; Fylling, P; Ulstrup, J C


    Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from the cervix of 70 of 557 (12.6%) patients admitted for therapeutic abortion. Postoperatively, 22 (3.9%) developed acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); of these women, 14 (63.6%) had harboured C trachomatis in the cervix before the abortion. Thus of 70 patients with chlamydial infection, 14 (20%) developed PID postoperatively. Of the chlamydia-positive patients, six of the 15 (40%) aged less than 20 years and eight of the 53 (15%) patients aged 20-30 ...

  9. Determination Of Frequency Rate Of Chlamydia Pneumonia Infection In Two Groups Of Patients With And Without AMI

    Moghaddam M


    Full Text Available Background: ‏Today, coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death and morbidity in the world and recognition of all aspects of this problem appears to be necessary and important. In recent years in addition to traditional coronary risk factors, other new risk factors are presented that can affect coronary arteries and accelerate atherosclerosis process. One of the most important of these, are infections, specially with Chlamydia pneumonia. We aimed to study this possibility that is whether correlation between infection with Chlamydia pneumonia and Acute Myocardial Infarction. (AMI. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive case-control study which evaluates frequency of infection with Chlamydia pneumonia in the 100 patients with AMI and 105 patients without any history or evidence of CAD admitted in sections of CCU and surgery, in Dr. SHARIATI and SINA hospitals in 2001. For this purpose we took 5ml blood sample from all of the patients, and tested for specific anti Chlamydia pneumonia antibodies (IgG & IgM by ELISA method. Results: Our study showed that 38 percent of control group patients and 54 percent of patients with AMI had positive titer of anti Chlamydia pneumonia antibody and so they were infected with Chlamydia pneumonia {OR= 1.9 (95% CI: 1.34 to 2.46} (P< 0/001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, there is significant correlation between infection with Chlamydia pneumonia and occurrence of AMI so treatment of this infection could be of profit.

  10. Immunohistological detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's disease brain

    Appelt Denah M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD appears to evolve from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. One environmental factor that continues to be of great interest is that of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and its association with late-onset disease. Detection of this organism in clinical and autopsy samples has proved challenging using a variety of molecular and histological techniques. Our current investigation utilized immunohistochemistry with a battery of commercially available anti-C. pneumoniae antibodies to determine whether C. pneumoniae was present in areas typically associated with AD neuropathology from 5 AD and 5 non-AD control brains. Results Immunoreactivity for C. pneumoniae antigens was observed both intracellularly in neurons, neuroglia, endothelial cells, and peri-endothelial cells, and extracellularly in the frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain with multiple C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies. This immunoreactivity was seen in regions of amyloid deposition as revealed by immunolabeling with two different anti-beta amyloid antibodies. Thioflavin S staining, overlaid with C. pneumoniae immunolabeling, demonstrated no direct co-localization of the organism and amyloid plaques. Further, the specificity of C. pneumoniae labeling of AD brain sections was demonstrated using C. pneumoniae antibodies pre-absorbed against amyloid β 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Conclusions Anti-C. pneumoniae antibodies, obtained commercially, identified both typical intracellular and atypical extracellular C. pneumoniae antigens in frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain. C. pneumoniae, amyloid deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles were present in the same regions of the brain in apposition to one another. Although additional studies are required to conclusively characterize the nature of Chlamydial immunoreactivity in the AD brain, these results further implicate C. pneumoniae infection with the

  11. Non-detection of Chlamydia species in carotid atheroma using generic primers by nested PCR in a population with a high prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody

    Bamford Kathleen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae and other Chlamydia spp. in atheromatous carotid artery tissue. Methods Forty elective carotid endarterectomy patients were recruited (27 males, mean age 65 and 13 females mean age 68, 4 had bilateral carotid endarterectomies (n= 44 endarterectomy specimens. Control specimens were taken from macroscopically normal carotid artery adjacent to the atheromatous lesions (internal controls, except in 8 cases where normal carotid arteries from post mortem (external controls were used. Three case-control pairs were excluded when the HLA DRB gene failed to amplify from the DNA. Genus specific primers to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP gene were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR in 41 atheromatous carotid specimens and paired controls. PCR inhibition was monitored by spiking with target C. trachomatis. Atheroma severity was graded histologically. Plasma samples were tested by microimmunofluorescence (MIF for antibodies to C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci and the corresponding white cells were tested for Chlamydia spp. by nPCR. Results C. pneumoniae was not detected in any carotid specimen. Twenty-five of 38 (66% plasma specimens were positive for C. pneumoniae IgG, 2/38 (5% for C. trachomatis IgG and 1/38 (3% for C. psittaci IgG. Conclusions We were unable to show an association between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and atheroma in carotid arteries in the presence of a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae antibodies in Northern Ireland.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis in the United Kingdom: a systematic review and analysis of prevalence studies

    Adams, E; Charlett, A; Edmunds, W; Hughes, G


    Objectives: To undertake a systematic review to obtain estimates of genital Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in various populations in the United Kingdom and Ireland; to determine which populations have the highest rates of infection; and to explore the most important determinants of infection.

  13. Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection by Real-Time PCR

    Kuoppa, Yvonne; Boman, Jens; Scott, Lena; Kumlin, Urban; Eriksson, Iréne; Allard, Annika


    Real-time PCR was evaluated as a quantitative diagnostic method for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection using different respiratory samples. Real-time PCR had efficiency equal to or better than that of nested touchdown PCR. This study confirmed sputum as the best sampling material to detect an ongoing C. pneumoniae infection.

  14. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna; Koskela, P.; Lehtinen, M.; Paavonen, J.; Surcel, H.-M.


    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces an inflammatory response that is crucial in resolving acute infection but may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis associated infertility. The immune response is linked to cytokine secretion pattern which is influenced by the host genet...

  15. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.


    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  16. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, B; Holm, A; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna


    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...

  17. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Christopher C. Thompson


    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  18. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;


    after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...... insemination before the inoculation takes place. Udgivelsesdato: 1991...

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ;


    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...

