Sample records for chinon nuclear power

  1. Chinon plant - Report on the complementary safety assessment of nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima accident

    This CSA (Complementary Safety Assessment) analyses the robustness of the Chinon B plant to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident and proposes a series of improvements. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond the level for which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accident sequence. Safety is not only a matter of design or of engineered systems, it is also a matter of organization. So issues like EDF's crisis organization, the organization of radiation protection, and work organization via subcontracting are also taken into consideration. The creation of a nuclear rapid action force (FARN) is proposed: this will be a national emergency force made up of specialized teams equipped to intervene in less than 24 hours on a nuclear site hit by an accident. This report is divided into 8 main chapters: 1) features of the site, 2) earthquake risk, 3) flooding risk, 4) risks due to other extreme natural disasters, 5) the loss of electrical power supplies and of heat sink, 6) management of severe accidents (accidents with core melt), 7) task subcontracting policy, 8) synthesis and list of improvements. 4 following appendices review: EDF's crisis organization, the FARN, radiation protection organization and accidental event trees. (A.C.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2014

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Decree from August 27, 1996 authorizing Electricite de France to modify in order to keep under surveillance and in an intermediate dismantling state the basic nuclear installation named Chinon A 3 (reactor definitely decommissioned) on the Chinon nuclear site of the Avoine town (Indre-et-Loire)

    This decree from the French prime minister, the minister of environment and the minister of industry and postal services gives permission to Electricite de France (EdF) to modify and keep under surveillance the partially dismantled Chinon A 3 reactor which will be renamed Chinon A 3D. The modification consist in confining the internal structures and heat exchangers inside their buildings with the plugging of all apertures. Primary and auxiliary circuits will be dismantled. The decree describes the installation and summarizes the technical rules which must be applied concerning the works schedule, the quality assurance, the confinement and protection against risks of radioactivity dissemination, the personnel and public protection against ionizing radiations, the control of environmental pollution with liquid and gaseous effluents, the reduction of volume and radioactivity of solid wastes, the transport and handling of radioactive materials, the protection against earthquakes and fire, and the personnel training. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear power

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: nuclear power certainties and doubts; nuclear power in the Western World to 2000; the frequency of core meltdown accidents; hidden costs of the accident at Three Mile Island; costs of nuclear accidents - implications for reactor choice; defining the risks of nuclear power; the uncertain economics of a nuclear power program; the economics of enabling decisions (Sizewell B as an enabling decision); trade in nuclear electricity; some pointers to the future. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear power

    Waller, David; McDonald, Alan; Greenwald, Judith; Mobbs, Paul


    David Waller and Alan McDonald ask whether a nuclear renaissance can be predicted; Judith M. Greenwald discusses keeping the nuclear power option open; Paul Mobbs considers the availability of uranium and the future of nuclear energy.

  6. Nuclear power

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  7. Nuclear power

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  8. Nuclear power

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  9. Nuclear power

    Nuclear power has been seen as an answer to the energy problems of the Third World and Third World markets have been seen as an answer to the problems of the nuclear power industry. For some years during the 1970s both views seemed tenable. This paper examines the progress and setbacks of nuclear power in developing countries. In concentrates mainly on the four countries with real nuclear power commitments (as opposed to all-but-abandoned ambitions) - South Korea and Taiwan, where the interest has been mainly in obtaining cheaper and reliable electricity supplies, and Argentina and India, where the main interest has been in developing indigenous nuclear technological capabilities. A number of possibilities are examined which could influence future nuclear ordering, including smaller reactors to suit Third World electricity grids and a possible way round the constraint of large external debts. (author)

  10. Nuclear power

    After three decades of commercial development, nuclear power has failed to fulfil its promise. Why, and what does that failure imply for the future of energy policy? One reason for nuclear power's slow growth is that rich countries have repeatedly found they needed less electricity than they had forecast. Part of the problem is, as it always has been, public unease. Worries about safety affect costs. They make it harder and more time-consuming to find sites for new plants or for storing waste. Complex safety devices mean complex plants, which are more expensive to build (and to relicense when they grow old). The true cost of nuclear power is hard to calculate. However nuclear power now seems to be less economically favourable when compared with its main rival, coal. The only hope for nuclear power is that, apart from hydropower, it is the only commercial alternative to fossil fuels. Concerns over carbon dioxide emissions may tip the balance in nuclear's favour. (Author)

  11. Nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.


    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  12. Nuclear power data 2016

    The brochure on nuclear power data 2016 covers the following topics: (I) nuclear power in Germany: nuclear power plants in Germany; shut-down and decommissioned nuclear power plants, gross electricity generation, primary energy consumption; (II) nuclear power worldwide: nuclear electricity production, nuclear power plants.

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  14. Nuclear power plants

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.)

  15. Nuclear power economic database

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  16. Nuclear power - anyone interested

    The subject is discussed under the following headings, with illustrative strip cartoons: uranium mining (uranium exploration in Orkney); radiation (hazards); nuclear power and employment; transport (of radioactive materials); nuclear reactor safety (reference to the accident to Three Mile Island-2 reactor); energy in the future; sources of energy; nuclear weapons; suggestions for action; insulation and heating buildings; nuclear security; working in a nuclear power station; nuclear waste; the anti-nuclear movement; nuclear power and politics. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear power in Canada

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  18. Nuclear power and nuclear insurance

    Fanned by the Chernobyl reactor accident the discussion about the safety and insurability of nuclear power plants has also been affecting the insurance companies. The related analyses of the safety concepts of German nuclear power plants have been confirming the companies' risk philosophy of maintaining the insurability of nuclear power plants either meeting German safety standards or equivalent safety standards. Apart from the technical evaluation of the safety of nuclear power plants the fundamental discussion about the pros and cons of nuclear power has also been stressing the damages and liability problem. The particular relevance of possible considerable transfrontier contaminations clearly reveals the urgency of establishing internationally standardized reactor accident liability regulations. (orig./HP)

  19. Prospects for Nuclear Power

    Davis, Lucas W.


    Nuclear power has long been controversial because of concerns about nuclear accidents, storage of spent fuel, and how the spread of nuclear power might raise risks of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. These concerns are real and important. However, emphasizing these concerns implicitly suggests that unless these issues are taken into account, nuclear power would otherwise be cost effective compared to other forms of electricity generation. This implication is unwarranted. Throughout the h...

  20. Nuclear Power in China


    China’s vigorous efforts to propel development of nuclear power are paying off as the country’s nuclear power sector advances at an amazing pace. At present, China has set up three enormous nuclear power bases, one each in Qinshan of Zhejiang Province, Dayawan of Guangdong

  1. Nuclear power economics

    As a petroleum substitute, the nuclear power in Japan possesses the following four features. (1) Stability in supply: The import of nuclear fuel resources is performed from politically stable advanced countries and in long-term contracts. And, nuclear power can be of semi-domestic energy source due to the nuclear fuel cycle. (2) Low cost of nuclear power generation. (3) Contribution of nuclear power technology to other advanced industries. (4) Favorable effects of nuclear power siting upon the region concerned, such as labor employment and social welfare. Electricity charges are high in Japan, as compared with those in the United States and others where coal and water power are relatively abundant. For Japan without such natural resources, nuclear energy is important in lowering the power rates. (Mori, K.)

  2. Nuclear power prospects

    A survey of the nuclear power needs of the less-developed countries and a study of the technology and economics of small and medium scale power reactors are envisioned by the General Conference. Agency makes its services available to Member States to assist them for their future nuclear power plans, and in particular in studying the technical and economic aspects of their power programs. The Agency also undertakes general studies on the economics of nuclear power, including the collection and analysis of cost data, in order to assist Member States in comparing and forecasting nuclear power costs in relation to their specific situations



    The Fukushima nuclear accident sounds alarm bells in China’s nuclear power industry In the wake of the Fukushima nucleara ccident caused by the earthquake andt sunami in Japan,the safety of nuclearp ower plants and the development of nuclear power have raised concerns,

  4. Sustainable development of nuclear power

    A treatise consisting of the following sections: Economic efficiency of nuclear power (Growth of nuclear power worldwide; State of the art in the development of nuclear power reactors; Competitiveness of contemporary nuclear power); Environmental acceptability of nuclear power (Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; Nuclear safety and radioactive waste disposal; Environmental awareness and environmental movements). (P.A.)

  5. Nuclear power development

    Nealey, S.


    The objective of this study is to examine factors and prospects for a resumption in growth of nuclear power in the United States over the next decade. The focus of analysis on the likelihood that current efforts in the United States to develop improved and safer nuclear power reactors will provide a sound technical basis for improved acceptance of nuclear power, and contribute to a social/political climate more conducive to a resumption of nuclear power growth. The acceptability of nuclear power and advanced reactors to five social/political sectors in the U.S. is examined. Three sectors highly relevant to the prospects for a restart of nuclear power plant construction are the financial sector involved in financing nuclear power plant construction, the federal nuclear regulatory sector, and the national political sector. For this analysis, the general public are divided into two groups: those who are knowledgeable about and involved in nuclear power issues, the involved public, and the much larger body of the general public that is relatively uninvolved in the controversy over nuclear power.

  6. Nuclear Power in Sweden

    This book presents how Swedish technology has combined competence in planning, building, commissioning, maintenance, and operation of nuclear power and waste facilities. The items are elaborated in the following chapters: Nuclear power today and for the future, Sweden and its power supply, The history of nuclear power in Sweden, Nuclear Sweden today, Operating experience in 10 nuclear power units, Maintenance experience, Third-generation BWR-plants commissioned in five years, Personnel and training, Reactor safety, Quality assurance and quality control, Characteristic features of the ASEA-ATOM BWR, Experience of PWR steam generators, Nuclear fuel supply and management, Policy and techniques of radioactive waste management, Nuclear energy authorities and Inherently safe LWR. The publication is concluded by facts in brief and a statement by the Director General of IAEA. (G.B.)

  7. Nuclear power and safety

    The paper deals with the problem of necessity to develop nuclear power, conceivable consequences of this development, its disadvantages and advantages. It is shown that the nuclear power is capable of supplying the world's economy with practically unlimited and the most low-cost energy resources providing the transition from the epoch of organic fuel to the epoch with another energy sources. The analysis of various factors of nuclear power effects on population and environment is presented. Special attention is focused on emergency situations at NPPs. The problem of raising the nuclear power safety is considered. 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Nuclear power debate

    A recent resurgence of interest in Australia in the nuclear power option has been largely attributed to growing concerns over climate change. But what are the real pros and cons of nuclear power? Have advances in technology solved the sector's key challenges? Do the economics stack up for Australia where there is so much coal, gas and renewable resources? Is the greenhouse footprint' of nuclear power low enough to justify its use? During May and June, the AIE hosted a series of Branch events on nuclear power across Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. In the interest of balance, and at risk of being a little bit repetitive, here we draw together four items that resulted from these events and that reflect the opposing views on nuclear power in Australia. Nuclear Power for Australia: Irrelevant or Inevitable? - a summary of the presentations to the symposium held by Sydney Branch on 8 June 2005. Nuclear Reactors Waste the Planet - text from the flyer distributed by The Greens at their protest gathering outside the symposium venue on 8 June 2005. The Case For Nuclear Power - an edited transcript of Ian Hore-Lacy's presentation to Adelaide Branch on 19 May 2005 and to Perth Branch on 28 June 2005. The Case Against Nuclear Power - an article submitted to Energy News by Robin Chappie subsequent to Mr Hore-Lacy's presentation to Perth Branch

  9. Sydkraft and nuclear power

    This article summarizes the report made by G. Ekberg for the Swedish Sydkraft Power Co. at the company's annual meeting in June 1976. The report comprises the year 1975 and the first five months of 1976 and largely discusses nuclear power. Experience with the running of Oskarshamn and Barsebaeck nuclear power stations is reported. Nuclear power has enabled production in the oil-fired power stations at Karlshamn and Malmoe to be reduced. 750 000 tons of oil have been saved. In the first five months of 1976, nuclear power accounted for 48% of Sydkraft's electricity production, water power 36% and oil only 16%. In 1975, Sydkraft produced 13% of Sweden's electricity. (H.E.G.)

