Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection ranks among the most devastating health problems in the world. The most probable transmission routes of HBV are blood contact, sexual, and horizontal transfer. Other sources of HBV transmission are razor sharing, beauty treatments, tattooing, piercing, and manicures and other chiropody treatments. Many infections have been reported in South-East Asia, where barbers commonly share and reuse razors. Detection of HBV DNA in contaminated devices such as razor blades is important in the demonstration of transmission routes and indirect estimation of HBV prevalence in specific subpopulations such as barbershop clientele. Therefore, we aimed to detect the presence of HBV contamination on razor blades by nucleic acid testing.Methods: Used razor blades (n = 151 were purchased from different barber's shops. Used razor blades purchased from chronic HBV patients (n = 8 were included as a positive control. The amplification and detection of HBV DNA was carried out by a semi-nested PCR method in a thermal cycler.Results: The presence of HBV DNA was found in 10 (6.6% used razor-blade samples by the detection of a specific positive band with agarose gel electrophoresis.Conclusions: In conclusion, used razor blades may be contaminated with HBV, and the practice of sharing used razor blades may pose a risk of transmission. Nucleic acid detection methods involving PCR can be used to detect HBV contamination of razor blades. HBV control and prevention programs should educate barbers about the importance of contagious diseases, proper sterilization techniques, and avoiding reuse and sharing of contaminated equipment and supplies such as razor blades. As an infection control measure, prohibition of razor reuse can reduce the spread of HBV infection in rural areas, where the practice is often common at barbershops.
Antonio Martínez Sabater
Full Text Available Dentro del trabajo diario del profesional de enfermería con los mayores, la atención al paciente con diabetes mellitus (DM supone una parte importante del quehacer diario. El pie diabético supone una de las complicaciones más frecuentes que van a suponer un mayor coste, no sólo a nivel físico, sino social y económico, tanto para el paciente como para la sociedad. Nos planteamos realizar un estudio descriptivo observacional sobre los hábitos higiénicos respecto al cuidado de los pies de los pacientes mayores de 60 años afectos de diabetes mellitus remitidos a la consulta de enfermería, encontrándose un déficit importante de cuidados podológicos en los pacientes estudiados. El profesional de enfermería, por el alto contacto que tiene con el paciente afecto de diabetes mellitus, es un factor importante en la prevención y detección precoz del pie diabético y de la promoción de hábitos saludables.Taking care of diabetes mellitus (DM patients is one of the main chores in geriatric nursery. "Diabetic foot" is the most common problem and it actually entails a great deal of expenses, physically, socially and economically speaking, as well for the patient as for the community. What we did was an observational and descriptive research about foot cleansing habits in diabetes mellitus patients over 60 years old and we found out a severe lack of chiropody care. Due to the fact their work involves having a close contact with diabetes mellitus patients, nursing professionals become an outstanding agent on an early detection and prevention of the "diabetic foot" in addition of improving healthy cleaning habits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people living in care homes in England have complex health needs due to a range of medical conditions, mental health needs and frailty. Despite an increasing policy expectation that professionals should operate in an integrated way across organisational boundaries, there is a lack of understanding between care homes and the National Health Service (NHS about how the two sectors should work together, meaning that residents can experience a poor "fit" between their needs, and services they can access. This paper describes a survey to establish the current extent of integrated working that exists between care homes and primary and community health and social services. Methods A self-completion, online questionnaire was designed by the research team. Items on the different dimensions of integration (funding, administrative, organisational, service delivery, clinical care were included. The survey was sent to a random sample of residential care homes with more than 25 beds (n = 621 in England in 2009. Responses were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results The survey achieved an overall response rate of 15.8%. Most care homes (78.7% worked with more than one general practice. Respondents indicated that a mean of 14.1 professionals/ services (other than GPs had visited the care homes in the last six months (SD 5.11, median 14; a mean of .39 (SD.163 professionals/services per bed. The most frequent services visiting were district nursing, chiropody and community psychiatric nurses. Many (60% managers considered that they worked with the NHS in an integrated way, including sharing documents, engaging in integrated care planning and joint learning and training. However, some care home managers cited working practices dictated by NHS methods of service delivery and priorities for care, rather than those of the care home or residents, a lack of willingness by NHS professionals to share information, and low