  20. In vitro activities of temafloxacin (A-62254) and four other antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Segreti, J; Kessler, H A; Kapell, K S; Trenholme, G M


    The in vitro activity of temafloxacin (A-62254), a new quinolone antibiotic, against 13 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis was determined and compared with those of doxycycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and difloxacin. Temafloxacin and difloxacin were the most active quinolones tested, with bactericidal activity comparable to that of doxycycline.

  1. Detecting Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence using a Cytobrush sampling technique.

    Ciotti, R A; Sondheimer, S J; Nachamkin, I


    We compared two different methods of collecting endocervical samples for examination by direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis. A cervical Cytobrush gave better results than a dacron swab. Further studies should be performed to assess the value of alternative sampling methods to detect this organism.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia.

    Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S.A.; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Brule, van den AJ


    OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, a

  3. Identification of human T cell targets recognized during Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Follmann, Frank; Højrup, Peter; Leah, Robert; Sand, Carsten; Andersen, Peter; Theisen, Michael


    The specificity of the human T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated by stimulating lymphocytes from 16 case patients with urogenital infection by use of a size-fractionated serovar D lysate. Considerable heterogeneity was found among case patients, and multiple protein fraction...

  4. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.


    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.


    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C. trachomati

  6. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Rachael Powell


    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  7. Analysis of proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex, COMC

    Birkelund, Svend; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Timmerman, Evy; Gevaert, Kris; Shaw, Allan C; Christiansen, Gunna


    The protein composition and N-terminal sequences of proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 were analysed following isolation of N-terminal peptides using combined fractional diagonal chromatography and identification by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Acetylation of primary a...

  8. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna


    The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...

  9. Ultrastructural study of Chlamydia trachomatis surface antigens by immunogold staining with monoclonal antibodies.

    Kuo, C C; Chi, E Y


    Surface antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis were studied by immunogold staining with monoclonal antibodies and by electron microscopy. The serovar- and subspecies-specific epitopes were the most surface accessible. The species- and genus-specific epitopes were the least surface exposed. Similar serological specificity as that in the microimmunofluorescence test was demonstrated by immunogold staining.

  10. Molecular biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae surface proteins and their role in immunopathogenicity

    Christiansen, Gunna; Boesen, Thomas; Hjernø, Karin;


    BACKGROUND: The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with the development of atherosclerosis is based on serology and on detection of C pneumoniae-specific DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the atheromas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because the humoral immune response frequently recognizes epitopes pre...

  11. Effect of Interferon and Interferon Inducers on Infections with a Nonviral Intracellular Microorganism, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Kazar, J; Gillmore, J D; Gordon, F B


    The effect of mouse interferon (IF) on the multiplication of Chlamydia trachomatis (strain MRC-1/G) in homologous (L-929) cell cultures and the effect of the IF inducers Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid complex (poly I:C) on the experimental infection of mice with aerosolized C. trachomatis (strain MoPn) were investigated. Treatment of infected cell cultures with IF reduced the number of cells containing chlamydial inclusions and depressed the yield of chlamydiae as determined by titrations for infectivity. Growth of chlamydiae was reduced when cultures were exposed to IF 6 or 18 hr before infection, and slight reduction of the yield was also detectable in cell cultures treated with IF at early intervals (0 or 4 hr) after chlamydial infection. No effect of IF on penetration of chlamydiae into mouse cells was observed, whether phagocytic cells from peritoneal washings or L-929 cells were used, indicating that the inhibitory effect of IF occurs after chlamydiae enter the host cell. Additional evidence was obtained that a significant effect of IF occurs at an early stage in maturation of the intracellular chlamydiae. In mice exposed repeatedly to NDV aerosols and challenged with aerosolized MoPn 8 hr after the first exposure to NDV, mortality was delayed by 2 to 3 days and lung consolidation was slightly reduced at 3 days after infection. Yields of chlamydiae from lung pools of NDV-treated mice, taken at 3, 6, and 9 days after challenge, were not significantly different from those of controls. Similar results were obtained when mice were challenged with MoPn 8 hr after intranasal injection with 100 mug of poly I:C or 24 hr after intravenous injection with 200 mug of poly I:C. In contrast, administration of 0.2 ml of NDV (10(8.3) plaque-forming units) intravenously 10 hr before or 24 hr after challenge with MoPn accelerated mortality of mice by 2 to 3 days. In all experiments, detectable levels of IF in sera or 20% lung

  12. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    Scot P Ouellette


    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  13. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna;


    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  14. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Chlamydia psittaci Genomes Reveals the Recent Emergence of a Pathogenic Lineage with a Broad Host Range

    Read, Timothy D.; Joseph, Sandeep J; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah


    ABSTRACT Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the findin...

  16. Pilot Study of COBAS PCR and Ligase Chain Reaction for Detection of Rectal Infections Due to Chlamydia trachomatis

    Matthew R Golden; Astete, Sabina G.; Galvan, Rosa; Lucchetti, Aldo; Sanchez, Jorge; Celum, Connie L.; Whittington, William L. H.; Stamm, Walter E.; Holmes, King K.; Totten, Patricia A.


    We tested rectal specimens from men who have sex with men for Chlamydia trachomatis by using COBAS PCR (Roche Diagnostics) and ligase chain reaction LCR (Abbott laboratories) and compared three PCR specimen-processing procedures. Chlamydiae were detected by one or more procedures in 22 of 186 specimens. All three PCR tests were positive for 17 specimens, all of which also tested positive by LCR.

  17. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

    O'Brien Karen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Norrild, Bodil; van den Brule, Adriaan; Iftner, Thomas; Kjær, Susanne K

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...

  19. Disulfide-mediated interactions of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein: role in the differentiation of chlamydiae?

    Hackstadt, T; Todd, W J; Caldwell, H D


    The effects of exogenous reducing agents on a number of biological properties of purified Chlamydia trachomatis LGV-434 and Chlamydia psittaci meningopneumonitis elementary bodies (EBs) have been examined in an attempt to identify in vitro correlates of early events in the differentiation of the infectious EB to the replicative cell type, the reticulate body (RB). Treatment of EBs with dithiothreitol elicited a number of changes normally associated with differentiation to the RB. EBs in the p...