  10. The nuclear power decisions

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  11. Nuclear power in Belgium

    In the energy sector Belgium is 90% dependent on imports. This was clearly felt by the electricity generating economy when the share of hydrocarbons in the energy resources used for electricity generation increased to more than 85% in 1973 as a consequence of rising electricity consumption. Although Belgium had been early to start employing nuclear power for peaceful purposes, only little use had initially been made of this possibility. After the first oil price crisis the Belgian electricity utilities turned more attention to nuclear power. To this day, seven nuclear power plants have been started up, and Belgian utilities hold a fifty percent share in a French nuclear power plant, while the French EdF holds fifty percent in one Belgian nuclear generating unit. The Belgian nuclear power plants, which were built mostly by Belgian industries, have an excellent operating record. Their availabilities are considerably above the worldwide average and they contributed some 60% to the electricity production in Belgium in 1985. Thanks to nuclear power, the cumulative percentage shares of heating oil and gas in electricity production were reduced to well over 15%, compared to 1973, thus meeting the objectives of using nuclear power, i.e., to save foreign exchange and become self-sufficient in supplying the country's needs. The use of nuclear power allowed the Belgian utilities to reduce the price per kilowatthour of electricity and, in this way, remain competitive with other countries. The introduction of nuclear power continues to have a stabilizing influence on electricity generating costs. In the light of the forecast future development of consumption it is regarded as probable that another nuclear power plant of 1390 MWe will have to be built and commissioned before the year 2000. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear power economics

    The economical comparison of nuclear power plants with coal-fired plants in some countries or areas are analyzed. It is not difficult to show that nuclear power will have a significant and expanding role to play in providing economic electricity in the coming decades. (Liu)

  13. Balakovo nuclear power station

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  14. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  15. Talk About Nuclear Power

    Tremlett, Lewis


    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  16. Economics of nuclear power

    A comparison of the economics of nuclear and coal-fired power plants operated by Commonwealth Edison was developed. In this comparison, fuel costs, total busbar costs and plant performance were of particular interest. Also included were comparisons of construction costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants over the past two decades

  17. Nuclear power status 1998

    The document gives general statistical information (by country) about electricity produced by nuclear power plants in the world in 1998, and in a table the number of nuclear reactors in operation, under construction, nuclear electricity supplied in 1998, and total operating experience as of 31 December 1998

  18. Nuclear power plant outages

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  19. Nuclear Power Day '86

    The proceedings in two volumes of the event ''Nuclear Power Day '86'' held in the Institute of Nuclear Research, contain full texts of 13 papers which all fall under the INIS Scope. The objective of the event was to acquaint broad technical public with the scope of the State Research and Development Project called ''Development of Nuclear Power till the Year 2000''. The papers were mainly focused on increased safety and reliability of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, on the development of equipment and systems for disposal and burial of radioactive wastes, the introduction of production of nuclear power facilities of an output of 1,000 MW, and on the construction of nuclear heat sources. (Z.M.)

  20. Nuclear power in India

    Claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the coal-based thermal power is advanced on various grounds by the authorities concerned with organization of atomic energy in India. This claim is critically examined. At the outset, it is pointed out that data on cost of nuclear power available to the Indian researchers for detailed and rational analysis of the problem are limited only to whatever appears in official publications and are not adequate for working out reasonable cost estimates for scrutiny. Available official data are summarised. Taking into account the cost factors related to capital outlay, fuel input, transportation of fuel supplies and disposal of nuclear wastes from nuclear power plants, it is shown that the superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal one on economic grounds is not established in India in the present context. (M.G.B.)

  1. The nuclear power station

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  2. Nuclear power under strain

    The German citizen faces the complex problem of nuclear power industry with slight feeling of uncertainty. The topics in question can only be briefly dealt with in this context, e.g.: 1. Only nuclear energy can compensate the energy shortage. 2. Coal and nuclear energy. 3. Keeping the risk small. 4. Safety test series. 5. Status and tendencies of nuclear energy planning in the East and West. (GL)

  3. Nuclear power constructions

    The feasibility study and the project design and their role in the process of nuclear power plant construction are analyzed in detail. From the point of view of systems aspects of scientific management, the nuclear power plant is considered to be an element of the power generation and transmission system as well as an intersection of capital investment, scientific and technical development and project designing. Foreign experience is summed up with the planning, designing and building of nuclear power plants. Attention is centred to the feasibility study and project design stages of nuclear power plant construction in the CSSR. The questions are discussed of capital investment, territorial planning activities, pre-project and project documentation; a survey is presented of legislative provisions involving the project design and capital investment spheres. Briefly outlined are topics for further rationalization of feasibility studies, such as standardization and complex project designs of WWER type nuclear power plants, the introduction of data processing in capital investment provision of WWER type nuclear power plants, and international scientific and technical cooperation including the establishment of a international consultancy centre for the designing and methodology of controlling the building, repairs, reconstruction and the decommissioning of WWER type nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 81 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  4. Nuclear Power in Space


    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  5. The nuclear power cycle

    Fifty years after the first nuclear reactor come on-line, nuclear power is fourth among the world's primary energy sources, after oil, coal and gas. In 2002, there were 441 reactors in operation worldwide. The United States led the world with 104 reactors and an installed capacity of 100,000 MWe, or more than one fourth of global capacity. Electricity from nuclear energy represents 78% of the production in France, 57% in Belgium, 46% in Sweden, 40% in Switzerland, 39% in South Korea, 34% in Japan, 30% in Germany, 30% in Finland, 26% in Spain, 22% in Great Britain, 20% in the United States and 16% in Russia. Worldwide, 32 reactors are under construction, including 21 in Asia. This information document presents the Areva activities in the nuclear power cycle: the nuclear fuel, the nuclear reactors, the spent fuel reprocessing and recycling and nuclear cleanup and dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  6. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  7. Development of nuclear power

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  8. Nuclear power experience

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Experience, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Hofburg Conference Center, Vienna, Austria, from 13 to 17 September 1982. Almost 1200 participants and observers from 63 countries and 20 organizations attended the conference. The 239 papers presented were grouped under the following seven main topics: planning and development of nuclear power programmes; technical and economic experience of nuclear power production; the nuclear fuel cycle; nuclear safety experience; advanced systems; international safeguards; international co-operation. The proceedings are published in six volumes. The sixth volume contains a complete Contents of Volume 1 to 5, a List of Participants, Authors and Transliteration Indexes, a Subject Index and an Index of Papers by Number

  9. 600 MW nuclear power database

    600 MW Nuclear power database, based on ORACLE 6.0, consists of three parts, i.e. nuclear power plant database, nuclear power position database and nuclear power equipment database. In the database, there are a great deal of technique data and picture of nuclear power, provided by engineering designing units and individual. The database can give help to the designers of nuclear power

  10. Nuclear power's dim future

    The future of nuclear power in the United States is behind us. At the end of 1992, about one-fifth of the U.S. supply of baseload electric power was generated by nuclear plants. The percentage of the nation's electricity produced by nuclear power will decline and the industry's prospects will remain dim. A main damper on the industry's clear plants for the United States in the last 15 years, and none are expected. Other factors that have hurt the American nuclear power industry include escalating capital and operating costs, lengthening licensing and construction times (which contributed substantially to capital cost escalation), allegations of questionable management at several facilities, and seemingly intractable technical problems that include the storage and disposal of increasing amounts of high- and low-level radioactive wastes

  11. Future nuclear power

    There is no future without nuclear power. Although this view is contested vehemently by dyed-in-the-wool nuclear opponents, more and more indications pointing to a future with nuclear power can be derived from international developments, but are also evident from first principles of the connection between technical development and power supply, especially in the light of global changes over very long periods of time. A qualitative comparison is made of pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial modes of technical production; the characteristics of the latter are derived from the need for consistency with the unlimited technical possibilities of automation of human labor. It is seen that future requirements to be met in energy supply will be determined chiefly by contraints of reproducing nature. Given proper further development, nuclear power will be able to meet these requirements quickly and extensively. Other sources of primary energy are indispensable over interim periods of time. (orig.)

  12. Safeguarding nuclear power stations

    The basic features of nuclear fuel accounting and control in present-day power reactors are considered. Emphasis is placed on reactor operations and spent-fuel characteristics for Light-Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy-Water Reactors (HWRs)

  13. Nuclear power plant construction

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  14. Safety and nuclear power

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.)

  15. Globalization and nuclear power

    Different aspects of the experience of nuclear power as recounted by well-known commentators and new contributors are included in two special issues. In general, the discussions are historical and theoretical and most are retrospective. The current position of nuclear power world wide is considered. Its future seems less than secure especially as it will have to compete alongside other energy sources with many problems of control of its materials still unresolved. (UK)

  16. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  17. Nuclear power plant erection

    The erection of a nuclear power plant covers all the installation operations related to mechanical and electrical equipment in buildings designed for this specific purpose. Some of these operations are described: erection of the nuclear boiler, erection work carried out in the building accomodating the nuclear auxiliary and ancillary equipment and the methods and the organization set up in order to carry out this work satisfactorily are analyzed

  18. The Korean nuclear power program

    Although the world nuclear power industry may appear to be in decline, continued nuclear power demand in Korea indicates future opportunities for growth and prosperity in this country. Korea has one of the world's most vigorous nuclear power programs. Korea has been an active promoter of nuclear power generation since 1978, when the country introduced nuclear power as a source of electricity. Korea now takes pride in the outstanding performance of its nuclear power plants, and has established a grand nuclear power scheme. This paper is aimed at introducing the nuclear power program of Korea, including technological development, international cooperation, and CANDU status in Korea. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Nuclear power and leukaemia

    This booklet describes the nature of leukaemia, disease incidence in the UK and the possible causes. Epidemiological studies observing rates of leukaemia near nuclear power stations in the UK and other parts of the world are discussed. Possible causes of leukaemia excesses near nuclear establishments include radioactive discharges into the environment, paternal radiation exposure and viral causes. (UK)

  20. Turkey's nuclear power effort

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey's plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way

  1. No to nuclear power

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Randall, George A.


    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  3. Nuclear power in space

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  4. Nuclear power for tomorrow

    The evolution of nuclear power has established this energy source as a viable mature technology, producing at comparative costs more than 16% of the electricity generated world-wide. After outlining the current status of nuclear power, extreme future scenarios are presented, corresponding respectively to maximum penetration limited by technical-economic characteristics, and nuclear phase-out at medium term. The situation is complex and country specific. The relative perception of the importance of different factors and the compensation of advantages vs. disadvantages, or risk vs. benefits, has predominant influence. In order to proceed with an objective and realistic estimate of the future role of nuclear power worldwide, the fundamental factors indicated below pro nuclear power and against are assessed, including expected trends regarding their evolution: Nuclear safety risk; reduction to levels of high improbability but not zero risk. Reliable source of energy; improvements towards uniform standards of excellence. Economic competitiveness vs. alternatives; stabilization and possible reduction of costs. Financing needs and constraints; availability according to requirements. Environmental effects; comparative analysis with alternatives. Public and political acceptance; emphasis on reason and facts over emotions. Conservation of fossil energy resources; gradual deterioration but no dramatic crisis. Energy supply assurance; continuing concerns. Infrastructure requirements and availability; improvements in many countries due to overall development. Non-proliferation in military uses; separation of issues from nuclear power. IAEA forecasts to the year 2005 are based on current projects, national plans and policies and on prevailing trends. Nuclear electricity generation is expected to reach about 18% of total worldwide electricity generation, with 500 to 580 GW(e) installed capacity. On a longer term, to 2030, a stabilized role and place among available viable

  5. Experience in Neutron Physics Acquired at Marcoule and Chinon. Its Value for the Graphite-Reactor Programme

    The entry into service of the first French power reactor - Gl, G2 and G3 at Marcoule and EDF1 at Chinon - has provided fundamental experience for the further development of this reactor type. This experience has accrued both from start-up tests and from power operation. The most important start-up tests consisted of : (a) Progressive replacement experiments, which made it possible to perfect the methods of calculation for G2 and EDF1; and (b) Fixed absorber and control rod-tests. Through the operation of G2 and G3, a better adjustment of the reactivity balance under power has been achieved, taking into account effects of temperature and xenon poisoning. Similarly, experiments carried out with the reactors during operation under power have made it possible to check the validity of the kinetic models used to study transient phenomena in this type of reactor. The experience acquired with the first French graphite reactors - though it still has to be completed by measurements of a more basic and systematic kind on assemblies specially designed for the purpose, such as MARIUS and CESAR - has thus proved to be of extreme value both for future projects and for studies on the operation of large power stations, where problems of control and kinetics are especially important. (author)

  6. Country nuclear power profiles

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  7. The reality of nuclear power

    The following matters are discussed in relation to the nuclear power programmes in USA and elsewhere: siting of nuclear power plants in relation to a major geological fault; public attitudes to nuclear power; plutonium, radioactive wastes and transfrontier contamination; radiation and other hazards; economics of nuclear power; uranium supply; fast breeder reactors; insurance of nuclear facilities; diversion of nuclear materials and weapons proliferation; possibility of manufacture of nuclear weapons by developing countries; possibility of accidents on nuclear power plants in developing countries; radiation hazards from use of uranium ore tailings; sociological alternative to use of nuclear power. (U.K.)

  8. Sulfid-Chinon Reduktase (SQR) aus Aquifex aeolicus: Gensynthese, Expression, Reinigung und biochemische Charakterisierung

    Schödl, Thomas


    Biologische Sulfidoxidation findet in Organismen aller drei Domänen des Lebens statt. Als das in vielen Bakterien dafür verantwortliche Enzym wurde eine Sulfid:Chinon Oxidoreduktase (SQR) identifiziert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die SQR aus dem hyperthermophilen Eubakterium Aquifex aeolicus heterolog in Escherichia coli exprimiert und zur Homogenität gereinigt. Dazu wurde ein künstliches Gen synthetisiert, welches an den Codon-Gebrauch von Escherichia coli angepasst ist. Das gereinigte...

