Sample records for chinese school children

  1. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.


    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  2. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    Chao, Ruth K.


    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  3. Uncertainty Orientation in Chinese Children: Relations with School and Psychological Adjustment

    Wang, Zhengyan; Chen, Xinyin; Sorrentino, Richard; Szeto, Andrew C. H.


    The purpose of this study was to examine uncertainty orientation and its relations with school and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of elementary school children in P.R. China, aged 10 to 12 years, participated in the study. Data concerning uncertainty orientation, academic performance and socio-emotional adjustment were…

  4. Impact of Low Blood Lead Concentrations on IQ and School Performance in Chinese Children

    Jianghong Liu; Linda Li; Yingjie Wang; Chonghuai Yan; Xianchen Liu


    Objectives Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. Participants and Methods Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3–5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assesse...

  5. Familial Contribution to Chinese American Children's Self-Regulated Learning during the Early School Years

    Zhao, Shuheng


    This dissertation examined how Chinese American children's everyday family experiences contributed to their self-regulated learning during the early school years. A total of 154 immigrant Chinese parents participated in this study and completed nine sets of multi-point rating questionnaires on a secured website. A series of analysis of covariance and hierarchical regressions were performed. Results provided the first empirical evidence that children's participation in family rituals and routi...

  6. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu


    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  7. A Corpus-Based Study on Use of Copular Verbs by Chinese School Children Learning English in China

    Du, Ailing


    By adopting corpus-based approach in this research study, the authors examined the various aspects of the copular verbs used by Chinese school children learning English. This study revealed that Chinese school children use copular verbs less frequently than native English speakers; they select a limited variety of copular verbs and less often use…

  8. Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance.

    Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y


    This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448

  9. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Shu Chen; Colin W. Binns; Bruce Maycock; Yi Liu; Yuexiao Zhang


    There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and Chi...

  10. Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: behavioural and ERP evidence.

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Sai, Xiaoguang; Wang, Cixin; Wang, Jue; Sha, Shuying; Zhou, Xiaolin


    By measuring behavioural performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) this study investigated the extent to which Chinese school children's reading development is influenced by their skills in auditory, speech, and temporal processing. In Experiment 1, 102 normal school children's performance in pure tone temporal order judgment, tone frequency discrimination, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination was measured. Results showed that children's auditory processing skills correlated significantly with their reading fluency, phonological awareness, word naming latency, and the number of Chinese characters learned. Regression analyses found that tone temporal order judgment, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination could account for 32% of variance in phonological awareness. Controlling for the effect of phonological awareness, auditory processing measures still contributed significantly to variance in reading fluency and character naming. In Experiment 2, mismatch negativities (MMN) in event-related brain potentials were recorded from dyslexic children and the matched normal children, while these children listened passively to Chinese syllables and auditory stimuli composed of pure tones. The two groups of children did not differ in MMN to stimuli deviated in pure tone frequency and Chinese lexical tones. But dyslexic children showed smaller MMN to stimuli deviated in initial consonants or vowels of Chinese syllables and to stimuli deviated in temporal information of composite tone patterns. These results suggested that Chinese dyslexic children have deficits in auditory temporal processing as well as in linguistic processing and that auditory and temporal processing is possibly as important to reading development of children in a logographic writing system as in an alphabetic system. PMID:16355749

  11. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong


    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  12. Sleep Duration, Schedule and Quality among Urban Chinese Children and Adolescents: Associations with Routine After-School Activities

    Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Baur, Louise A; Ding, Ding; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing


    Background With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. Methods Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4–8) living in Shanghai, ...

  13. Chinese Eye Exercises and Myopia Development in School Age Children: A Nested Case-control Study.

    Kang, Meng-Tian; Li, Shi-Ming; Peng, Xiaoxia; Li, Lei; Ran, Anran; Meng, Bo; Sun, Yunyun; Liu, Luo-Ru; Li, He; Millodot, Michel; Wang, Ningli


    Chinese eye exercises have been implemented in China as an intervention for controlling children's myopia for over 50 years. This nested case-control study investigated Chinese eye exercises and their association with myopia development in junior middle school children. Outcome measures were the onset and progression of myopia over a two-year period. Cases were defined as 1. Myopia onset (cycloplegic spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopter in non-myopic children). 2. Myopia progression (myopia shift of ≥1.0 diopter in those who were myopic at baseline). Two independent investigators assessed the quality of Chinese eye exercises performance at the end of the follow-up period. Of 260 children at baseline (mean age was 12.7 ± 0.5 years), 201 were eligible for this study. There was no association between eye exercises and the risk of myopia-onset (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.24-2.21), nor myopia progression (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.41-1.53). The group who performed high quality exercises had a slightly lower myopia progression of 0.15 D than the children who did not perform the exercise over a period of 2 years. However, the limited sample size, low dosage and performance quality of Chinese eye exercises in children did not result in statistical significance and require further studies. PMID:27329615

  14. Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.

    Jianghong Liu

    Full Text Available Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ and school performance.Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language] when children were age 8-10 years.Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD = 2.64. For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n = 105 had ≥10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n = 185 had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n = 1051 had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ≥8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ≥10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ≥10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, β = -3.54, 95%CI = -6.46, -0.63; Math, β = -4.63, 95%CI = -7.86, -1.40; English, β = -4.66, 95%CI = -8.09, -1.23. IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance.Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

  15. A Model of Reading Comprehension in Chinese Elementary School Children

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Wong, Yau-kai


    The relationships of reading-related skills (rapid naming, morphological awareness, syntactic skills, discourse skills, and verbal working memory) and word reading to reading comprehension were examined among 248 Chinese fourth graders in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analysis results showed that syntactic skills (word order knowledge,…

  16. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan


    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

  17. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Shu Chen


    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  18. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang


    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  19. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou


    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  20. What Strategies Do Chinese Immigrant Parents Use to Send Their Children to High-Performing Public School Districts?

    Liang, Senfeng


    This qualitative study examines how Chinese immigrant parents perceive the importance of sending their children to a "good" school district and analyzes their strategies in doing so. Nine families from different economic and educational backgrounds participated in the study. Results show that some parents were not satisfied with…

  1. Efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in school-aged children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial.A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine; sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints; and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage. Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score.Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10 D than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03 D and eyes closed group (0.07 D (P = 0.04. The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0% than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8% and the eyes closed group (34.9% (P = 0.03. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the NCT01756287.

  2. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Yafei Tan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  3. Polite Chinese Children Revisited: Creativity and the Use of Codeswitching in the Chinese Complementary School Classroom

    Wei, Li; Wu, Chao-Jung


    The ideology of monolingualism prevails throughout society, including within minority ethnic communities who are bilingual and multilingual. Some minority ethnic communities in Britain believe that the response to the dominance of English language is to replace it with other languages. Complementary schools--language and culture classes organised…

  4. Tendency for Evolution of High Myopia in 308 Chinese School Children from Xi'an City

    Yanming Chen; Yining Shi; Le Yang


    Purpose: To observe the refractive status,.especially the ten-dency for evolution of high myopia,.in eyes of Chinese school children from Xi'an city. Methods:.The study was conducted in 11514 eyes of the 5757 students aged between 7~18 years in Xi’an city primary and high schools..The inclusion criterion was>-6D of the spherical equivalent refraction..The object ophthalmic examinations were done, included non-cycloplegic objective refraction, vi-sual acuity,.intraocular pressure,.fundus evaluation by oph-thalmologists and nurses with professional training..Specially designed questionnaires were filled in and the data were statis-tically analyzed with SPSS10.0. Results:.Of 11514 eyes,.the detection rate was 81.4% (9376 eyes) for myopia and 5.3%(615 eyes) for high myopia. High myopia was found in 2.6%. (300 eyes).of right eyes,.2.7%(315 eyes) in left eyes, and 2.4% (275 eyes) were in boys and 2.9% (340 eyes) in girls. Among 12 school grades,.the detection rates of high myopia increased significantly with stu-dent age,.with 0.9% in the 1st grade of primary school and 12.5% in the 3rd year of senior middle school..The average refractive error of spherical equivalent refraction was (-7.43± 1.29) D with 95% confidence interval (-7.54,-7.33). No sig-nificant differences were found between the right and left eyes or both genders..The distribution of myopic severity was low-est(-6D).in primary school students younger than 12 years, was higher (-8D) in junior middle school students older than 13 years, and highest (-13D) in senior middle school students. Conclusion: A continuous growth was evident in the severity of high myopia throughout 12 years of primary and middle school except for the first year of primary school, with growth occurring in two transitional stages between the senior primary and junior middle school years,.and between the junior and senior middle school years..The distribution of high myopia was lowest,.at -6D,.in primary school,.increased to -8D in

  5. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming


    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

  6. Sleep duration, schedule and quality among urban Chinese children and adolescents: associations with routine after-school activities.

    Xiaoxiao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rapid urbanization accompanied by lifestyle changes, children and adolescents living in metropolitan areas are faced with many time use choices that compete with sleep. This study reports on the sleep hygiene of urban Chinese school students, and investigates the relationship between habitual after-school activities and sleep duration, schedule and quality on a regular school day. METHODS: Cross-sectional, school-based survey of school children (Grades 4-8 living in Shanghai, China, conducted in 2011. Self-reported data were collected on students' sleep duration and timing, sleep quality, habitual after-school activities (i.e. homework, leisure-time physical activity, recreational screen time and school commuting time, and potential correlates. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration of this sample (mean age: 11.5-years; 48.6% girls was 9 hours. Nearly 30% of students reported daytime tiredness. On school nights, girls slept less (p<0.001 and went to bed later (p<0.001, a sex difference that was more pronounced in older students. Age by sex interactions were observed for both sleep duration (p=0.005 and bedtime (p=0.002. Prolonged time spent on homework and mobile phone playing was related to shorter sleep duration and later bedtime. Adjusting for all other factors, with each additional hour of mobile phone playing, the odds of daytime tiredness and having difficulty maintaining sleep increased by 30% and 27% among secondary students, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in sleep duration, schedule and quality. Habitual activities had small but significant associations with sleep hygiene outcomes especially among secondary school students. Intervention strategies such as limiting children's use of electronic screen devices after school are implicated.