  20. Isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis That Occupy Nonfusogenic Inclusions Lack IncA, a Protein Localized to the Inclusion Membrane

    Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.; Bannantine, John P.; Stamm, Walter E.


    The chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that occupy a nonacidified vacuole, termed an inclusion, throughout their developmenal cycle. When an epithelial cell is infected with multiple Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies, they are internalized by endocytosis into individual phagosomal vacuoles that eventually fuse to form a single inclusion. In the course of large-scale serotyping studies in which fluorescent antibody staining of infected cells was used, a minority of strains t...

  1. Two Coiled-Coil Domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Affect Membrane Fusion Events during Infection

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne


    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-me...

  2. Lowering the cut off value of an automated chlamydia enzyme immunoassay and confirmation by PCR and direct immunofluorescent antibody test.

    Tong, C Y; Donnelly, C; Hood, N


    AIMS: To increase the sensitivity of an automated chlamydia enzyme immunoassay by significantly lowering its cut off value, and to maintain specificity by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA). METHODS: Over five months, the cut off value of the enzyme immunoassay used to screen urogenital samples for chlamydia antigen was reduced from 80 to 10. Samples with a test value of 10 or above were further tested with a commercial PCR assay...

  3. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts

    R. L. Powell; Pattison, H M; J. Francis


    Chlamydia is a common sexually-transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two ...

  4. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia


    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...

  5. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    F Ghalmbor


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  6. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    Hart Graham J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  7. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis co-detection in young asymptomatic women from high incidence area for cervical cancer.

    Bellaminutti, Serena; Seraceni, Silva; De Seta, Francesco; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Comar, Manola


    Chlamydia trachomatis causing chronic inflammatory diseases has investigated as possible human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactor in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in different cohorts of asymptomatic women from a Northern Italy area at high incidence for cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 441 females were collected from Cervical Cancer Screening Program, Sexually Transmitted Infectious and Assisted Reproductive Technology centres. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected simultaneously and genotyped using a highly sensitive bead based assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was estimated 9.7%, in contrast with the reported national data of 2.3%, and co-infection with HPV was diagnosed in the 17% of the samples. In females ≤ 25 years of age, the infection reached a peak of 22% and co-infection with HPV of 45.8% (P technique exhibited higher analytical sensitivity than the referred assays for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in asymptomatic females, leading to reduction of the potential to identify incorrectly the infection status. An active screening for timely treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is suggested in young females to evaluate a possible decrease in incidence of pre-cancer intraepithelial lesions. PMID:25132162

  8. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA methods

    Owens Chantelle J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p 300 cases per 100,000 residents than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379. The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time.

  9. Chlamydiae has contributed at least 55 genes to Plantae with predominantly plastid functions.

    Ahmed Moustafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The photosynthetic organelle (plastid originated via primary endosymbiosis in which a phagotrophic protist captured and harnessed a cyanobacterium. The plastid was inherited by the common ancestor of the red, green (including land plants, and glaucophyte algae (together, the Plantae. Despite the critical importance of primary plastid endosymbiosis, its ancient derivation has left behind very few "footprints" of early key events in organelle genesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into this process, we conducted an in-depth phylogenomic analysis of genomic data (nuclear proteins from 17 Plantae species to identify genes of a surprising provenance in these taxa, Chlamydiae bacteria. Previous studies show that Chlamydiae contributed many genes (at least 21 in one study to Plantae that primarily have plastid functions and were postulated to have played a fundamental role in organelle evolution. Using our comprehensive approach, we identify at least 55 Chlamydiae-derived genes in algae and plants, of which 67% (37/55 are putatively plastid targeted and at least 3 have mitochondrial functions. The remainder of the proteins does not contain a bioinformatically predicted organelle import signal although one has an N-terminal extension in comparison to the Chlamydiae homolog. Our data suggest that environmental Chlamydiae were significant contributors to early Plantae genomes that extend beyond plastid metabolism. The chlamydial gene distribution and protein tree topologies provide evidence for both endosymbiotic gene transfer and a horizontal gene transfer ratchet driven by recurrent endoparasitism as explanations for gene origin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source. These data significantly extend the genomic impact of Chlamydiae on Plantae and show that about one-half (30/55 of the

  10. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva Infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in Cuban women at reproductive age

    Maydelín Frontela Noda; Yoima Rodríguez Marín; Olga Lidia Verdejas Varela; Fabián J. Valdés Martínez


    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia y los factores asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres cubanas en edad reproductiva. Se realizó un estudio transversal en mujeres que asistieron a consultas de ginecología, infertilidad y terminación del embarazo en Ciudad de La Habana. Se obtuvieron muestras de exudado endocervical de 224 mujeres, mediante la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Adicionalmente se aplicó un cuestionario sobre a...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infections: When Host Immune Response and the Microbiome Collide.

    Ziklo, Noa; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Hocking, Jane S; Timms, Peter


    Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis continue to be a major health problem worldwide. While some individuals clear their infection (presumed to be the result of an effective Th1/interferon-γ response), others develop chronic infections and some are prone to repeat infections. In females in particular, chronic asymptomatic infections are common and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Recent studies suggest that the genital tract microbiota could be a significant factor and explain person-to-person variation in C. trachomatis infections. One hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis can use its trpBA genes to rescue tryptophan from indole, which is a product of anaerobic members of the genital tract microbiota. Women with particular microbiota types, such as seen in bacterial vaginosis, have increased numbers of anaerobes, and this would enable the chlamydia in these individuals to overcome the host's interferon-γ attempts to eliminate it, resulting in more repeat and/or chronic infections. PMID:27320172

  12. Screening for Chlamydia is acceptable and feasible during Cervical Screening in General Practice.

    Hassan, S J; Dunphy, E; Navin, E; Marron, L; Fitzsimmons, C; Loy, A; O'Shea, B


    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) & Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are rising in Ireland. Both are often undiagnosed and may cause infertility amongst other complications. CT/NG screening is not routinely offered during cervical cancer screening. This study aimed to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of screening for CT/NG at time of smear and to measure the diagnostic yield. Screening was offered to women aged 25-40 years attending four participating general practices as part of Cervical Check. A retrospective review of the three months preceding the study period, indicated that out of 138 smears, CT/NG testing was performed in 10 (7%) of cases. 236 (93%) patients consented to screening for CT/NG. The detection rate for Chlamydia was 6 (2.4%), with no positive results for NG. Feedback from patients was positive. Interestingly, 42 (18%) of participants who completed the questionnaire believed STI screening was already part of the routine smear. PMID:26904785

  13. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated to inflammation and rupture of the atherosclerotic coronary plaques].