  9. France without nuclear power

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.-G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M. (Atomic Energy Commission, Paris (France))


    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, so the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme has been the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant. The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1937 to 47% in 1989). The French nuclear industry is also a source of exports, contributing FF 20 billion to the credit side of the balance of payments in 1989. The authors therefore feel that a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential to any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. This assessment is set out in the paper using the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission). An assessment of the role of nuclear power in combatting the greenhouse effect is made. 9 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Future nuclear power generation

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  11. The nuclear power alternative

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  12. Nuclear power in perspective

    The nuclear power debate hinges upon three major issues: radioactive waste disposal, reactor safety and proliferation. An alternative strategy for waste disposal is advocated which involves disposing of the radwaste (immobilized in SYNROC, a titanate ceramic waste form) in deep (4 km) drill-holes widely dispersed throughout the entire country. It is demonstrated that this strategy possesses major technical (safety) advantages over centralized, mined repositories. The comparative risks associated with coal-fired power generation and with the nuclear fuel cycle have been evaluated by many scientists, who conclude that nuclear power is far less hazardous. Considerable improvements in reactor design and safety are readily attainable. The nuclear industry should be obliged to meet these higher standards. The most hopeful means of limiting proliferation lies in international agreements, possibly combined with international monitoring and control of key segments of the fuel cycle, such as reprocessing

  13. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  14. Nuclear power in Japan

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  15. Steps to nuclear power

    The recent increase in oil prices will undoubtedly cause the pace at which nuclear power is introduced in developing countries to quicken in the next decade, with many new countries beginning to plan nuclear power programmes. The guidebook is intended for senior government officials, policy makers, economic and power planners, educationalists and economists. It assumes that the reader has relatively little knowledge of nuclear power systems or of nuclear physics but does have a general technical or management background. Nuclear power is described functionally from the point of view of an alternative energy source in power system expansion. The guidebook is based on an idealized approach. Variations on it are naturally possible and will doubtless be necessary in view of the different organizational structures that already exist in different countries. In particular, some countries may prefer an approach with a stronger involvement of their Atomic Energy Commission or Authority, for which this guidebook has foreseen mainly a regulatory and licensing role. It is intended to update this booklet as more experience becomes available. Supplementary guidebooks will be prepared on certain major topics, such as contracting for fuel supply and fuel cycle requirements, which the present book does not go into very deeply

  16. Space technology needs nuclear power

    Space technology needs nuclear power to solve its future problems. Manned space flight to Mars is hardly feasible without nuclear propulsion, and orbital nuclear power lants will be necessary to supply power to large satellites or large space stations. Nuclear power also needs space technology. A nuclear power plant sited on the moon is not going to upset anybody, because of the high natural background radiation level existing there, and could contribute to terrestrial power supply. (orig./HP)

  17. Nuclear power: Europe report

    Last year, 2002, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 213 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 814 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 135 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Temelin-2 in the Czech Republic went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Temelin-2 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) and 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Bradwell A-1 and Bradwell A-2 power plants in the United Kingdom decided to permanently shut down the plants due to economical reasons. The units Kozloduj-1 and Kozloduj-2 in Bulgaria were permanently shut down due to a request of the European Union. Last year, 9 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. The Finnish parliament approved plans for the construction of the country's fifth nuclear power reactor by a majority of 107 votes to 92. It is the first decision to build a new nuclear power plant in Western Europe since ten years. In eight countries of the European Union 141 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 580 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 517 MWe. Net electricity production in 2002 in the EU amounts to approx. 887.9 TWh gross, which means a share of about 34 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 81% in Lithuania, 78% in France, 58% in Belgium, 55% in the Slovak Republic, and 47% in Sweden. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy

  18. Commercial nuclear power 1990


    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Nuclear power industry

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people's republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear power. Europe report

    Last year, 2001, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 216 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 802 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 212 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Volgodonsk-1 in Russia went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Volgodonsk-1 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) nd 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich NPP field an application to decommission and dismantle the plant; this plant was only 13 months in operation and has been shut down since 1988 for legal reasons. Last year, 10 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), the Czech Republic (1) and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. In eight countries of the European Union 143 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 758 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 601 MWe. Net electricity production in 2001 in the EU amounts to approx. 880.3 TWh gross, which means a share of 33,1 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 75.6% in France, 74.2% in Lithuania, 58.2% in Belgium, 53.2% in the Slovak Republic, and 47.4% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. On May 24th, 2002 the Finnish Parliament voted for the decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant in the country. This launches the next stage in the nuclear power plant project. The electric output of the plant unit will be 1000-1600 MW

  1. Nuclear power's burdened future

    Although governments of the world's leading nations are reiterating their faith in nuclear power, Chernobyl has brought into focus the public's overwhelming feeling that the current generation of nuclear technology is simple not working. Despite the drastic slowdown, however, the global nuclear enterprise is large. As of mid-1986, the world had 366 nuclear power plants in operation, with a generating capacity of 255,670 MW. These facilities generate about 15% of the world's electricity, ranging from 65% in France to 31% in West Germany, 23% in Japan, 16% in the United States, 10% in the Soviet Union, and non in most developing nations. Nuclear development is clearly dominated by the most economically powerful and technologically advanced nations. The United States, France, the Soviet Union, Japan, and West Germany has 72% of the world's generating capacity and set the international nuclear pace. The reasons for scaling back nuclear programs are almost as diverse as the countries themselves. High costs, slowing electricity demand growth, technical problems, mismanagement, and political opposition have all had an effect. Yet these various factors actually form a complex web of inter-related problems. For example, rising costs usually represent some combination of technical problems and mismanagement, and political opposition often occurs because of safety concerns or rising costs. 13 references

  2. France without nuclear power

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Nuclear Power after Fukushima

    On 11 March 2011 Japan suffered an earthquake of very high magnitude, followed by a tsunami that left thousands dead in the Sendai region, the main consequence of which was a major nuclear disaster at the Fukushima power station. The accident ranked at the highest level of severity on the international scale of nuclear events, making it the biggest since Chernobyl in 1986. It is still impossible to gauge the precise scope of the consequences of the disaster, but it has clearly given rise to the most intense renewed debates on the nuclear issue. Futuribles echoes this in the 'Forum' feature of this summer issue which is entirely devoted to energy questions. Bernard Bigot, chief executive officer of the technological research organization CEA, looks back on the Fukushima disaster and what it changes (or does not change) so far as the use of nuclear power is concerned, particularly in France. After recalling the lessons of earlier nuclear disasters, which led to the development of the third generation of power stations, he reminds us of the currently uncontested need to free ourselves from dependence on fossil fuels, which admittedly involves increased use of renewables, but can scarcely be envisaged without nuclear power. Lastly, where the Fukushima disaster is concerned, Bernard Bigot shows how it was, in his view, predominantly the product of a management error, from which lessons must be drawn to improve the safety conditions of existing or projected power stations and enable the staff responsible to deliver the right response as quickly as possible when an accident occurs. In this context and given France's high level of dependence on nuclear power, the level of use of this energy source ought not to be reduced on account of the events of March 2011. (author)

  4. Reviewing nuclear power

    The UK government has proposed a review of the prospects for nuclear power as the Sizewell B pressurized water reactor project nears completion in 1994. However, a delay in the completion of Sizewell B or a change of government could put off the review for some years beyond the mid 1990s. Anticipating, though, that such a review will eventually take place, issues which it should consider are addressed. Three broad categories of possible benefit claimed for nuclear power are examined. These are that nuclear power contributes to the security of energy supply, that it provides protection against long run fossil fuel price increases and that it is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Arguments are presented which cost doubt over the reality of these benefits. Even if these benefits could be demonstrated, they would have to be set against the financial, health and accident costs attendant on nuclear power. It is concluded that the case may be made that nuclear power imposes net costs on society that are not justified by the net benefits conferred. Some comments are made on how a government review, if and when it takes place, should be conducted. (UK)

  5. France without nuclear power

    As coal production declined and France found herself in a condition of energy dependency, the country decided to turn to nuclear power and a major construction program was undertaken in 1970. The consequences of this step are examined in this article, by imagining where France would be without its nuclear power. At the end of the sixties, fuel-oil incontestably offered the cheapest way of producing electricity; but the first petroleum crisis was to upset the order of economic performance, and coal then became the more attractive fuel. The first part of this article therefore presents coal as an alternative to nuclear power, describing the coal scenario first and then comparing the relative costs of nuclear and coal investment strategies and operating costs (the item that differs most is the price of the fuel). The second part of the article analyzes the consequences this would have on the electrical power market, from the supply and demand point of view, and in terms of prices. The third part of the article discusses the macro-economic consequences of such a step: the drop in the level of energy dependency, increased costs and the disappearance of electricity exports. The article ends with an analysis of the environmental consequences, which are of greater and greater concern today. The advantage here falls very much in favor of nuclear power, if we judge by the lesser emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and especially carbon dioxide. 22 refs.; 13 figs.; 10 tabs

  6. The politics of nuclear power

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  7. Environment and nuclear power

    Aimed at the general public this leaflet, one of a series prepared by AEA Technology, on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, seeks to put the case for generating electricity to meet United Kingdom and world demand using nuclear power. It examines the environmental problems linked to the use of fossil-fuels in power stations and other uses, such as the Greenhouse Effect. Problems associated with excess carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed, such as acid rain, the effects of deforestation and lead in petrol. The role of renewable energy sources is mentioned briefly. The leaflet also seeks to reassure on issues such as nuclear waste managements and the likelihood and effects of nuclear accidents. (UK)

  8. Nuclear power production costs

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author)

  9. Thai Nuclear Power Program

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  10. Nuclear power plants

    Before the economical adaptability of nuclear power plants was achieved, many ways were tried to technically use nuclear fission. In the course of a selection process, of numerous types of reactors, only a few have remained which are now taking part in the competition. The most important physical fundamentals, the occurence of various reactor concepts and the most important reactor types are the explained. (orig./TK)

  11. Nuclear power in Germany

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  12. Nuclear power: Europe report

    Last year, 1999, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In eight of the fifteen member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. A total of 218 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 181,120 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 171,802 MWe were in operation. Two units, i.e. Civaux 2 in France and Mochovce-2 in Slovakia went critical for the first time and started commercial operation after having been connected to the grid. Three further units in France, Chooz 1 and 2 and Civaux 1, started commercial operation in 1999 after the completion of technical measures in the primary circuit. Last year, 13 plants were under construction in Romania, Russia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, that is only in East European countries. In eight countries of the European Union 146 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 129.772 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 123.668 MWe. Net electricity production in 1999 in the EU amounts to approx. 840.2 TWh, which means a share of 35 per cent of the total production. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 75 per cent in France, 73 per cent in Lithuania, 58 per cent in Belgium and 47 per cent in Bulgaria, Sweden and Slovakia. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal and Austria. (orig.)

  13. How nuclear power began

    Many of the features of the story of nuclear power, both in nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations, derive from their timing. Usually, in the history of science the precise timing of discovery does not make much difference, but in the case of nuclear fission there was the coincidence that crucial discoveries were made and openly published in the same year, 1939, as the outbreak of the Second World War. It is these events of the 1930s and the early post-war era that are mainly discussed. However, the story began a lot earlier and even in the early 1900s the potential power within the atom had been foreseen by Soddy and Rutherford. In the 1930s Enrico Fermi and his team saw the technological importance of their discoveries and took out a patent on their process to produce artificial radioactivity from slow neutron beams. The need for secrecy because of the war, and the personal trusts and mistrusts run through the story of nuclear power. (UK)

  14. Nuclear power energy mixes

    The report contains the papers presented at the conference held on 23/24 February 1994 at the RWTH in Aachen. The goal of this conference was to analyse key issues of future energy management from different viewpoints and to attempt to achieve objective estimations. This VDI Report treats the following main themes: - is the climate question relevant? - chances and limits of renewable energy sources - does nuclear power have a future? - are the nuclear and non-nuclear waste problems solvable? - external costs in energy management -company and energy management decision criteria. (orig.)

  15. Japan's nuclear power tightrope

    This paper reports that early in February, just as Japan's nuclear energy program was regaining a degree of popular support after three years of growing opposition, an aging pressurized-water reactor at Mihama in western Japan sprang a leak in its primary cooling system. The event occasioned Japan's first nontest use of an emergency core-cooling system. It also elicited a forecast of renewed public skepticism about nuclear power form the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Government body responsible for promoting and regulating Japan's ambitious nuclear power program. Public backing for this form of energy has always been a delicate flower in Japan, where virtually every school child visits the atomic bomb museums at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Yet the country, which imports 80 percent of its energy and just about all its oil, is behind only the United States, France, and the Soviet Union in installed nuclear capacity. In fiscal 1989, which started in April, Japan's 39 nuclear power stations accounted for 25.5 percent of electricity generated - the largest contribution - followed b coal and natural gas. Twelve more plants are under construction

  16. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    Powell, John W.


    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  17. Biblis nuclear power station

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  18. Fessenheim nuclear power station

    The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

  19. The abuse of nuclear power

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  20. Labor and nuclear power

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.


    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2007

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2007 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  4. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  6. Nuclear power plant simulator

    In this paper, real time nuclear power plant simulator for student education is described. The simulator is composed of a hybrid computer and an operating console. Simulated power plant is a 36 MWt PWR plant, and the average temperature of the primary coolant within the reactor is controlled to be constant. Reactor Kinetics, fuel temperature, primary coolant temperature, temperature and pressure of steam within the steam generator, steam flow, control rod driving system, and feed water controlling system are simulated. The use of the hybrid computer made it possible to simulate a relatively large scale power plant with a comparatively small size computing system. (auth.)