  7. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Lu Yu


    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  8. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH


    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  9. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli


    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  10. The Chinese in Children's Books.

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…

  11. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children



    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  12. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick


    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25542523

  13. Mathematics Teaching in Hong Kong Pre-Schools: Mirroring the Chinese Cultural Aspiration towards Learning?

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan


    Chinese pre-school children perform well in learning mathematics compared with English-speaking children. This study investigates the scenes behind Chinese preschool children's mathematics performance using teacher questionnaires and interviews. Results indicated that the Chinese number system appeared to afford advantages to Chinese children…

  14. Tips for Teachers to Help Bilingual Chinese Immigrant Children

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili


    Teachers of young children in Chinese immigrant families need to help children become proficient in English (ESL) while affirming the children's bilingual abilities. Pictures, gestures, pantomimes, and props as well as specific input of school-related words help bilingual young children learn English. Teachers read storybooks in English while…

  15. Mandarin Chinese Immersion Program for Preschool Children in an Urban Private School in California: A Case Study

    Cao, Yuan


    This study enlisted language immersion practitioners in highlighting and exploring the issues and challenges that accompany language immersion education. Comprehensive focused personal interviews of preschool Mandarin Chinese language immersion educators in a private school provided the basis of the study. The research literature reviewed…

  16. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang


    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  17. Shyness and Adaptation to School in a Chinese Community

    Feng, Xin; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.; Jia, Rongfang


    This study examined the process of adjustment in shy and nonshy children during the transition to school in a Chinese community. Children (35 shy and 19 nonshy) were assessed three times before and after they entered the first grade. Shy and nonshy children's interactions with peers and teachers, perceived peer acceptance, and anxious…

  18. Age and Cultural Differences in Self-Perceptions of Mastery Motivation and Competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian School Age Children

    Krisztian Jozsa


    Full Text Available We examined age differences in self-perceptions of five dimensions of mastery motivation and also of competence in American, Chinese, and Hungarian children and teens. Participants included 200 Americans, 1,465 Chinese, and 8,175 Hungarians from 7 to 19 years of age. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire provides comparable data across these different cultures as indicated by very similar factor structures and reasonably good internal consistency reliabilities for the scales. Across all three cultures, there was the expected decline from primary to secondary school in total persistence and the four instrumental mastery motivation scales, except for social persistence with adults in the American sample. Mastery pleasure did not decline in the American and Chinese samples but declined in the Hungarian sample. Self-perceived competence did not decline significantly in the American sample or in the Hungarian sample from age 11 to 17; however, competence self-ratings declined in the Chinese sample. The three cultures were compared at 11 and 16. Although there were some significant differences, small effect sizes indicated that the level of motivation was similar for each culture at each age. The other literature provides clues about why the declines occur in all three cultures and why there are some differences among cultures.

  19. Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children

    American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

  20. Predicting School Achievement from Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables in a Chinese Sample of Elementary School Children

    Lu, Liping; Weber, Heike S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Shi, Jiannong


    The present study had two aims: First, to investigate the joint and specific roles of working memory (WM) and intelligence as predictors of school achievement. And second, to replicate and extend earlier findings (Spinath, Spinath, Harlaar, & Plomin, 2006) on the incremental validity of non-cognitive over cognitive abilities in the prediction of…

  1. Examining School Culture in Flemish and Chinese Primary Schools

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Tondeur, Jo


    The aim of this research is to gain understanding about school culture characteristics of primary schools in the Flemish and Chinese context. The study was carried out in Flanders (Belgium) and China, involving a total of 44 Flemish schools and 40 Chinese schools. The School Culture Scales were used to measure five school culture dimensions with…

  2. Chinese and American Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…

  3. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic

    Mu, Yajun; Bi, Hua; Ekure, Edgar; Ding, Gang; Wei, Nan; Hua, Ning; Qian, Xuehan; Li, Xiaorong


    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children. Methods One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes), aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years) underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Result The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE) = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01). Bland–Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order) for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%. Conclusion The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on

  4. Translation and psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF 19) for school-age children

    Li, Chenghao; Xia, Bin; Wang, Yu; Guan, Xuelin; Yuan, Junwei; Ge, Lihong


    Background Although caries and malocclusion occur with a high prevalence in Chinese school-age children, there were no appropriate instrument to assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) for this population. The aim of our study was to develop a Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF 19) and provide a preliminary test of its psychometric properties. Methods The Chinese version of COHIP-SF 19 was developed through a standard tra...

  5. Transgender Children in Schools

    Hellen, Mark


    This article is intended to provide evidence to suggest that information for teachers regarding transgender children does not represent an adequate picture of transgendered children in schools and that primary schools need to be made more aware of how to deal with transgender children, even if these children do not make themselves known to staff. It will argue that this is probably a contributing factor in transgender children’s underachievement in school. The implications of this research...

  6. Muslim Children's Other School

    Moore, Leslie C.


    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  7. Young Chinese ESL Children's Home Literacy Experiences.

    Xu, Hong


    Describes home literacy experiences of six Chinese English-as-a-second-language kindergartners. Includes the parents' provision of literate home environments as well as children's functional use of Chinese and English and engagement in Chinese and English literacy activities. Indicates the diverse and cultural nature of the home literacy…

  8. Health Shocks and Children's School Attainments in Rural China

    Sun, Ang; Yao, Yang


    Using a long panel dataset of Chinese farm households covering the period of 1987-2002, this paper studies how major health shocks happening to household adults affect children's school attainments. We find that primary school-age children are the most vulnerable to health shocks, with their chances to enter middle school dropping by 9.9…

  9. School for beggars' children.

    Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D


    The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634

  10. Dental caries status of Chinese children in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    McInnes, P M; Vieira, E


    The purpose of this study was to determine the dental health status of a representative sample of Johannesburg Chinese schoolchildren, all 250 attending the only Chinese school in the city. In 18 preschoolchildren, 3--5 years old, 16.7% were caries-free, mean dmft was 7.1 +/- 5.8 and labial caries was present in 33.3%. In 165 primary schoolchildren aged 5--16 years, the mean dmft was 590 +/- 3.2 with 20% of the primary dentition caries-free and the mean DMFT was 2.4 +/- 1.9 4.8% of the primary schoolchildren were caries-free. In 67 high school pupils of 11--17 years, 4.5% were caries-free and the mean DMFT score was 7.1 +/- 3.9. Caries prevalences among the Chinese were similar to corresponding groups of children of Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom and Malaysia. PMID:287589

  11. Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children

    Zheng, Lin


    This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of a Chinese Version of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) in School Age Children

    Koo, Malcolm; Norman, Cameron D.; Chang, Hsiao-Mei


    The eight-item eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is a previously validated scale developed to assess consumers' combined knowledge, comfort, and perceived skills at finding, evaluating, and applying electronic health information to health problems. In the present study, a Chinese version of the eHEALS was developed and its psychometric properties…

  13. Australian Chinese Parents' Language Attitudes and Practices Relating to Their Children's Bilingual Development Prior to School

    Hu, Jiangbo; Torr, Jane; Whiteman, Peter


    This article reports on a deep investigation of five Australian Chinese families regarding their preschool-aged children's bilingual experiences and development. Each family was visited 3 to 5 times by the first author. The mothers were interviewed about their attitudes toward their child's bilingualism and their practices to promote it.…

  14. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.


    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  15. School bus and children's traffic safety

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan


    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  16. Are Physical Activity and Academic Performance Compatible? Academic Achievement, Conduct, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Children

    Yu, C. C. W.; Chan, Scarlet; Cheng, Frances; Sung, R. Y. T.; Hau, Kit-Tai


    Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academic achievement, self-esteem, school conduct and…

  17. Risk Factors of Learning Disabilities in Chinese Children in Wuhan



    Objective To investigate prevalence rate of learning disabilities (LD) in Chinese children, and to explore related risk factors, and to provide theoretical basis for preventing such disabilities.Methods One thousand and one hundred fifty one children were randomly selected in primary schools. According to criteria set by ICD-10, 118 children diagnosed as LD were classified into the study group. Four hundred and ninety one children were classified into the normal control group. Five hundred and forty two children were classified into the excellent control group. The study instruments included PRS (The pupil rating scale revised screening for learning disabilities), Conners' children behavior check-list taken by parents and YG-WR character check-list. Results The prevalence rate of LD in Chinese children was 10.3%. Significant differences were observed between LD and normally learning children, and between the LD group and the excellent group, in terms of scores of Conners' behavior check-list (P<0.05). The study further showed that individual differences in character between the LD group and the control groups still existed even after controlling individual differences in age, IQ, and gender. Some possible causal explanations contributing to LD were improper teaching by parents, low educational level of the parents, and children's characteristics and social relationships. Conclusion These data underscore the fact that LD is a serious national public health problem in China. LD is resulted from a number of factors. Good studying and living environments should be created for LD children.

  18. Should urinary iodine concentrations of school-aged children continue to be used as proxy for different populations? Analysis of data from Chinese national surveys.

    Liu, Peng; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Jun; Kelly, Patrick J; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Lixiang; Fan, Lijun; Li, Ming; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun


    I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8-10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18-45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population. PMID:27498626

  19. Risk factors for psychopathology among Chinese children.

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Sun, Z; Wang, F


    The present study was designed to examine the family environment and child characteristics associated with psychopathology among Chinese children. A large epidemiological sample of 1695 children aged 6-11 was drawn from 12 elementary schools in Linyi Prefecture of China. Parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a self-administered questionnaire including a number of items with regard to family, parental, and child characteristics. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of child psychopathology was 17.2%. Logistic regression analyses showed that a number of family and parental, as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors had significant association with child psychopathology. The most notable risks were derived from poor parental rearing with regard to the child's misbehaviour, low birthweight, and poor marital relations of the parents after controlling for other factors. These findings are consistent with previously reported risk factors for child psychopathology, highlighting the importance of family and early childhood intervention as a measure to prevent child psychopathology in China. PMID:10498232

  20. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun


    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  1. Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

  2. Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China.