    Ramires, José Antonio F; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes


    In this review we report recent findings of our lab showing that Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are present in higher amount, associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling, in thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS) of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. CD8T cell was the predominant lymphocytes in the plaque and CD24(B) cell in the adventitia. The mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque. Vulnerable plaques were usually associated with focal positive vessel remodeling and large lipidic atheromas. Mycoplasma is the only bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation. We hypothesized that the association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae increases virulence of both bacteria, inducing inflammation and rupture of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pylori resulted negative. PMID:15626350

  14. Histone methylation by NUE, a novel nuclear effector of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Meghan E Pennini

    Full Text Available Sequence analysis of the genome of the strict intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis revealed the presence of a SET domain containing protein, proteins that primarily function as histone methyltransferases. In these studies, we demonstrated secretion of this protein via a type III secretion mechanism. During infection, the protein is translocated to the host cell nucleus and associates with chromatin. We therefore named the protein nuclear effector (NUE. Expression of NUE in mammalian cells by transfection reconstituted nuclear targeting and chromatin association. In vitro methylation assays confirmed NUE is a histone methyltransferase that targets histones H2B, H3 and H4 and itself (automethylation. Mutants deficient in automethylation demonstrated diminished activity towards histones suggesting automethylation functions to enhance enzymatic activity. Thus, NUE is secreted by Chlamydia, translocates to the host cell nucleus and has enzymatic activity towards eukaryotic substrates. This work is the first description of a bacterial effector that directly targets mammalian histones.

  15. Necesidad de un programa de tamizaje para chlamydia trachomatis para Colombia

    Camacho Calixto, Ángela María


    En el mundo, la infección Chlamydia trachomatis es la infección bacteriana de transmisión sexual más común. En la mayoría de los casos la infección es asintomática, lo que hace difícil su detección. Este microorganismo puede colonizar el tracto genital superior, causando inflamación y cicatrización en estos órganos tanto en mujeres como en hombres. La intervención actual para la detección y tratamiento de la Chlamydia trachomatis en el mundo no es generalizada, en cambio de esto encontram...

  16. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulphation in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.

    Fadel, Sanaa; Eley, Adrian


    Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulphate, have been shown to be essential for the infectivity of many organisms. The aims of this study were to verify the role of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in chlamydial infection and to investigate whether they are present on chlamydia or chlamydial host cells. The effect of undersulphation of host cells and chlamydial elementary bodies was examined using sodium chlorate. Also studied was whether any inhibitory effect was reversible. The results strongly suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis does not produce heparan sulphate and that heparan sulphate of the host cell is necessary and sufficient to mediate chlamydial infection. The essential role played by the sulphate constituents of the host-cell glycosaminoglycan in the infectivity of LGV serovars, and to a lesser extent of serovar E, was also confirmed. PMID:14729927

  17. Atypical Response Regulator ChxR from Chlamydia trachomatis Is Structurally Poised for DNA Binding

    Barta, Michael L.; Hickey, John M.; Anbanandam, Asokan; Dyer, Kevin; Hammel, Michal; Hefty, P. Scott


    ChxR is an atypical two-component signal transduction response regulator (RR) of the OmpR/PhoB subfamily encoded by the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Despite structural homology within both receiver and effector domains to prototypical subfamily members, ChxR does not require phosphorylation for dimer formation, DNA binding or transcriptional activation. Thus, we hypothesized that ChxR is in a conformation optimal for DNA binding with limited interdomain int...

  18. Evidence that the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is glycosylated.

    Swanson, A F; Kuo, C. C.


    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis was determined to be a glycoprotein on the basis of susceptibility to glycosidase digestion and the presence of carbohydrate by staining and radiolabeling. The MOMP of the serovar L2 organisms was isolated by electroelution from the protein band excised from the gel after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The incubation of MOMP with N-glycosidase F, an endoglycosidase that cleaves the N-glycan...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of universal screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in US jails

    Kraut-Becher, Julie R.; Gift, Thomas L.; Haddix, Anne C.; Irwin, Kathleen L.; Greifinger, Robert B.


    Universal screening for the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of chlamydia and gonorrhea on intake in jails has been proposed as the most effective strategy to decrease morbidity in inmates and to reduce transmission risk in communities after release. Most inmates come from a population that is at elevated risk for STDs and has limited access to health care. However, limited resources and competing priorities force decision makers to consider the cost of screening programs in comparison to...

  20. Murine granulated metrial gland cells are susceptible to Chlamydia psittaci infection in vivo.

    Sánchez, J.; Buendía, A.J.; Salinas, J.; Bernabé, A.; Rodolakis, A; Stewart, I J


    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are the most numerous lymphoid cells in the uteroplacental unit in rodent pregnancy. In an experimental murine model of abortion-causing infection, we have studied the responses of GMG cells to Chlamydia psittaci. Chlamydial inclusions have been found within GMG cells, both in apparently healthy cells and in cells with degenerative changes. Establishing the existence of GMG cells infected by C. psittaci opens a new and interesting chapter in the study of t...

  1. Sulfated polyanions block Chlamydia trachomatis infection of cervix-derived human epithelia.

    Zaretzky, F R; Pearce-Pratt, R; Phillips, D M


    Using a cell line derived from the human cervix and a rapid fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, we have shown that Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be blocked by certain sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate) and glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) but not by other glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A or C, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid). The most negatively charged molecules are the most effectiv...