  7. Facts about nuclear power

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW)

  8. Economics of nuclear power

    The economics of electricity supply and production in the FRG is to see on the background of the unique European interconnected grid system which makes very significant contributions to the availability of standby energy and peak load power. On this basis and the existing high voltage grid system, we can build large nuclear generating units and realise the favorable cost aspects per installed KW and reduced standby power. An example of calculating the overall electricity generating costs based on the present worth method is explained. From the figures shown, the sensitivity of the generating costs with respect to the different cost components can be derived. It is apparent from the example used, that the major advantage of nuclear power stations compared with fossil fired stations lies in the relatively small percentage fraction contributed by the fuel costs to the electricity generating costs. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear Power Prospects

    The present trend is to construct larger plants: the average power of the plants under construction at present, including prototypes, is 300 MW(e), i.e. three times higher than in the case of plants already in operation. Examples of new large-scale plants ares (a) Wylfa, Anglesey, United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1180 MW(e) (800 MW to be installed by 1967), to be completed in 1968; (b) ''Dungeness B'', United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1200 MW(e); (c) second unit for United States Dresden power plant - scheduled power of 715 MW(e) minimum to almost 800 MW(e). Nuclear plants on the whole serve the same purpose as conventional thermal plants

  10. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Houts, Michael G.


    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  11. Nuclear power for desalination

    Water is one of the most important assets to mankind and without which the human race would cease to exist. Water is required by us right from domestic to industrial levels. As notified by the 'American Nuclear Society' and 'World Nuclear Association' about 1/5th of the world population does not access to portable water especially in the Asian and African subcontinent. The situation is becoming adverse day by day due to rise in population and industrialization. The need of alternative water resource is thus becoming vital. About 97.5% of Earth is covered by oceans. Desalination of saline water to generate potable water is thus an important topic of research. Currently about 12,500 desalination plants are operating worldwide with a capacity of about 35 million m3/day using mainly fossil fuels for generation of large amount of energy required for processing water. These thermal power station release large amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gases. Nuclear reactors are capable of delivering energy to the high energy-intensive processes without any environmental concerns for climate change etc., giving a vision to sustainable growth of desalination process. These projects are currently employed in Kazakhstan, India, Japan, and Pakistan and are coupled to the nuclear reactor for generating electricity and potable water as well. The current climatic scenario favors the need for expanding dual purpose nuclear power plants producing energy and water at the same location. (author)

  12. Economics of nuclear power projects

    Nuclear power development in Taiwan was initiated in 1956. Now Taipower has five nuclear units in smooth operation, one unit under construction, two units under planning. The relatively short construction period, low construction costs and twin unit approach had led to the significant economical advantage of our nuclear power generation. Moreover betterment programmes have further improved the availability and reliability factors of our nuclear power plants. In Taipower, the generation cost of nuclear power was even less than half of that of oil-fired thermal power in the past years ever since the nuclear power was commissioned. This made Taipower have more earnings and power rates was even dropped down in March 1983. As Taiwan is short of energy sources and nuclear power is so well-demonstrated nuclear power will be logically the best choice for Taipower future projects

  13. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  14. Nuclear power and ethics

    The author can see no sense in demanding an ethical regime to be applied exclusively to nuclear power but rather calls for an approach that discusses nuclear power as one constituent of the complex energy issue in a way spanning all dimensions involved, as e.g. the technological, economic, cultural, humanitarian, and humanistic aspects. An ethical approach does not question scientific research, or science or technology, but examines their relation to man and the future of humanity, so that an ethical approach will first of all demand that society will bring forward conscientious experts as reliable partners in the process of discussing the ethical implications of progress and development in a higly industrialised civilisation. (orig./CB)

  15. Nuclear turbine power plant

    Purpose : To improve the heat cycle balance in a nuclear turbine power plant or the like equipped with a moisture separating and reheating device, by eliminating undesired overcooling of the drains in the pipes of a heat transmission pipe bundle. Constitution : A high pressure turbine is driven by main steams from a steam generator. The steams after driving the high pressure turbine are removed with moistures by way of a moisture separator and then re-heated. Extracted steams from the steam generator or the high pressure turbine are used as a heating source for the reheating. In the nuclear turbine power plant having such a constitution, a vessel for separating the drains and the steams resulted from the heat exchange is provided at the outlet of the reheating device and the steams in the vessel are introduced to the inlet of the moisture separator. (Aizawa, K.)

  16. Kruemmel nuclear power plant

    This short description of the site and the nuclear power plant with information on the presumable effects on the environment and the general public is to provide some data material to the population in a popular form so that the citizens may in form themselves about the plant. In this description which shall be presented to the safety report, the site, the technical design and the operation mode of the nuclear power plant are described. Some problems of the emission and the effects of radioactive materials as well as other issues related to the plant which are of interest to the public are dealt with. The supposed accidents and their handling are discussed. The description shows that the selected site is suitable for both setting-up and operation of the plant without affecting the safety of the people living there and that in admissible burdens of the environment shall not have to be expected. (orig./HP)

  17. Jobs and nuclear power

    To guarantee the existence of Germany as an industrialized country, and to protect jobs, the country needs a comprehensive energy consensus not restricted to the solution of the debate about the future of nuclear power. From the point of view of IGBCE, the Mining, Chemistry and Energy Workers Union, striving for continuity remains a basic prerequisite. The energy mix currently existing offers the best preconditions for a future energy supply in the light of the worldwide development to be expected. Nuclear power cannot be replaced for a foreseeable time without this giving rise to considerable damage to the national economy and ecology alike. An overall objective should be to keep electricity generation in the country. Consistent resource conservation, more efficient energy use, and stricter energy conservation must further enhance the environmental acceptability of energy generation and energy consumption. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear power plant

    Purpose: To suppress corrosion at the inner surfaces of equipments and pipeways in nuclear power plants. Constitution: An injection device comprising a chemical injection tank and a plunger type chemical injection pump for injecting hydrazine as an oxygen remover and ammonia as a pH controller is disposed to the downstream of a condensate desalter column for primary coolant circuits. Since dessolved oxygen in circuit water injected with these chemicals is substantially reduced to zero and pH is adjuted to about 10 - 11, occurrence of stress corrosion cracks in carbon steels and stainless steels as main constituent materials for the nuclear power plant and corrosion products are inhibited in high temperature water, and of corrosion products are inhibited from being introduced as they are through leakage to the reactor core, by which the operators' exposure does can be decreased significantly. (Sekiya, K.)

  19. Nuclear power generation

    The case for nuclear power, from both a world and a British standpoint, is first discussed, with particular reference to oil supply and demand. It is considered that oil and gas should in future be used as a feedstock for the chemical industry, for transportation purposes, and as a starting point for protein food for animals and later for humans; to squander so much by burning simply as a crude fuel cannot be right. It is considered that Britain should continue constructing nuclear stations at a steady modest rate, and that the fast reactor should receive increasing attention, despite the anti-nuclear lobby. The case for the fast breeder reactor is discussed in detail, including its development at UKAEA Harwell and Dounreay. Accusations against the fast reactor are considered, particularly those concerned with safety, and with the use or misuse of Pu. Public debates are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Pragmatics of nuclear power

    In context of depletion of fossil fuels and continuous increase of global warming, nuclear power is highly solicited by world energy congress for solving energy crisis for ever. No doubt, a small amount of nuclear fuel can provide immense amount of energy but in exchange of what? Safety, security, large compensation and huge risk of lives, gift of radio-activity to environment and so many adverse effects. Yet are we in a position to reject or neglect it exclusively? Can we show such luxury? Again are we capable to control such a demon for the benefit of human being. Either is it magic lamp of Aladdin or a Frankenstein? Who will give the answer? Likely after nuclear war, is there anybody left in this planet to hide or is there any place available to hide. Answers are not yet known. (author)

  1. US nuclear power programs

    In the United States, coal provided 56 percent of the electricity generated in 1992. Nuclear energy was the next largest contributor, supplying 22 percent. Natural gas provided 9 percent, while hydro-electric and renewables together supplied another 9 percent. Currently, the 109 nuclear power plants in the U.S. have an overall generating capacity of 99,000 MWe. To improve efficiency, safety, and performance, the lessons of 30 years of experience with nuclear powerplants are being incorporated into design criteria for the next generation of U.S. plants. The new Advanced Light Water Reactor plants will feature simpler designs, which will enable more cost-effective construction and maintenance. To enhance safety, design margins are being increased, and human factors are being considered and incorporated into the designs

  2. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  3. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  4. Nuclear power and public perceptions

    This text presents and analyzes a survey dealing with public opinion about nuclear power. The author suggests ways to improve communication and information in order to lead people to have a better opinion concerning nuclear power. (TEC)

  5. Nuclear Power: Epilogue or Prologue?

    Harold R. Denton


    Judging by the continuing stream of nuclear power plant cancellations and downward revisions of nuclear energy forecasts, there is nothing riskier than predicting the future of commercial nuclear power. U.S. Nuclear Regulation Commissioner John Ahearne (1981) likens the recent events affecting the nuclear power industry in the United States to a Greek tragedy. Others, particularly other nations, take a different view about the future.

  6. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG)

  7. Vietnam and nuclear power

    Nguyen, N.T.; Hong, L.V. [Viet Nam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    Economy of Vietnam is developing fast and the electricity demand is growing drastically, last five years about 12.5% per year. The Government puts high target for the future with GDP rating about 8% per year up to 2020. In this case, the electricity demand in 2020 will be tenfold bigger in comparison with 1995`s level. The deficient of domestic resources and the security of energy supply invoke the favorable consideration on nuclear power. (author)

  8. Nuclear power in Sweden

    The lecture describes the energy-political situation in Sweden after the change of Government in October 1976. The present announced nuclear power plant-hostile energy politic, has to face the viewpoints of a technical and economical dependent reality. Disagreements and transgressions of political competences must be reduced, due to the fact that a constructive cooperation between politicians and energy producing corporations is a necessity, to guarantee a safe energy supply in Sweden. (orig.)

  9. Vietnam and nuclear power

    Economy of Vietnam is developing fast and the electricity demand is growing drastically, last five years about 12.5% per year. The Government puts high target for the future with GDP rating about 8% per year up to 2020. In this case, the electricity demand in 2020 will be tenfold bigger in comparison with 1995's level. The deficient of domestic resources and the security of energy supply invoke the favorable consideration on nuclear power. (author)

  10. Nuclear power generation device

    In a PWR type reactor, a free piston type stirling engine is disposed instead of a conventional steam generator and a turbine. Since the stirling engine does not cause radiation leakage in view of the structure, safety and reliability of the nuclear power generation are improved. Further, the thermal cycle, if it operates theoretically, is equivalent with a Carnot cycle having the highest thermodynamical heat efficiency, thereby enabling to obtain a high heat efficiency in an actual engine. (N.H.)

  11. Nuclear power in Italy

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  12. World status: nuclear power

    The nuclear power situation in 1988 in briefly reviewed. The prospects for the 1990s are then considered. Apart from the use of nuclear power to fuel spacecraft the prospects are not that bright. The European fast breeder programme is coming to a premature end with the winding down of the fast breeder research centre at Dounreay and the delay with the French programme because of the sodium leak at Superphenix. If plutonium is no longer needed to fuel the fast breeder reactors, the reprocessing of spent fuels is less attractive. However, seven new reprocessing plants are due to be commissioned in the next six years. The THORP plant in Britain may be affected by the privatization plans for the electricity supply industry. Decommissioning and waste storage/disposal are issues which will have to be resolved in the 1990s. The risk of accidents especially from aircraft crashes is discussed. Altogether the prospects for nuclear power are not very good. The keynote of the decade will be cleaning up rather than expansion. (U.K.)

  13. Submarine nuclear power plant

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. The future of nuclear power

    Nuclear power is an extremely sensitive issue and its future has been hotly debated. Conflicting arguments have been put forward regarding the viability of nuclear power. The question of whether the world should look to nuclear power for its electricity generating needs is addressed. 2 ills

  15. Overview paper on nuclear power

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power

  16. Nuclear eclectic power.

    Rose, D J


    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear power renaissance or demise?

    Dossani, Umair


    Nuclear power is going through a renaissance or demise is widely debated around the world keeping in mind the facts that there are risks related to nuclear technology and at the same time that is it environmentally friendly. My part of the argument is that there is no better alternative than Nuclear power. Firstly Nuclear Power in comparison to all other alternative fuels is environmentally sustainable. Second Nuclear power at present is at the dawn of a new era with new designs and technologies. Third part of the debate is renovation in the nuclear fuel production, reprocessing and disposal.

  19. The need for nuclear power

    This leaflet examines our energy future and concludes that nuclear power is an essential part of it. The leaflet also discusses relative costs, but it does not deal with social and environmental implications of nuclear power in any detail, since these are covered by other British Nuclear Forum publications. Headings are: present consumption; how will this change in future; primary energy resources (fossil fuels; renewable resources; nuclear); energy savings; availability of fossil fuels; availability of renewable energy resources; the contribution of thermal nuclear power; electricity; costs for nuclear power. (U.K.)

  20. Economics of nuclear power

    Difficulties of nuclear power include higher than expected generating costs, rising construction costs, problems of safety and waste disposal, and the general level of excess capacity in the electric utilities sector. Recently, the debate has turned to cost effectiveness, with critics proposing that nuclear power is not competitive with other generating technologies. Despite the importance of costs in evaluating the nuclear option, there has never been a careful examination of the cost structure of the industry. Much of the existing literature on the subject has either focused on the rising capital costs in the industry or has made strong assumptions about the production process. Aspects of the technology, such as returns to scale or input responses to changing prices, have been omitted from consideration. This thesis, carefully examines the industry's cost structure. This study accounts for the many features peculiar to the technology such as the stoichastic nature of production and the inability of firms to optimize overall inputs. In addition, particular attention is given to make sure that capital is measured consistently. The results of the model indicate that significant substitution possibilities exist among inputs, that increasing returns to scale is present throughout the range of observed output and that plants in the sample tend to be overcapitalized. Further, no evidence of embodied technical change is found

  1. Nuclear power regional analysis

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author)

  2. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  3. Nuclear power in Sweden

    Sweden uses 16,000 kWh of electricity per person, by far the highest consumption in EU. The reason is a well-developed electricity intensive industry and a cold climate with high share of electric heating. The annual power consumption has for several years been about 140 TWh and a normal year almost 50 per cent is produced by hydro and 50 percent by nuclear. A new legislation, giving the Government the right to ordering the closure nuclear power plants of political reasons without any reference to safety, has been accepted by the Parliament. The new act, in force since January 1, 1998, is a specially tailored expropriation act. Certain rules for the economical compensation to the owner of a plant to be closed are defined in the new act. The common view in the Swedish industry is that the energy conservation methods proposed by the Government are unrealistic. During the first period of about five years the import from coal fired plants in Denmark and Germany is the only realistic alternative. Later natural gas combi units and new bioenergy plants for co-production of heat and power (CHP) might be available. (orig.)

  4. Is nuclear power acceptable

    The energy shortage forecast for the early 21st century is considered. Possible energy sources other than fossil fuel are stated as geothermal, fusion, solar and fission, of which only fission has been demonstrated technically and economically. The environmental impacts of fission are examined. The hazards are discussed under the following headings: nuclear accident, fatality risk, safe reactor, property damage, acts of God, low-level release of radioactivity, diversion of fissile material and sabotage, radioactive waste disposal, toxicity of plutonium. The public reaction to nuclear power is analyzed, and proposals are made for a programme of safety and security which the author hopes will make it acceptable as the ultimate energy source. (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  6. Floating nuclear power plants

    This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)

  7. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  8. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  13. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice


    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  14. International nuclear power status 2002

    This report is the ninth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2002, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory: 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2001); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2002; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  15. International nuclear power status 2001

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  16. Voices of nuclear power monitors

    The system of nuclear power monitors was started in fiscal 1977 for the purpose of hearing the opinions of general people on nuclear energy development and utilization and reflecting them to the nuclear power administration. The monitors were a total of 509 persons selected throughout the nation. First, the voices received in the period from January to March, 1980, are summarized. Then, the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in January, 1980, are presented. The survey was made by means of the questionnaire sent by mail. Of the total 509 persons, 372 (73.1%) answered the questions. The items of the questionnaire were: Atomic Energy Day, energy problem, nuclear power development, nuclear power safety administration. Three Mile Island nuclear power accident in U.S., and nuclear power P.R. activities. (J.P.N.)

  17. International nuclear power status 1999

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 1999, the report contains: General trends in the development of nuclear power; The past and possible future of Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant; Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1998); An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 1999; The development in Sweden; The development in Eastern Europe; The development in the rest of the world; Trends in the development of reactor types; Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  18. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  19. Nuclear power plant

    The present invention provides a nuclear power plant which generates thermoelectric power by utilizing heat generated by fission reaction. Namely, a fuel/thermoelectric material is made of a semiconductor material containing fission products or a semimetal material containing fission products. A reactor container contains the fuel/thermoelectric material and a reactor core constituted by the fuel/thermoelectric material. The reactor container comprises coolants for removing heat generated by nuclear reaction of fission products from the reactor core and a high temperature side electrode connected to a central portion of the fuel/thermoelectric material and a low temperature side electrode connected to the outside of the fuel/thermoelectric material. Electromotive force is caused in the fuel/thermoelectric material by temperature difference upon combustion caused at the central portion and the outer surface of the fuel/thermoelectric material. The electromotive force is taken out of the high temperature side electrode and the low temperature side electrode. (I.S.)

  20. Nuclear power, nuclear weapons, and international stability

    The National Energy Plan included as one of its key components a revision of this country's long-standing policy on the development of civilian nuclear power. The proposed change, which would have the effect of curtailing certain aspects of the U.S. nuclear-power program and of placing new restrictions on the export of nuclear materials, equipment, and services, was based explicitly on the assumption that there is a positive correlation between the worldwide spread of nuclear-power plants and their associated technology on the one hand, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the risk of nuclear war on the other. The authors advance here the heretical proposition that the supposed correlation may go the other way, and that the recent actions and statements of the U.S. Government have taken little account of this possibility. In brief, they suggest that if the U.S. were to forgo the option of expanding its nuclear-energy supply, the global scarcity of usable energy resources would force other countries to opt even more vigorously for nuclear power and, moreover, to do so in ways that would tend to be internationally destabilizing. Thus, actions taken with the earnest intent of strengthening world security would ultimately weaken it. They believe further that any policy that seeks to divide the world into nuclear ''have'' and ''have not'' nations by attempting to lock up the assets of nuclear technologywill lead to neither a just nor a sustainable world society but to the inverse. In any event the technology itself probably cannot be effectively contained. They believe that the dangers of nuclear proliferation can be eliminated only by building a society that sees no advantage in having nuclear weapons in the first place. Accordingly, they view the problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons as an important issue not just in the context of nuclear power but in a larger context

  1. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  2. Nuclear Power Plant

    Analia Bonelli


    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  3. Nuclear power: An economic geography

    Mounfield, P.R.


    This book presents a major study of the economic and social geography of nuclear power. Starting with descriptions of the distribution of nuclear power on a national and international level using maps and graphs, the book goes on to discuss a whole range of topics ranging from reactor design to the socio-economic impact of nuclear power stations. The book discuses the issues as they apply throughout the world.

  4. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  5. Manpower development for nuclear power

    This Guidebook provides policy-makers and managers of nuclear power programmes with information and guidance on the role, requirements, planning and implementation of manpower development programmes. It presents and discusses the manpower requirements associated with the activities of a nuclear power programme, the technical qualifications of this manpower and the manpower development corresponding to these requirements and qualifications. The Guidebook also discusses the purpose and conditions of national participation in the activities of a nuclear power programme

  6. Nuclear power program in Korea

    Korea is a nation making great progress with its nuclear power development program despite the current worldwide nuclear industry slump resulting from the global recession. The reason for this is that Korea does not have sufficient energy resources to meet demand. Six 950 MW nuclear power plants are under construction, and these units are scheduled for completion by 1989. This paper describes the status of Korea's nuclear power development program and the activities of local nuclear industries. It also discusses the efforts being made by local industries to achieve self-reliance

  7. France's nuclear power programme

    The prospects of development of France's consumption of electricity will widen the deficit of her national energy resources. Nuclear power stations should enable this deficit to be reduced, provided a certain number of uncertainties prevailing today are resolved. The first programme, put forward by Messrs. AILLERET and TARANGER at the 1955 Geneva Conference aimed at commissioning 850 MWe by 1965; the programme was devoted to developing the natural uranium graphite-gas sequence and reaches its completion with the construction of EDF 3, the world's first unit capable of 500 MWe. Before changing over from the prototype stage to their duplication, Electricite De France decided, in agreement with the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique to build EDF 4, which, while reproducing EDF 3's reactor, together with the referring equipment, the entire control equipment and various other systems, pioneers an important innovation by incorporating the heat exchangers and fans inside the prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core. At the same time, studies are being carried on on the same type of reactor enabling possible use of a new annular-shaped fuel element, whose use would considerably improve the performance of EDF 5, to be envisaged. On the heavy water side, the construction of EL 4 at Brennilis jointly by the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique and Electricite De France is continuing. Design work on a 500 MWe reactor of this type has already started. As regards pressurized water reactors, the Chooz power station is built jointly by Electricite De France and Belgian Utilities. Finally, the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique is continuing the construction of the 'Rapsodie' rapid neutron reactor at Cadarache, together with studies on a larger power reactor. It may thus be seen that the technical and economic knowledge gained on these various types of reactor mean that an equipment program may be contemplated which will endow nuclear power stations with a place of ever

  8. Nuclear power reactor physics

    The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude

  9. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  10. Nuclear power perspective in China

    China started developing nuclear technology for power generation in the 1970s. A substantial step toward building nuclear power plants was taken as the beginning of 1980 s. The successful constructions and operations of Qinshan - 1 NPP, which was an indigenous PWR design with the capacity of 300 MWe, and Daya Bay NPP, which was an imported twin-unit PWR plant from France with the capacity of 900 MWe each, give impetus to further Chinese nuclear power development. Now there are 8 units with the total capacity of 6100 MWe in operation and 3 units with the total capacity of 2600 MWe under construction. For the sake of meeting the increasing demand for electricity for the sustainable economic development, changing the energy mix and mitigating the environment pollution impact caused by fossil fuel power plant, a near and middle term electrical power development program will be established soon. It is preliminarily predicted that the total power installation capacity will be 750-800GWe by the year 2020. The nuclear share will account for at least 4.0-4.5 percent of the total. This situation leaves the Chinese nuclear power industry with a good opportunity but also a great challenge. A practical nuclear power program and a consistent policy and strategy for future nuclear power development will be carefully prepared and implemented so as to maintain the nuclear power industry to be healthfully developed. (author)

  11. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  13. Nuclear power - the Hydra's head

    Following the accident at Chernobyl, the nuclear policies of many governments have been reconsidered and restated. Those in favour of nuclear power are those with highly centralised state bureaucracies, such as France and the USSR, where public opinion is disregarded. In more democratic countries, where referenda are held, such as Austria and Sweden, the people have chosen to do away with nuclear power. Indeed, the author states that nuclear power represents the State against the people, the State against democracy. Reference is made to the IAEA Reactor Safety Conference held in September, 1986, in Vienna, and the declaration sent to it by AntiAtom International. This called for the United Nations to promote the phasing out of nuclear power facilities throughout the world. It also called on the IAEA to support the phasing out of nuclear power and promote benign energy forms instead. (UK)

  14. Nuclear power and the UK

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  15. Nuclear power in human medicine

    The public widely associate nuclear power with the megawatt dimensions of nuclear power plants in which nuclear power is released and used for electricity production. While this use of nuclear power for electricity generation is rejected by part of the population adopting the polemic attitude of ''opting out of nuclear,'' the application of nuclear power in medicine is generally accepted. The appreciative, positive term used in this case is nuclear medicine. Both areas, nuclear medicine and environmentally friendly nuclear electricity production, can be traced back to one common origin, i.e. the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech by U.S. President Eisenhower to the U.N. Plenary Assembly on December 8, 1953. The methods of examination and treatment in nuclear medicine are illustrated in a few examples from the perspective of a nuclear engineer. Nuclear medicine is a medical discipline dealing with the use of radionuclides in humans for medical purposes. This is based on 2 principles, namely that the human organism is unable to distinguish among different isotopes in metabolic processes, and the radioactive substances are employed in amounts so small that metabolic processes will not be influenced. As in classical medicine, the application of these principles serves two complementary purposes: diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  16. Trends in nuclear power developments

    Modern state and prospects of nuclear power development in industrial states are considered. Structure of power consumption, dynamics of nuclear capacity commissioning, the growth of specific capital expenses for reactor construction, orders for NPP production are analyzed. Electric power production costs at NPPs and coal TPPs in Canada, USA, Western Europe and Japan are compared. It is underlined that inspite of certain depressions nuclear power is being developed further on. Increase of electric power consumption for commercial and public purposes and growth of fresh water shortage appear to be the main prerequisites of its further development

  17. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  18. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO

  19. Nuclear power project in Thailand

    Full text: Thailand has been highly relied on fossil fuels for electricity generation. In fact 66% of today's electric power is supplied from natural gas. With current unprecedented increase of oil and gas prices, the country is in need of alternative energy sources more than ever. The Government recognizes the problem and seeks sustainable solution not only to improve energy security but also to reduce greenhouse gases emission, the root of threatening global warming problem. For base load power generation, however, nuclear power is perhaps the only practical option currently available. As a result, in Thailand Power Development Plan 2007-2021 (PDP 2007), there will be a 1,000 MWe nuclear power plant commercialized in 2020 and another in 2021. By the end of 2021, nuclear share of electricity generation of Thailand will be about 5%. Due to the fact that this is Thailand's first nuclear power plant, necessary infrastructures are not currently in place. To cope with this requirement, on April 11, 2007, the National Energy Policy Council (NEPC) appointed the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Preparation Committee (NPIPC) to develop the Nuclear Power Infrastructure Establishment Plan (NPIEP). NPIEP comprises two major plans: nuclear power infrastructure and nuclear power utility preparation plans. Required infrastructures include: legal and regulatory systems and international commitments; industrial infrastructure and commerce; technology development and transfer and human resources development; nuclear safety and environmental protection; and public relations and public acceptance. Utility planning comprises preparations for setting up organizational structure to accommodate a nuclear power project, technology selection, assessment of nuclear safety and technical aspects of nuclear power generation, and implementation of project feasibility study and site selection. NPIEP had been effectively developed under guidelines and technical support from the International Atomic