    Xie, Qing; And Others

    This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

  3. Creating a Dialogic Space for Research: A Reading Conference in a Chinese Complementary School

    Hancock, Andy


    This article draws on research carried out in a Chinese complementary school in Scotland. The research focused on children's experience of learning to read Chinese and on the strategies that they used to support their learning. Here, I provide an account of one particular aspect of this research, namely the creation of a dialogic space for…

  4. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Xu Ying


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  5. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children

    LIN Zhong; Vasudevan, Balamurali; Jhanji, Vishal; Gao, Tie Ying; Wang, Ning Li; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Liang, Yuan Bo


    Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1 ± 3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye ...

  6. A national school-based health lifestyles interventions among Chinese children and adolescents against obesity: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in China

    Chen, Yajun; Ma, Lu; Ma, Yinghua; Wang, Haijun; Luo, Jiayou; Xin ZHANG; Luo, Chunyan; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Haiping; Pan, Dehong; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Zou, Zhiyong; Yang, Wenhan; Ma, Jun


    Background The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, both in urban and rural areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited rigid data regarding children and adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. A national random controlled school-based obesity intervention program was developed in the mainland of China. Methods/Design The study was designed ...

  7. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te


    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  8. Parental schooling & children's health.

    Zill, N


    Nearly one in every four children in the United States is born to a mother who has not finished high school, and more than one in eight is reared by such a mother during the critical preschool period. Large-scale studies show that the health and welfare of children are linked to the education level of their parents, with parent education often being a stronger predictor of child well-being than family income, single parenthood, or family size. Higher parent education levels make it more likel...

  9. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong


    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  10. Children's Understanding of Television Advertising: A Revisit in the Chinese Context

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U.


    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the…

  11. Anger Coping Method and Skill Training for Chinese Children with Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    Fung, Annis L. C.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.


    Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…

  12. Popularity and Acceptance as Distinct Dimensions of Social Standing for Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Schwartz, David; Tom, Shelley R.; Chang, Lei; Xu, Yiyuan; Duong, Mylien T.; Kelly, Brynn M.


    This study attempted to validate distinctions between popularity and social acceptance in the cultural context of Hong Kong. We recruited 280 Chinese children (132 girls, 148 boys, mean age = 9.5) from Hong Kong primary schools. These children completed a peer nomination inventory assessing popularity, social acceptance, social rejection,…

  13. The Enhancement of Community Integration: Coping Strategies of Chinese Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lam, Shui-fong; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter


    This study presents a collaborative research project by school psychologists and educators in Hong Kong. It investigated the coping strategies used by Chinese parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ("N"?=?380) to enhance their children's community integration and how these strategies were related to their perceptions of…

  14. School Ecology and the Learning of Young Children.

    Lui, Ping


    One Chinese preschool uses the school ecology to address students' culture, prior knowledge, and social experience, thus enhancing learning. The ecology focuses on a theme of love and reflects children's life experiences and the local culture. The program develops all children's potential. It coordinates drawing, speaking, and thinking, prepares…

  15. Accommodations for Assimilation: Supporting Newly Arrived Children from the Chinese Mainland to Hong Kong.

    Rao, Nirmala; Yuen, Mantak


    Highlights the ways in which immigrant children from the Chinese mainland are helped to assimilate into Hong Kong society. Discusses programs to meet the challenges of securing age-appropriate school placements; adjusting to a new education system and curricula; adapting to a new school and social environment; facing segregation, prejudice, and…

  16. Chinese Immigrant Parents’ Involvement in their Children’s School Education: High Interest but Low Action

    Lan Zhong


    Full Text Available Using interview as the primary data collection method, this qualitative study examined how Chinese immigrant parents are involved in their children’s school education and what factors shape the formats of their involvement. Twelve Chinese immigrant families participated in this study. Data analysis reveals that Chinese parents got involved in their children’s school education regardless of personal experiences. They expressed beliefs that parental involvement is beneficial to both the school and children. However, generally speaking, participants did not go to their children’s school without teachers’ invitation. Language barrier, lack of time and energy, and unfamiliarity with the Canadian school culture were stated as the main reasons that contributed to participants’ limited involvement in school activities. Particularly, new immigrants often feel intimidated to talk to teachers since they do not know what they can say and what not given their unfamiliarity with the Canadian school culture. 

  17. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning


    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  18. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun


    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  19. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong


    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  20. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  1. A study of food buying behavior among Chinese children

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.


    The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13 years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children’s food choices. Secondly, the perceived importance of product attributes. Chinese children tend to pay more attention to nutr...

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure in Chinese Children Aged 6-13 Years:a Nationwide School-Based Survey

    ZHAI Yi; LI Wei Rong; SHEN Chong; Frank QIAN; SHI Xiao Ming


    Objective To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Chinese children and identify individual and family factors associated with EBP. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed. Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls. Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.

  3. Analysis of chinese language learning motivation and cultural preservation of Chinese Indonesian high school students

    Sugiato Lim


    This paper analyzes the Chinese Indonesian high school students their language and cultural preservation, also their motivation to keep learning Chinese. By related survey, this paper tries to find out more about how far the young generation of Chinese Indonesian retains their language and culture as well as their motivation to learn Chinese. The contents particularly concerns to the subjects of Chinese learning experience, motivation, mother language backgrounds, religious backgrounds, Chine...

  4. The Relations Among Multiple Risks, Parenting Styles, and Chinese American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    Tao, Xiao Tong


    This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...

  5. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang


    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring. PMID:16981611

  6. School Adaptation of Roma Children

    Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo


    This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

  7. Eye movements characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children in picture searching

    HUANG Xu; JING Jin; ZOU Xiao-bing; WANG Meng-long; LI Xiu-hong; LIN Ai-hua


    Background Reading Chinese,a kind of ideogram,relies more on visual cognition.The visuospatial cognitive deficit of Chinese dyslexia is an interesting topic that has received much attention.The purpose of current research was to explore the visuopatial cognitive characteristics of Chinese dyslexic children by studying their eye movements via a picture searching test.Methods According to the diagnostic criteria defined by ICD-10,twenty-eight dyslexic children (mean age (10.12+1.42)years) were enrolled from the Clinic of Children Behavioral Disorder in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.And 28 normally reading children (mean age (10.06±1.29) years),1:1 matched by age,sex,grade and family condition were chosen from an elementary school in Guangzhou as a control group.Four groups of pictures (cock,accident,canyon,meditate) from Picture Vocabulary Test were chosen as eye movement experiment targets.All the subjects carried out the picture searching task and their eye movement data were recorded by an Eyelink Ⅱ High-Speed Eye Tracker.The duration time,average fixation duration,average saccade amplitude,fixation counts and saccade counts were compared between the two groups of children.Results The dyslexic children had longer total fixation duration and average fixation duration (F=7.711,P<0.01;F=4.520,P<0.05),more fixation counts and saccade counts (F=7.498,P<0.01;F=11.040,P<0.01),and a smaller average saccade amplitude (F=29.743,P<0.01) compared with controls.But their performance in the picture vocabulary test was the same as those of the control group.The eye movement indexes were affected by the difficulty of the pictures and words,all eye movement indexes,except saccade amplitude,had a significant difference within groups (P<0.05).Conclusions Chinese dyslexic children have abnormal eye movements in picture searching,applying slow fixations,more fixations and small and frequent saccades.Their abnormal eye movement mode reflects the

  8. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Multicompetence: Code- and Modeswitching by Minority Ethnic Children in Complementary Schools

    Wei, Li


    This article examines the multilingual and multimodal practices of British Chinese children in complementary school classes from a multicompetence perspective. Using classroom interaction data from a number of Chinese complementary schools in 3 different cities in England, the article argues that the multicompetence perspective enables a holistic…

  9. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Waye Mary MY; Chou Crystal HN; Ho Connie SH; Lim Cadmon KP


    Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and R...

  10. Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature

    Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.


    Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

  11. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw


    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  12. Social identity and self-esteem among Mainland Chinese, Hong Kong Chinese, British born Chinese and white Scottish children

    Dai, Qian


    The Chinese community is the fastest growing non-European ethnic group in the UK, with 11.2% annual growth between 2001 and 2007. According to the National Statistics office (2005), there are over a quarter of a million Chinese in Britain. Compared to other ethnic minority groups, the Chinese group is socio-economically widespread, characterized by high academic achievements and high household income. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 Chinese immigrant children stu...

  13. Morphological Awareness and Usage in Chinese Primary School Children with Developmental Dyslexia%汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童语素分辨及运用能力

    隋雪; 刘雯; 翁旭初


    The present study investigated morphological awareness and morphological usage in Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia. While Experiment 1 aimed to characterize morphological awareness in Chinese developmental dyslexia, Experiment 2 examined the morphological usage. Results suggest (1)that there is significant impairment in the morphological awareness and usage in dyslexic children as compared to normal children; (2)that there are deficiencies in the morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia; the backwardness of morphological differentiation and usage illustrates that deficiency in morphological awareness is the main cause of developmental dyslexia in Chinese; (3)that the morpho-logical awareness plays a critical role in the development of reading ability in primary school children.%比较汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童和阅读正常儿童完成同音语素分辨任务和语素构词任务的情况,测查汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的语素分辨及运用能力。研究一考察了语素分辨能力,结果发现:与阅读正常儿童相比,阅读障碍儿童完成语素分辨任务的反应时更长、准确率更低。研究二考察了语素运用能力,结果发现:与阅读正常儿童相比,阅读障碍儿童完成语素运用相关任务的反应时更长、正确率更低。两个研究的结果提示我们,汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童存在语素意识缺陷,从语素分辨能力到语素运用能力的落后,说明语素意识缺陷是造成汉语发展性阅读障碍的重要原因,汉语的语素意识在儿童阅读中起着至关重要的作用。

  14. Chinese children's experiences of biliteracy learning in Scotland

    Hancock, Andrew John


    This thesis explores the experiences of Chinese children acquiring literacy in both Chinese and English in Scotland. A three-dimensional research design is adopted in order to take into account the influential domains where children are exposed to literacy learning. First, it investigates the attitudes and approaches to literacy learning in fourteen Chinese homes, with evidence gathered from semi-structured interviews with parents. Second, observations of and conversations with...