  2. Sero-epidemiological assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sub-fertility in Samoan women

    Menon, S.; Stansfield, S. H.; Walsh, M.; Hope, E.; Isaia, L.; Righarts, A. A.; Niupulusu, T.; Temese, S. V. A.; Iosefa-Siitia, L.; Auvaa, L.; Tapelu, S. A.; Motu, M. F.; Suaalii-Sauni, T.; Timms, P; Hill, P.C.


    Background In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test positivity was associated with sub-fertility. We conducted a serological and epidemiological analysis in these participants to identify if serological data can provide further insight into the potential contribution of CT to sub-fertility in this population. Methods Serolo...

  3. Role of disulfide bonding in outer membrane structure and permeability in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Bavoil, P; Ohlin, A.; Schachter, J


    The outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis can be efficiently solubilized by a variety of mild detergents in the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. This allows purification of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein at high yield in very gentle conditions by using its differential solubility in Sarkosyl and octylglucoside in the presence of dithiothreitol. The major outer membrane protein of the L2 serovar is an acidic protein with a pI of ca. 5. It contains three cysteine re...

  4. Simplified culture procedure for large-scale screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Lees, M I; Newnan, D M; Garland, S M


    A method that uses a 48-well tissue culture cluster tray system for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis is described. The cluster tray system was as sensitive (100%) as and more time efficient than the conventional cover slip method, thereby being considerably cost saving. With both culture methods, the prevalence rates of genital carriage of C. trachomatis in women attending clinics for legal abortion and for cervical dysplasia were 5% (31 of 641 patients) and 2% (3 of 148 patients), resp...

  5. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from prostatic fluid in association with inflammatory joint or eye disease.

    Goh, B T; Morgan-Capner, P.; Lim, K S


    We describe two patients, one with peripheral arthritis, sacro-iliitis, positive HLA B27, and autoantibodies to smooth muscle and gastric parietal cell; the other with aphthoid ulcers, geographical tongue, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, peripheral arthralgia, and diarrhoea with distal proctocolitis. Neither patient would have been diagnosed as having urethritis on the basis of accepted microscopic criteria. In both patients, however, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the prostatic fl...

  6. HLA-B27 Expression Does Not Modulate Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cell Lines

    Young, J. L.; Smith, L; Matyszak, M. K.; Gaston, J S H


    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. Infection of susceptible individuals with this bacterium can trigger the development of reactive arthritis, an acute inflammation that is associated with the expression of the class I major histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B27. Other facultative intracellular pathogens, such as Yersinia and Salmonella spp., are also known triggers of reactive arthritis. Previous studies report conflicting results concerning whether the presence of HL...

  7. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    Canas Nuno; Coromina Marta; Correa Bernardo; Xavier Miguel; Guimarães João


    Abstract Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently report...

  8. Chlamydia screening in England: a qualitative study of the narrative behind the policy

    Sheringham Jessica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale for the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP has been questioned. There has been little analysis, however, of what drove the NCSP’s establishment and how it was implemented. Such analysis will help inform the future development of the NCSP. This study used a qualitative, theory-driven approach to evaluate the rationale for the NCSP’s establishment and implementation. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 14 experts in chlamydia screening were undertaken. The interview data were analysed with policy documents and commentaries from peer-reviewed journals (published 1996–2010 using the Framework approach. Results Two themes drove the NCSP’s establishment and implementation. The first, chlamydia control, was prominently referenced in documents and interviews. The second theme concerned the potential for chlamydia screening to advance wider improvements in sexual health. In particular, screening was expected to promote sexual health services in primary care and encourage discussion of sexual health with young people. While this theme was only indirectly referenced in policy documents, it was cited by interviewees as a strong influence on implementation in the early years. However, by full rollout of the Programme, a focus on screening volume may have limited the NCSP’s capacity to improve broader aspects of sexual health. Conclusions A combination of explicit and implicit drivers underpinned the Programme’s establishment. This combination may explain why there was widespread support for its introduction and why implementation of the NCSP was inconsistent. The potential to improve young people’s sexual health more comprehensively should be made explicit in future planning of the NCSP.

  9. Effect of Storage Temperature on Survival of Chlamydia trachomatis after Lyophilization

    Eley, Adrian; Geary, Ian; Bahador, Abbas; Hakimi, Hamid


    Lyophilized preparations of Chlamydia trachomatis were made to investigate how well they would survive storage at four relevant incubation temperatures for 1 week and 1 month. Good viability was maintained by storage at either 4°C or 20°C for 1 week. If the ambient temperature is not too high, short-term transportation of C. trachomatis is achievable through lyophilization.

  10. Detection of leptospira and chlamydia in rodents in China / y Szeto Chun Wai

    Szeto, Chun-wai; 司徒俊偉


    Rodentia is the most diversified order of mammals which are natural reservoirs for bacterial pathogens such as Leptospira, Rickettsia akari, Bartonella, Chlamydiales etc. It is also the important source of transmission of leptospirosis to human. However, only a few epidemiological studies had been done for leptospiral and chlamydial infections in rodents in Hong Kong. In this study, molecular epidemiological studies had been performed to investigate the prevalence of leptospiral and chlamydia...

  11. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic young Swiss men

    Bertelli Claire; Jaton Katia; Baud David; Kulling Jean-Pierre; Greub Gilbert


    Abstract Background Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men in Switzerland is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in young Swiss men. Methods 517 young Swiss men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study during their compulsory military recruitment. Participants completed a questionnaire and gave urine samples which were screened for C. trachomatis DNA by PCR. Genotyp...

  12. Can an Antibiotic (Macrolide) Prevent Chlamydia pneumoniae-Induced Atherosclerosis in a Rabbit Model?

    Fong, Ignatius W.; Chiu, Brian; Viira, Esther; Jang, Dan; Fong, Michael W.; Peeling, Rosanna; Mahony, James B.


    There is increasing data implicating Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and antibiotics may theoretically be useful to prevent secondary vascular complications. Three groups of New Zealand White specific-pathogen-free rabbits, fed cholesterol-free chow, were inoculated via the nasopharynx on three occasions, 2 weeks apart, with C. pneumoniae. Group I (n = 23) rabbits were untreated; group II (n = 24) rabbits were treated with azithromycin ...