  20. Low-power nuclear reactors

    A brief development history of low-power nuclear reactors is presented in this paper. Nowadays, some countries have plans to build a series of small nuclear power plants (also floating ones) for use in remote regions. Present constructions of such NPP are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics

  2. Islands for nuclear power stations

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power Development in China

    Lin Chengge; Li Shulan


    @@ China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation, moderate development and active development. So far, there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW. In addition, there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  4. Nuclear power - the moral question

    Nuclear power has raised moral and ethical as well as technological issues and the British Council of churches, recognising this, has participated in the UK nuclear power debate. In this short article, Mr Philip Searby, Secretary of the UKAEA, considers some of the views adopted by the Council. (author)

  5. International nuclear power status 2000

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  6. Nuclear power supply (Japan Nuclear Safety Institute)

    After experienced nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011, role of nuclear power in future energy share in Japan became uncertain because most public seemed to prefer nuclear power phase out to energy security or costs. Whether nuclear power plants were safe shutdown or operational, technologies were requisite for maintaining their equipment by refurbishment, partly replacement or pressure proof function recovery works, all of which were basically performed by welding. Nuclear power plants consisted of tanks, piping and pumps, and considered as giant welded structures welding was mostly used. Reactor pressure vessel subject to high temperature and high pressure was around 200mm thick and made of low-alloy steels (A533B), stainless steels (308, 316) and nickel base alloys (Alloy 600, 690). Kinds of welding at site were mostly shielded-metal arc welding and TIG welding, and sometimes laser welding. Radiation effects on welding of materials were limited although radiation protection was needed for welding works under radiation environment. New welding technologies had been applied after their technical validation by experiments applicable to required regulation standards. Latest developed welding technologies were seal welding to prevent SCC propagation and temper-bead welding for cladding after removal of cracks. Detailed procedures of repair welding of Alloy 600 at the reactor outlet pipe at Oi Nuclear Power Plants unit 3 due to PWSCC were described as an example of crack removal and water jet peening, and then overlay by temper-bead welding using Alloy 600 and clad welding using Alloy 690. (T. Tanaka)

  7. The collapse of nuclear power

    Jeffery, J.W. (Birkbeck Coll., London (UK))


    The decision of the UK government of 9 November 1989, withdrawing all nuclear stations from privatization and cancelling the three PWRs which were to have followed on from Sizewell B, was a shattering blow to the nuclear industry. The reversal (at least temporarily) of decades of government support for nuclear power, and the figures which were becoming available of its relatively high-cost (confirmed by the levy on electricity sales to subsidize nuclear and other non-fossil generation), caused the House of Commons Energy Select Committee to conduct the inquiry culminating in its Report The Cost of Nuclear power. (author).

  8. Nuclear power and the environment

    The IAEA Director General pointed out that continued and expanded use of nuclear power must be one among several measures to restrain the use of fossil fuels and thereby limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With regards to future trends in world electricity demands, the Director General emphasized the existing gap between the frequent claims as to what conservation can achieve and actual energy plans. The objections to nuclear power which are related to safety, waste disposal and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons are also discussed. His conclusion is that nuclear power can help significantly to meet growing needs of electricity without contributing to global warming, acid rains or dying forests, responsible management and disposal of nuclear wastes is entirely feasible, and the safety of nuclear power must be continuously strengthened through technological improvement and methods of operation

  9. Nuclear power in developing countries

    In early 1988, 417 nuclear power plants were in opration worldwide, which is twenty more than in early 1987. The total installed power of 300 GWe corresponds to 11% of the total generating capacity and contributes more than 16% of the worldwide electricity production. Fifty of these nuclear power plants, with an aggregate 28 GWe, have been built in developing countries, where they contribute 7% to the electricity requirement. With respect to installed power, the growth of nuclear power lags behind the plans made ten years ago, because some developing countries have stretched out their nuclear power programs for the next decade. This is due to various reasons. In some cases, the availability of alternative energies has reduced the use of nuclear power. In other cases, the delay has been due to funding and to the long planning and construction periods. The main problem facing the developing countries, however, is financing nuclear power plant projects in the light of the high capital costs of nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  10. Construction costs - nuclear power stations

    According to present development plans in the western industrial nations nuclear power will be able to cover 35 to 45% of power requirements in the mid 1980's. Although specific investment costs are higher for nuclear power plants than for other thermal power stations, nuclear plants are in a position today to generate power more economically than fossil fired plants into the upper part of the middle load sector. The relatively high proportion of fixed costs of the total power generation costs, and a still considerable potential to exploit the economy of scale, will contribute to minimize the inflationary burden on electric power generation. Nevertheless price development of nuclear power plants should be watched attentively, rapid price escalation for components, extremely long planning and construction times and exaggerated environmental protection requirements which serve no real purpose may reduce the economic benefit gained by nuclear energy. Electrical utilities will try to hold investment cost down by all means; for instance they will encourage standardization of nuclear power plants or order twin stations. For long term utilization of nuclear energy the development of high temperature reactors and fast breeders is a logical step forward. (author)

  11. Developing countries curtail nuclear power

    The nuclear power programmes in developing countries, following the accident at the Chernobyl power plant are summarized. Many of these have abandoned plans for nuclear power (eg Gabon), mothballed existing reactors (eg Philippines) or deferred decisions on a reactor programme (eg Egypt, Taiwan, Libya). Economic and political pressures are usually the underlying reasons, but the Chernobyl incident has proved a useful excuse. Other countries (Nigeria, Korea, India, Pakistan) have not let the accident change their nuclear policy. In China, Israel and Turkey the debate about nuclear power has been sharpened by the accident. Although Chernobyl has hastened decisions on nuclear power in some countries it has not affected the long-term policies of developing countries. (UK)

  12. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    George, Jeffrey A.


    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  13. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  14. Special aspects of nuclear power

    This paper discusses how, with almost 300 nuclear power plants operating worldwide, the safety of nuclear power will soon be better known. Over the next decade we will learn whether or not the lessons learned from these accidents have made nuclear power safer. In the meantime, we must be well prepared to take care of patients injured in accidents at normally operating and at malfunctioning power plants. It would be tragic if lack of preparation and/or fear of radiation resulted in mistreatment of patients

  15. Medical perspective on nuclear power

    Is generating electricity with nuclear power safe in the United States? Could the explosion of a nuclear power reactor cause widespread dissemination of radioactivity, as the Chernobyl explosion did in 1986? How do power reactors operate, and what principles safeguard their operation? What should be the role of the physician with regard to nuclear power? A recent report of the Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association (AMA) considered such questions. The report, prepared by an expert committee, received the endorsement of the AMA's House of Delegates. Major issues delineated in the report and all of its conclusions appear in this summary. 20 refs

  16. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  17. Nuclear reactor power monitor

    The device of the present invention monitors phenomena occurred in a nuclear reactor more accurately than usual case. that is, the device monitors a reactor power by signals sent from a great number of neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The device has a means for estimating a phenomenon occurred in the reactor based on the relationship of a difference of signals between each of the great number of neutron monitors to the positions of the neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The estimation of the phenomena is conducted by, for example, conversion of signals sent from the neutron monitors to a code train. Then, a phenomenon is estimated rapidly by matching the code train described above with a code train contained in a data base. Further. signals sent from the neutron monitors are processed statistically to estimate long term and periodical phenomena. As a result, phenomena occurred in the reactor are monitored more accurately than usual case, thereby enabling to improve reactor safety and operationability. (I.S.)

  18. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

  19. Climate change and nuclear power

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  20. La fouille du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Premiers résultats The excavation of fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. First results

    Bruno Dufaÿ


    Full Text Available Cette note présente les premiers résultats des fouilles menées en 2003 et 2004 sur la quasi-totalité du fort Saint-Georges à Chinon (Indre-et-Loire. Celui-ci est l’un des trois éléments de la forteresse médiévale qui domine la ville. La fouille a permis de préciser la fonction du fort, construit dans la deuxième moitié du XIIe s., à l’époque où Chinon est le centre administratif des possessions continentales des Plantagenêt, rois d’Angleterre. Du point de vue militaire, il formait une fortification avancée, protégeant le château principal, selon une structure que Richard Cœur de Lion appliquera au Château Gaillard. À l’intérieur, de vastes bâtiments constituaient des logis, conçus peut-être au départ pour héberger la chancellerie royale.This article presents the first results of the excavations undertaken in 2003 and 2004 over almost all of the Fort Saint-Georges at Chinon (Indre-et-Loire, one of three elements of the medieval fortress which dominates the town. The excavation enabled us to clarify the function of the fort, built in the 2nd half of the 12th century at a time when Chinon was the administrative centre of the continental possesions of the Plantagenet King of England. From a military point of view, it formed an advanced fortification protecting the main castle, within a structure that Richard the Lionheart would apply to the Chayeau Gaillard. Inside, some vast buildings made up the dwellings, designed perhaps initially to house the royal chanceller.

  1. Nuclear power for environmental protection

    Nuclear power does not produce CO2 or other greenhouse gases, and also does not produce any SO2, NOx or other gases which contribute to acid rain. These characteristics of nuclear power are especially important in comparison to coal-fired generation of electricity. As an example, in comparison with a coal-fired power plant of the same size, with abatement systems, a 1300 MW(e) nuclear power plant eliminates annually emissions to the air of about: 2000 t of particulates; 8.5 million t of CO2: 12,000 t of SO2; and 6,000 t of NOx, the precise quantities being dependent on coal quality, power plant design and thermal efficiency, and on the effectiveness of the abatement systems. Opponents of nuclear power concede these facts, but argue that nuclear power is such a small part of the world energy balance that it is insignificant to the big issue of CO2. This is hardly correct. Today, 16% of the world's electricity (and 5% of the world's total primary energy) is generated using nuclear power. If this electricity were to have been generated using coal, it would have resulted in about 1600 million tons of CO2 annually. This is 8% of the 20,000 million tons of CO2 now emitted annually from the burning of fossil fuels, an amount which the Toronto Conference proposed should be cut by 20% up to the year 2005. A further major difference in the two energy systems is that the relatively smaller amount of nuclear wastes is fully isolated from the environment. In addition to discussing the global contributions of nuclear power to environmental improvement, the paper presents actual results achieved in a number of countries, demonstrating the positive contribution which nuclear power has made to reducing the environmental impacts of electricity production. 7 figs, 12 tabs

  2. Nuclear power sector in Romania

    According to a recent Romanian Government Decision on restructuring strategy of the power sector in Romania the first step was the creation of the National Power Company (CONEL) and splitting off the nuclear research, design-engineering and some support activities. At the same time, the former Nuclear Power Group split into the National Nuclear Electric Company ('Nuclearelectrica'-S.A.) and Regia Autonoma pentru Activitati Nucleare. The 'Nuclearelectrica'-S.A. (SNN) includes three subsidiaries, one for nuclear power production, CNE-PROD (Cernavoda Unit 1), one for nuclear power development, CNE-INVEST (Cernavoda Units 2 to 5) and one for nuclear fuel fabrication FCN (Pitesti Nuclear Fuel Plant). The other branches of the former Nuclear Power Group, as Heavy Water Plant (ROMAG-Drobeta), Institute for Nuclear Research (INR-Pitesti) and Center for Nuclear Projects Engineering (CITON-Bucharest) are parts of the new created 'Regia Autonoma pentru Activitati Nucleare'. On 11 July 1996 Romania joined the 'Nuclear Club' and the first nuclear megawatt-hour was supplied by the Cernavoda NPP into our national grid. On December 2, 1996 the Cernavoda Unit 1 reached the level of commercial operation. Planned to produce 4.5 TWh yearly the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 1 represents about 10% of the overall power production of the country. Up to the end of August 1998, the Unit 1 generated a total of 9.17 TWh at a gross capacity factor of 85%. The plant's good performance to date demonstrates the SNN's total commitment to meet world class standards and to ensure that Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 is among the best performing stations in the world. Romanian Power Sector Least Cost Development Studies demonstrate the opportunity to complete and put Unit 2 of Cernavoda NPP in commercial operation up to the year 2001, in cooperation with AECL and ANSALDO. The author emphasizes the strong help and support which the IAEA granted to Romania Nuclear Power Program, especially after 1989 in all areas of

  3. Nuclear power, economy and environment

    The explanations in this article aim at clarifying the background of the problem of nuclear energies. Why did countries give up developing nuclear energy? Which roles do economic political and psychological factors play in making energy political decisions? How could a balance be found in using the various energy sources which must meet the constantly increasing demand for electric power? Which preconditions must be fulfilled to return to nuclear energy world-wide (as using coal is connected with many environmental risks) and how long would it take? If, however, nuclear power is even to be included in the energy-political discussions of the governments and the public opinions in each country, there are a number of sensitive topics waiting for an answer: Safety and costs of power plants; recycling and storing nuclear wastes; the relationship between civil energy and the availability of nuclear weapons and the future plutonium economy. (orig./UA)

  4. Nuclear power for sustainable development

    Energy demand continues to grow in spite of drastic efforts, especially in OECD countries for efficiency and energy savings. At the same time, the concept of sustainable development is calling for the alleviating and/or mitigating of environmental impacts. A limited number of options, that are technically mature and economically competitive, can substitute fossil fuel burning for electricity generation. Nuclear power is one of the electricity generating options that can contribute to an environmentally friendly development. The paper investigates the potential role of nuclear power in global energy supply up to 2050 and analyses the opportunities and challenges, for governments and nuclear industries, of a broad nuclear power deployment in response to environmental concerns. It concludes that, in the long term, increasing substantially the share of nuclear power in electricity generation is feasible and would contribute significantly to enhancing the sustainability of energy supply systems world-wide. (author)

  5. Nuclear power: a Greek tragedy

    The present state and expected future of nuclear power and its regulation in the United States is outlined. The two major influences on the nuclear regulatory environment in the US, outside of the Three Mile Island accident, are the legal profession and the Congress. The increasing influence of the lawyers and the diverse and increasing interaction with the Congress is examined. It is concluded that nuclear power in the US has one fatal flaw - it cannot get public acceptance. The deep hatred and divisions within the US public on the issues of nuclear power, the uncertainties of accidents, the confusion over what is radiation, the fear of abnormalities and serious cancers in future generations, the author believes will lead to the demise of commercial nuclear power in the US. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear power: a Greek tragedy

    Ahearne, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))


    The present state and expected future of nuclear power and its regulation in the United States is outlined. The two major influences on the nuclear regulatory environment in the US, outside of the Three Mile Island accident, are the legal profession and the Congress. The increasing influence of the lawyers and the diverse and increasing interaction with the Congress is examined. It is concluded that nuclear power in the US has one fatal flaw - it cannot get public acceptance. The deep hatred and divisions within the US public on the issues of nuclear power, the uncertainties of accidents, the confusion over what is radiation, the fear of abnormalities and serious cancers in future generations, the author believes will lead to the demise of commercial nuclear power in the US.