  15. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000



    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  16. Predictive Relations between Peer Victimization and Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J.


    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years…

  17. Urban Teachers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Migrant Children in the Chinese Educational Institution: A Comparative Study

    Liu, Ting; Holmes, Kathryn; Albright, James


    Recently China has been undergoing an unprecedented urbanisation process which has resulted in millions of rural families living in urban areas. As part of a study of Chinese migrant children's educational experiences, surveys and interviews were conducted with primary school teachers in a metropolitan city in East China. The objectives of this…

  18. Prospective, naturalistic study of open-label OROS methylphenidate treatment in Chinese school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    ZHENG Yi; GONG Mei-en; YIN Qing-yun; MAI Jian-ning; JING Jin; LUO Xiang-yang; MA Hong-wei; LI Hai-bo; XIE Ling; LI Yan; Kuang Gui-fang; WANG Yu-feng; YI Ming-ji; WANG Feng; ZHU Xiao-hua; YAO Yah-bin; QIN Jiong; WANG Li-wen; ZOU Li-ping; JIN Xing-ming; XU Tong; WANG Yi; QI Yuan-li


    ).No serious adverse events were reported during the study.Conclusion This open-label,naturalistic study provides further evidence of effectiveness and safety of OROS-MPH in school-aged children under routine practice.

  19. School-age children development

    ... work, free play, and structured activities. School-age children should participate in family chores such as setting the table and cleaning up. Limit screen time (television and other media) to 2 hours a day.

  20. Relations with parents and school and Chinese adolescents' self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance.

    Lau, S; Leung, K


    Current research and theory have suggested that the relational domains of family and school experiences are important to children's development. The present study thus examined how relations with parents and school were related to Chinese students' psychosocial and cognitive development in self-concept, delinquency, and academic performance. A total of 1668 secondary school students were studied, and results showed that better relation with parents was associated with higher general, academic, appearance, social, and physical ability self-concepts. Better relation with school was associated with higher academic performance, as shown in higher class rank, higher grand total exam scores, and higher scores in Chinese, English, mathematics, physical education, and music. Both poorer relations with parents and school were found to associate with more self-reported delinquency as well as more school records of misconduct. PMID:1637685

  1. The prevalence of lactase deficiency and lactose intolerance in Chinese children of different ages


    Objective To determine lactose metabolism and lactase activity in Chinese children of different ages, prevalence of lactase deficiency (LD), and lactose intolerance (LI). Methods All 1168 healthy subjects between 3 and 13 years were recruited from schools in four large cities in China. They were screened by a 25 g lactose tolerance test.Some subjecls were challenged with .50 g milk powder on different days. Both indicators,the expiratory H2 concentration and intolerance symptoms, were analyzed. Results LD occurred in 38.5% of children in the 3-5 year age group, and 87% of the 7-8 year and 11-13 year old groups. The age of occurrence for LD may be at 7-8 years among Chinese children. The prevalence of LI among Chinese children was 12.2% alage 3-5 years, 33.1% at age 7-8 years, and 30.5% al age 11-13 years, respectively. Conclusion The results demonstrate that LD is very common in Chinese children from these four cities. LD and LI have a dose dependent response: lactose absorption and symptorms are based on lactase activity. The relationship between breast feeding history (or the history of cow milk intake) and lactase activity among Chinese children has not been established.

  2. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Wang Chenggang; Liu Dan


    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type,family housing conditions,family relationship network.the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood.In addition,it discusses the influence of family changes in the soeialization of children.Then it expounds the new transformation in children's socialization because of family,school,mass media,etc.Finally,it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

  3. Risk Factors for Obesity and High Blood Pressure in Chinese American Children: Maternal Acculturation and Children’s Food Choices

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Lustig, Robert


    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children’s weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and se...

  4. Does long time spending on the electronic devices affect the reading abilities? A cross-sectional study among Chinese school-aged children.

    He, Zhen; Shao, Shanshan; Zhou, Jie; Ke, Juntao; Kong, Rui; Guo, Shengnan; Zhang, Jiajia; Song, Ranran


    Home literacy environment (HLE) is one of most important modifiable risk factors to dyslexia. With the development in technology, we include the electronic devices usage at home, such as computers and televisions, to the definition of HLE and investigate its impact on dyslexia based on the on-going project of Tongji's Reading Environment and Dyslexia Study. The data include 5063 children, primary school students (grade 3-grade 6), from a middle-sized city in China. We apply the principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the large dimension of variables in HLE, and find the first three components, denoted as PC1, PC2 and PC3, can explain 95.45% of HLE information. PC1 and PC2 demonstrate strong positive association with 'total time spending on electronic devices' and 'literacy-related activity', respectively. PC3 demonstrates strong negative association with 'restrictions on using electronic devices'. From the generalized linear model, we find that PC1 significantly increases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.018-1.070), while PC2 significantly decreases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 0.839, 95% CI: 0.795-0.886). Therefore, reducing the total time spending on electronic devices and increasing the literacy-related activity would be the potential protective factors for dyslexic children in China. PMID:25247847

  5. An Epidemiological Study on Sleep Characteristics of Pre-School Chinese Children%中国学龄前儿童睡眠状况的流行病学调查

    江帆; 沈晓明; 颜崇淮; 吴胜虎; 金星明; Dyken ME; Liu-Dyken DC


    Objective As sleep promotes normal development, the cultural effect on sleep are especially important in pre-school children. We determined the total sleep times (TSTs) and the prevalence of insomnia and parasomnias in pre-school children from Shanghai, China and compared this to similar research on Western populations. Study Design A sleep questionnaire was given to the parents of 3266 children, from newborn to 5 years of age, randomly selected from five districts of Shanghai, China. Results Chinese mean TSTs were less than that of Western populations. The prevalence of insomnia and parasomnias ( 57. 26% ) was higher than for Europeans ( 29% to 35% ) , but generally lower than in the USA.Conclusion Sleep disorders across cultures were resulted from a variety of behavioral and health problems. Nevertheless,we speculate that reduced TST in Chinese children may be related to factors unique to China, such as co-sleeping with parents and cramped living quarters. There is a utility in using a questionnaire for screening large populations. This study should encourage future collaborative international studies, using similar testing methods, to confirm culturally specific factors that benefit and those which detract from optimal sleep. The early institution of proper sleep habits in pre-school children may have a significant effect on school achievement and the future adult mental health.%目的 睡眠对于儿童的生长发育具有重要的作用,同时睡眠又受到文化背景等因素的影响.此研究目的是了解中国上海0~5岁儿童总的睡眠时间以及睡眠问题的发生率,同时将结果与不同文化背景的西方儿童进行比较.方法 随机抽取上海5个区县3266名出生到5周岁的儿童,对他们的父母进行有关儿童睡眠状况的问卷调查.结果 中国48月以下儿童的平均睡眠时间少于同样年龄的西方儿童.睡眠问题的发生率(57.26%)则高于欧洲的同年龄儿童发生率(29%~35%),而

  6. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung


    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  7. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Chan, Yiu Man


    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  8. Analysis of chinese language learning motivation and cultural preservation of Chinese Indonesian high school students

    Sugiato Lim


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Chinese Indonesian high school students their language and cultural preservation, also their motivation to keep learning Chinese. By related survey, this paper tries to find out more about how far the young generation of Chinese Indonesian retains their language and culture as well as their motivation to learn Chinese. The contents particularly concerns to the subjects of Chinese learning experience, motivation, mother language backgrounds, religious backgrounds, Chinese festivals and customs and other topics. Survey results indicate that the post-90s young generations of Chinese Indonesian, in terms of the language recognition, they have generally assimilated in Indonesia. In addition, in cultural preservation aspect, the students still retain several Chinese major folk customs.

  9. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han


    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  10. School of migrant children, an ethnography in an unregistered migrant school in Beijing

    Yan, Wen


    This thesis discusses about the challenge of education for migrant children in the rapidly urbanized Chinese society. An ethnographic research was conducted in one of the unregistered migrant schools in Beijing. Through a triangulation of research methods of participatory observation, semi-structured and life history interview, as well as photography, the research, from emic perspectives, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the migrant schools in education provision to migrant childr...

  11. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    Gao, Xuesong


    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  12. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia


    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  13. To have or to learn? The effects of materialism on British and Chinese children's learning.

    Ku, Lisbeth; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin


    This article presents a systematic attempt to examine the associations of materialism with learning in 9- to 11-year-old children in 2 countries of similar economic development but different cultural heritage. Using cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental methods, we test a theoretically driven model of associations among materialism, learning motivations, and learning outcomes. Convergent findings suggest that a materialist orientation in elementary school children lowers intrinsic learning motivations, fosters extrinsic learning motivations, and leads to poorer learning outcomes. Materialism was linked directly to lower exam performance, and this link was mediated by lower mastery and heightened performance goals, with patterns not differing between British and Hong Kong Chinese children (Study 1). A follow-up showed that initial materialism predicted worse exam grades 1 year later, suggesting a detrimental long-term effect on Chinese children's school performance (Study 2). We then tested relationships between materialism and learning experimentally, by priming a momentary (state) orientation toward materialism. Writing about material possessions and money affected Chinese children's learning motivations, so that they endorsed lower mastery and higher performance goals (Study 3). A video-diary materialism prime had significant effects on actual learning behaviors, leading British children to (a) choose a performance-oriented learning task over a mastery-oriented task and (b) give up on the task more quickly (Study 4). This research has important implications for personality psychology, educational policy, and future research. PMID:24749823

  14. Chinese Engineering Students' Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Graduate School

    Jiang, Xinquan


    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their…

  15. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu


    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  16. 语言学习困难儿童礼貌策略的认知发展特点%The Development of Politeness Strategies by Chinese Primary School Children with Language Learning Difficulties



    本文采用交际虚拟故事情境并结合角色表演,考察了小学三年级到六年级语言学习困难儿童礼貌策略的认知发展特点。结果表明:语言学习困难儿童礼貌策略水平在总体发展上显著滞后于一般儿童,但在不同言语行为情境下表现不同。与一般儿童相比,语言学习困难儿童请求策略礼貌认知发展水平显著滞后,但两组儿童应答策略的认知发展不存在显著差异。%Combining communicative scenarios and role-play tasks,this study aims to explore the developmental characteristics of politeness strategies among Chinese primary school children(grades 3-6).The results indicate that children with language learning difficu

  17. Enuresis in School Children

    Stehbens, James A.