  13. Characterization of Pgp3, a Chlamydia trachomatis Plasmid-Encoded Immunodominant Antigen▿

    Chen, Ding; Lei, Lei; Lu, Chunxue; Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Hart, P. John; Zhong, Guangming


    Human antibody recognition of Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-encoded Pgp3 protein is dependent on the native conformation of Pgp3. The structural basis for the conformation dependence and the function of Pgp3 remain unknown. Here, we report that Pgp3 trimerization is required for the recognition of Pgp3 by human antibodies. In a native polyacrylamide gel, Pgp3 purified from a bacterial expression system migrated as stable trimers that were dissociated into monomers only by treatment with urea ...

  14. Effects of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide on a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonitis.

    Stephens, R S; W. J. Chen; Kuo, C. C.


    Suppression of the inflammatory reaction with daily doses of cortisone acetate or cyclophosphamide substantially prolonged the pulmonary infection in mice which had been intranasally inoculated with a trachoma biotype of Chlamydia trachomatis. Titration of organisms recovered from the lungs of treated mice revealed a drop in titer after day 2 (postinfection), followed by a prominent increase on day 6. In cyclophosphamide-treated mice the infection was resolved after day 12, whereas in cortiso...

  15. In vitro activities of doxycycline and enrofloxacin against European Chlamydia psittaci strains from turkeys.

    Butaye, P.; Ducatelle, R.; De Backer, P; Vermeersch, H.; Remon, J P; Haesebrouck, F


    The in vitro susceptibility of 14 European Chlamydia psittaci strains from turkeys to the antibiotics doxycycline and enrofloxacin was tested. For doxycycline the MIC ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 microg/ml, with an average of 0.1 microg/ml. For enrofloxacin the MIC was 0.25 microg/ml. Acquired resistance was not detected against doxycycline and enrofloxacin.

  16. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence applied in specimens originating in remote areas.

    Williams, T.; Maniar, A. C.; Brunham, R C; Hammond, G W


    The efficacy of the MicroTrak (Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.) direct immunofluorescence test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was compared with cell culturing of fresh specimens obtained from patients attending a clinic on sexually transmitted disease and of frozen specimens delayed in transit from urban or remote physicians' offices and clinics. Direct immunofluorescence testing detected C. trachomatis more frequently than culturing of the same specimens when transit caused a delay i...

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia gallinacea Type Strain 08-1274/3

    Hölzer, Martin; Laroucau, Karine; Creasy, Heather Huot; Ott, Sandra; Vorimore, Fabien; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Marz, Manja


    The recently introduced bacterial species Chlamydia gallinacea is known to occur in domestic poultry and other birds. Its potential as an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent is under investigation. The whole-genome sequence of its type strain, 08-1274/3, consists of a 1,059,583-bp chromosome with 914 protein-coding sequences (CDSs) and a plasmid (p1274) comprising 7,619 bp with 9 CDSs. PMID:27445388

  18. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Commercial Sex Workers in Japan

    Fujihiko Suzuki; Kazuhisa Ishi; Takeyoshi Kubota; Akira Saito


    Objective: We used the hybrid capture assays to investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among commercial sex workers in Tokyo.Methods: Five hundred forty-six consecutive commercial sex workers (CSW) who visited an STD clinic for STD checkup in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A control group consisted of 233 consecutive women who visited a general gynecological clinic for annual checkup. A cervical sample was obtained for hybrid cap...

  19. Association of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Patel, P.; Mendall, M A; Carrington, D; Strachan, D. P.; Leatham, E; Molineaux, N; Levy, J.; Blakeston, C.; Seymour, C. A.; Camm, A J


    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between seropositivity to chronic infections with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae and both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of a population based random sample of men. Coronary heart disease was assessed by electrocardiography, Rose angina questionnaire, and a history of myocardial infarction; serum antibody levels to H pylori and C pneumoniae were measured, risk factor levels determined, ...

  20. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M.; Marriott, John F.


    Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically using a Framework approach. Results: Perceived benefits of self-testing included its being convenient, anonymous and not requiring physical examination. There was concern about test accuracy and some participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independently of formal health care systems may no more negatively impact people than being tested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis testing among young people: what is the role of stigma?

    Theunissen, Kevin A. T. M.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Kok, Gerjo; Vluggen, Stan; Crutzen, Rik; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.


    Background To reach young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, new web-based strategies are used to offer testing via young people’s sexual and social networks. The success of such peer-driven strategies depends on whether individuals disclose their own testing and encourage others to get tested. We assessed whether public- and self-stigma would hamper these behaviours, by comparing anticipations and experiences relating to these issues in young men and women who already tested or n...

  2. Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Shaw K; Coleman D; O'Sullivan M; Stephens N


    Kelly Shaw1,2, David Coleman1, Maree O'Sullivan1, Nicola Stephens31Department of Health and Human Services, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia; 3NSW Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term m...

  3. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Andrea L Lucas


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  4. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    Honglei Ding; Siqi Gong; Yingxin Tian; Zhangsheng Yang; Robert Brunham; Guangming Zhong


    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, ...

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    Fageeh, Wafa; Badawood, Sami; Al Thagafi, Hanin; Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam; Farraj, Suha; Alomary, Mona; Alsaeed, Moneerah; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Kumosani, Taha


    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and ...

  6. Behavioral and community correlates of adolescent pregnancy and Chlamydia rates in rural counties in Minnesota.

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini


    Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Load in Population-Based Screening and STI-Clinics: Implications for Screening Policy

    Dirks, Jeanne A. M. C.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Brink, Antoinette A. T. P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.


    Objectives If the Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) bacterial load is higher in high-risk populations than in the general population, this negatively affects the efficacy of CT screening incentives. In the largest retrospective study to date, we investigated the CT load in specimens collected from 2 cohorts: (1) attendants of a sexually transmitted infection (STI)-clinic and (2) participants of the Dutch population-based screening (PBS). Methods CT load was determined using quantitative PCR in CT-po...