  7. Nuclear power in the Midwest

    The Twelfth Annual Illinois Energy Conference, held in Chicago, Illinois, October 1984 was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, the Illinois Energy Resources Commission, and the Illinois Commerce Commission. The theme for the conference was ''Nuclear Power in the Midwest.'' The topic of Nuclear Power is particularly appropriate in view of the fact that the State of Illinois, as well as the Midwest region, has made a major commitment to the use of this option for electric power generation. This is evidenced by the fact that some twenty-three of the eighty-six currently licensed nuclear reactors in the United States are located in the Midwest region. Illinois alone contains ten licensed nuclear reactors with four other nuclear plants either under construction or waiting for an operating license. In rated capacity of electric power generated by nuclear reactors, the region is capable of producing 21.5% of the national total of 70,000 MWe. The problems surrounding nuclear power involve complex technologies, environmental and public health concerns, economic and legal factors as well as numerous other policy questions. The goal of the 12th Annual Illinois Energy Conference was to review these issues in order to educate the public and to assist government policy makers in making rational judgements regarding the use and development of the nuclear power option

  8. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    Andrianov, Andrei A.; Murogov, Victor M.; Kuptsov, Ilya S. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhl, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)


    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  9. Towards sustainable nuclear power development

    The review of the current situation in the nuclear energy sector carried out in this article brings to light key problems and contradictions, development trends and prospects, which finally determine the role and significance of nuclear power as a factor ensuring a sustainable energy development. Authors perspectives on the most appropriate developments of nuclear power, which should be based on a balanced use of proven innovative nuclear technologies and comprehensive multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle are expressed. The problems of wording appropriate and essential requirements for new countries with respect to their preparedness to develop nuclear programs, taking into account their development level of industry and infrastructure as well as national heritages and peculiarities, are explained. It is also indicated that one of the major components of sustainability in the development of nuclear power, which legitimates its public image as a power technology, is the necessity of developing and promoting the concepts of nuclear culture, nuclear education, and professional nuclear ethics. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear power - a reliable future

    The Ministry of Education and Research - Department of Research has implemented a national Research and Development program taking into consideration the following: - the requirements of the European Union on research as a factor of development of the knowledge-based society; - the commitments to the assimilation and enforcement of the recommendations of the European Union on nuclear power prompted by the negotiations of the sections 'Science and Research' and ' Energy' of the aquis communautaire; - the major lines of interest in Romania in the nuclear power field established by National Framework Program of Cooperation with IAEA, signed on April 2001; - the short and medium term nuclear options of the Romanian Government; - the objectives of the National Nuclear Plan. The major elements of the nuclear research and development program MENER (Environment, Energy, Resources) supported by the Department of Research of the Ministry of Education and Research are the following: - reactor physics and nuclear fuel management; - operation safety of the Power Unit 1 of Cernavoda Nuclear Electric Power Station; - improved nuclear technological solutions at the Cernavoda NPP; - development of technologies for nuclear fuel cycle; - operation safety of the other nuclear plants in Romania; - assessment of nuclear risks and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment; - behavior of materials under the reactor service conditions and environmental conditions; - design of nuclear systems and equipment for the nuclear power stations and nuclear facilities; - radiological safety; - application of nuclear techniques and technologies in industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of social life. Research to develop high performance methods and equipment for monitoring nuclear impact on environment are conducted to endorse the measures for radiation protection. Also mentioned are the research on implementing a new type of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactors as well as

  11. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  12. Nuclear power prospects in Pakistan

    As part of its programme to assist the development of nuclear power, IAEA undertakes, on r e quest, reviews of the prospects for nuclear power in individual Member States. A general finding of the Pakistan report is that nuclear power should be considered 'a leading contender for the supply of future energy needs'. A principal reason for this is that the conventional energy resources available, both of hydroelectric energy and of fossil fuels, appear insufficient by themselves to give in the long run the high per capita consumption of electricity which is characteristic of a developed country. Thus, an alternative source of energy to supplement the existing resources appears desirable. The analysis comparing nuclear power economics with those of conventional alternatives is performed separately for the Karachi area, for West Pakistan and for East Pakistan, since the power supply systems serving these regions are not now, nor in the near future likely to be, interconnected

  13. Checking nuclear power station safety

    The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.)

  14. On PA of nuclear power

    Present state of things relating to the nuclear power generation are described first, focusing on the Chernobyl accident, power control test, old-wave and new-wave antinuclear movements, move toward elimination of nuclear power plants, and trend in government-level argument concerning nuclear power generation. Then the importance of public relations activities for nuclear power generation is emphasized. It is stressed that information should be supplied positively to the public to obtain public understanding and confidence. Various activities currently made to promote public relations for nuclear power generation are also outlined, focusing on the improvement in the nuclear power public relations system and practical plans for these activities. Activities for improvement in the public relations system include the organization of public relations groups, establishment and effective implementation of an overall public relations plan, training of core workers for public relations, and management of the public relations system. Other practical activities include the encouragement of the public to come and see the power generation facilities and distribution of pamphlets, and use of the media. (N.K.)

  15. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Saarenpaa, Tapio


    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  17. The economics of nuclear power

    Nuclear power is seen by some as a partial solution to climate change. The obvious supporters include nuclear establishments, but the 'surprising' supporters comprise some environmentalists like James Lovelock. One of the 15 strategies proposed by Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow as part of their wedge model is to substitute nuclear power for coal power. The addition of 700 GW of nuclear power, i.e. roughly twice the current global capacity, would constitute one wedge and could reduce one billion tonnes of carbon by mid-century. (The other 14 strategies include: efficient vehicles; reduced use of vehicles; efficient buildings; efficient baseload coal plants; gas baseload power for coal baseload power capture CO2 at baseload power plant capture CO2 at H2 plant; capture CO2 at coal-to-synfuels plant and geological storage; wind power for coal power; PV power for coal power; wind H2 in fuel-cell car for gasoline in hybrid car; biomass fuel for fossil fuel; reduced deforestation, plus reforestation, afforestation, and new plantations, and conservation tillage

  18. Nuclear power stations licensing

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  19. Nuclear power: An evolving scenario

    The past two years have found the IAEA often in the spotlight - primarily because of our role as the world's 'nuclear watchdog', as we are sometimes referred to on the evening news. The most visible, and often controversial, peaceful nuclear application is the generation of electricity, the focus of this article largely from a European perspective. At the end of last year there were 440 nuclear power units operating worldwide. Together, they supply about 16% of the world's electricity. That percentage has remained relatively steady for almost 20 years. Expansion and growth prospects for nuclear power are centred in Asia. Of the 31 units under construction worldwide, 18 are located in India, Japan, South Korea and China, including Taiwan. Twenty of the last 29 reactors to be connected to the grid are also in the Far East and South Asia. That is probably more active construction than most Europeans would guess, given how little recent growth has occurred in the West. For Western Europe and North America, nuclear construction has been a frozen playing field - the last plant to be completed being Civaux-2 in France in 1999. That should raise a question: with little to no new construction, how has nuclear power been able to keep up with other energy sources, to maintain its share of electricity generation? Interestingly enough, the answer is tied directly to efforts to improve safety performance. The accident at Chernobyl in 1986 prompted the creation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), and revolutionized the IAEA approach to nuclear power plant safety. Some analysts believe the case for new nuclear construction in Europe is gaining new ground, for a number of reasons: efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the risk of climate change; security of energy supply; Comparative Public Health Risk; different set of variables when choosing Each country's and region energy strategy. Looking to the future, certain key challenges are, of direct

  20. Nuclear power development in China



    The Chinese nuclear power programme for electricity generation is in an early stage. Two nuclear power stations are under construction. One is the Qinshan nuclear power plant, a 300-mega-watt-electric (MWe) unit located in the Zhejiang Province. The plant was domestically designed and most of its equipment was manufactured in China. It is expected to be connected to the electrical grid in 1991. The other nuclear power station is being built at Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. It has two 900-MWe units purchased from foreign suppliers that are scheduled to be put into operation in 1992 and 1993. Overall, China's nuclear power programme for electricity generation has progressed very slowly in contrast to the successful experience in other areas of nuclear development over the last 30 years. Many factors have influenced the development of nuclear power, in particular the structure and development of the national economy and energy system, which is based on domestic energy resources. (author).

  1. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    Nuclear Power is a new, innovative technology for energy production, seen in the longer historic perspective. Nuclear technology has a large potential for further development and use in new applications. To achieve this potential the industry needs to develop the arguments to convince policy makers and the general public that nuclear power is a real alternative as part of a sustainable energy system. This paper examines the basic concept of sustainable development and gives a quality review of the most important factors and requirements, which have to be met to quality nuclear power as sustainable. This paper intends to demonstrate that it is not only in minimising greenhouse gas emissions that nuclear power is a sustainable technology, also with respect to land use, fuel availability waste disposal, recycling and use of limited economic resources arguments can be developed in favour of nuclear power as a long term sustainable technology. It is demonstrated that nuclear power is in all aspects a sustainable technology, which could serve in the long term with minimal environmental effects and at minimum costs to the society. And the challenge can be met. But to achieve need political leadership is needed, to support and develop the institutional and legal framework that is the basis for a stable and long-term energy policy. Industry leaders are needed as well to stand up for nuclear power, to create a new industry culture of openness and communication with the public that is necessary to get the public acceptance that we have failed to do so far. The basic facts are all in favour of nuclear power and they should be used

  2. Nuclear power and the environment

    The environmental impacts and the impacts on man are compared for nuclear power plants and solid-fossil-fuel power plants. Practical experience points to significant advantages of nuclear power facilities. While coal-fired power plants in normal operation pollute the environment up to 30% of the permissible limits, the actual exposures caused by nuclear power plants are less than one per mille of the limits given by legal regulations. Some problems are also discussed of radiation protection. It is stated that thanks to the systematic research in this field which has been carried out for nearly sixty years, the knowledge of ionizing radiation hazards is now much more profound and complex than, e.g., that of toxic chemical pollutants released from fossil-fuel power plants and from chemical plants or contained in vehicle exhaust gases. (Z.M.). 5 tabs

  3. Nuclear power for economic development

    Various sources of energy available in India are discussed and it is emphatically stated that nuclear power is the only answer to the energy problem of the world and in particular of India. Advantages of atomic power over other sources of energy such as oil, hydel, coal etc. are described. Oil is still imported and petrolium consumption is required in petro-chemical industries and transportation. Hydro-electric potential available in India is limited as estimated by the erstwhile Central Water and Power Commission. As regards coal, India cannot entirely depend on this source for production of electricity since uneven distribution of the coal deposits necessitates its transportation over long distances from the mines to the points of consumption. Transportation required for nuclear fuel is almost non-existant as compared to that required for coal-fired plant, hence the generation cost is also low. Nuclear power potential, taking breeding into consideration turns out to be enormous. As regards safety, results of analysis carried out in the U.S. are given to show that safety of mining for nuclear power is much superior to that for coal-fired power plants. It is stated that there is no fear about nuclear wastes getting into water streams since they are carefully stored in underground depositories. Nuclear power program in India is described in brief. (B.G.W.)

  4. The debate on nuclear power

    The need for nuclear power is pointed out. The Study Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycles of the American Physical Society has studied the problem of waste disposal in detail and has found that geological emplacement leads to safe waste disposal. The relation between nuclear power and weapons proliferation is discussed. The problem of preventing proliferation is primarily a political problem, and the availability of nuclear power will contribute little to the potential for proliferation. However, to further reduce this contribution, it may be desirable to keep fast-breeder reactors under international control and to use only converters for national reactors. The desirable converter is one which has a high conversion ratio, probably one using the thorium cycle, 233U, and heavy water as the moderator. The nuclear debate in the United States of America is discussed. Work on physical and technical safeguards in the USA against diversion of fissile materials is mentioned. (author)

  5. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Weiss, Fran


    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  7. The politics of nuclear power

    The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) built the Shoreham Nuclear Power plant, on New York State's Long Island, at a cost of over $5 billion. In 1989, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted LILCO a full operating license for Shoreham. yet, that year New York State and LILCO signed an agreement under which LILCO would sell the plant to New York State for $1. new York, in turn, would dismantle Shoreham, despite great uncertainties regarding future power supplies for Long Island. The Shoreham project brought a major public utility to the brink of bankruptcy, forced the question of state versus federal control of nuclear power, and for over a decade dominated the politics of a region of 2.7 million people. This book examines how technology, economics, managements, politics, and personal commitments interacted to produce one of the most spectacular and pivotal failures of nuclear power policy in the United States

  8. The future of nuclear power

    Energy production and use will contribute to global warming through greenhouse gas emissions in the next 50 years. Although nuclear power is faced with a lot of problems to be accepted by the public, it is still a significant option for the world to meet future needs without emitting carbon dioxide (CO2) and other atmospheric pollutants. In 2002, nuclear power provided approximately 17% of world energy consumption. There is belief that worldwide electricity consumption will increase in the next few years, especially in the developing countries followed by economic growth and social progress. Official forecasts shows that there will be a mere increase of 5% in nuclear electricity worldwide by 2020. There are also predictions that electricity use may increase at 75%. These predictions require a necessity for construction of new nuclear power plants. There are only a few realistic options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation: Increase efficiency in electricity generation and use; Expand use of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermal; Capture carbon dioxide emissions at fossil-fuelled electric generating plants and permanently sequester the carbon; Increase use of nuclear power. In spite of the advantages that nuclear power has, it is faced with stagnation and decline today. Nuclear power is faced with four critical problems that must be successfully defeat for the large expansion of nuclear power to succeed. Those problems are cost, safety, waste and proliferation. Disapproval of nuclear power is strengthened by accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island in 1979, at Chernobyl in 1986 and by accidents at fuel cycle facilities in Japan, Russia and in the United States of America. There is also great concern about the safety and security of transportation of nuclear materials and the security of nuclear facilities from terrorist attack. The paper will provide summarized review regarding cost, safety, waste and

  9. Nuclear power - razing and creating

    In the book a studies fulfilled by the author is summarized, and issues of modern status for nuclear reactors safety; worldwide statement of nuclear power; nuclear waste disposal; radiation ecology; military polygons infrastructure conversion are considered. Works - fulfilled under scientific supervision of the author - on getting a new information about nuclear tests consequences on the Kazakhstan territory, its effect on the environment and human health, problems of determination of radiation contamination levels of the Republic's regions, suffered population rehabilitation from these tests, reimbursement of former agricultural areas after nuclear tests activity into national economy are discussed, and implementation of up-to-date technologies is given. The book is intended for a wide circle of readers, specialists, teachers, postgraduates and students and all who are interesting of nuclear power use issues for a prosperity and well-being of mankind

  10. History on foundation of Korea nuclear power

    This reports the history on foundation of Korea nuclear power from 1955 to 1980, which is divided ten chapters. The contents of this book are domestic and foreign affairs before foundation of nuclear power center, establishment of nuclear power and research center, early activity and internal conflict about nuclear power center, study for nuclear power business and commercialization of the studying ordeal over nuclear power administration and new phase, dispute for jurisdiction on nuclear power business and the process, permission for nuclear reactor, regulation and local administration, the process of deliberation and decision of reactor 3. 4 in Yonggwang, introduction of nuclear reprocessing facilities and activities for social organization.

  11. Investor perceptions of nuclear power

    Evidence is provided that investor concerns about nuclear power have recently been reflected in the common stock returns of all utilities with such facilities and have resulted in a risk premium. In particular, over the 1978-1982 period, three nuclear-related events occurred at the same time as, and therefore appear to have caused, significant drops in the market values of nuclear utilities relative to their non-nuclear counterparts. The three events were as follows: the accident at TMI, which occurred in March 1979; the realization in the summer of 1980 that an accident of the magnitude of TMI could result in cleanup costs of over $1 billion, which are not completely insurable and could therefore result in substantial losses; and the summer 1982 decision by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to cancel some if its nuclear power plant construction projects, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) decision to stop work on the construction of the Zimmer reactor, followed by a warning that it might close the Indian Point 2 and 3 reactors. If an individual had invested $100 in an average nuclear utility on the day before the TMI accident and reinvested all dividends, the value of this investment would have fallen by 10% relative to an identical investment in the average non-nuclear utility. The risk of investments in nuclear power versus conventional generating technologies shows nuclear power to be a relatively risky investment. However, relative to all investments, nuclear power was less risky in terms of the type of risk that would cause investors to require a premium before purchasing their securities. 6 figures, 6 tables

  12. Nuclear power and CO2

    Temperatures in the atmosphere have risen by nearly one degree in the twentieth century. To contain changes in global climate and their consequences, worldwide emissions of CO2 need to be curbed drastically in the future. Even if CO2 emissions are not taken into account, nuclear power has no economic disadvantages compared to fossil fuels. On the basis of an amount of money per ton of carbon emitted, nuclear power is cheaper than coal and, in most cases, also than natural gas. Actually, the worldwide CO2 problem and energy generation are part of the ongoing 'sustainability' debate. The following arguments, among others, used in the discussion show the sustainable character of nuclear power: - Comparison of the risks associated with major accidents for various sources of energy show nuclear power to be relatively free from hazard. - The introduction of fast breeders and other technical factors will make it possible to use nuclear fission as an important source of energy for many centuries. - The radiotoxicity of waste over very long periods of time can be influenced, for instance, by transmutation. The need to further develop CO2-free nuclear power has been recognized by many countries, among them Switzerland. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) works towards developing a new generation of nuclear power plants by 2030. It will be the symbiosis of the new types of reactors with today's modern plants which finally will establish CO2-free nuclear fission as a sustainable cornerstone of energy generation worldwide. That nuclear power has this potential for further development must be acknowledged generally. (orig.)

  13. The economics of nuclear power

    Generating electricity from nuclear power involves a complicated chain of processes, from mining uranium ore through to managing the wastes for hundreds of thousands of years. In trying to understand the economics of nuclear power we have to consider both the individual stages and the whole system. It is possible for some individual stages to be profitable (especially when they are heavily subsidised by taxpayers) and for the whole system to be uneconomical.

  14. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  15. Nuclear power to aid development

    Before nuclear power can play its full role in contributing to the development of less advanced countries, full understanding of the capital investment, fuel costs and other economic factors as well as of the place it must take in existing power programmes is essential. Some insight into the problems and prospects was gained at the symposium arranged by the Agency, and held in Istanbul in October, on 'Nuclear Energy Costs and Economic Development'. (author)

  16. Nuclear Power Development in China


    China's nuclear power industry experienced such three stages as initiation,moderate development and active development.So far,there have been 11 nuclear power units in service in the Chinese mainland with a total installed capacity of 9 100 MW.In addition,there are 24 units being constructed or to be constructed as listed in the 11th Five-Year Plan.

  17. Nuclear power and childhood leukaemia

    Grimston, M. (AEA Technology, London (UK))


    The possibility of illness caused by exposure to emissions from nuclear power plants continues to raise enormous public concern. Nowhere is this more evident than in the debate over the aetiology of childhood leukaemias. This review explores the evidence in relation to this and other diseases which are linked in the public's mind to nuclear power. The scientific evidence presented suggests that these links are more tenuous than is commonly believed. (author).

  18. Nuclear power: Issues and misunderstandings

    A sizeable sector of the public remains hesitant or opposed to the use of nuclear power. With other groups claiming nuclear power has a legitimate role in energy programs, there is a need to openly and objectively discuss the concerns limiting its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, and the disposal of high level waste. This paper discusses these concerns using comparisons with other energy sources. (author)

  19. Nuclear power cap opposed



    This article is a review of litigation in Canada that challenges the country`s Nuclear Liability Act. Both parties agree that repeal of this law would raise operating costs, lead to earlier closing of older units, and reduce the likelihood of future plant construction. The suit is brought by the city of Toronto and the Energy Probe watchdog group. Comments by the plaintiffs and several Canadian nuclear utilities are offered.

  20. Nuclear power - the future

    Hawley, R. (Nuclear Electric plc. (United Kingdom))


    Following the Coal Review earlier this year, the UK government took the decision to bring forward the Nuclear Review from 1994 to this year. When the nuclear element was removed from the privatisation of the UK electricity industry, decommissioning costs were perceived to be too great a burden for the private sector to bear. Four years on a more optimistic picture is beginning to emerge. (author).

  1. Space nuclear power systems

    Materials of the 19-th Symposium on Space Nuclear Energetic and Engine Units taking place in 2002, in Albuquerque, USA are reviewed. Reports on transformation of heat energy produced by nuclear reactors in electrical one are presented in the reports. Result of works on improvement as traditional (Brayton and Rankine cycles, thermoelectricity and thermionic emission), so innovation converter systems (Stirling engine, alkali metal thermal to electric converter - AMTEC, thermoacoustic engine) are represented

  2. Nuclear power: policy and prospects

    Jones, P.M.S. (ed.)


    This comprehensive book covers many aspects of nuclear power. The first section is on the technical background and covers the physical principles, nuclear reactor types, the nuclear fuel cycle and the uses of nuclear energy other than to generate electricity. The next section deals with areas of public interest; radiation, safety, risks, waste management and decommissioning. Experience of nuclear power, its development, current position and future prospects in the United States of America, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, India and the developing countries is discussed in section III. The opportunities for the civil nuclear industry are considered in the next section; the present world scene, the potential possible if nuclear power is developed, the incentives for developing this method, the constraints on this development and a summary of the past, present and future of nuclear power is made. The appendices, on discounting and the case for economic growth are also included. All the chapters and the appendices are indexed separately (24 chapters in total). (U.K.).

  3. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    In Romania, the nuclear power is an element of sustainable development, being competitive, efficient and viable in the market economy. Fuel supply is ensured as nuclear fuel is manufactured in the country out of local uranium resources available in Romania. As for the environmental protection, it is known that, unlike the thermal power plants, the nuclear power plants do not release sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and do not generate slag and ashes. The operation of nuclear power units does not release pollutants and, accordingly, these stations can contribute to the limitation and the abatement of environmental pollution. After seven years of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 operation, a facility for storing low and medium level nuclear fuel wastes was built at the plant site as well as an intermediate dry storage for spent nuclear fuel whose first modules were commissioned in July 2003. They shall provide safe storage conditions for nuclear fuel wastes for many decades ahead. After Chernobyl accident in 1986, many improvements have been initiated and effected in area of both engineering solutions and plant operation practices. These have led to the increase of the nuclear safety level and, accordingly, to better production performance. (author)

  4. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    The sustainability of specific technology became the important issue in future developement perspective as the environmental issue occupies the most priority in adopting the relevant technology. This study summarizes the concepts of sustainable development and analyses the nuclear future under the pressure of sustainable development. Also, it shows the fields that need the concentrated research in nuclear power

  5. Is nuclear power safe enough

    The vice-chairman of the Nuclear Power Safety Commission presents here the background for the Commission's work. He summarises informally the conclusions reached and quotes the minority dissensions. He also criticises many of the arguments made by anti-nuclear organisations. (JIW)

  6. Nuclear power - the reason why

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: mankind's need for energy; energy sources; energy conservation; safety; what level of safety is acceptable; the effects of nuclear accidents; the risks of nuclear power in normal operation; waste disposal; plutonium; quantity and cost; which reactor; wider issues (socio-economic aspects). (U.K.)

  7. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others


    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  8. Nuclear power: the political challenge

    A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

  9. The dangerous dream: Nuclear power

    After Chernobyl: Necessary basic knowledge and information, data on safety hazards and risks, sketches of all German nuclear power plants and brief accounts of incidents reported so far, consequences of the Chernobyl and Harrisburg accidents for man and the environment, emergency control plans. With an attached short dictionary of terms in nuclear energy. (orig./HP)

  10. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    The British public is very poorly informed about nuclear power. 55 % express concern about it, but few can explain why. Some of the reasons given are extraordinary: 37 % of the public think nuclear power causes acid rain which pollutes lakes and kills trees; 47 % think coal is a safer fuel for making electricity than nuclear; a quarter think natural radiation is less harmful than that from nuclear stations. And a very large number of people have greatly exaggerated views of the amount of radiation released from power stations and the harm that it is doing people. Also, a quarter of everyone asked thought that nuclear power stations make bombs as well as electricity. Most of these concerns come from the media, and in particular from television which has broadcast many programmes which are strongly anti-nuclear, often inaccurate, and usually sensational. Fortunately, the effect of these stories is less damaging than one might think. At present about 42 % of the adult British population are not in favour of nuclear power, so there is still a majority who are not against. About 44 % are positively in favour, and the remainder are not sure or have no view