    Studies relating to the more popular explanations of enuresis, are discussed and research relating to each is presented. Evidence supporting, or failing to support, treatment methods is also presented. Research possibilities for the school psychologist are suggested. (Author)

  18. The Relationship between Students' Problem Posing and Problem Solving Abilities and Beliefs: A Small-Scale Study with Chinese Elementary School Children

    Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven


    The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing…

  19. Food insecurity and malnutrition in Chinese elementary school students.

    Shen, Xiuhua; Gao, Xiang; Tang, Wenjing; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei


    It has been shown that food insecurity is associated with poor diet quality and unfavourable health outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effects of food insecurity on the overall malnutrition status among children. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among 1583 elementary school students, aged 6-14 years, living in Chinese rural areas and examined its association with four malnutrition signs, including rickets sequelae, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Information on food security was collected via questionnaires. Rickets sequelae were assessed by an experienced paediatrician during the interview. Anaemia was determined by the WHO Hb thresholds adjusted by the local altitude. Weight and height were measured during the interview. Stunting and wasting were then evaluated according to WHO child growth standards (2007). We examined the association between food insecurity and the number of malnutrition signs (total number = 4), and the likelihood of having severe malnutrition (presence of 3+ signs), after adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, social-economic status and dietary intakes. During the previous 12 months, the overall prevalence of food insecurity was 6.1% in the entire studied population and 16.3% in participants with severe malnutrition. Participants with food insecurity had a slightly higher number of malnutrition signs (1.14 v. 0.96; P=0.043) relative to those who were food secure, after adjusting for potential confounders. Food insecurity was also associated with increased likelihood of having severe malnutrition (adjusted OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.47, 6.46; P=0.003). In conclusion, food insecurity is significantly associated with malnutrition among Chinese children in this community. PMID:26283622

  20. Humour among Chinese and Greek Preschool Children in Relation to Cognitive Development

    Guo, Juan; Zhang, XiangKui; Wang, Yong; Xeromeritou, Aphrodite


    The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children's humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development,…

  1. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development.

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  2. Developmental Dyscalculia and Low Numeracy in Chinese Children

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K.; Tang, Joey


    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy--two kinds of mathematical difficulties--may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and…

  3. Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry


    Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

  4. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen


    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  5. Characteristics of Chinese Primary School Students’ EFL Learning Strategies

    Jieqiong Wu


    It is beneficial for teachers’ effective teaching to be aware of the characteristics of students’ learning strategies. This paper employed “Questionnaire of Primary School Students’ EFL Learning Strategies” of high reliability and validity and examined Chinese primary school students’ EFL learning strategies. 700 students participated in the investigation. Results indicated that the general situation with respect to participants’ EFL learning strategi...

  6. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay


    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  7. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Guo, Karen


    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  8. To Be or Not to Be--The Variable Use of the Verb "Be" in the Interlanguage of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Lee, Nancy; Huang, Yue Yuan


    The English verb "be" has always been a perceived problem for Chinese ESL learners, however, few studies have been conducted with a specific focus on the interlanguage "be" of Chinese ESL learners. This paper examines the variable use of the English verb "be" of 270 Hong Kong primary school children for developmental patterns of English language…

  9. Governor's Schools: An Alternative for Gifted Children

    Winkler, Daniel L.; Stephenson, Scott; Jolly, Jennifer L.


    In this article, the authors discuss Governor's Schools as an alternative for gifted students. When the word school is used, people typically think about traditional schooling. But Governor's Schools are different in the type of schooling provided and the type of students served--they educate predominantly gifted children, teach a wide array of…

  10. Stimulant Treatment of Elementary School Children: Implications for School Counselors.

    Bramlett, Ronald K.; Nelson, Patricia; Reeves, Betty


    Determines the percentage of elementary children in the United States who are currently receiving stimulant medication at school. Forty-six states and 246,707 children were represented in the survey. Approximately 3% of children were receiving stimulant medication at school with Ritalin the stimulant most widely used. Explores assessment issues…

  11. Expanding Chinese Language Education : A Case Study of Students from Upper-Secondary Schools in Norway


    The purpose of the study is to illustrate the situation of Chinese language study at upper-secondary schools in Norway in the context of globalization and overseas Chinese language promotion. It explores the underlying principles for teaching Chinese in Norway, the initiatives that government and schools have taken to facilitate the development of Chinese language teaching in upper secondary schools, as well as the educational experience students have in terms of Chinese language learning at ...

  12. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li


    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  13. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia.

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan


    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  14. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan


    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  15. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

    Ying-Hui eYang


    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  16. Do School Feeding Programs Help Children?

    World Bank


    Policymakers and development organizations have embraced school feeding programs as a way to help poor children get enough to eat while giving them an incentive to be in school. The programs are not just used in developing countries the United States began implementing school feeding programs in the 19th century and still uses them today for poor children. The popularity of these programs,...

  17. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.


    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  18. Children and Celiac Disease: Going Back to School

    ... School Children and Celiac Disease: Going Back to School Going back to school is usually full of excitement and anticipation. For ... of anxiety. Keeping children gluten-free in the school cafeteria and at school parties, classmates’ birthday parties, ...

  19. Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children

    Valeria LAZA


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

  20. Association of the rs3743205 variant of DYX1C1 with dyslexia in Chinese children

    Waye Mary MY


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslexia is a learning disability that is characterized by difficulties in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills independent of intelligence, motivation or schooling. Studies of western populations have suggested that DYX1C1 is a candidate gene for dyslexia. In view of the different languages used in Caucasian and Chinese populations, it is therefore worthwhile to investigate whether there is an association of DYX1C1 in Chinese children with dyslexia. Method and Results Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped from three hundred and ninety three individuals from 131 Chinese families with two which have been reported in the literature and six tag SNPs at DYX1C1. Analysis for allelic and haplotypic associations was performed with the UNPHASED program and multiple testing was corrected using false discovery rates. We replicated the previously reported association of rs3743205 in Chinese children with dyslexia (pcorrected = 0.0072. This SNP was also associated with rapid naming, phonological memory and orthographic skills in quantitative trait analysis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that DYX1C1 is associated with dyslexia in people of Chinese ethnicity in Hong Kong.

  1. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B


    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  2. Motivating Teachers' Commitment to Change through Transformational School Leadership in Chinese Urban Upper Secondary Schools

    Liu, Peng


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of transformational school leadership on teachers' commitment to change and the effects of organizational and teachers' factors on teachers' perception of transformational school leadership in the Chinese urban upper secondary school context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper mainly…

  3. Teacher Leadership in University-School Collaboration for School Improvement (USCSI) on the Chinese Mainland

    Zhang, Jia-Wei; Lo, Leslie Nai-Kwai; Chiu, Chi-Shing


    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study on teacher leadership in the context of university-school collaboration for school improvement (USCSI) on the Chinese Mainland. Through the lens of structuration theory, it explores the process of teacher leaders exercising their power in a USCSI project. During the school improvement…

  4. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    Wagle, Dhirendra


    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  5. Ecological risk model of childhood obesity in Chinese immigrant children.

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L


    Chinese Americans are the largest and fastest growing Asian American subgroup, increasing about one-third during the 2000s. Despite the slender Asian stereotype, nearly one-third of 6-to-11 year old Chinese American children were found to be overweight (above the 85th percentile in BMI). Importantly, unique and severe health risks are associated with being overweight/obese in Chinese. Unfortunately, Chinese immigrant children have been neglected in the literature on obesity. This review aimed to identify factors at various levels of the ecological model that may place Chinese immigrant children at risk for being overweight/obese in the U.S. Key contextual factors at the micro-, meso-, exo-, macro- and chronosystem were identified guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The corresponding mediating and moderating processes among the factors were also reviewed and proposed. By presenting a conceptual framework and relevant research, this review can provide a basic framework for directing future interdisciplinary research in seeking solutions to childhood obesity within this understudied population. PMID:25728887

  6. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy in Chinese children

    Chan, Winnie Wai Lan; Au, Terry K. F.; Tang, Joey C Y


    Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy - two kinds of mathematical difficulties - may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and linguistic factors supporting their mathematical learning, also showed such mathematical difficulties and whether such difficulties have measurable imp...

  7. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China

    Liu, Weijia; Liu, Wei; Lin, Rong; Li, Bai; Pallan, Miranda; Cheng, K.K.; Adab, Peymane


    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity prevalence differ according to a country’s stage of nutrition transition. The aim of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors influence inequalities in obesity prevalence in Chinese primary school children living in an urban setting. Methods We assessed obesity prevalence among 9917 children aged 5–12 years from a stratified random sample of 29 state-funded (residents) and private (migrants) schools in Guangzhou, China....

  8. Chinese Cultural Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Primary School Chinese Language Teachers' Belief and Practice

    Kwan, Ming Kai Marko


    Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into…

  9. Chinese Children's Use of Subcharacter Information about Pronunciation

    He, Yeqin; Wang, Qiuying; Anderson, Richard C.


    Two experiments involving Chinese 2nd graders and 4th graders investigated the use of subcharacter information to learn to pronounce unfamiliar semantic-phonetic compound characters. Experiment 1 confirmed that children can use the information in both tone-different and onset-different characters to learn character pronunciations and showed that…

  10. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.


    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  11. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.


    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  12. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A multiple comparative case study

    Tao, Ying; Colette Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady Jane


    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high, medium and low socio-economic status in Hunan Province, central south China (n = 135) and three schools of similar socio-economic status in Western Australia (n = 120). The students' understanding was assessed by a science quiz, developed from past Trends in Mathematics and Science Study science released items for primary children. In-depth interviews were carried out to further explore children's conceptual understanding of living things, the Earth and floating and sinking. The results revealed that Year 3 children from schools of similar socio-economic status in the two countries had similar conceptual understandings of life science, earth science and physical science. Further, in both countries, the higher the socio-economic status of the school, the better the students performed on the science quiz and in interviews. Some idiosyncratic strengths and weaknesses were observed, for example, Chinese Year 3 children showed relative strength in classification of living things, and Australian Year 3 children demonstrated better understanding of floating and sinking, but children in both countries were weak in applying and reasoning with complex concepts in the domain of earth science. The results raise questions about the value of providing a science curriculum in early childhood if it does not make any difference to students' conceptual understanding of science.