  8. Recruitment of young women to a trial of chlamydia screening – as easy as it sounds?

    Hay Phillip; Chadd Fiona; Long Linzie; Harbit Ruth; Banks Debbie; Atherton Helen; Kerry Sally; Simms Ian; Oakeshott Pippa


    Abstract Background Recruiting to trials is complex and difficult. The Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) trial aims to see if screening women for chlamydia and treating those found to be infected reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in the following twelve months. It focuses on young, sexually active, multiethnic, mainly inner city, female students. The main aim of this paper is to describe our recruitment methods. Secondary aims in two small subgroups, are to compare char...

  9. Kinematics of Intracellular Chlamydiae Provide Evidence for Contact-Dependent Development▿ †

    Wilson, David P.; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A.; Timms, Peter; Bavoil, Patrik M.


    A crucial process of chlamydial development involves differentiation of the replicative reticulate body (RB) into the infectious elementary body (EB). We present experimental evidence to provide support for a contact-dependent hypothesis for explaining the trigger involved in differentiation. We recorded live-imaging of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected McCoy cells at key times during development and tracked the temporospatial trajectories of individual chlamydial particles. We found that moveme...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Laboratory Strains versus Recent Clinical Isolates: Implications for Routine Microbicide Testing ▿

    Skinner, M. C.; Stamm, W. E.; Lampe, M. L.


    A topical microbicide that women can use to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential, and many microbicide candidates are being tested for activity against human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Screening assays for assessing the activity of microbicides against C. trachomatis are typically done with laboratory-adapted strains, but it is possible that recent clinical isolates may have different susceptibilities to microbicides, as has be...

  11. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by nonoxynol-9 in vitro.

    Benes, S; McCormack, W. M.


    We evaluated the ability of the widely used spermicide nonoxynol-9, Conceptrol gel containing nonoxynol-9, and Conceptrol vehicle (without nonoxynol-9) to inhibit the formation of inclusions of Chlamydia trachomatis in cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. Conceptrol vehicle produced a non-dose-related 40 to 59% reduction of the number of inclusions formed. In contrast, the addition of nonoxynol-9 and Conceptrol gel containing nonoxynol-9 at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml reduced the numbe...

  12. Chlamydia felis exposure in companion dogs and cats in Lanzhou, China: a public health concern

    Wu, Song-Ming; Huang, Si-Yang; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan


    Background Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in these companion animals. Results In this study, blood samples were collected from 485 a...

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Chen, Juan; Zhu, Meijia; Ma, Gaoting; Zhao, Zhangning; Sun, Zhongwen


    Background A wealth of published studies have been published on association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) infection and cerebrovascular (CV) disease, but the results were inconsistent. This meta-analysis provides a systematic review of the available evidence from all serological and pathological studies of CV disease and C.pneumoniae. Methods A comprehensive research was conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, WanFang technological periodical database and reference lists of articles...

  14. Condom Use and Prevalence of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Among the Korean Female Sex Workers

    Lee, Joongyub; Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Dong Seok; Jung, Minsoo; Park, Byung-Joo


    OBJECTIVES Since 2004, availability of resources for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in Korean female sex workers (FSWs) has decreased because of strict application of a law against prostitution. This study is to evaluate the condom use and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among FSWs in Korea. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of FSWs from 15 major sex work sites in Korea from June to November 2008, using convenience sampling. Self-administered questionnaires and urine ...

  15. Efficacy of interventions to increase the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care: a systematic review

    Donovan Basil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.

  16. Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia

    Birden Hudson; Gurrin Lyle C; Kaldor John; Pirotta Marie; Currie Marian; McNamee Kathleen; Tabrizi Sepehr N; Donovan Basil; Walker Sandra M; Bradshaw Catriona; Chen Marcus Y; Urban Eve; Fairley Christopher K; Walker Jennifer; Harindra Veerakathy


    Abstract Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary ...

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibits Activated Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by the Induction of Apoptotic and Pyroptotic Pathways

    Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Carmody, Aaron; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.


    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to play important roles in the pathophysiology of C. pneumoniae disease. We found that C. pneumoniae organisms inhibited activated but ...

  18. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in Mccoy cell cultures with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibodies.

    Stamm, W. E.; Tam, M; Koester, M; Cles, L


    We compared two methods for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy cell monolayers: conventional iodine staining and immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies against the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of C. trachomatis. Among 878 urethral and cervical specimens tested in parallel, the immunofluorescence method detected eightfold more inclusions per monolayer, identified a higher proportion of positive specimens on first passage (98 ver...

  19. Staining characteristics of six commercially available monoclonal immunofluorescence reagents for direct diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Cles, L D; Bruch, K; Stamm, W. E.


    Using purified elementary bodies of 14 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in an in vitro assay, we compared the staining characteristics of six commercially available monoclonal antibody reagents used for direct immunofluorescent staining of patient smears. Considerable variation in the degree of brightness, consistency of staining, and specificity of the six reagents was found. Monoclonal antibodies against the major outer membrane proteins of C. trachomatis produced brighter fluorescence, more ...

  20. Sensitivity of immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in cell culture.

    Stephens, R S; Kuo, C C; Tam, M R


    Monoclonal antibodies which recognize the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of Chlamydia trachomatis were used for immunofluorescence staining of chlamydial inclusions in cell culture. A total of 115 clinical specimens were inoculated onto replicate HeLa 229 cell monolayers and assayed for chlamydial inclusions by immunofluorescence staining and Giemsa staining. Of the isolates, 38 were detected by immunofluorescence staining on passage 1 and 1 was detected on passage 2; 2...

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache; Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro; Juan David Ramírez; Sara Cecilia Soto-De León; Milena Camargo; Luisa Del Río-Ospina; Ricardo Sánchez; Manuel Elkin Patarroyo; Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo


    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. tr...

  2. Lack of association between Chlamydia Pneumoniae serology and endothelial dysfunction of coronary arteries

    Oehme Albrecht; Richartz Barbara M; Werner Gerald S; Ferrari Markus; Straube Eberhard; Figulla Hans R


    Abstract Background Recent publications brought up the hypothesis that an infection with Chlamydia Pneumoniae (CP) might be a major cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated whether endothelial dysfunction (ED) as a precursor of atherosclerosis might be detectable in patients with previous infection with CP but without angiographic evidence of CAD. Methods We included 16 patients (6 male / 10 female) of 52 consecutive patients with normal coronary angiography who had ...