  13. Chinese Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Classroom Behaviour Problems

    Shen, Jiliang; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Caiyun; Caldarella, Paul; Richardson, Michael J.; Shatzer, Ryan H.


    This study examined teachers' perceptions of classroom behaviour problems in five provinces of the People's Republic of China. Researchers surveyed 527 Chinese teachers from 27 elementary schools. Consistent with previous studies in China, teachers perceived non-attention to be the most frequent and troublesome behaviour problem. Teachers'…

  14. Creative Writing Strategies of Young Children: Evidence from a Study of Chinese Emergent Writing

    Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing


    The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…

  15. The risk and protective factors in the development of childhood social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children.

    Wu, Yi-Le; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yi-Feng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan


    The aim of this study was to explore the change and associated risk and protective factors of social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed in a general primary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children in grades 3, 4, and 7. Children's social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scales for Children (SASC) at three assessments. The overall prevalence of children's elevated social anxiety symptoms ranged from 15.2% to 16.4% across three assessments. Children's overall mean SASC scores were 5.6 (SD =3.7), 5.3 (SD =3.8), and 5.3 (SD =4.1) at three assessments, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, children's social anxiety symptom levels and change among different subgroups was not stable across 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, severe family dysfunction, quality of life, positive coping, negative coping, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were predictive factors for childhood elevated social anxiety symptoms. The findings suggested that the overall social anxiety symptoms showed a relatively stable pattern over time. The identified risk and protective factors may provide scientific evidence for school, family, and health authorities to conduct necessary intervention. PMID:27092863

  16. Seeking the Seeds of Innovation in School Progress:Ideas for Coastal Re-gional Children



    Children are the future of the society. Of all the factors of children’s innovation is the most important. The concept of innovation has been closely tied to the push for school choice, serving as a key rationale for such choice plans of school assign-ment. While innovation continually put forward throughout Chinese education, some versions of school choice are specifically designed to accelerate the pace of innovation. This presentation will provide an analysis of acceleration of innovation.

  17. School maturity of pre-school age visually impaired children

    Gudonis, Vytautas


    The sample or research is 310 pre-school age visually impaired children. The average age of the surveyed is 6.3 years, the sharpness of vision is V 0.3–1. The research employed the methods for assessment of children’s maturity for school worked out by G. Gintilienė, D. Butkienė, S. Girdzijauskienė et al. (2005). During the investigation, essential problems of pre-school age visually impaired children have been estimated: a number of hyperactive children increases; also, a number of children w...

  18. Lexical tone awareness in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Li, WS; Ho, CSH


    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that ...

  19. Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions

    Chan, Siu Mui


    This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

  20. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth


    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in…

  1. Serum lipid & lipoprotein profiles of obese Chinese children.

    Ho, T F; Paramsothy, S; Aw, T C; Yip, W C


    The serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 59 obese Chinese children with a mean age of 13.0 years and mean relative weight of 164.2% were analysed. Between 40% to 54% of these children had elevated lipid and lipoprotein levels and about 78% had reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL) level when compared to healthy American and Japanese children. The obese children also had higher mean levels of total cholesterol (TC) and lower HDL compared to male adults in the local population. Those with elevated TC had higher mean relative weight (170% vs 159%, p obese children should be carefully screened and managed to prevent long term morbidity and mortality of coronary artery disease. PMID:10967982

  2. Smokeless tobacco consumption among school children

    J Muttapppallymyalil; J Sreedharan; B Divakaran


    Background : More than one-third of the tobacco consumed regionally is of smokeless form. Aims : To determine the prevalence and pattern of smokeless tobacco use among school children. Settings and Design : This cross-sectional study was conducted among children in 5 randomly selected high schools in Kannur district, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1200 children. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistic...

  3. Theory of mind and executive function in Chinese preschool children.

    Duh, Shinchieh; Paik, Jae H; Miller, Patricia H; Gluck, Stephanie C; Li, Hui; Himelfarb, Igor


    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 52(4) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2016-13852-001). In the article, there were two errors in Table 6. The coefficient between WM and Age was incorrectly set as .46; it should have been .46. Further, the coefficient between WM and Gender should be .00 instead of .00. The correct version is provided.] Cross-cultural research on children's theory of mind (ToM) understanding has raised questions about its developmental sequence and relationship with executive function (EF). The current study examined how ToM develops (using the tasks from Wellman & Liu, 2004) in relation to 2 EF skills (conflict inhibition, working memory) in 997 Chinese preschoolers (ages 3, 4, 5) in Chengdu, China. Compared with prior research with other Chinese and non-Chinese children, some general patterns in development were replicated in this sample. However, the children showed culture-specific reversals in the developmental sequence of ToM. For example, Chengdu children performed differently on the 2 false-belief tasks that were thought to be equivalent. Furthermore, conflict inhibition as well as working memory uniquely predicted ToM performance. We discuss the issues of ToM development as they relate to test items and cross-cultural-and subcultural-differences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845504

  4. Primary School Children's Vision Screening Project

    O'Dwyer, Veronica; Harrington, Sandra


    In the final year of the BSc in Optometry, students work with children in local schools to do vision screenings, supervised by DIT lecturers. This project enhances students’ experience of working with children, and ensures that any local children with eye problems are swiftly referred to a specialist.

  5. Physical Activity of Malaysian Primary School Children: Comparison by Sociodemographic Variables and Activity Domains.

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Parikh, Panam; Poh, Bee Koon; Deurenberg, Paul


    This study describes the physical activity of primary school children according to sociodemographic characteristics and activity domains. Using the Malaysian South East Asian Nutrition Surveys data, 1702 children aged 7 to 12 years were included in the analysis. Physical activity was reported as a total score and categorized into low, medium, and high levels based on Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Higher overall activity scores were found in boys, younger age, non-Chinese ethnicity, and normal body mass index category. Sex, age, and ethnicity differences were found in structured or organized, physical education, and outside-of-school domain scores. Transport-related scores differed by age group, ethnicity, household income, and residential areas but not among the three physical activity levels. Participation of girls, Chinese, and older children were low in overall and almost all activity domains. Sociodemographic characteristics are important factors to consider in increasing the different domains of physical activity among Malaysian children. PMID:27257293

  6. The influence of advertising on pre-school children in comparison to children in primary school

    Sywalová, Linda


    Bachelor thesis The influence of advertising on pre-school children in comparison to children in primary school deals with characteristics of television advertising aimed at children. Targeting ads to this particular group tends to be controversial these days and there is an increasing rate of child protection under the laws of the Czech Republic. This thesis analyses the characteristics of television advertising and its impact on children. The goal is to find differences among children in ki...

  7. Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong


    The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

  8. Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Their Organizational Commitment and Well-Being in a Chinese School

    Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Li, Yifei


    This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes…

  9. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    Yang, Ying-Hui; Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan


    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children ...

  10. Nutrition in Chinese-Korean Children and Adolescents

    YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye


    ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.

  11. Chinese Immigrant Families and Bilingualism among Young Children

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili


    Thirty-five children (17 boys and 18 girls, 4 to 8 years old) in 2-parent Chinese immigrant families had attended English-speaking facilities for 35.0 months (boys) and 32.9 months (girls), respectively. They were tested at home with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) and the Mandarin version of PPVT-R. No gender differences were…

  12. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min


    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  13. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei


    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  14. On perceptive teaching in Chinese middle school English teaching

    He Lifen


    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese English teaching mainly emphasizes the learners’ cognitive development, which is not adaptable to the modern English class. The research of perceptive teaching improves not only learners’ cognitive abilities but also their affective factors and helps learners develop their cognition and affect harmoniously. This thesis introduces the theoretical basis, instructional orders, principles, characteristics and objectives of perceptive teaching. Perceptive teaching can provide the middle school English teaching in China with some new principles and methods.

  15. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang


    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  16. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza


    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. PMID:24495491

  17. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan


    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function. PMID:26444689

  18. The Socialization of Home-Schooled Children in Rural Utah

    Mecham, Neil A.


    Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...

  19. School Health Screening of Indochinese Refugee Children.

    Pickwell, Sheila M.


    Indochinese children registering for the first time in American schools are appearing with multiple health problems. These frequently include lice and scabies, intestinal parasites, vision and hearing defects, and severe dental decay. (JN)

  20. How Schools Train Children for Political Impotence

    Kozol, Jonathan


    The contrast between the real power and the experience of impotence that millions of bright, earnest school children attest to prompts one to enquire into preplanned impotence and self-defeat. (Author)

  1. Buying behaviour of children at secondary school

    Snížková, Kateřina


    The bachelor thesis deals with buying behaviour of children at secondary school. The aim is to describe their buying behaviour and find out their motivational factors to purchase factors with a focus on advertisement. In the theoretical part is specified buying behaviour and factors influencing consumer. Gen Z and Net generation, in which children at secondary school class, are characterized. It described their buying behaviour and specification that characterize this generation. A part of th...

  2. The Development of Attitude to School by Children Beginning School Attendance

    KŘIŽANOVÁ, Jaroslava


    The aim of my diploma thesis is to ascertain how is developed attitude to school by children beginning school attendance. The theoretical part is devoted to pre-school children and primary school children with specialization in socialization in their family and out of it. There is also included concept of primary school. The practical part is devoted to the research of the developmet attitude to school by three children. Information was found out of that three children, their parents and teac...

  3. Evaluating Physical and Perceptual Responses to Exergames in Chinese Children

    Patrick W. C. Lau


    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to examine whether exergames could help children reach the recommendations for PA and cardiorespiratory fitness regarding exercise intensity. Differences in perceived physical exertion, EE, VO2, and HR between normal weight (NW and overweight (OW children participating in exergames were also examined. Methods: Twenty-one children (age: 10.45 ± 0.88 were assessed for EE, VO2 and HR during rest, in a maximal treadmill test, and while playing different exergames. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE (category range: 0 to 10 were also measured during exergaming. Three types of exergames were examined: running, table tennis, and dancing. These games were either performed on a Chinese game console, I-Dong, or another well-developed Western game console (Sony PlayStation 3 or Nintendo Wii. Results: Exergaming resulted in EE (kcal/min from 2.05–5.14, VO2 (mL/kg/min from 9.98–25.54, and HR (beats per minute from 98.05–149.66. Children reported RPE ranging from 1.29 to 5.29. The Chinese exergame, I-Dong Running, was the only game in which children reached a moderate intensity and met the recommended minimum VO2reserve (50% for cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion: Exergames could provide alternative opportunities to enhance children’s physical activity. They could be used as light-to-moderate PA, and with exergames, children can even reach the recommended intensity for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. Prevalence of naevi in school children

    Sharma N; Sharma R


    The prevalence of naevi in general and pigmented (melanocytic) naevi in particular was studied in school children. Naevi were seen in 73.6% of the examined children, while 73.1% of them had pigmented naevi. The average number of naevi was 5.4 per child with slight male preponderance. There was complete absence of naevi over palms and soles.

  5. The Impact of Changes in Chinese Government Policy on Rural-Urban Migrant Children’s Schooling

    Nan Li; Peggy L. Placier


    In this policy analysis we will explicate changes in policies affecting the ability of Chinese rural-urban migrantfamilies to gain access to public school education for their children. We argue that these changes are traceable toa contradiction between the transformation of government economic policies in the period since 1978, whichencouraged rural surplus labor force to move to urban areas seeking job opportunities; and the Hukou policy,which continued to label migrants as “urban outsiders”...

  6. Food price inflation and children's schooling

    M. Grimm (Michael)


    textabstractI analyze the impact of food price inflation on parental decisions to send their children to school. Moreover, I use the fact that food crop farmers and cotton farmers were exposed differently to that shock to estimate the income elasticity of school enrolment. The results suggest that t

  7. Ritalin for School Children: The Teachers' Perspective.

    Robin, Stanley S.; Bosco, James J.

    Research in an urban public school system (Grand Rapids, Michigan) was conducted to determine teachers' view of Ritalin for school children. Three questions were addressed: what contact with and information about Ritalin do teachers have; what attitude do teachers express toward Ritalin; and what professional behaviors do teachers report in regard…

  8. The School Children's Development in Language Skills



    @@ During the school years, children's development in cognition enables them to focus their thinking on the facts and relationships less intuitively and more analytically. Growing language abilities complement these cognitive skills. As a result, older children can discuss and explain their world and themselves in ways no presehoolers can. And the ability to plan and follow through on cognitive strategies further distinguishes older children from preschoolers.

  9. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    İsmail Özanli; Sebahat Tülpar; Yunus Yılmaz; Fatih Yıldız


    Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP) values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males) children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pr...

  10. Chinese school teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Predictors and outcomes.

    Li, Xia


    Teacher's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a multifaceted construct that is critical to school effectiveness and to the education enterprise. Four hundred ninety-three teachers in eight different cities on the Chinese mainland were surveyed using the OCB scale developed by Bo Shiuan Cheng, a Taiwanese scholar. The antecedent and outcome variables of OCB were examined in this study. The results showed that the teachers' attitudinal characteristics of career satisfaction and career commitment, and the dispositional characteristic of locus of control, influenced teachers' OCB. In addition, teachers' OCB influenced their work performance as well as their career and organizational turnover intention. The implications of this study suggest a base of knowledge from which school administrators could enhance their school's organizational function and retain teachers. PMID:26271183

  11. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome


    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n = 30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n = 40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df = 54, Z = −2.379, p = 0.017) and had better communication skills (df = 54, Z = −2.222, p = 0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

  12. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian


    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  13. Copying Skills in Relation to Word Reading and Writing in Chinese Children with and without Dyslexia

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tong, Xiuhong


    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given…

  14. Factors Influencing Whether Children Walk to School

    Su, Jason G.; Jerrett, Michael; McCONNELL, ROB; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer


    Few studies have evaluated multiple levels of influence simultaneously on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4,338 subjects from ten communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods charact...

  15. Paragonimiasis in Chinese Children: 58 Cases Analysis

    Hong Zhen Xu


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical and radiological features of paragonimiasis in children and raise the awareness of this disease.Methods: A total of 58 paragonimiasis patients were reviewed. They were 42 boys and 16 girls aged 2.0 to 15.3 years.Findings: Among these patients, 20 were diagnosed in the recent 5 years, 46 with a history of raw water or food ingestion. Except 2 patients without any complaint, the most common features involved the systemic (41, 70.7% and respiratory systems (43, 74.1%, followed by abdominal, cardiac and nervous systems, with rash and mass. Eosinophilia was noted in 46 (79.3% patients, granulocytosis in 45 (77.6%, anemia in 14 (24.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 3. Imageology showed pneumonia in 26 (44.8% patients, pleurisy in 28 (48.3%, hydropericardium in 17 (29.3%, ascites in 16 (27.6%, and celiac lymphadenitis in 13 (22.4%. Besides hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, calcification and multiple lamellar low echogenic areas in the liver were noted, each in one patient. Abnormal brain imaging was noted in 4 of 10 patients. Karyocyte hyperplasia with eosinophilia was noted in all the 19 patients who received bone marrow puncture.Conclusion: Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with multiple organs or system lesions, especially those with eosinophilia, serous cavity effusion, respiratory, cardiac, digestive system, nervous system abnormality, and/or mass. Healthy eating habit is helpful for paragonimiasis prevention.

  16. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri; Omer Abdullah Basurreh; Faisel Yunus; Amen Ahmed Bawazir


    To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE) among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7) years. The ...

  17. The Revival of Confucianism in Chinese Schools: A Historical-Political Review

    Yu, Tianlong


    This article examines the "back to tradition" movement in Chinese schools and its political nature. It focuses on the launch of the "education in Chinese traditional virtues" project in the 1980s and various new developments at the present time, which continue a revival of Confucianism in Chinese society and education. The paper looks into the…

  18. School Leadership in Two Countries: Shared Leadership in American and Chinese High Schools

    Jing, Wenlen


    Cross-culture educational leadership researchers have shown in their research that national boundaries make a difference. What works in one nation may not work in another one because of different cultures in schools and across nations. This study aims to better understand the similarities and differences between American and Chinese high school…

  19. Communicative Development in Bilingually Exposed Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Reetzke, Rachel; Zou, Xiaobing; Sheng, Li; Katsos, Napoleon


    Purpose: We examined the association of bilingual exposure with structural and pragmatic language development in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Method: The parents of 54 children with ASD exposed to 1 (n = 31) or 2 (n = 23) Chinese languages completed (a) a questionnaire to evaluate their child's competence in structural…

  20. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao


    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  1. American and Chinese Children's Understanding of Basic Relational Concepts in Directions

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.


    Two hundred first- and second-grade Chinese children's knowledge of basic relational concepts in following directions was assessed on the "Applications Booklet" of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised" (BTBC-R, 1986). Chinese children's performance was then compared with that of the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Results indicated that…

  2. "What Makes You Shy?": Understanding Situational Elicitors of Shyness in Chinese Children

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.


    This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; M[subscript age] = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, M[subscript age]…

  3. Family Involvement in Children's Mathematics Education Experiences: Voices of Immigrant Chinese American Students and Their Parents

    Liang, Senfeng


    This study examines ways in which Chinese immigrant families are involved in their children's mathematics education, particularly focusing on how different types of families utilize different forms of capital to support their children's mathematics education. The theoretical framework defines four types of Chinese immigrant families--working…

  4. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei


    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  5. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang


    The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

  6. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.


    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the studen

  7. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao


    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  8. Mental Health Knowledge of Chinese Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Shek, Daniel T. L.


    Assesses mental health knowledge of 1850 Chinese secondary school students. Finds a significant number of students lack knowledge about mental health and illness. Discusses implications of the data for mental health education within the school context. Includes the Chinese Mental Health Knowledge Scale (CMHKS). (NL)

  9. Impact on the risk of obesity due to interactions between fat mass- and obesity-associated gene rs9939609 variants and behavioral factors, in the Chinese school-aged children%体脂和肥胖相关基因多态性与生活行为因素交互作用对学龄儿童肥胖的影响

    席波; 张美仙; 沈玥; 赵小元; 王兴宇; 米杰


    目的 探讨体脂和肥胖相关基因(FTO)多态性与生活行为因素的交互作用对学龄儿童肥胖的影响.方法 从"北京市儿童青少年代谢综合征(BCAMS)研究"中选取6~18岁学龄儿童3503名,分为肥胖组(1229名)和非肥胖组(2274名).进行问卷调查、静脉采血和基因型检测.结果 采用因子分析方法,共提取蛋白类食物、果蔬、烟酒、静态生活方式和业余体育活动5个公因子.logistic回归分析显示,以FTO基因与蛋白类食物交互作用为例,当两因素共同存在时,其中归因于交互作用的危险度占19.16%.该位点多态性与果蔬、静态生活方式和业余体育活动的交互作用归因百分比则依次为5.97%、19.62%和12.43%;该位点与烟酒可能不存在交互作用.结论 在中国学龄儿童中,蛋白类食物、果蔬、静态生活方式和业余体育活动等生活行为因素可能修饰FTO基因与肥胖的关系.但仍需要大规模、前瞻性的干预性研究,验证FTO基因与环境因素的交互作用对儿童肥胖的真实影响.%Objective To investigate how the interactions between fat mass- and obesityassociated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variants and daily-life related behavioral factors would influence the risk of obesity among the Chinese school-aged children. Methods 3503 school-aged children were selected from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study, and divided into obese children (n=1229) and non-obese children (n=2274). Venipuncture blood test,genotyping and questionnaire were performed. Results Five common factors including protein foods, tobacco & alcohol, vegetables & fruits, sedentary behavior and physical exercise in spare time were extracted with factor analysis methodology. Data from logistic regression analysis showed that taking the interaction of rs9939609 variant with protein foods as an example, the risk of interaction accounted for 19.16% when both factors existing simultaneously. Similarly

  10. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  11. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.


    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  12. Socialization Objectives for Primary School Children in the People's Republic of China (with a Focus on the Portrayal of the Elderly). Research Report 3.

    Straka, Gerald A.

    To identify possible changes in the social functions of the Chinese educational system, content analyses were performed on selected national, Chinese language, primary school reading textbooks (First Edition, February 1978, Beijing People's Educational Press, Vols. I and II). Frequency of reference to each of the 10 regulations for children in…




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Refractive error is the second leading cause of treatable blindness . 46 . 69% of all ocular morbidity in the country is directly attributed to refractiv e errors and myopia is the commonest type of refractive error . School age children constitute a particularly vulnerable group because uncorrected refractive errors may lead to amblyopia , subnormal binocularity or strabismus resulting in permanent visual lo ss . Studies have shown that there has been an increase in the proportion of myopia among students . In view of the importance of detecting the eye defects in school children in our region where staple food and socio - demography is different from rest of the country an effort has been made in the present study to find out the extent of problem of refractive errors particularly Myopia among school children . OBJECTIVES : To study and evaluate Myopia among School children . METHODS : A cross - sectional study on rando m control sample of school children of 7 - 15 year was carried out in the Hubli city . Visual acuity tests were done all students . Students with 6/6 ( p or less vision were subjected for slit lamp examination , retinoscopy , fundus examination , keratometry and A - scan . RESULTS : 13 . 5% of children had refractive errors . 4 . 54% had Myopia . Myopia was more common in females with a peak in 13 - 15 year group . CONCLUSION : Significant proportion of children of this area had uncorrected refractive errors . Regular screening and correction of refractive error will help to improve vision , prevent further deterioration and hence irreversible changes in the visual system .

  14. Television, school children and their parents

    Žnidarčič, Karin Tanja


    In the diploma work I attempt to provide an insight of TV watching habits of school children and eventual parent supervision at such. Mass media, especially television, is an omnipresent element influencing our daily lives. I also mentioned the importance of understanding the affects of TV content on school children in the period of their middle childhood as well as the role of parents or other adults in the supervision of TV programs watched. The fact that not all TV programs are suitable f...

  15. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    Hongxiang Guo


    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  16. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee


    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  17. Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance

    The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

  18. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun


    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China. PMID:26944225

  19. Prevalence of myopia among school going children

    Suresh B. Hittalamani; Vivekanand S. Jivangi


    Background: Poor vision in childhood affects performance in school or at work and has a negative influence on the future life of the child. Moreover planning of a youth's career is very much dependent on the visual acuity, especially in jobs for navy, military, railways and aviation. This warrants early detection and treatment of refractive errors to prevent permanent disability. Hence present study was planned with the objective to determine, the prevalence of myopia among school children. ...

  20. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    Ji, Chai; Yao, Dan; Chen, Weijun; Li, Mingyan; Zhao, Zhengyan


    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n = 26), normally-developi...

  1. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F


    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  2. Analysis on factors of affecting the status of physical education in Chinese school

    Jin Chengquan


    Focusing on the current marginalized status of school physical education in Chinese school education, using the method of literature, interview and investigation, this paper from the perspective of sociology analyzed the affecting factors of status of school physical education in our country and hoped to provide reference for the reform and development of school physical education and school education. The results showed much attention of government administration and school leaders paying to...




    This thesis ?Cooperation of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance? describes concrete forms of communicatoin and coopertion of the school with parents of children who are begginning school attendance. The theoretical part is focused on scholar of freshman class, focused on school maturity and readiness, school immaturity, initiation of school attendance and affimnity of family with school. The practical part is focused on concrete forms of communicatoin and ...

  4. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter;


    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  5. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Wu Shenghu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  6. Anthropometric measures of 9-to 10-year-old native tibetan children living at 3700 and 4300m above sea level and han Chinese living at 3700m

    Bianba, B.; Yangzong, Y.; Gonggalanzi, G.;


    school children aged 9 to 10 years were conducted in Lhasa in 2005 and Tingri in 2007. Conventional age-And sex-specific cutoff values were used for defining underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obesity, whereas stunting was defined from sex-specific height-for-Age z-scores (2.0). The prevalence of...... found in 14.6%and 35.7%, respectively, of Tingri children, and near null among Han Chinese and native Tibetans in Lhasa. In logistic regression analyses, socioeconomic status and diet did not substantially change the observed crude association (total effect) (odds ratio [OR]=3.3; 95% confidence interval...... Tibetan children living at a higher residential altitude (Tingri) than the lower residential altitude (Lhasa), in addition to being higher among Han Chinese children than Tibetan children living at the same residential altitude (Lhasa). Thus, physical growth according to age, in terms of both height and...

  7. Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school

    Jiang, Xinquan

    This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting

  8. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula


    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was…

  9. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    Sakamoto, Takashi


    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  10. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis


    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  11. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

    Gu, Min; McGrath, Colman PJ; Wong, Ricky WK; Hägg, Urban; Yang, Yanqi


    OBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper air...

  12. Sexual violence against women and children in Chinese societies.

    Ko Ling Chan


    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the reported patterns of sexual violence against women and children in China. It reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for various types of sexual violence and discusses community knowledge and perceptions of these violent acts. It also critically examines three major problems of sexual violence research in China. First, the diversity of findings and study methods reported by surveys and criminal reports reflects the problems in obtaining accurate figures on the scope of the problem. Second, precautions must be taken in reading studies on Chinese culture-specific risk factors for domestic violence. Third, the study of culture-specific factors should not focus solely on cultural factors in a vacuum but rather, should examine traditional culture in the context of modern societies and consensus international standards of human rights. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. PMID:19008337

  13. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children.

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hanrong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yu


    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can benefit from working-memory training. In the present study, thirty dyslexic children aged 8-11 years were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was adjusted based on the performance of each subject, and the training sessions lasted 40 minutes per day, for 5 weeks. The results showed that working-memory training significantly enhanced performance on the nontrained working memory tasks such as the visuospatial, the verbal domains, and central executive tasks in children with developmental dyslexia. More importantly, the visual rhyming task and reading fluency task were also significantly improved by training. Progress on working memory measures was related to changes in reading skills. These experimental findings indicate that working memory is a pivotal factor in reading development among children with developmental dyslexia, and interventions to improve working memory may help dyslexic children to become more proficient in reading. PMID:25206687

  14. Families with school-age children.

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell


    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  15. The Effect of Teachers' Emotions on Chinese Junior English Learners



    The study intends to investigate the effect of teachers' emotions on Chinese Junior English learners. It is very common to see that in many primary schools, Chinese English teachers tend to play games with children, teach songs and the like,leading the Chinese young English beginners to the door to English world with great enthusiasm. But after children enter


    Stanika DIKIC


    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  17. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni


    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  18. The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties

    Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei


    This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

  19. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness?

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  20. Negotiating and Creating Intercultural Relations: Chinese Immigrant Children in New Zealand Early Childhood Education Centres

    Guo, Karen; Dalli, Carmen


    A multiple-case study investigation of the experiences of eight Chinese immigrant children in New Zealand early childhood centres suggested that the immigrant children's learning experiences in their first centre can be understood as a process of negotiating and creating intercultural relations. The children's use of family cultural tools, such as…

  1. Sports Fitness School for Children.

    Tacha, Karolyn K.; And Others


    The Sports Fitness Program developed at Kansas State University offers children a way to develop or improve skills and learn physical education concepts. This summer program is an alternative to traditional sports programs since activities are not competitive and are less structured. Details of program organization are discussed. (DF)

  2. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    Jasinsky, M


    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  3. Parenting School-Age Children

    ... with their teachers, or they may experience separation anxiety that can interfere with their school attendance. To make your own child's education as positive and productive as possible, closely monitor her academic progress and social adjustment, and get to know her teacher. Discuss ...

  4. Validation of the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS) for primary school students in Hong Kong.

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Wong, Agnes S K; Leung, Howard W H; Cheng, Joyce S; Chiu, Billy H W; Tse, Linda F L; Chung, Raymond C K


    There are more children diagnosed with specific learning difficulties in recent years as people are more aware of these conditions. Diagnostic tool has been validated to screen out this condition from the population (SpLD test for Hong Kong children). However, for specific assessment on handwriting problem, there seems a lack of standardized and objective evaluation tool to look into the problems. The objective of this study was to validate the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS), which is designed to measure both the process and production of handwriting. The construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of CHAS was analyzed using the data from 734 grade 1-6 students from 6 primary schools in Hong Kong. Principal Component Analysis revealed that measurements of CHAS loaded into 4 components which accounted for 77.73% of the variance. The correlation between the handwriting accuracy obtained from HAS and eyeballing was r=.73. Cronbach's alpha of all measurement items was .65. Except SD of writing time per character, all the measurement items regarding handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (r=.72-.96), while measurement on the numbers of characters which exceeded grid showed moderate reliability (r=.48). Although there are still ergonomic, biomechanical or unspecified aspects which may not be determined by the system, the CHAS can definitely assist therapists in identifying primary school students with handwriting problems and implement interventions accordingly. PMID:23816625

  5. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair


    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  6. Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong

    Tang, Catherine So-kum


    Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

  7. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel


    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  8. The Education of New Chinese Immigrant Children in Hong Kong: Challenges and Opportunities

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Ting, Cynthia Law Man


    In describing the current status of the education of new Chinese immigrant children (NCIC) in Hong Kong and to provide data useful for designing new policies, this article highlights the region's rise of new Chinese immigrants and the characteristics of the NCIC. Challenges to improve access to and equity in education in Hong Kong, overall quality…

  9. Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children

    On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.)

  10. Guidelines to rational use of antibiotics in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Chinese children


    @@Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) is the most common disease afflicting Chinese children and ranks first in numbers of outpatients, hospitalization and fatality rate. ARTI is also the most frequent reason that antibiotics are prescribed.