  3. Antigen capture ELISA for the heat shock protein (hsp60) of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Horner, P J; Ali, M.; Parker, D.; Weber, J. N.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; McClure, M O


    AIMS: To develop an indirect ELISA using the heat shock protein (hsp60) of Chlamydia trachomatis as antigen. METHODS: The hsp60 gene was amplified by PCR, expressed in the vector pDEV-107 and transformed into Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion product, was captured onto a solid phase using a monoclonal antibody directed against beta-galactosidase. Following incubation with goat anti-human antibody conjugated to peroxidase and colour development...

  4. Selenium and vitamin E effect on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against enzootic abortion (Chlamydia psittaci).

    Giadinis, N; Koptopoulos, G; Roubles, N; Siarkou, V; Papasteriades, A


    The effect of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit E) on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) was investigated. Thirty-two sheep, one year old, seronegative to Chlamydia infection, vaccinated against enterotoxemia and dewormed were used. Injectable sodium selenite (0.1 mg/kg b.w.) was given twice to animals of the first group (gSe), with a three week interval. The sheep of the second group (gE) received 1 g vit E each orally, six times at weekly intervals. The animals of the third group (gSeE) were given Se and vit E in doses and routes of administration as in gSe and gE. The animals of the fourth group served as controls (gC) and injected normal saline. The first vaccination was made at the time that the second Se injection was given. Revaccination was made two weeks later. The experiment lasted 29 weeks. The results indicated that Se alone led to a significant increase of Chlamydia antibody response (P < 0.05), but not when it was given in combination with vit E. Animals that received vit E (gE) had much lower titres, just above of those of the controls. PMID:10670702

  5. Architecture and host interface of environmental chlamydiae revealed by electron cryotomography

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Ladinsky, Mark S.; König, Lena; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.


    Summary Chlamydiae comprise important pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria that alternate between morphologically and physiologically different life stages during their developmental cycle. Using electron cryotomography, we characterize the ultrastructure of the developmental stages of three environmental chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis. We show that chemical fixation and dehydration alter the cell shape of Parachlamydia and that the crescent body is not a developmental stage, but an artefact of conventional electron microscopy. We further reveal type III secretion systems of environmental chlamydiae at macromolecular resolution and find support for a chlamydial needle-tip protein. Imaging bacteria inside their host cells by cryotomography for the first time, we observe marked differences in inclusion morphology and development as well as host organelle recruitment between the three chlamydial organisms, with Simkania inclusions being tightly enveloped by the host endoplasmic reticulum. The study demonstrates the power of electron cryotomography to reveal structural details of bacteria–host interactions that are not accessible using traditional methods. PMID:24118768

  6. The Infection of Chlamydia Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    李涛; 许香广; 张国良; 方卫华


    Objectives To study the association between infection with chlamydia pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Serology of chlamydia pneumoniae specific IgG、IgM antibodies were measured by microimmunofluorescence test in groups of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and health control(HC). Results The total infection positive rates were 30.6% in HC group and 88.1% in AMI group, including the previous infection rates which were 30.6% and 71.4%, while the acute infection rates were 0% and 16.7%. The frequency of total infection, previous infection and acute infection was significantly higher in AMI group than in the HC group. Odds Ratio for the development of AMI were 16.82, 5.68, 14.2, respectively(95% CI 5.83 to 48.54,2.46 to 13.11, 1.68 to 119.97). Geometric mean IgG titre was significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with the HC group (P< 0.01). There is no IgM positive in HC group but there were two cases in AMI group. Conclusions The presence of high titers of immmunoglobulin G in AMI. Chlamydia pneumonia infection may be a risk factor for the AMI .

  7. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    Cory Ann Leonard


    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  8. Mcl-1 is a key regulator of apoptosis resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.

    Krishnaraj Rajalingam

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause variety of human diseases. Host cells infected with Chlamydia are protected against many different apoptotic stimuli. The induction of apoptosis resistance is thought to be an important immune escape mechanism allowing Chlamydia to replicate inside the host cell. Infection with C. trachomatis activates the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here we show that inhibition of these two pathways by chemical inhibitors sensitized C. trachomatis infected cells to granzyme B-mediated cell death. Infection leads to the Raf/MEK/ERK-mediated up-regulation and PI3K-dependent stabilization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1. Consistently, interfering with Mcl-1 up-regulation sensitized infected cells for apoptosis induced via the TNF receptor, DNA damage, granzyme B and stress. Our data suggest that Mcl-1 up-regulation is primarily required to maintain apoptosis resistance in C. trachomatis-infected cells.

  9. Chlamydiosis in British Garden Birds (2005-2011): retrospective diagnosis and Chlamydia psittaci genotype determination.

    Beckmann, K M; Borel, N; Pocknell, A M; Dagleish, M P; Sachse, K; John, S K; Pospischil, A; Cunningham, A A; Lawson, B


    The significance of chlamydiosis as a cause of mortality in wild passerines (Order Passeriformes), and the role of these birds as a potential source of zoonotic Chlamydia psittaci infection, is unknown. We reviewed wild bird mortality incidents (2005-2011). Where species composition or post-mortem findings were indicative of chlamydiosis, we examined archived tissues for C. psittaci infection using PCR and ArrayTube Microarray assays. Twenty-one of 40 birds tested positive: 8 dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 7 great tits (Parus major), 3 blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), 2 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto, Order Columbiformes), and 1 robin (Erithacus rubecula). Chlamydia psittaci genotype A was identified in all positive passerines and in a further three dunnocks and three robins diagnosed with chlamydiosis from a previous study. Two collared doves had genotype E. Ten of the 21 C. psittaci-positive birds identified in the current study had histological lesions consistent with chlamydiosis and co-localizing Chlamydia spp. antigens on immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that chlamydiosis may be a more common disease of British passerines than was previously recognized. Wild passerines may be a source of C. psittaci zoonotic infection, and people should be advised to take appropriate hygiene precautions when handling bird feeders or wild birds. PMID:24947738

  10. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    Wallace Louise M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group. Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening