The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools (United States)

Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.



Unpacking Mundane Practices: Children's Experiences of Learning Literacy at a Chinese Complementary School in Scotland (United States)

This article builds on the growing research interest in complementary schooling in England and internationally but a field of study less well trodden in Scotland. It takes a socio-cultural view of literacy learning and demonstrates how in a Chinese complementary school in central Scotland, spaces are created for children of primary-school age to…

Hancock, Andy



Parenting style of Chinese fathers in Hong Kong: correlates with children's school-related performance. (United States)

This study investigates parenting styles among Chinese fathers in Hong Kong as perceived by their school-age children. Four parenting styles, namely inductive, indulgent, indifferent, and dictatorial parenting, are assessed using the Parent Behavior Report (1988). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1011 Primary Three to Five Chinese students from six schools in Hong Kong and 471 fathers. Findings show that among Chinese fathers, the least common parenting style is inductive, while the other three styles are of similar occurrence. Chi-square analysis shows no significant association between children's grade level and father's parenting style. However, there is a significant association with gender, with fathers more likely to be perceived as dictatorial with boys and indulgent with girls. The effect of paternal styles on children's school-related performance is also examined. MANOVA results show that significant differences are found among children of the four paternal style groups with respect to academic performance, interest in school work, aspiration for education, involvement in extracurricular activities, and efficacy for self-regulated learning. Post-hoc tests reveal that children's performance is similar between the groups with indulgent and inductive fathers, and between children of indifferent and dictatorial fathers, with the former groups performing better than the latter in general. Findings are discussed with regard to research on parenting style and paternal behavior, as well as understanding the roles of fathers in Chinese families in the socio-cultural context in Hong Kong. PMID:12723448

Tam, Vicky C W; Lam, Rebecca S Y



Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China  

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There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and Chi...

Shu Chen; Binns, Colin W.; Bruce Maycock3; Yi Liu; Yuexiao Zhang



Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey  

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Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schoo...

Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing



Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children among Chinese Secondary School Students (United States)

The objective of the current study was to develop a Chinese translation of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) [March (1997) Multidimensional anxiety scale for children: Technical manual, Multi health systems, Toronto, ON], and to evaluate its reliability and validity. The original version of the MASC was translated into Chinese

Yao, Shuqiao; Zou, Tao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Abela, John R. Z.; Auerbach, Randy P.; Tong, Xi



The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children. (United States)

Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration. PMID:24188543

Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan



Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China  

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Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

Shu Chen



Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

This study examined relations between early behavioral inhibition and social and school outcomes in Chinese children (N = 200). Data on behavioral inhibition were collected from a sample of 2-year-olds in China. Follow-up data on social behaviors, peer relationships, and school performance were collected from multiple sources at 7 years of age.…

Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Li, Dan; Wang, Li



Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April to June 2009. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, Tanner stage, lipids, insulin and glucose levels were determined. Criteria analogous to ATPIII were used for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. Results Among 1844 children aged 7-14 years, 205 (11.1% were overweight, and 133 (7.2% were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.6% overall, 33.1% in obese, 20.5% in overweight and 2.3% in normal weight children. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI (3rd quartile(OR 3.28; 95%CI 0.35-30.56, BMI (4th quartile(OR 17.98; 95%CI 1.75-184.34, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR (2nd quartile (OR2.36; 95% CI 0.46-12.09, HOMA-IR (3rd quartile (OR 2.46; 95% CI 0.48-12.66, HOMA-IR (4th quartile (OR3.87; 95% CI 0.72-20.71 were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The current epidemic of obesity with subsequent increasing cardiovascular risk factors has constituted a threat to the health of school children in China. HOMA-IR and BMI were strong predictors of metabolic syndrome in children. Therefore, rigorous obesity prevention programs should be implemented among them.

Liu AiLing



Syntactic Skills in Sentence Reading Comprehension among Chinese Elementary School Children (United States)

The present study examined the role of syntactic skills for reading comprehension in Chinese. Two hundred and seventy-two Chinese children were tested on their phonological processing, orthographic, morphological, syntactic, and literacy skills at Grades 1 and 2. Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that syntactic skills, in terms of…

Chik, Pakey Pui-man; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Yeung, Pui-sze; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa; Luan, Hui; Lo, Lap-yan; Lau, Wendy Suet-yee



Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Children's Depression Inventory in Chinese and Italian Primary School Student Samples (United States)

This study tested the measurement invariance of Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and compared its factorial variance/covariance and latent means among Chinese and Italian children. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the original five factors identified by Kovacs revealed that full measurement invariance did not hold. Further analysis…

Wu, Wenfeng; Lu, Yongbiao; Tan, Furong; Yao, Shuqiao; Steca, Patrizia; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.



The Association between Self-Reported Mother-Child Attachment and Social Initiative and Withdrawal in Chinese School-Aged Children (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…

Chen, Bin-Bin



Helping Chinese Children Become More Creative (United States)

This article provides information about children's creativity in the People's Republic of China. More specifically, it introduces the Chinese cultural and social background along with the school and family environments as they relate to young children's creativity. The article also provides some suggestions for schools and families…

Huang, Pingting; Szente, Judit



Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children. (United States)

This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays. PMID:24256420

Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming



Expectations of Chinese Families of Children with Disabilities towards American Schools (United States)

Working collaboratively with culturally and linguistically diverse families of children with disabilities can sometimes be a challenge for educators and service providers. As the number of Asian students with disabilities continues to increase, very little research has focused on how collaborative partnerships can be developed between schools and…

Lo, Lusa



The Development of the Chinese Character Knowledge in Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking Children  

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This paper reports a study on the development of the Chinese character recognition knowledge in 2 942 Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking elementary school children. 2 357 Chinese characters in the Revised Chinese Character List (2007) for Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking elementary school children were divided into 36 versions of test booklets to test the school children’s character recognition knowledge. Each test booklet consisted of a list of 130 to 132 character items, with 50% of linkage to the ...

Cheung, Emily Yee Man



Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children (United States)

This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang



Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children  

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American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork


Association between bisphenol A exposure and body mass index in Chinese school children: a cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background There is increasing evidence suggesting that Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide, can interfere with the body’s natural weight control mechanisms to promote obesity. However, epidemiological studies for this are limited, especially for children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between BPA exposure and body mass index (BMI) in school children. Three primary an...

Wang He-xing; Zhou Ying; Tang Chuan-xi; Wu Jin-gui; Chen Yue; Jiang Qing-wu



Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States (United States)

This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo



Word Learning Deficit among Chinese Dyslexic Children (United States)

The present study examined word learning difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children, readers of a nonalphabetic script. A total of 105 Hong Kong Chinese children were recruited and divided into three groups: Dyslexic (mean age 8;8), CA control (mean age 8;9), and RL control (mean age 6;11). They were given a word learning task and a familiar word…

Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han; Chung, Kevin K. H.



Evaluation of an Internet-short message service-based intervention for promoting physical activity in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children: a pilot study. (United States)

Evaluation of acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet and short message service (SMS) intervention for promoting physical activity (PA) in Hong Kong Chinese school children. An 8-week quasi-experimental study non-randomly assigned 78 school children (mean age=12.8 years) to (a) an intervention group that received a stage-matched, Internet PA program two times a week and tailored SMS messages daily; or (b) a no-treatment control. Data were collected from September 2008 until June 2009. Acceptability measures included exposure rate and participant's satisfaction. Efficacy measures were changes in stage of motivational readiness (SMR) and self-reported PA level. Intervention participants demonstrated significant pre-post increments in SMR (Z=-2.558, p=0.011) and self-reported PA level [F(1, 76)=4.50, p=0.04]. There was a non-significant trend between groups in both SMR (p=0.24) and PA (p=0.13). Despite the similar ratings of satisfaction between Internet (M=3.12±0.74) and SMS (M=3.12±0.84), participants displayed distinct patterns of exposure with 66% exhibiting a weekly login rate of 0.5 times/person and an average of 3.75 minutes/visit/person. In contrast, 79% of participants read an average of 1.3 SMS/person/week and 47% voluntarily replied to ?3.8 SMS/person. These findings demonstrate the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet-SMS-based intervention for promoting PA in Hong Kong school children. The divergent exposure rates between the Internet and SMS may be a unique pattern for adolescents in early SMR. Future research should be cognizant of the importance of SMR since it may influence utilization and/or adherence. PMID:22897473

Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Ransdell, Lynda B; Archer, Edward



Adolescents' perceptions of their parents' academic expectations: comparison of American, Chinese-American, and Chinese high school students. (United States)

Cultural background not only influences family beliefs about the value of education, but may affect how academic expectations are communicated by parents and perceived by their children. This study examined differences in willingness to conform to parents' expectations of academic achievement as perceived by American, Chinese-American, and Chinese high school students. Findings indicated that Chinese students were more willing to accept their parents' advice and cared more about fulfilling academic expectations than did American students. Students in all three groups had similar feelings of independence. The views of Chinese-American students reflected the influence of both their Chinese heritage and the American culture in which they resided. PMID:9706324

Chen, H; Lan, W



Factors Influencing School Connectedness: Chinese Adolescents' Perspectives (United States)

This study explored the concept of school connectedness and the factors that may influence its development with a sample of Chinese adolescents. Six focus groups involving 52 high school students were conducted using a set of predetermined discussion topics. Results indicated that the students fully understood the notion of school connectedness…

Yuen, Mantak; Lau, Patrick S. Y.; Lee, Queenie A. Y.; Gysbers, Norman C.; Chan, Raymond M. C.; Fong, Ricci W.; Chung, Y. B.; Shea, Peter M. K.



The Development of the Chinese Character Knowledge in Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking Children  

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Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the development of the Chinese character recognition knowledge in 2 942 Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking elementary school children. 2 357 Chinese characters in the Revised Chinese Character List (2007 for Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking elementary school children were divided into 36 versions of test booklets to test the school children’s character recognition knowledge. Each test booklet consisted of a list of 130 to 132 character items, with 50% of linkage to the next test booklet in the series. The results suggest that the children’s character recognition knowledge grows as they progress in their education levels. The acquisition during the period of level two is rapid and marked. By level three, the school children’s ability reaches 91% coverage of the Chinese characters in the Revised Character List (2007. Furthermore, the study has classified the 2 357 Chinese characters in the Revised Chinese Character List (2007 by grade level.

Emily Yee Man CHEUNG



Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families (United States)

This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.



Psychometric Evaluation of a Chinese Version of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) in School Age Children (United States)

The eight-item eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is a previously validated scale developed to assess consumers' combined knowledge, comfort, and perceived skills at finding, evaluating, and applying electronic health information to health problems. In the present study, a Chinese version of the eHEALS was developed and its psychometric properties…

Koo, Malcolm; Norman, Cameron D.; Chang, Hsiao-Mei



Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children  

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The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun



Are Physical Activity and Academic Performance Compatible? Academic Achievement, Conduct, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Children (United States)

Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academic achievement, self-esteem, school conduct and…

Yu, C. C. W.; Chan, Scarlet; Cheng, Frances; Sung, R. Y. T.; Hau, Kit-Tai



Relations of Perceived Maternal Parenting Style, Practices, and Learning Motivation to Academic Competence in Chinese Children (United States)

A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…

Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine



Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books (United States)

The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning



Concerns about the Integration of Elementary School Children with Disabilities: A Comparison of Canadian and Chinese Teachers (United States)

This study compares interview responses of 30 elementary school teachers from Canada with those of 30 teachers from China regarding their concerns related to the inclusion of students with special needs in the classroom. Interviews revealed similarities and differences between the groups in the teachers? concerns about the integration of students…

Dyson, Lily Li-chu; Zhang, Nin-sheng



Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression (United States)

This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu



Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts (United States)

Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong



Children's Understanding of Television Advertising: A Revisit in the Chinese Context (United States)

The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the…

Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U.



Parenting Style and Only Children's School Achievement in China. (United States)

This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…

Xie, Qing; And Others


Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children. (United States)

The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun



Playground Lost: Television, Video and Chinese American Children's Imaginative Play. (United States)

Examines the role of American television and video in Chinese American children's culture of play and peer interaction using ethnography. Notes both White and Chinese children had access to similar media, yet they used media information very differently in their play. Calls for the media industry to reexamine their role in children's socialization…

Berggreen, Shu-Ling



Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia (United States)

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang



Contexts of achievement: a study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. (United States)

The major purpose of this study was to attempt to understand some of the reasons for the high academic achievement of Chinese and Japanese children compared to American children. The study was conducted with first and fifth graders attending elementary schools in the Minneapolis metropolitan area, Taipei (Taiwan), and Sendai (Japan). 1,440 children (240 first graders and 240 fifth graders in each city) were selected as target subjects in the study. The children were selected from 20 classrooms at each grade in each city and constituted a representative sample of children from these classrooms. In a follow-up study, first graders were studied again when they were in the fifth grade. The children were tested with achievement tests in reading and mathematics constructed specifically for this study, the children and their mothers were interviewed, the children's teachers filled out a questionnaire, and interviews were held with the principals of the schools attended by the children. In the follow-up study, achievement tests were administered, and the children and their mothers were interviewed. Background information about the children's everyday lives revealed much greater attention to academic activities among Chinese and Japanese than among American children. Members of the three cultures differed significantly in terms of parents' interest in their child's academic achievement, involvement of the family in the child's education, standards and expectations of parents concerning their child's academic achievement, and parents' and children's beliefs about the relative influence of effort and ability on academic achievement. Whereas children's academic achievement did not appear to be a central concern of American mothers, Chinese and Japanese mothers viewed this as their child's most important pursuit. Once the child entered elementary school, Chinese and Japanese families mobilized themselves to assist the child and to provide an environment conducive to achievement. American mothers appeared to be less interested in their child's academic achievement than in the child's general cognitive development; they attempted to provide experiences that fostered cognitive growth rather than academic excellence. Chinese and Japanese mothers held higher standards for their children's achievement than American mothers and gave more realistic evaluations of their child's academic, cognitive, and personality characteristics. American mothers overestimated their child's abilities and expressed greater satisfaction with their child's accomplishments than the Chinese and Japanese mothers. In describing bases of children's academic achievement, Chinese and Japanese mothers stressed the importance of hard work to a greater degree than American mothers, and American mothers gave greater emphasis to innate ability than did Chinese and Japanese mothers. PMID:2342493

Stevenson, H W; Lee, S Y



Imparting Cultural Values to Chinese Children through Literature (United States)

Based on the occurrence of modernization and globalization in Chinese society over the last few decades, the content of 145 stories, published in the most popular Chinese children's story magazine from the 1980s to the present, were examined for the representation of cultural values. The presence of Chinese, Western and social-moral values in…

Zhang, Chenyi; Morrison, Johnetta W.



Gifted or Not, Parental Perceptions Are the Same: A Study of Chinese American Parental Perceptions of Their Children's Academic Achievement and Home Environment (United States)

This study offers insight into the perceptions of a group of Chinese American parents, many of whom have children who excel at school. The results indicate that the Chinese American parents had high expectations of their children's educational success, placed high value on education and effort, tended to sacrifice for their children's education,…

Yang, Wenzhong



Language screening in preschool Chinese children. (United States)

The incidence of language delay in Chinese preschool children was studied by a stratified proportional sampling of all 3 year olds in Hong Kong. The Developmental Language Screening Scale (DLSS) devised for use with Cantonese speaking children was used to identify children with language delay. Of 855 children sampled in the stage I screening procedure, 4%, 2.8% and 3.3% were identified as having delay in verbal comprehension, expression or both respectively. The stage II clinical diagnostic study included a randomly selected group of children screened in stage I with or without any associated behavioural problem. Among these, 3.4% were identified as having a language delay using the Reynell Language Developmental Scale (RDLS) with a criterion of language age of less than or equal to two-thirds of the chronological age; 3% had specific language delay using the criteria of language age less than or equal to two-thirds the chronological age and developmental age more than or equal to two-thirds the chronological age. More boys were found to have language delay, although this was not statistically significant. PMID:1306390

Wong, V; Lee, P W; Lieh-Mak, F; Yeung, C Y; Leung, P W; Luk, S L; Yiu, E



Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong (United States)

Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw



Syllable Structure and Orthographic Complexity of Pinyin in Chinese Children’s Chinese Phoneme Deletion Task  

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Full Text Available The study looked into the effect of medial vowels in the measurement of Chinese phonological awareness. The results show children perform differently in the presence or absence of medial vowels. Specifically, third graders tended to delete medial vowel along with the initial consonant; the same trend was not found with fifth graders, who were successful at isolating the initial consonant. Differences between different types of rimes containing medial vowel letters were also found. This developmental trend needs to be considered in the design of Chinese phonological awareness tasks for Chinese children.
Key words: Chinese phonological awareness; medial vowel
Résumé: L'étude s’est penchée sur l'effet des voyelles médianes dans la mesure de la conscience phonologique chinoise. Les résultats montrent que les enfants se comportent différemment en présence ou en absence de voyelles médianes. Plus précisément, les élèves en troisième année tentent à supprimer les voyelles médianes avec la consonne initiale, alors que la même tendance n'a pas été trouvée chez les élèves en cinquième année, qui ont réussi à isoler la consonne initiale. Les différences entre de différents types de rime contenant des voyelles médianes ont été également trouvées. Cette tendance de développement doit être pris en considération dans la conception des devoirs de la conscience phonologique chinoise pour les enfants chinois.
Mots-Clés: la conscience phonologique chinoise; voyelles médianes

Ying LIU



Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies (United States)

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui



Loneliness in Chinese children across contexts. (United States)

This study examined loneliness and its associations with social functioning in children across different historical times and contexts in China. We collected data from urban and rural groups of school-age children (N = 2,588; M age = 10 years) using self-reports and peer assessments. The results indicated that children in 2002 and 2005 urban groups had lower scores on loneliness than did children in 1992 and 1998 urban groups, suggesting that as urban China became a more modernized, self-oriented society, children tended to report lower levels of loneliness. Consistent with this trend, urban children reported lower levels of loneliness than did their rural counterparts in recent years. The analysis of associations between social functioning and loneliness revealed that across groups, sociability was negatively associated with loneliness, and aggression was positively associated with loneliness. The association between shyness and loneliness differed among the groups; it was negative in the 1992 urban group, positive in the 2002 and 2005 urban groups, and nonsignificant in the 1998 urban and 2007 rural groups. The different associations suggest that whether shy children feel lonely might depend on context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25181650

Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Li, Dan; Liu, Junsheng



Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Multicompetence: Code- and Modeswitching by Minority Ethnic Children in Complementary Schools (United States)

This article examines the multilingual and multimodal practices of British Chinese children in complementary school classes from a multicompetence perspective. Using classroom interaction data from a number of Chinese complementary schools in 3 different cities in England, the article argues that the multicompetence perspective enables a holistic…

Wei, Li



Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han



School-age children development (United States)

... goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex sentences as they grow. Language delays may be due to hearing or intelligence problems. In addition, children who are unable to express ...


Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling: Different Meanings in Different Cultures (United States)

Three types of parent involvement--communicating, volunteering at school, and learning at home--were explored in two cultures within the United States. Immigrant Chinese parents and European American parents of young children reflect their different traditions in the ways they involve themselves in their child's academic life. European American…

Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.



Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning (United States)

Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry



Understanding Cultural Contexts Fosters Sensitive Caregiving of Chinese American Children. (United States)

Provides information for teachers and caregivers of young children regarding the family contexts of Chinese American children of immigrant parents. Includes information on cultural beliefs, languages, child rearing, and beliefs and practices regarding education. Discusses implications for teachers and child caregivers. (KB)

Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Ching, Wei-Di; Lee, Choi-Bo



Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature (United States)

Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

Guo, Karen



Cognitive Development of Chinese Urban Only Children and Children with Siblings. (United States)

First- and fifth-grade only-children and children with siblings completed 11 cognitive tasks to investigate differences in cognitive abilities that may exist due to the Chinese 1-child family planning program. Superiority of grade one only-children over children with siblings appeared for memory processes, language skills, and mathematics.…

Jiao, Shulan; And Others



Early Differentiation between Drawing and Writing in Chinese Children (United States)

Children under 3 1/2 years of age or so are often thought to produce the same types of scribbles for writing and drawing. We tested this idea by asking Chinese 2- to 6-year-olds to write and draw four targets. In Study 1, Chinese adults judged the status of the productions as writings or drawings. The adults performed significantly above the level…

Treiman, Rebecca; Yin, Li



The Relationship between Students' Problem Posing and Problem Solving Abilities and Beliefs: A Small-Scale Study with Chinese Elementary School Children (United States)

The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between pupils' problem posing and problem solving abilities, their beliefs about problem posing and problem solving, and their general mathematics abilities, in a Chinese context. Five instruments, i.e., a problem posing test, a problem solving test, a problem posing…

Limin, Chen; Van Dooren, Wim; Verschaffel, Lieven



Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students (United States)

Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances



The visual magnocellular-dorsal dysfunction in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia impedes Chinese character recognition. (United States)

The visual magnocellular-dorsal (M-D) deficit theory of developmental dyslexia (DD) is still highly debated. Many researchers have made great efforts to investigate the relationship between M-D dysfunction and reading disability. Given that visual analysis plays an important role in Chinese reading, the present study tried to examine how the M-D dysfunction affected Chinese character recognition in Chinese children with DD. Sixteen DD children with M-D deficit, fifteen DD children with normal M-D function and twenty-seven age-matched typically developing children participated in this study. A global/local decision task was adopted, in which we manipulated the spatial frequency of target characters to separate an M-D condition from an unfiltered condition. Results of reaction times and error rates showed that in the M-D condition both M-D normal dyslexics and controls exhibited a significant global precedence effect, with faster responses and lower error rates in global decision than in local decision. In contrast, this global advantage was absent for the M-D impaired dyslexics. Accordingly, we propose that the M-D impairment present in some but not all dyslexics might influence global recognition of Chinese characters in this subgroup of children with DD, which might be implicated in their difficulties in learning to read. PMID:25412386

Zhao, Jing; Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Coltheart, Max



Effect of Chinese Parental Practices on Their Adolescent Children's School Performance, Moderated by Student's Conformity to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy. (United States)

This study examined how parental practices in mainland China influence adolescents' school performance, including school motivation and grade point average (GPA), when moderated by self-esteem and self-efficacy. Participating in the study were 497 students, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, attending six public junior and senior high schools.…

Shen, Yuh-Ling; Peterson, Gary


American children with reading problems can easily learn to read English represented by Chinese characters. (United States)

With 2.5 to 5.5 hours of tutoring, eight second-grade inner-city school children with clear reading disability were taught to read English material written as 30 different Chinese characters. This accomplishment eliminates certain general interpretations of dyslexia, for example, as a visual-auditory memory deficit. The success of this program can be attributed to the novelty of the Chinese orthography and to the fact that Chinese characters map into speech at the level of words rather than of phonemes. It is proposed that much reading disability can be accounted for in terms of the highly abstract nature of the phoneme (the critical unit of speech in alphabetic systems) and that an intermediate unit, such as the syllable, might well be used to introduce reading. PMID:5101816

Rozin, P; Poritsky, S; Sotsky, R



Chinese Cultural Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Primary School Chinese Language Teachers' Belief and Practice (United States)

Before 1997, no formal curriculum on Chinese cultural education for primary schools was developed in Hong Kong although the education authority had started to introduce some items of Chinese cultural learning into the Chinese language syllabus when the Target Oriented Curriculum was implemented in 1996. However, such items were incorporated into…

Kwan, Ming Kai Marko



Writing Quality in Chinese Children: Speed and Fluency Matter (United States)

There were two goals of the present study. The first was to create a scoring scheme by which 9-year-old Chinese children's writing compositions could be rated to form a total score for writing quality. The second was to examine cognitive correlates of writing quality at age 9 from measures administered at ages 6-9. Age 9 writing compositions were…

Yan, Cathy Ming Wai; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Zhang, Juan; Wong, Anita M. Y.; Shu, Hua



Reliability and Validity Evidence of the Chinese Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale Scores among Taiwanese Children (United States)

The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Second Edition (Piers-Harris 2) was designed to measure self-concept among children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Piers-Harris 2 (Chinese Piers-Harris). The Chinese Piers-Harris 2 was administered to 243 Taiwanese…

Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo



What Do Parents Think? Middle-Class Chinese Immigrant Parents' Perspectives on Literacy Learning, Homework, and School-Home Communication (United States)

This article reports on a sample of 26 middle-class Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on their children's reading, writing, mathematics learning, and homework, and on the parents' involvement in and communication with mainstream American schools. Findings suggested both consistencies and discrepancies between their beliefs and practices.…

Li, Guofang



Helping Children Grieve at School. (United States)

Addresses considerations for counselors, teachers, and school personnel interested in helping children grieve by honoring and integrating the grief process into the school. Emphasizes the following as vital: being knowledgeable about the grief process; being open to the grief process; and integrating the grief process into the daily operations of…

McGlauflin, Helene



Qualitative Research on Structure of Chinese Preschool Children’s Sense of Belonging  

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Full Text Available The structure of Chinese preschool children’s sense of belonging can be explored locally with the normal form of qualitative study. In order to search for the local structure of preschool children’s sense of belonging, the research adopts the general procedures of fundamental theories, collects materials with open-ended questionnaires, and uses Nvivo 10 qualitative analysis software to code the text. 384 reference points are gained through free coding of 30 texts, which are coded into 53 free nodes, 13 tree nodes, and 6 core nodes, then six elements of preschool children’s sense of belonging structure are initially gained: class identification, self-consciousness, fondness, attachment, involvement, contacting. Hereafter, the scale of Chinese preschool children’s sense of belonging will be compiled by based on this, as well as further exploration for study and validation of universal problems of research conclusion.

Yunjia LIANG



Links between Chinese Mothers' Parental Beliefs and Responses to Children's Expression of Negative Emotions (United States)

This study investigated relations between parental beliefs and mothers' reported responses to their children's negative emotions. Altogether 189 Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years were interviewed in group sessions using structured questionnaires. It was found that Chinese mothers endorsed Guan, the Chinese parental beliefs. They…

Chan, Siu Mui



Chinese High School Graduates’ Beliefs About English Learning  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of a cohort of Chinese high school graduates’ beliefs about English learning. A 24-item questionnaire is administered on 171 high school graduates to investigate their beliefs about the nature, difficulty, autonomy and learning environment in English learning. The data are analyzed through frequency statistics. Results show that Chinese high school graduates in general: 1 underestimate the difficulty of learning English; 2 expect communicative language teaching model; 3 demonstrate a high preference for an immersion approach; and 4 display a high degree of autonomy in English learning. The findings are beneficial for need analysis and provide guidance for curriculum design to the University in research and other similar contexts.
Key words: High school graduates; Beliefs about English learning; English learning experiences

Chi-li LI



Lexical tone awareness in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that ...

Li, Ws; Ho, Csh



The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children  

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Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50?m sprint, and 50?m?8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54. Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.

Ying Li



Cerebral asymmetry in children when reading Chinese characters. (United States)

This study examined cerebral asymmetry, especially in the hierarchical visual system, when reading Chinese characters. Twelve right-handed Chinese children (mean age = 11.6 years) were scanned while performing semantic and phonological tasks. Strong leftward asymmetry was found in the left inferior frontal cortex (BA44/45/47), the parietal lobule (BA40), and the cingulate cortex (BA24/32). In the visual system, we found significant left-hemispheric dominance in the fusiform cortex (BA19/37), but no asymmetry was found in the primary visual cortex (BA17/18). The differential results for the primary visual cortex versus high-order visual cortex (i.e., the fusiform cortex) are discussed in terms of the contribution of the logographic nature of Chinese characters to the asymmetry pattern in the hierarchical visual system. PMID:15993759

Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi; Chen, Kewei; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Chuansheng; Zeng, Yawei; Reiman, Eric M



Genetic and environmental overlap between Chinese and English reading-related skills in Chinese children. (United States)

This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have distinct or overlapping genetic and environmental origins. A sample of 279 Chinese twin pairs with a mean age of 6 years was tested. Univariate twin analyses were used to identify sources of individual variations in reading abilities and related cognitive-linguistic skills in Chinese and English, respectively. They were used to show both similar and distinctive patterns in these skills across Chinese and English. Bivariate Cholesky decomposition analyses indicated genetic overlaps between all parallel Chinese and English variables, as well as shared environmental overlaps in receptive vocabulary and phonological awareness. The phenotypic correlations between 1st and 2nd language skills previously observed in cross-linguistic studies could be explained by the shared genetic and environmental influences found in this twin study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25221842

Wong, Simpson W L; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M Y; Bishop, Dorothy V M



Home Schooling Children with Special Needs. (United States)

A survey of 121 families who were home schooling children with special needs found family profiles were similar to the general home schooling population and, unlike the general home schooling population, children often spent as much time in a school setting as in a home school environment. Four case studies identified themes as needs-based…

Duffey, Jane G.



International Note: Between-Domain Relations of Chinese High School Students' Academic Achievements (United States)

The present study examined the between-domain relations of Chinese high school students' academic achievements. In a sample of 1870 Chinese 10th grade students, the results indicated that Chinese high school students' academic achievements were correlated across nine subjects. In line with the previous Western findings, the findings suggested that…

Yangyang, Liu



Institutionally Incorporated, Symbolically Un-Remade: State Reform of Chinese Schools in Postwar Singapore (United States)

When Singapore underwent decolonization after World War II, its government--keen on constructing a Singapore-centered identity--sought to replace Chinese schools, which taught a China-centered worldview. This attempt provoked tough resistance from the local Chinese. Succumbing to this pressure, the ruling regime accommodated Chinese schools as…

Wong, Ting-Hong



The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

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Full Text Available The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li



A study of the construction of cultural authenticity in children's picture books portraying Chinese people and Chinese culture  

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This study investigated the construction of cultural authenticity in children's picture books portraying Chinese people and Chinese culture as well as the verbal, visual, and verbal-visual resources that were used for such construction. The study adopted theories of intertextuality and Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as the theoretical framework. Using both qualitative analysis and analytical tools developed under SFL, the study examined eighteen picture books depicting the Chinese peop...

Cheng, Dazhi



Capitalist Bears and Socialist Modernisation: Chinese Children's Literature in the Post-Mao Period. (United States)

Discusses what Chinese children have read in the last quarter of the 20th century. Notes that much of Chinese children's literature contains strong political, moral, and ideological messages. Examines the official guidelines for children's literature in the post-Mao era. Concludes that in the post-Mao period, the state has become more flexible,…

Bi, Lijun



Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time (United States)

Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei



Children's knowledge of ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese. (United States)

This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier, this adverbial modifier must be recovered at the elided site in the second clause. However, if the antecedent clause of a null object construction contains an adverbial modifier, the reconstruction of this adverbial modifier at the elided site is not necessary. Two experiments were conducted to examine whether young Mandarin-speaking children are sensitive to this structural difference between the two ellipsis constructions. The results show that children exhibited adult-like performance in both experiments. This is evidence that young Mandarin-speaking children have knowledge of the structural difference between VP-ellipsis and null object constructions with regard to adverbial recovery. We interpreted the findings in conjunction with previous research as evidence that children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions is innately specified. PMID:23975258

Zhou, Peng



Characteristics of Chinese Primary School Students’ EFL Learning Strategies  

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Full Text Available It is beneficial for teachers’ effective teaching to be aware of the characteristics of students’ learning strategies. This paper employed “Questionnaire of Primary School Students’ EFL Learning Strategies” of high reliability and validity and examined Chinese primary school students’ EFL learning strategies. 700 students participated in the investigation. Results indicated that the general situation with respect to participants’ EFL learning strategies was not optimistic. The most frequently used was cognitive strategy, followed by meta-cognitive strategy, and the least frequently used strategy was social/affective one. In addition, interaction between school, gender and grade was significant, the scores obtained were closely associated with individual school’s teaching level, and girls gained more scores than boys.

Jieqiong Wu



A School Health Service for Children? (United States)

The Children's Health in Primary Schools Study used questionnaires from 620 schools and six case studies to examine school health services in England and Wales. Findings revealed variation in quantity and quality of service. This article argues, on grounds of efficiency, convenience, and complementarity, that children should have access to school

Mayall, Berry; Storey, Pamela



Trajectories of Chinese Students' Sense of School Belonging and Academic Achievement over the High School Transition Period (United States)

The present study identified the different patterns of Chinese students' academic achievement trajectories over the high school transition period and examined the relationships between students' sense of school belonging trajectories and the different patterns of academic achievement trajectories. In a sample of 567 Chinese high school students, a…

Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong



Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Their Organizational Commitment and Well-Being in a Chinese School (United States)

This study aims to analyze and validate the dimensions and specific features of a school culture in a Chinese context. A sample of 181 teachers from a Chinese primary and secondary school in Beijing participated in a survey that measures school organizational cultural characteristics and teacher organizational commitment and well-being as outcomes…

Zhu, Chang; Devos, Geert; Li, Yifei



Rs7206790 and rs11644943 in FTO Gene Are Associated with Risk of Obesity in Chinese School-Age Population (United States)

To evaluate the associations between candidate FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity, a case-control study was conducted among Chinese school-age children, which included 500 obese cases and 500 matched controls (age, gender and location). We selected 24 candidate FTO tag-SNPs via bio-informatics analysis and performed genotyping using SNPScan technology. Results indicated that rs7206790 and rs11644943 were significantly associated with obesity among school-age children in both additive and recessive models (Pchildren. PMID:25251416

Xu, Yuyang; Ling, Jie; Yang, Min; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Yimin



Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children (United States)

This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian



Copying Skills in Relation to Word Reading and Writing in Chinese Children with and without Dyslexia (United States)

Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tong, Xiuhong



The Comparison of Chinese Kites Art Deco Schools  

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Full Text Available Chinese kite art not only has a long history because of the long tradition of folk culture, but also has its merits because of the colorful local cultures. Kite's decorative arts are in close contact with history of various periods, cultures of all regions and various nations. It also has inextricably link with music, dance, drama, folklore, religion. In the long course of historical development of society?distinctive decorative art of kite gradually has formed all over the country. The main features of kite art schools will be compared in this article.
Keywords: kite; decoration; art schools; comparison

Qing WU



Traditional Teaching Strategies versus Cooperative Teaching Strategies: Which Can Improve Achievement Scores in Chinese Middle Schools? (United States)

This study examines two teaching styles in Chinese middle schools, traditional lecture-based and cooperative learning. The study uses simple descriptive statistics to analyze economic status and achievement scores for both strategies in four Chinese middle schools. There were 145 randomly selected middle school students involved in the study. The…

Messier, William P.



[Portuguese school children breastfeeding experiences]. (United States)

Descriptive cross-sectional study on breastfeeding experiences, using a questionnaire with 1078 children aged between 7 and 12 years, in the 3rd and 4th years of primary education in public schools. Most children knew that they and their siblings had been breastfed and had used a pacifier. Few had seen their mother breastfeeding, seen their father close to their mother while breastfeeding their siblings, or reported that nurses in the school had talked to them about breastfeeding. Furthermore, when playing with their dolls, most girls did not pretend to breastfeed, and 771 (71.5%) reported their dolls had bottles, or pacifiers, and pretended to feed their dolls with a bottle. They say they would enjoy breastfeeding, but where embarrassed of doing that in public. The books and cartoons that these children usually read and watch do not show women breastfeeding. Many children consider breast milk to be the best food for the baby, but they have several misconceptions, and not all the children knew what breastfeeding was. PMID:22031363

Galvão, Dulce Maria Pereira Garcia; da Silva, Isília Aparecida



School stress in children  

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Most of us can empathise with feeling stressed. Each of us has our own unique interpretation of what stress is and our own understanding of what stress feels like. We each feel stress from a variety of sources and for a variety of reasons. We all have different coping strategies, which may or may not be effective. It is likely we learned our coping strategies in childhood; children who cope successfully with stress are likely to become adults who cope with stress successfully. Stress is not n...

Mallett, S.



Paragonimiasis in Chinese Children: 58 Cases Analysis  

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Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical and radiological features of paragonimiasis in children and raise the awareness of this disease.Methods: A total of 58 paragonimiasis patients were reviewed. They were 42 boys and 16 girls aged 2.0 to 15.3 years.Findings: Among these patients, 20 were diagnosed in the recent 5 years, 46 with a history of raw water or food ingestion. Except 2 patients without any complaint, the most common features involved the systemic (41, 70.7% and respiratory systems (43, 74.1%, followed by abdominal, cardiac and nervous systems, with rash and mass. Eosinophilia was noted in 46 (79.3% patients, granulocytosis in 45 (77.6%, anemia in 14 (24.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 3. Imageology showed pneumonia in 26 (44.8% patients, pleurisy in 28 (48.3%, hydropericardium in 17 (29.3%, ascites in 16 (27.6%, and celiac lymphadenitis in 13 (22.4%. Besides hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, calcification and multiple lamellar low echogenic areas in the liver were noted, each in one patient. Abnormal brain imaging was noted in 4 of 10 patients. Karyocyte hyperplasia with eosinophilia was noted in all the 19 patients who received bone marrow puncture.Conclusion: Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with multiple organs or system lesions, especially those with eosinophilia, serous cavity effusion, respiratory, cardiac, digestive system, nervous system abnormality, and/or mass. Healthy eating habit is helpful for paragonimiasis prevention.

Hong Zhen Xu



Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children (United States)

Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao



"What Makes You Shy?": Understanding Situational Elicitors of Shyness in Chinese Children (United States)

This paper reports on two exploratory studies of situations that elicit shyness in Mainland Chinese children. In Study 1 (N = 100; M[subscript age] = 10.42) interviews with Chinese children identified three kinds of shyness-eliciting situations: social novelty; negative social evaluation; and public attention. In Study 2 (N = 162, M[subscript age]…

Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.



Expanding Secondary School Chinese Language Programs: A Study of Potential Challenges (United States)

The current interest in learning Chinese has been fueled by the growing strength of the Chinese economy and the need for Americans who are able to communicate at an advanced level in fields of business, science, and government. The present study reports the results of a survey of secondary school students enrolled in Chinese language classes with…

Dretzke, Beverly J.; Jordan, Kelly



Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children  

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Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood. In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact. The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

Valeria LAZA



Brand Perceptions among School Children  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the perception of children towards brand consciousness by using drawings and open-ended questions. A total of 20 primary school were requested to draw what they think about two statements given related to a person with branded materials and a person without branded materials. After drawing, respondents were personally interviewed regarding belongings of branded goods with cheerfulness, friendship, behaviour characters and desire for belongings. Results from the analysis of the drawings and interviews indicate that that there are significant differences in the children perception of someone with or without branded materials. Based on these findings, one hypothesis was proposed about perception of children with regard the knowledge of brand awareness.

Wan Edura Wan Rashid



Seizure Management for School-Age Children (United States)

As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

Frueh, Eileen



Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children. (United States)

Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao



Department for Children Schools and Families  

Jul 24, 2008 ... The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) aims to make ... Plan \\as part of their Sustainable Development Action Plan (SDAP). ... are most at risk \\from heat and describes how teachers, assistants and school ...


Mental Health Knowledge of Chinese Secondary School Students in Hong Kong. (United States)

Assesses mental health knowledge of 1850 Chinese secondary school students. Finds a significant number of students lack knowledge about mental health and illness. Discusses implications of the data for mental health education within the school context. Includes the Chinese Mental Health Knowledge Scale (CMHKS). (NL)

Shek, Daniel T. L.



Achievement Motivation among Chinese and Australian School Students: Assessing Differences of Kind and Differences of Degree (United States)

The present study explored motivation and engagement among Chinese and Australian school students. Based on a sample of 528 Hong Kong Chinese 12-13 year olds and an archive sample of 6,366 Australian 12-13 year olds, achievement motivation was assessed using the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor analysis and…

Martin, Andrew J.; Hau, Kit-Tai



Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample (United States)

The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang



Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee



Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)


School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results. (United States)

Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2. PMID:19485642

Tan, Tony Xing



Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives, it is found that children build friendships, assist, inspire, and imitate one another in their collaborative encounters in paedagogical activities. In order to better support children’s learning and engaged participation in paedagogical activities, an increased attention to the institutional demands on children’s collaborative encounters in early childhood education is suggested.

Svinth, Lone



Age and gender differences in the self-esteem of Chinese children. (United States)

A Chinese version of the Self-Description Questionnaire 1 (SDQ-1; Marsh, 1988) was used to investigate age and gender differences in a sample of 303 male and 296 female 10-year-old children and 116 male and 116 female 13-year-old children attending typical Beijing public schools. Significant Age x Gender interaction effects were found on all 8 SDQ-1 scales. Main effects for age were found on the Physical Abilities, Reading, and School subscales and for gender on the same three subscales plus Peer Relations. Further analysis indicated that the older girls tended to report significantly lower self-esteem than both the younger girls and older boys in the areas of physical abilities, reading, mathematics, and general self-concept. The boys reported more positive self-perceptions on most nonacademic self-scales, but both the older boys and older girls reported less favorable self-esteem than their younger peers on the scales for reading and school in general. PMID:9200974

Watkins, D; Dong, Q; Xia, Y



Effort-reward imbalance at school and depressive symptoms in chinese adolescents: the role of family socioeconomic status. (United States)

Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups. PMID:24919130

Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes



Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status  

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Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

Hongxiang Guo



The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties (United States)

This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei



Scaling up... : Professional Development to Serve Young Children in Chinese Welfare Institutions (United States)

In 1998 a group of American adoptive parents led by Jenny Bowen created Half the Sky Foundation (HTS) to provide nurturing care and education for children living in Chinese orphanages (known as children's welfare institutions). Jenny, a former screenwriter and film director, and her husband Richard wanted to ensure that the children still waiting…

Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Cotton, Janice N.; Zhao, Wen; Muntaner-Gelabert, Jeronia



Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others. (United States)

Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni



Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness? (United States)

This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine



Chinese engineering students' cross-cultural adaptation in graduate school (United States)

This study explores cross-cultural adaptation experience of Chinese engineering students in the U.S. I interact with 10 Chinese doctoral students in engineering from a public research university through in-depth interviews to describe (1) their perceptions of and responses to key challenges they encountered in graduate school, (2) their perspectives on the challenges that stem from cross-cultural differences, and (3) their conceptualization of cross-cultural adaptation in the context of graduate school. My findings reveal that the major challenges participants encounter during graduate school are academic issues related to cultural differences and difficulties of crossing cultural boundaries and integrating into the university community. These challenges include finding motivation for doctoral study, becoming an independent learner, building a close relationship with faculty, interacting and forming relationships with American people, and gaining social recognition and support. The engineering students in this study believe they are less successful in their social integration than they are in accomplishing academic goals, mainly because of their preoccupation with academics, language barriers and cultural differences. The presence of a large Chinese student community on campus has provided a sense of community and social support for these students, but it also contributes to diminishing their willingness and opportunities to interact with people of different cultural backgrounds. Depending on their needs and purposes, they have different insights into the meaning of cross-cultural adaptation and therefore, and choose different paths to establish themselves in a new environment. Overall, they agree that cross-cultural adaptation involves a process of re-establishing themselves in new academic, social, and cultural communities, and adaptation is necessary for their personal and professional advancement in the U.S. They also acknowledge that encountering and adjusting to cross-cultural challenges allow them to grow as a person and develop a new sense of self and identity, and negotiating cultural differences help them gain a deeper understanding of their own and other cultures. These findings offer insights into understanding the interconnections among international students' academic life, socialization, and cross-cultural adaptation.

Jiang, Xinquan


Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities (United States)

This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel



Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading? (United States)

This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han



The visual magnocellular deficit in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia  

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Full Text Available Many alphabetic studies have evidenced that individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD have deficits in visual magnocellular(M pathway. However, there are few studies to investigate the M function of Chinese DD. Chinese is a logographic language, and Chinese characters are complicated in structure. Visual skills and orthographic processing abilities are particularly important for efficient reading in Chinese as compared to alphabetic languages. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the visual M function of Chinese DD and whether the M function was associated with orthographic skills. In the present study, 26 dyslexic children (mean age: 10.03 years and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age: 10.37 years took part in a coherent motion detection task and an orthographic awareness test. The results showed that dyslexic children had a significantly higher threshold than age-matched children in coherent motion detection task. Meanwhile, children with DD responded more slowly in orthographic awareness test, although the group difference was marginally significant. The results suggested that Chinese dyslexics had deficits both in visual M pathway processing and orthographic processing. In order to investigate the relationship between M function and orthographic skills, we made a correlation analysis between coherent motion threshold and orthographic awareness by merging performance of dyslexic children and age-matched children. The results revealed that coherent motion thresholds were positively correlated with reaction times in orthographic awareness test, suggesting that better magnocellular function was related to better orthographic processing skills.




The visual magnocellular deficit in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. (United States)

Many alphabetic studies have evidenced that individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) have deficits in visual magnocellular (M) pathway. However, there are few studies to investigate the M function of Chinese DD. Chinese is a logographic language, and Chinese characters are complicated in structure. Visual skills and orthographic processing abilities are particularly important for efficient reading in Chinese as compared to alphabetic languages. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the visual M function of Chinese DD and whether the M function was associated with orthographic skills. In the present study, 26 dyslexic children (mean age: 10.03 years) and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age: 10.37 years) took part in a coherent motion (CM) detection task and an orthographic awareness test. The results showed that dyslexic children had a significantly higher threshold than age-matched children in CM detection task. Meanwhile, children with DD responded more slowly in orthographic awareness test, although the group difference was marginally significant. The results suggested that Chinese dyslexics had deficits both in visual M pathway processing and orthographic processing. In order to investigate the relationship between M function and orthographic skills, we made a correlation analysis between CM threshold and orthographic awareness by merging performance of dyslexic children and age-matched children. The results revealed that CM thresholds were positively correlated with reaction times in orthographic awareness test, suggesting that better M function was related to better orthographic processing skills. PMID:25071661

Qian, Yi; Bi, Hong-Yan



School Social Work with Grieving Children (United States)

The purpose of the research reported in this article was to advance understanding of the work of school social workers with grieving students. This research was aimed at answering the following question: What are school social workers' experiences working with grieving children? There were two steps in this study. Fifty-nine school social…

Quinn-Lee, Lisa



Parental job loss and children's school performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract:Using Norwegian register data we estimate how children’s school performance is affected by their parents’ exposure to plant closure. Fathers’ exposure leads to a substantial decline in children’s graduation-year grade point average, but only in municipalities with mediocre-performing job markets. The negative effect does not appear to be driven by a reduction in father’s income and employment, an increase in parental divorce, or the trauma of relocating. In contrast, mother...

Rege, Mari; Telle, Kjetil; Votruba, Mark



British and American Chinese children's negotiation of popular cultural texts in bilingual and bicultural contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This PhD thesis presents an investigation of how British Chinese and American Chinese children, situated in bilingual and bi-cultural context, negotiate the meaning of a popular culture text, Yugioh within their sociocultural practices. The research draws on two theoretical frameworks, reception analysis and New Literacy Studies. Data were collected from surveys, diaries, participant observations and semi-structured interviews with children and parents in the UK and US, over a sixteen-month ...

Lin, Fangchi



Made in France? Chinese Student Return Migration from French Business Schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese migration to France is not a new phenomenon; however, France has seen rapid growth of migration from China in the past decade. Among the increasingly diverse migratory flow, a prominent group is Chinese students. As in many European countries, more and more Chinese students are now studying in France, at universities, grandes écoles and language schools etc… There is limited research focusing on this group of migrants. Therefore, this paper will analyse the circular migration of Ch...

Shen, Wei



Auditory sensitivity, speech perception, L1 Chinese, and L2 English reading abilities in Hong Kong Chinese children. (United States)

A 4-stage developmental model, in which auditory sensitivity is fully mediated by speech perception at both the segmental and suprasegmental levels, which are further related to word reading through their associations with phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory and morphological awareness, was tested with concurrently collected data on 153 2nd- and 3rd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Nested model comparisons were conducted to test this model separately against alternatives in relation to both Chinese and English word reading using structural equation modeling. For Chinese word reading, the proposed 4-stage model was demonstrated to be the best model. Auditory sensitivity was associated with speech perception, which was related to Chinese word reading mainly through its relations to morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming. In contrast, for English word reading, the best model required an additional direct path from suprasegmental sensitivity (in Chinese) to English word reading. That is, in addition to phonological awareness, Chinese speech prosody was also directly associated with English word recognition. PMID:24364830

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine



The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (United States)

This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak



Incorporating Early Chinese Scientific Ideas into the Teaching of School Physics. (United States)

Describes an initiative to develop and incorporate early Chinese scientific ideas into the teaching of physics in Hong Kong schools. Provides the background and rationale for the development and gives as an illustration an account of some of the scientific ideas included. Ideas include the Chinese magic mirror, force and motion, and atomic theory.…

Tao, P. K.



Predictive relations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. (United States)

The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; M(age) = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years later), peers nominated classmates who were victims of peer maltreatment using the Chinese version of the Revised Class Play (Chen, Rubin, & Sun, 1992), and teachers rated students' academic achievement. Among the results, peer victimization was negatively related to academic achievement at both time points. Also, peer victimization and academic achievement displayed considerable stability across the 2 years. Results from cross-lagged hierarchical analyses demonstrated that peer victimization at Grade 3 predicted lower academic achievement at Grade 5. However, academic achievement at Grade 3 was not predictive of peer victimization at Grade 5. These results suggest that peer victimization appears to function more as a precursor rather than a consequence of lower academic achievement. Results are discussed in terms of the cross-cultural similarities in the links between peer maltreatment and academic achievement and their educational implications. PMID:24708290

Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J



Space Science in Chinese Schools: Solar Eclipse 22nd July 2009 (United States)

In China, "Space Science" and "Our Place in the Universe" form part of the geography syllabus. Such cultural challenges are part of the everyday intellectual gymnastics necessary to sustain European-Chinese school collaborations. Belle Vue Girls' School in Bradford has an ongoing collaboration with Chang Zheng Secondary School (CZMS) in Shanghai…

Baruch, John; Huang, Qian; ShongYi, Liu; Li, Li Su; Machell, James; Marley, Scott; Pickwick, Alan; Vlastuin, Marcel; Waley, Vlad; Zhang, Yie Niu



Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.



Children’s Active Commuting to School: Current Knowledge and Future Directions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IntroductionDriven largely by international declines in rates of walking and bicycling to school and the noted health benefits of physical activity for children, research on children’s active commuting to school has expanded rapidly during the past 5 years. We summarize research on predictors and health consequences of active commuting to school and outline and evaluate programs specific to children’s walking and bicycling to school.MethodsLiterature on children’s active commuting to sc...

Kirsten K Davison, Phd; Jessica L Werder, Mph; Catherine T Lawson, Phd



Children's endowment, schooling, and work in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I investigate the relationship between children's endowment and parental investment using a rich dataset on a cohort of children from Ethiopia, who were surveyed at ages eight, twelve and fifteen. Children's endowment is measured by scores on tests of cognitive skills/ability. A child's enrollment in school, participation in work and work hours are employed as measures of parental investment in human capital. The results provide strong evidence of reinforcing parental investment - higher abil...

Dendir, Seife



Multilingual Literacies and Third Script Acquisition: Young Chinese Children in French Immersion in Vancouver, Canada (United States)

This contribution reports on a qualitative study conducted with 14 young Chinese children enrolled in French immersion in Canada, to explore their multilingual practices, and their simultaneous acquisition of three writing systems. Drawings and in-depth interviews constituted creative and age appropriate narratives to understand children's…

Moore, Daniele



The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness (United States)

Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological…

Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong



Parental Influence on Children's Talent Development: A Case Study with Three Chinese American Families (United States)

This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…

Wu, Echo H.



Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families. (United States)

Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children. PMID:24041263

Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H



Validation of a Questionnaire on Behaviour Academic Competence among Chinese Preschool Children (United States)

The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents.…

Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.; Leung, Shirley S. L.



Intensity Classification Accuracy of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activities in Chinese Children and Youth (United States)

Purpose: Many ActiGraph accelerometer cutoff points and equations have been developed to classify children and youth's physical activity (PA) into different intensity levels. Using a sample from the Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study, this study was to develop new ActiGraph cutoff points for moderate-to-vigorous physical…

Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie



Perception of Stop Onset Spectra in Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia (United States)

The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra…

Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan



Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children (United States)

This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie



Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems (United States)

The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.



Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children (United States)

The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.



Ritalin for School Children: The Teachers' Perspective. (United States)

Research in an urban public school system (Grand Rapids, Michigan) was conducted to determine teachers' view of Ritalin for school children. Three questions were addressed: what contact with and information about Ritalin do teachers have; what attitude do teachers express toward Ritalin; and what professional behaviors do teachers report in regard…

Robin, Stanley S.; Bosco, James J.


Rural School Children Picturing Family Life (United States)

Rurality is an active agent and central to the lived experiences of children growing up on a farm and attending a farm school. It is a key to their everyday experiences, and influences family life, schooling and their future. Previous studies elsewhere in the world have explored the notion of childhood in rural contexts, but there is a dearth of…

de Lange, Naydene; Olivier, Tilla; Geldenhuys, Johanna; Mitchell, Claudia



Social games with pre-school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

Tomaz?in, Maja



Leprosy among school children in Trivandrum city  

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Full Text Available School surveys followed by contact surveys were done in an urban area to studv the epidemiology of childhood leprosy. In a survey of 10, 112 school children in the urban leprosy zone under the Trivandrum Medical College Hospital. leprosy was detected in 55 (a prevalence of 5 per 1000 school children of these 5 (9% had multibacillary leprosy. Prevalence rate was more in boys than in girls (M:F ratio 1.6:1. More cases were seen in children above 10 years and this preponderance was more in boys. The prevalence of leprosy was more in Government schools than that in private schools. The majority of children had only single lesions which were on exposed parts of the body. Examination of intrafamilial contacts of cases and matched controls revealed leprosy in 20 houses (47% among cases, and in 3 families (5% among controls. Majority of younger children (81% below 10 years of age had source case in the family itself. The father was the most common (58% primary source of infection. Majority of index cases (73% were multibacillary. This study reaffirms the value of school surveys and contact tracing in the detection of leprosy in urban areas.

Wesley Ramani



Study on the Infrared Fingerprints of Three Kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines for Children  

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Full Text Available The consistency of the infrared spectrograms of thirty samples of each kind of Chinese Patent Medicines for Children was investigated by cluster analysis. The results show that the infrared spectrograms of thirty samples of Xiao’er Biyan Pian, Xiao’er Qingfeizhike Pian and Xiao’er Qingganling Pian were in good agreement, respectively. The infrared fingerprints of three kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines were established by average method. The infrared fingerprints of three kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines were compared using the similarity degrees of the characteristic curves. The results indicate that the significant difference was observed between two kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines and the infrared fingerprints can be used to the quality identification of Chinese Patent Medicines.

Lili Yang



Understanding the Culture of Chinese Children and Families (United States)

Providing appropriate health care to a client can be accomplished only in an environment that is sensitive to the cultural values and beliefs of the client. As the population of first-and second-generation Chinese immigrants increases in the United States, the need to develop culturally sensitive health care becomes significant. Chinese immigrants…

Cheung, Ruth; Nelson, Warren; Advincula, Luzelle; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.



Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the winter of 1988--1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5--14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985--1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; urban Wuhan, 406 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; Guangzhou, 296 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and suburban Wuhan, 191 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for couch, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence.

Qian, Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Tian, Q.; Chen, Y.; Lioy, P.J.; Zhang, J.



General Auditory Processing, Chinese Tone Processing, English Phonemic Processing and English Reading Skill: A Comparison between Chinese-English and Korean-English Bilingual Children (United States)

In the present study, we investigated the relationship between general auditory processing, Chinese tone processing, English phonemic processing and English reading skill in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children with a tonal L1 and Korean-English counterparts with a non-tonal L1. We found that general auditory processing contributed to…

Wang, Min; Anderson, Alida; Cheng, Chenxi; Park, Yoonjung; Thomson, Jennifer



Single nucleotide polymorphisms predisposing to asthma in children of Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han ethnicity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our objective was to investigate the distributions of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MS4A2 E237G, MS4A2 C-109T, ADRB2 R16G, IL4RA I75V, IL4 C-590T, and IL13 C1923T in Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han children with asthma. This case-control association study enrolled 382 unrelated Mauriti [...] an Indian children, 193 with asthma and 189 healthy controls, and 384 unrelated Chinese Han children, 192 with asthma and 192 healthy controls. The SNP loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the Chinese Han samples and TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the Mauritian Indian samples. In the Mauritian Indian children, there was a significant difference in the distribution of IL13 C1923T between the asthma and control groups (P=0.033). The frequency of IL13 C1923T T/T in the Mauritian Indian asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group [odds ratio (OR)=2.119, 95% confidence interval=1.048-4.285]. The Chinese Han children with asthma had significantly higher frequencies of MS4A2 C-109T T/T (OR=1.961, P=0.001) and ADRB2 R16G A/A (OR=2.575, P=0.000) than the control group. The IL13 C1923T locus predisposed to asthma in Mauritian Indian children, which represents an ethnic difference from the Chinese Han population. The MS4A2 C-109T T/T and ADRB2 R16G A/A genotypes were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han children.

K., Ramphul; J., Lv; L., Hua; Q.H., Liu; D.Z., Fang; R.X., Ji; Y.X., Bao.



Teaching Mathematics in Two Languages: A Teaching Dilemma of Malaysian Chinese Primary Schools (United States)

This paper discusses a teaching dilemma faced by mathematics teachers in the Malaysian Chinese primary schools in coping with the latest changes in language policy. In 2003, Malaysia launched a new language policy of teaching mathematics using English as the language of instruction in all schools. However, due to the complex sociocultural demands…

Lim, Chap Sam; Presmeg, Norma



History and Performance of Chinese Law School Admission Test Takers. LSAC Research Report Series. (United States)

Although the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) has been administered to Chinese test takers in Taiwan and Hong Kong for more than 22 years, and in China for the past decade, there is very little documentation on the history, test taker volumes, performance, and law school admission rates of these candidates. This study reviewed the history of LSAT…

Wang, Xiang Bo; Harris, Vincent F.


Parental Involvement and Children's Readiness for School in China (United States)

Background: The remarkable academic advancement of Asian students in cross-national studies has been attributed to numerous factors, including the value placed on education by Chinese parents. However, there is a dearth of research on how exactly Chinese parents are involved in children's early learning. Purpose: This study has two major research…

Lau, Eva Y. H.; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala



Is There a Developmental Slump in Creativity in China? The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Creativity Development in Chinese Adolescents (United States)

The major objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of creativity development of Chinese children, the creative organizational climate of Chinese schools, and the relations among them. The results provided evidence that the creativity scores of children in elementary school were significantly higher than those of children in…

Yi, Xinfa; Hu, Weiping; Plucker, Jonathan A.; McWilliams, Jenna



Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position held in the school under study. A critical description of the nature and content of communicated messages, activities and projects follows. Individual and collective initiatives which foster an interdisciplinary approach to climate change education are identified, as are the various obstacles to this approach, including organizational obstacles and the longstanding traditions of the French educational system which tend to hinder pedagogical innovation. Lastly, the reception of these projects and activities by school children in the second year of secondary school is analyzed. The results of this analysis are somewhat, but not always, encouraging. School children interviewed do not clearly understand the scientific phenomena surrounding climate change, and have difficulty considering this issue within its wider socio-political context. School children's interest in climate change and environmental science is largely dependent upon a perceived link with their own centers of interest or hobbies. School children express nonetheless the need for more and better adult mediation on the question of climate change, even though they see environmentally conscious behavior as contrary to the modern lifestyle of comfort that society offers them. Certain school projects and activities which had a particular impact on school children are discussed, in order to suggest criteria for evaluating the effectiveness (or non-effectiveness) of climate change projects in school. This study can be considered to be a tool for reflection and for the evaluation of the potential impact of climate change programs and messages produced for youngsters in school today


Oral hygiene awareness among female Saudi school children.  

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The school which applied this program, showed improved OHA of children as compared with the control group. Systematic school-based oral health promotion programs are urgently needed in the Kingdom to target lifestyles and health needs of children.

Abdulaziz A. Al-Kheraif



A Survey of Postgraduates’ State of Language Learning at Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Social Science  

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Full Text Available Learning English has become a nationwide endeavor in China nowadays, and a great number of researches have been conducted to analyze the state of language learning mainly among undergraduates. This survey was done to investigate the postgraduates’ state of language learning at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Science in order to stand a better position to improve their language learning. The survey shows that postgraduates have strong motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic to learn English and consequently they make investment (spend time, effort or money in learning English. The survey also indicates that it seems unnecessary to worry about Chinese language and culture in the context of English fever at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Social Science since postgraduates have a strong identity with their mother tongue --- Chinese and most of them deny that English learning has a negative effect on Chinese learning. Consequently, postgraduate schools should help students to maintain their motivation or even expand their intrinsic motivation to learn English without too much concern about the perception that Chinese will be undermined owing to the “craze” for English learning.

Yingjie Wang



Visual profile of children with handwriting difficulties in Hong Kong Chinese. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to find out the visual profiles of children with handwriting difficulties (HWD) in Hong Kong Chinese. Forty-nine children with HWD (mean age 8.4 ± 1.1 years) and 27 controls (mean age 7.7 ± 0.7 years) were recruited. All subjects received eye examination and vision assessment included ocular health, refraction, accommodative functions, binocularity, visual perception (by Gardner reversal frequency test: recognition subtest; Test of visual perceptual skills (non-motor)-revised) and motor skills (by The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual motor integration; Detroit test of motor speed and precision). Higher percentages of tropia and phoria (of magnitude >6 prism dioptres) were found in children with HWD of 6.1% and 14.3% respectively. After adjusted for the effect of age, children with HWD showed significantly worse accommodative facility, directionality, visual discrimination, visual spatial relation, visual form constancy, visual sequential memory, visual figure ground, visual closure and visual motor integration. Studies reported the visual functions of children with HWD were mostly concerned with alphabetic languages, while studies concerning Chinese HWD were relatively less. This study provided the visual profiles of children with Chinese HWD. Based on the visual profile, further study is indicated to investigate the effect of optometric interventions on the assessment and remediation for children with HWD. PMID:24176256

Leung, Mabel M P; Lam, Carly S Y; Lam, Sutie S T; Pao, Natalie W Y; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P



Understanding how schools fail children (United States)

From time immemorial the efforts of educators to produce effective solutions to the problems plaguing instruction have been frustrated. This frustration emanates from the erroneous assumptions supporting their beliefs about schooling, learning and the essence of the questions seeking solutions. Early research efforts only compounded the problem by providing practitioners with the right answers to the wrong questions about effective schooling and learning. Gradually, the past errors of pedagogic empiricism are being corrected. We now realize that most learners, not merely the intellectual elite, can learn when instruction is properly sequenced and paced; that it is more important to examine what teachers do than to look at what they are; that schools have covert as well as overt curricula; and that many institutions besides schools teach important learnings. When scholastic and extra-scholastic instructional goals ar synchronous and harmonious, learning is optimal. When they are not, the resulting dissonance is destructive to the best efforts of schools to teach. The gap between what is known about effective instruction and current educational practices is cavernous. Proposed procedures for transforming theory into practice have largely been ignored. The transformation begins by enticing bright students into teacher preparation programmes which have been revitalized to make emerging knowledge about schooling and learning the focal point of instruction. To complete the instructional improvement cycle, schools must interface learners with carefully monitored delivery systems guaranteed to produce the desired learnings.

McLoughlin, William



Children, Schools and Hallowe'en (United States)

This article explores the attitudes and experiences of key stage one and two children concerning the British autumn festival of Hallowe'en, and then compares the results with data on the attitudes and practices of British primary schools and their teachers towards the festival, showing that there is a discordance between the two. After outlining…

Plater, Mark



Parenting Attitude and Style and Its Effect on Children’s School Achievements  

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Full Text Available The paper reviewed empirical studies on children’s school achievements. The contributions of parenting attitudeand style were examined in relation to children’s school achievement. A strong relationship between children’sschool achievement and parenting attitude and style was reported in the paper. Findings from the review revealedthat authoritative parenting styles were associated with higher levels of children’s school achievement, thoughfindings remain inconsistent across cultures and societies. Future studies may explore some of the salient issuesunderlying the inconsistencies reported in the study, particularly the contradictory results between Asian andEuropean American school children.

Abdorreza Kordi



Families with school-age children. (United States)

Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture explicitly or implicitly stigmatizes or penalizes employees for choosing these work arrangements. The authors conclude by making a case for creating a workplace culture that supports flexibility. Such a culture, they argue, would enable working parents to better meet the responsibilities of their jobs as they care for and build strong relationships with their children. PMID:22013629

Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell



Dialogic Reading and Morphology Training in Chinese Children: Effects on Language and Literacy (United States)

This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic…

Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok



Children and Celiac Disease: Going Back to School (United States)

... also be a time of anxiety. Keeping children gluten-free in the school cafeteria and at school parties, ... of the special needs of students on a gluten-free diet. Public schools must make reasonable accommodations for ...



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Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

Stanika DIKIC



Sports Fitness School for Children. (United States)

The Sports Fitness Program developed at Kansas State University offers children a way to develop or improve skills and learn physical education concepts. This summer program is an alternative to traditional sports programs since activities are not competitive and are less structured. Details of program organization are discussed. (DF)

Tacha, Karolyn K.; And Others



Holding Memories, Shaping Dreams: Chinese Children's Writers' Notebooks. (United States)

Describes how the author used writers' notebooks with her students (grades 6-8), all Chinese immigrants, to find and express their memories and dreams, to find meaning in their experiences of change and loss; develop voice and a sense of audience; develop fluency in English; and find a growing sense of control over their new language and their new…

Barbieri, Maureen



Exposure-response relationships between lifetime exposure to residential coal smoke and respiratory symptoms and illnesses in Chinese children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data collected in a large epidemiologic study were analyzed to examine respiratory health effects of residential coal use in 7058 school children living in the four Chinese cities of Chongqing, Guangzhou, Lanzhou, and Wuhan. A Scenario Evaluation Approach was used to develop two exposure variables, heating coal smoke and cooking coal smoke. Estimated lifetime exposures to heating coal smoke and cooking coal smoke were both classified into four-level ordinal scales, as follows: no reported exposure (control); lightly exposed; moderately exposed; and heavily exposed. Zero-one dummy variables were constructed for each exposure level other than the control level (total six variables). These variables were entered into the analytical model. We tested for exposure-response relationships using logistic regression models, while controlling for other relevant covariates, including an indicator variable of ambient air pollution levels. We observed monotonic and positive exposure-response relationships of exposure to heating coal smoke with modeled odds ratios (ORs) of phlegm, cough with phlegm, and bronchitis. Other health outcomes were not associated with such exposure in a monotonic exposure-response pattern. However, ORs for cough, wheeze, and asthma were all higher in the exposed groups than in the control group. We observed no consistent associations between cooking coal smoke and the examined health outcomes. We conclude that exposure to heating coal smoke could have adverse effects on children's respiratory symptoms and illnesses in these four Chinese cities.

Qian, Z.M.; Zhang, J.F.; Korn, L.R.; Wei, F.S.; Chapman, R.S. [Penn State University, Hershey, PA (United States). College of Medicine



Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children (United States)

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling



Validity of bioelectrical impedance measurement in predicting fat-free mass of chinese children and adolescents. (United States)

Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material and Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. Results FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (?)+0.151×body weight (kg); R^2=0.95; SEE=2.45kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusions BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:25398209

Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang



Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents (United States)

Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz between the hand and the foot. The criterion measure of FFM was also employed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). FFM estimated from 24 published BIA equations was cross-validated against the criterion measure from DEXA. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine alternative BIA equation for the studied population. Results FFM estimated from the 24 published BIA equations yielded high correlations with the directly measured FFM from DEXA. However, none of the 24 equations was statistically equivalent with the DEXA-measured FFM. Using multiple linear regression and cross-validation against DEXA measurement, an alternative prediction equation was determined as follows: FFM (kg)=1.613+0.742×height (cm)2/impedance (?)+0.151×body weight (kg); R2=0.95; SEE=2.45kg; CV=6.5, 93.7% of the residuals of all the participants fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Conclusions BIA was highly correlated with FFM in Chinese children and adolescents. When the new developed BIA equations are applied, BIA can provide a practical and valid measurement of body composition in Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:25398209

Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang



A Study of Pre-School Children's School Readiness Related to Scientific Thinking Skills  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare school readiness of children who had pre-school experiences and children without such experiences on the basis of scientific thinking skills. This comparison is held in terms of variables of age, gender, and socio economic status. The questions of the study in relation to the purpose of the study are as follows: Ø Does pre-school education variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does age variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does gender variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills? Ø Does socio-economical status variable influence primary school readiness of pre-school children in terms of scientific thinking skills?

Ozgul Polat UNUTKAN




During the winter of 1988-1989, parents of 2,789 elementary school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5-14 years of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of ...


Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.)


Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment. (United States)

OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun



American and Chinese children's evaluations of personal domain events and resistance to parental authority. (United States)

A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events. PMID:23865637

Smetana, Judith G; Wong, Mun; Ball, Courtney; Yau, Jenny



School wellbeing among children in grades 1 - 10  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Determinants of children's school wellbeing have not been extensively studied. In this cross-sectional study of school children we assessed how factors assumed to promote wellbeing and factors assumed to adversely influence wellbeing were associated with self-reported wellbeing in school. Methods Children from five schools, 230 boys and 189 girls in grades 1-10, responded to the same set of questions. We used proportional odds logistic regres...

Løhre Audhild; Lydersen Stian; Vatten Lars J



Family structure, institutional context and school success: Charting the achievement gap among Korean Chinese pupils  

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This article ethnographically examines how family characteristics, school resources and teacher expectations affect educational aspirations and attainment among Korean Chinese pupils in one ethnically-mixed Korean school. The academic success of Korean students in China has been widely discussed in local press/media often within the context of a “model minority” discourse. This discourse typically explains Korean student achievement as the result of a cultural emphasis on education combin...

Gao, F.



Realization of Culture in English Textbooks in Chinese High School Level (United States)

This study reflects on the presentation of culture in the English textbooks adopted in Chinese high school level. The categorization by Ramirez and Hall (1990) shaped the basis of the textbook analysis. The main objectives of the inquiry were to examine the quality of representation of source, target and other cultures in the ELT textbooks.…

Aliakbari, Mohammad; Jamalvandi, Behrouz



Homework Involvement and Functions: Perceptions of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Students and Parents (United States)

This study examines the perceptions of Chinese students and parents in Hong Kong on homework involvement, assignment type and homework functions. The relationships of homework perceptions to student and parent attributes are also assessed. The sample includes 1393 pairs of students and their parents from 36 primary schools in Hong Kong. Findings…

Tam, Vicky C. W.; Chan, Raymond M. C.



Serious Game Motivation in an EFL Classroom in Chinese Primary School (United States)

This paper is a report on the findings of a qualitative PhD pilot research study on the integration of Serious Games specifically Mingoville to motivate the Chinese primary students in an EFL classrooms. It was carried out in two primary schools: the students are both from low and high income families respectively in Jiangsu Province, PR, China.…

Anyaegbu, Ruphina; Ting, Wei; Li, Yi



Chinese Senior High School EFL Students' Metacognitive Awareness and Reading-Strategy Use (United States)

This paper reports findings from a study that assesses metacognitive awareness and reading-strategy use of Chinese senior high school students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL). A total of 270 students responded to a 28-item survey of reading strategies (SORS). The strategies were classified into 3 categories: global,…

Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Wu, Aijiao



The Current Situations of Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Operating Schools and Its Countermeasures (United States)

According to policy objective of Chinese-foreign cooperation in operating schools (CFCIRS), the statistical analysis indicates that many problems exist, such as delayed policy-making, inconsistent objectives between the two parties, unbalanced area distribution, improperly designed programs, low quality teaching and so on. Accordingly, the…

Qin, Meiqiong



34 CFR 200.64 - Factors for determining equitable participation of private school children. (United States)

...or secondary school students at the to eligible private school children...promise of the private school children achieving...the State's student academic achievement...applicable to the private school children....



Developmental trauma and its correlates: a study of chinese children with repeated familial physical and sexual abuse in Hong Kong. (United States)

The present study examined the relevance of the developmental trauma disorder (DTD) framework (van der Kolk, ) in Hong Kong Chinese children with repeated familial physical and/or sexual abuse. Self-reports of (a) key dimensions of DTD including emotion regulation, attribution and perceptions in self and relationships, belief in future victimization, behavioral difficulties, and self-esteem; and (b) attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions were obtained from children aged 9-15 years in clinical and school settings. Children were categorized into an abused trauma group (n = 82), a nonabused trauma group (n = 83), and a no-trauma control group (n = 201). The findings indicated that the DTD framework was applicable to abused children who showed a lower level of attachment security (Cohen's d from 0.50-0.61) and a higher level of PTSD reactions (Cohen's d = 0.71) than the comparison groups. After adding attachment security and emotion dysregulation to the model, there were no longer significant group differences in most of the variables. PMID:25158638

Ma, Ellen Y M; Li, Frendi W S



Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children’s diets?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children’s fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. Method/Design Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as “Partner Schools” and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as “Associate Schools”. Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention “Associate Schools” or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children’s knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school’s gardening activities. Discussion The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children’s fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children’s diets and school based interventions. Trial registration ISRCTN11396528

Christian Meaghan S



Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems (United States)

The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun



Asymptomatic bacteriuria in school going children  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in school going children of different age groups and sex and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and to know their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. METHODS: A total of 1817 school children were screened by collecting mid-stream urine and isolating the organisms. RESULTS: Asymptomatic bacteriuria was observed in 192 cases (10.57% with female preponderance over male. The maximum isolates were E.coli (32.8%. Followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.1%. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study there was a steady increase in the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in different age groups. Most of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics.

Kumar C



The Strategic Research of Sustainable Development in Chinese-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools  

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Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools has appeared. Especially after our country’s accession to WTO, the development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools has remarkably developed with a larger size appearance over time. As a result, the educational levels constantly improve and educational models increasingly diversify. However, with the profound development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools, various new questions emerge. The existing researches have broad discussed and proposed some constructive strategies and suggestions. Thus, those researches concentrate on the existing problems in Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools with specific regional observation and lack of general analysis.
Key words: Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools; higher education; internationalization; sustainable development

Résumé: À la fin du 20e siècle, la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles est apparue. Surtout après l'adhésion de notre pays à l'OMC, la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles s'est remarquablement développée avec une apparence de plus grande taille au fil du temps. En conséquence, les niveaux d'enseignement s'améliorent constamment et les modèles d'enseignement se diversifient de plus en plus. Cependant, avec un développement profond de la coopération sino-étrangère de la gestion des écoles, de nouvelles questions diverses s'apparaissent. Les recherches existantes ont proposé des stratégies constructives et des suggestions. Ainsi, ces recherches se concentrent sur les problèmes existant de la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles avec des observations spécifiques régionales et le manque d'analyse générale.
Mots-clés: coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles; enseignement supérieur; internationalisation, développement durable




Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC and blood pressure (BP were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW and obese (OB groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW group. Odds ratios (ORs for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

Lu Xi



The Processing of Lexical Tones by Young Chinese Children (United States)

The current study examined five- and seven-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's processing of lexical tones in relation to speech segments by varying onset and rime in an oddity task (onset±rime±). Results showed that children experienced more difficulty in lexical tone oddity judgment when rimes differed across monosyllables (e.g.…

Lin, Candise Y.; Wang, Min; Shu, Hua



Musical Behaviours of Primary School Children in Singapore (United States)

In this ethnographic study, the musical behaviours of 28 primary school children in Singapore were examined for their meaning and diversity as they engaged in the school day. A large part of these children's musical behaviours stemmed from their exposure to the mass media. Children's musical inventions emerged in the context of play, occasionally…

Lum, Chee-Hoo



The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations (United States)

Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.



The Comparison of Chinese Kites Art Deco Schools  

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Chinese kite art not only has a long history because of the long tradition of folk culture, but also has its merits because of the colorful local cultures. Kite's decorative arts are in close contact with history of various periods, cultures of all regions and various nations. It also has inextricably link with music, dance, drama, folklore, religion. In the long course of historical development of society?distinctive decorative art of kite gradually has formed all over the country. The mai...

Wu, Qing



Environmental Education: A Comparison between English and Mexican School Children. (United States)

Analyzes what influences the environmental knowledge and perceptions of English and Mexican school children. Explores the extent to which culture and the school ethos with regard to the environment have an effect on the formation of environmental knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes in young children. Concludes that schools with strong…

Barraza, Laura; Walford, Rex A.



Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty. (United States)

Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children can be…

Crain, William



How Can Schools Support Children with a Parent in Prison? (United States)

Children who experience the imprisonment of a parent or close relative are more likely to have poorer outcomes including lower school attainment and an increased risk of truancy, school exclusion and socio-emotional difficulties. This paper reports on a research project, undertaken in 2011, into support provision in schools for children who…

Morgan, Julia; Leeson, Caroline; Carter Dillon, Rebecca



Likeable children, uneasy children: Growing up Muslim in small-town Danish schools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase a child’s personal religiosity, whereas not participating conjures up images of really religious families.

Anderson, Sally Dean



Promoting social-emotional learning in Chinese schools: A feasibility study of PATHS implementation in Hong Kong  

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Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot study of a reduced version of the PATHS Curriculum, a Usdeveloped evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China. Three hundred and sixteen 12th grade students in three elementary schools participated in the study. A limited number of first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different emotions and practiced self-control. The intervention lasted four months. After the intervention, students showed improvement in emotion understanding, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior. No change was observed in the level of children's problem behaviors. Over 65% of the teachers reported a high degree of satisfaction and willingness to adopt the intervention. The effects of the intervention varied among schools, with variations in the level of intervention and principal support, but not in the quality of implementation. Discussion is focused on the factors that could shape the adoption and implementation of SEL programs, especially the role of the difference in school systems between Hong Kong and the United States.

Chi-Ming Kam



Weight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children. (United States)

This study aimed to investigate Chinese children's perceptions of self-competence and the coping strategies based on gender and weight status using the Terror Management Theory. A total of 331 Chinese children completed body mass index (BMI), Self-Perception Profile for Children, and Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Mothers completed demographic information and the Family Assessment Device. Results indicated that better behavioral conduct competence contributed to better global self-worth in boys; in girls, better behavioral conduct competence and physical appearance competence contributed to better global self-worth. Higher BMI was related to lower athletic competency in boys and lower social competence in girls. Eating and drinking were reported as one of the most frequently used coping strategies by children, but the children felt that this strategy was not effective. Results of this study suggest that culture plays an important role in children's perceived self-competence and coping strategies. Health care providers and educators should incorporate assessment of self-competence and coping strategies into patient care and education. PMID:17524962

Chen, Jyu-Lin; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kennedy, Christine



Spirometric standards for healthy children and adolescents of Korean Chinese in northeast China. (United States)

In China there are 1,923,842 Korean Chinese, who live mostly (92.27%) in the country's three northeast provinces. In spite of this sizeable number, no spirometric data are available at present on them. The present study investigated normal spirometric reference values for the Korean Chinese children and adolescents. Spirometry was performed in 443 healthy Korean Chinese children and adolescents aged 8-18 yr with measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). Reference equations for FEV1, FVC, PEF and MMEF were derived by using multiple regression analysis. All of the measured spirometric parameters correlated positively with height and age significantly (P FVC and FEV1 were higher than values obtained by using Caucasian and other Asian equations (P spirometric reference equations has been derived using a relatively large, healthy, non-smoking young Korean Chinese population with a wide range of ages and heights, the results of which differ from those gained from several other reference equations. These reference equations should be used for evaluation of lung function in this population. PMID:22065903

Feng, Kui; Chen, Li; Han, Shao-Mei; Zhu, Guang-Jin



Paediatric day surgery: impact on Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents. (United States)

Paediatric day surgery is a potentially stressful and threatening experience for children and parents. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of paediatric day surgery on anxiety level of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, and to examine the relationship between children's preoperative anxiety and their level of cooperation during induction and postoperative periods. A total of 112 children admitted for circumcision with their parents in a day surgery unit were recruited. The state anxiety level for both children and parents was assessed at the time of admission and again at 4 hours after operation. Children's level of cooperation during the induction and the postoperative periods were also assessed. The results showed that the preoperative anxiety level for both children and their parents was relatively high. Children with high preoperative anxiety levels were associated with lower levels of cooperation during induction and postoperative periods. The results also indicated that parents' high state anxiety was associated with their children's high state anxiety. This study designated that preoperative intervention to minimize children and parents' anxiety is crucial and that there is still room for improvement. PMID:14632981

Li, Ho Cheung William; Lam, Ho Yan Angie



Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Chinese Children (United States)

Background The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. Results Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) of obesity were 1.11 (0.89–1.38) for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15–2.81) for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09–1.56) and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13–2.56), respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001), triglycerides (P<.001), systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.0435) and fasting glucose (P?=?0.0082) and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P?=?0.0023), as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. Conclusions The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and was inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:22905228

Shang, Xianwen; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Du, Songming; Ma, Guansheng



How Drawing Is Taught in Chinese Infant Schools (United States)

The benefits of drawing for children are wide-ranging but are likely to be mediated by the art curriculum and other governmental guidance to teachers relevant to drawing/art. Furthermore, such statutory regulations vary between cultures, and therefore curricula represent an important influence on the cultural differences found in children's…

Jolley, Richard; Zhang, Zhi



Chinese and Korean immigrants’ early life deprivation: An important factor for child feeding practices and children’s body weight in the United States  

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This paper examines the associations between Chinese and Korean immigrant parents’ early life material and food deprivation and their concern about their child’s diet or weight, preferences for heavier children, and weight-promoting diet and child weight, alongside the moderating role of parents’ acculturation toward American culture. In 2010, Chinese and Korean immigrant parents of children ages 3–8 years in the United States (N = 130) completed interviews which asked about their per...

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Hook, Jennifer



Chinese Secondary School Science Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science--Emerging from Their Views of Nature (United States)

The findings reported in this paper report on an investigation of Chinese people's understanding of the nature of science in relation to their conceptualisations of Nature. As an exploratory and interpretive study, it uses semi-structured interviews with 25 Chinese secondary school science teachers. The paper first presents these teachers'…

Ma, Hongming



Magnitude and determinants of refractive error in Omani school children.  

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The study enabled to understand trends of refractive error in Omani children (Arabic tribe and demonstrated the importance of vision screening in providing timely eye care and identifying visually disabled school children.

Rajiv B. Khandekar



Children Who Won't Go to School (Separation Anxiety) (United States)

Children Who Won't Go To School (Separation Anxiety) Quick Links Facts for Families - Numerical List Facts ... and behaviors are common among children with separation anxiety disorder. The potential long-term effects (anxiety and ...


Helping Children/ Youth with RSD/ CRPS Succeed in School (United States)

... Medtronic Foundation; and the Schnurmacher Foundation. Helping Children/Youth With RSD/CRPS Succeed in School “I used ... and are not present in all children and youth with CRPS). Although the incidence of pediatric RSD/ ...


Mapping "Chinese" Christian Schools in Indonesia: Ethnicity, Class and Religion (United States)

Schools are not "innocent" sites of cultural transmission. They play an active and significant role in transmitting values and inculcating culture. Schools also serve as a site for the maintenance of boundaries and for the construction of identities. Previous studies have recognized the relationship between education and identity. Building on…

Hoon, Chang-Yau




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This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype) was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. Accord...

Anosov I. P.; Tumoshenko O. V.; Zolotuhin O. A.; Medved V. E.; Slepkan A. A.; Meleshko E. D.



Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status. (United States)

Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p?responsiveness to child needs (p?responsibility for child feeding. Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. PMID:24816322

Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel



Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children. (United States)

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact. PMID:22612434

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang



Chinese Literature (United States)

The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

Hsu, Kai-yu


Helping children gain asthma control: bundled school-based interventions. (United States)

Following the success of a community asthma quality improvement initiative to improve outcomes for children with asthma attending Cincinnati Public Schools with school-based health centers (SBHC), several members of the original initiative formed a new asthma improvement collaborative to spread the initiative's improvement work to inner-city children with asthma attending other schools with and without SBHCs. This article describes the collaborative's plan, which features a nurse practitioner using bundled, evidence-based, school-based interventions to improve asthma control for inner-city children in high poverty schools. PMID:23926750

Toole, Kimberly P



Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of After-School Activities among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong (United States)

Using a cross-sectional design, this study (a) explores the prevalence of after-school activities among Chinese early adolescents and (b) assesses the relationships between participation in after-school activities, personal well-being, and family functioning. A total of 3,328 Grade 7 students (mean age?=?12.59?years, SD?=?0.74) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of adolescents returned home under adult supervision. Further analyses showed the associations between after-school activities, positive youth development qualities, academic and school competence, family functioning, and risky behavior. Implications regarding efforts aimed at designing high quality and structured after-school youth programs are discussed. PMID:25309895

Ma, Cecilia M. S.; Shek, Daniel Tan Lei



Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips (United States)

This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

Glick, Marilyn Petty


Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament (United States)

The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383

Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun



Parent Emotional Expressiveness and Children's Self-Regulation: Associations with Abused Children's School Functioning (United States)

Objective: Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused…

Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel



Starting School in Australia Is "a Bit Safer, a Lot Easier and More Relaxing": Issues for Families and Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds (United States)

The project described in this paper investigated the needs and concerns identified by parents from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as their children started school in Sydney, Australia. Six groups of parents from Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Samoan, Turkish and Vietnamese language backgrounds were interviewed about what was…

Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob



The gender implications of sexual health education needs among Chinese early school leavers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The following paper examines the sexual health needs of Chinese early school leavers from a gender perspective. The objectives were to shed light on adolescent experience and their understanding of intimate relationships, identify their knowledge of sex education and explore their sexual education needs. Design: A prospective survey design using mixed methods was employed. Subjects: A total of 28 adolescents were purposively recruited on the basis of age and sex from the YMCA in Ho...

Wong, Wcw; Holroyd, Ea; Lee, A.; Wong, Sys; Wong, J.; Leung, Pws



Sexual violence against women and children in Chinese societies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides a comprehensive overview of the reported patterns of sexual violence against women and children in China. It reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for various types of sexual violence and discusses community knowledge and perceptions of these violent acts. It also critically examines three major problems of sexual violence research in China. First, the diversity of findings and study methods reported by surveys and criminal reports reflects the problems in obtaining...

Chan, Kl



Getting Ready: The 2010-2011 Maryland School Readiness Report. Children Entering School Ready to Learn (United States)

This report was developed in partnership with Ready At Five. It lays out the critical importance of children starting school fully prepared to succeed in kindergarten. Most importantly, the report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children:…

Maryland State Department of Education, 2011



Frequent Visitors: Somatization in School-Age Children and Implications for School Nurses (United States)

There is a gap in the nursing literature regarding children who frequently visit school nurses' offices with recurrent unexplained physical symptoms. A review of the scientific health literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation, associated variables, and implications for school nurses regarding children who are frequent school

Shannon, Robin Adair; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Matthews, Alicia



Expectations of Malaysian Mothers for the Schooling of Their Children. (United States)

A Rand study develops a model concerning mothers in Peninsular Malaysia's three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian), investigating relationships between their early life experiences and their expectations for education levels of their children. The model examines three of the women's early life experiences that are governed by their…

Waite, Linda J.; And Others


Spirometric pulmonary function parameters of healthy Chinese children aged 3-6 years in Taiwan. (United States)

Spirometry is a well-known technique for evaluating pulmonary function, but few studies have focused on preschool children. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of forced spirometric parameters in young Chinese children, aged 3-6 years, in Taiwan. Spirometric measurements were performed at day care centers by experienced pediatricians. Of 248 children without a history of chronic respiratory illness, at least two valid spirometric attempts were obtained from 214 children (109 boys and 105 girls; age: 36-83 [mean = 61] months; height: 90-131 [mean = 111] cm). Values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and 0.5 sec (FEV(0.5)), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), forced expiratory between 25% and 75% FVC (FEF(25-75)), and forced expiratory flow rate at 25%, 50%, and 75% of FVC (FEF(25), FEF(50), and FEF(75)) were derived and analyzed. There were significant positive correlations between study parameters and body height, body weight, and age. Height was the most consistently correlated measurement in both boys and girls. Although boys tended to have higher spirometric values than girls, we found significant differences only in FVC and FEV1 between boys and girls aged 6 years. The regression equations of each parameter were obtained. In conclusion, spirometric pulmonary function tests are feasible in 3- to 6-year-old children. The obtained values and regression equations provide a reference for Chinese preschool children and may be of value in evaluating pulmonary function of children with respiratory problems in this age group. PMID:19517562

Jeng, Mei-Jy; Chang, Hua-Lun; Tsai, Meng-Chiao; Tsao, Pen-Chen; Yang, Chia-Feng; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Soong, Wen-Jue; Tang, Ran-Bin



Chinese immigrant high school students' cultural interactions, acculturation, family obligations, language use, and social support. (United States)

When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/ college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation, family responsibilities, and social support, predicted their intercultural competence concerns (their interactions across dominant and cultural groups). Results indicate that this was the case. Implications for research and practice with immigrant youth in a high school context are discussed. PMID:19149145

Yeh, Christine J; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T



Level of Depression in Intellectually Gifted Secondary School Children (United States)

The purpose of the present research was to investigate the difference in depression between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children. After a detailed review of literature the following hypothesis was formulated; there would be a significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted secondary school children on…

Shahzad, Salman; Begume, Nasreen



Children's Perceptions of the Effects of Divorce on School Life. (United States)

It has been predicted that, due primarily to parental divorce or separation, almost one-half of all children born in 1980 will live a considerable time with only one parent before they reach the age of 18. A qualitative research study was conducted which asked 41 middle school children for their perceptions on the effects of divorce on school

Falk, Carolyn R.; And Others


Children's Perceptions of Themselves as Learner inside and outside School (United States)

This exploratory study set out to investigate how a group of children, who were identified as underachieving in school, constructed understandings of themselves as learners inside and outside school. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and image-based methods with the children. Interviews were also conducted with their parents and…

Singal, Nidhi; Swann, Mandy



School-Related Fears of Children and Adolescents. (United States)

Advances in cognitive-behavioral counseling are discussed as offering promise in interventions with children having maladaptive school-related fears. Characteristics and counseling suggestions are offered to help children with performance anxiety, social anxiety, and school phobia. Stressed are fear reduction procedures which are flexible and age…

King, Neville J.; And Others



Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, and School Performance in Children (United States)

Previous studies have shown that both creativity and emotional intelligence (EI) were related to children school performance. In this study, we investigated the incremental validity of EI over creativity in an elementary school setting. Seventy-three children aged from 9 to 12 years old were recruited to participate in the study. Verbal and…

Hansenne, Michel; Legrand, Jessica



Community-Based Heritage Language Schools: A Chinese Example (United States)

English literacy skills are important in order to participate fully in public life; however, the heritage-based literacy skills learned outside of the classroom also are critical in the P-12 classroom. School teachers are important advocates for immigrant students--to preserve their first language and heritage, to integrate knowledge of their two…

Pu, Chang



Cyberbullying and Its Risk Factors among Chinese High School Students (United States)

Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…

Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.



Pedigrees, functioning, and psychopathology in families of school phobic children. (United States)

Family pedigrees of six children with severe school phobia compared with those of a matched group of families of five children with psychiatric disorders showed a clustering of affective and anxiety disorders. Blind and independent family histories and structured interviews of parents and siblings demonstrated higher rates of depressive and anxiety disorders in first-degree relatives of children with school phobia. Parents of children with school phobia described more disturbance in family functioning on the Family Assessment Measure than did parents in the comparison group in the areas of role performance, communication, affective expression, and control. PMID:3337295

Bernstein, G A; Garfinkel, B D



Association of environment and place of birth with asthma in Chinese immigrant children  

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Full Text Available Little is known about why some children develop asthma and others do not. We have previously reported strong associations between being born in the US and prevalence of asthma. Our findings led us to consider the hygiene hypothesis as a possible explanation. Here we report results from a survey of 212 Chinese children attending two clinics in Boston. We sought information on prior unsanitary living conditions, diagnosed asthma, socioeconomic status and other relevant variables. Few children were reported to have lived in unsanitary conditions, which is inconsistent with the hygiene hypothesis. However, we did replicate an earlier finding that SES was an effect modifier for the association between asthma and place of birth.

Madhuri Indaram



An Area Neglected in Citizenship Education: Children’s Rights Education at Home and at School  

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Full Text Available Children’s rights education is an important part of citizenship education. Home and school are among the places where children learn about and use their rights. For this reason, family members and teachers play an important role in children’s learning about their rights. This research was conducted to determine the perceptions of elementary school teachers and parents about children’s rights, the applications they carry out at home and at school for children’s rights education, and the problems they face. The study enrolled 24 teachers and 46 parents from three elementary schools in Eski?ehir with students from different economic and cultural backgrounds. Research data were collected with semi-structured interviews and interpretive thematic analysis was used. The results revealed that parents and teachers did not have an adequate level of knowledge about children’s rights and that children could not adequately learn about and use their rights at home and at school. Finally, teachers and parents had problems in children’s rights education caused by economic, socio-cultural, political and educational system.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Arife Figen Ersoy



Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children (United States)

Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James



Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child se...

Srisorrachatr Suwat; Temcharoen Paradee; Ratanopas Wasoontara; Sirikulchayanonta Chutima



Violence among children with emphasis on conditions in primary schools  

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Diploma deals with the phenomenon of violence among children with emphasis on conditions in primary schools. In the process of finding the causes of such mistreatment of children and understanding the background thereof, various traumatic events are classified, as well as typical family violence. Different manifestations of such consequences are later considered, as the individual goes to school or outside of a family environment. Children are often partakers of violence, that is not even rec...

Avgus?tin Majcen, Andreja



Personality and Locus of Control among School Children (United States)

The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.



Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children (United States)

Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

Khamis, Vivian



Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience (United States)

In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

Kenney, Susan



Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD (United States)

Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove



Aphasia of Chinese Culture in Senior High School English Teaching—Taken a Key Middle School in Kunming as the Example  

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Full Text Available Studies on aphasia of Chinese culture in college English teaching have been focused for a long time. Yet little attention has been paid to the senior high school English teaching concerning this problem. As a matter of fact, senior high school English teaching plays an essential role in English learning. In order to find out whether aphasia of Chinese culture exists in this stage and dig out the factors, the author has carried out a survey with quantitative and qualitative methodologies in the senior high school students of Grade one and teachers of a key middle school in Kunming. The survey reveals that this phenomenon does exist in senior high school English teaching and the extent is rather severe. The main reasons are lack of introduction on Chinese culture in English class, inadequacy of Chinese culture in textbooks and no emphasis on Chinese culture in English test. According to the explored reasons, the author proposes the corresponding suggestive solutions to the problem. They are: to reform the culture teaching, to add more Chinese culture in textbooks and to revise NMET (National Matriculation English Test.

Dimin Luo



High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors  

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Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066) were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was u...

Rivers Patrick A; Bae Sejong; Egbuchunam Christie U



A Latent Class Analysis of Bullies, Victims and Aggressive Victims in Chinese Adolescence: Relations with Social and School Adjustments (United States)

This study used the latent class analysis (LCA) to identify and classify Chinese adolescent children's aggressive behaviors. It was found that (1) Adolescent children could be divided into four categories: general children, aggressive children, victimized children and aggressive victimized children. (2) There were significant gender differences among the aggressive victimized children, the aggressive children and the general children. Specifically, aggressive victimized children and aggressive children had greater probabilities of being boys; victimized children had equal probabilities of being boys or girls. (3) Significant differences in loneliness, depression, anxiety and academic achievement existed among the aggressive victims, the aggressor, the victims and the general children, in which the aggressive victims scored the worst in all questionaires. (4) As protective factors, peer and teacher supports had important influences on children's aggressive and victimized behaviors. Relative to general children, aggressive victims, aggressive children and victimized children had lower probabilities of receiving peer supports. On the other hand, compared to general children, aggressive victims had lower probabilities of receiving teacher supports; while significant differences in the probability of receiving teacher supports did not exist between aggressive children and victimized children. PMID:24740096

Shao, Aihui; Liang, Lichan; Yuan, Chunyong; Bian, Yufang



The Productive Vocabulary Development in the Written Chinese of the Hong Kong Cantonese-speaking Children  

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Full Text Available This paper reports a longitudinal investigation into the productive vocabulary development in the written Chinese of the Cantonese-speaking elementary children in Hong Kong. Data gathering took place using two vocabulary tests which selected prescriptive vocabulary from the textbooks and the 2007 Vocabulary List. The two assessment tests also included vocabulary from the two classes of words in Chinese, namely, the content and the function words. Data were collected in a senior elementary class in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The phonological, orthographical, syntactic and semantic dimensions of the children’s productive vocabulary knowledge in both year four and year five were examined. The longitudinal data of these four linguistic dimensions were scored under respective conditions. The results indicate that the syntactic dimension of the function words is the weakest aspect in vocabulary growth. This may suggest that the syntactic acquisition of the function words seems to take a longer time. Furthermore, two relatively independent aspects of vocabulary knowledge, namely, the phonological-orthographical and the syntactic-semantic, emerge in the vocabulary development.

Emily Yee Man Cheung



Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: the unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament. (United States)

The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration. PMID:23880383

Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun



Free Time Motivation and Physical Activity in Middle School Children (United States)

This study examined free time motivation and physical activity in 68 middle school children from a rural public school system (N = 24) and a private school located in the same area of the Midwest (N = 44). Results indicated that free time motivation did not explain variability in physical activity behavior during free time or while students were…

Kozub, Francis M.; Farmer, James



Early Intervention and Prevention for Children Excluded from Primary Schools (United States)

In the last 10 years, the problem of school exclusion in England has reached a crisis point. Figures on permanent exclusions from primary, secondary and special schools in England show that for 1996/97, 12 700 children were excluded. Among these, 12% were pupils permanently excluded from primary schools. When the present Labour Government came to…

Panayiotopoulos, Christos; Kerfoot, Michael



Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar (United States)

This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.



Diagnostics of children's school readiness in scientific studies abroad  

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Full Text Available The article considers the problem of children's school readiness as it is represented in contemporary studies of foreign scholars. It displays a variety of approaches to estimation of school readiness as well as the ways of measuring the levels of child development as relating to school readiness, namely those of them which are in common practice in education.

Nazarenko V.V.



For Professors' Children, the Case for Home Schooling (United States)

The number of families who home school their children is growing between five and 15% per year and it is believed that home schoolers outperform their public-educated peers, though critics believe that home schooling is a form of religious fanaticism and a means of avoiding diversity. A professor explains how he and his wife, home school their…

Pannapacker, W. A.



Perceptions of School Nurses regarding Obesity in School-Age Children (United States)

Obesity is epidemic in the nation's school-age population with African American and Hispanic children and adolescents specifically at risk. School nurses at elementary and middle public schools in the Missouri 8th Congressional District were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity. School nurses supported preventive interventions…

Moyers, Pamela; Bugle, Linda; Jackson, Elaine



Exploring Primary Children's Views and Experiences of the School Ground: The Case of a Greek School (United States)

The present study explores the use of a conventional school ground of a primary school and its potential as a space for creative play and environmental learning. Children's play behavior and views of the school ground are explored, as well as their vision for its improvement. The research constitutes part of a wider school ground project and was…

Christidou, Vasilia; Tsevreni, Irida; Epitropou, Maria; Kittas, Constantinos



Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469, 2000 (n = 1,838, 2004 (n = 1,382 and 2006 (n = 1,128. Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986 were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p Conclusion This study confirms sedentary behaviour has increased over the last decade in Chinese children. Efforts to ensure Chinese youth meet screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time and to set limits on their child's screen time.

Dibley Michael J



School-Based Extracurricular Activities, Personality, Self-Concept, and College Career Development Skills in Chinese Society (United States)

In the present study, we examined in Chinese society the association of school-based extracurricular activities (SBEAs) in both high school and college with students' career development skills in college, as well as with various personality characteristics and self-concept. Each of 281 college students administered the Lai Personality Inventory,…

Shiah, Yung-Jong; Huang, Ying; Chang, Frances; Chang, Chuan-Feng; Yeh, Lun-Chang



Longitudinal, cross-cohort comparison of physical activity patterns in Chinese mothers and children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n?=?353 followed over a 2–4?year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006. Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P?P? Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.

Dearth-Wesley Tracy



Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children (United States)

The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula



Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia (United States)

This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.



Pattern of Ocular Morbidity in School Children in Central India  

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Full Text Available School eye health services is one of the important aspect of school health services in which children can be screened for various systemic and eye diseases such as refractive error, squint, amblyopia, cataract ,vitamin deficiency etc . The basic aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of visual impairment amongst school children of central India and to recognize avoidable causes of ocular morbidity. School surveys were conducted in various government schools of rural, urban and semi urban areas of Bhopal between Nov-2004 to Dec-07. A total of 20,800 school children between age group 5 to 16 years had under gone the complete ocular examination. Prevalence of Ocular morbidity was found in 14.5%. Refractive error was found to be the most common cause of ocular morbidity (47.91% followed by vitamin A deficiency (13.66% and strabismus (2.08%.

Harpal Singh



Sexual coercion and health-risk behaviors among urban Chinese high school students  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results: Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (p<0.01. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, in the study sample, that is, students who had sexual intercourse, drug use (odds ratios [OR], 2.44, attempted suicide (OR, 2.30, physical abuse (OR, 1.74, binge drinking (OR, 1.62, verbal abuse (OR, 1.29, experience of being drunk (OR, 0.68, and smoking of cigarettes (OR, 0.52 were related to a history of sexual coercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions: Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed.

Yi Song



Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada  

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Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

Sacha Senécal



Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children (United States)

Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.



"How 'Bout We Have a Celebration!" Advice from Children on Starting School (United States)

The first part of this article reports a project in which children were consulted about ways to improve transition to school. Children from 14 schools and prior-to-school settings collaborated with their peers and teachers to plan, implement and document transition to school. Children attending school reflected on their own experiences while…

Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue



The Association of Hypertension with Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities among Chinese Children (United States)

A total of 8898 Chinese children (4580 boys and 4318 girls) aged 7–13 years in 6 cities of east China were recruited. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, glucose, and insulin were collected. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 11.1%. Overweight and obese children had a higher risk of developing hypertension than their counterparts (29.1%, 17.4%, and 7.8%, resp.) (P = 0.0001). The means levels of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (1.0?mmol/L, 4.5?mmol/L, 8.4?mU/mL and 1.7, resp.) among hypertensive children were all significantly higher than their normotensive counterparts (0.8?mmol/L, 4.5?mmol/L, 5.9?mU/mL, and 1.2, resp.) (P = 0.0001). Compared with the healthy children, the risk (odds ratio, OR) of having hypertension among children with high triglycerides, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–2.0, P = 0.0334), 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9–2.5, P = 0.0890), and 2.8 (95%CI: 1.5–5.4, P = 0.0014), respectively, after controlling for age, gender, BMI, income level, parents' education level and puberty. In conclusion, overweight and obese children have higher risk of having hypertension and children with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome and higher HOMA-IR have higher risk of developing hypertension. PMID:22187624

Xu, Haiquan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Fang, Hongyun; Li, Ying; Ma, Jun; Li, Tingyu; Du, Lin; Guo, Hongwei; Xu, Guifa; Liu, Ailing



Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children


Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study (United States)

This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na



Teaching the Chinese Language to Heritage versus Non-Heritage Learners: Parents' Perceptions of a Community Weekend School in the United States (United States)

This article presents results of a study on a weekend Chinese community school in a mid-Atlantic state that looks at parents' perceptions of the challenges the school faced in teaching Chinese to heritage versus non-heritage learners. Survey and qualitative interviews with parents show differences in their expectations regarding teacher…

Lawton, Bessie Lee; Logio, Kim A.



Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role (United States)

This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

Mosca, Nancy W.



Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Predictors of Middle School Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation (United States)

Children's participation in after-school physical activity can attenuate the overweight and obesity rates among rural, low socioeconomic status (SES) children. Children's individual determination, as well as social and environmental factors, can influence their behaviors. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine if a difference…

King, Kristi M.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Brown, Stephen L.; Partridge, Julie A.



34 CFR 300.131 - Child find for parentally-placed private school children with disabilities. (United States)

...parentally-placed private school children; and's public school children. (d...comparable to that for students attending public schools in the LEA consistent... Each LEA in which private, including...



Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children  

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Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

Soepardi Soedibyo



Social adjustment of African children in Icelandic compulsory schools  

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In Icelandic compulsory schools, all nationals are supposed to take teaching instructions in Icelandic. Article 16 of the National Curriculum guide, Compulsory School Act (2008) states that ?Pupils whose mother tongue is not Icelandic are entitled to instruction in Icelandic as second language.? The aim of this objective is to empower immigrant children to study and become active participants in Icelandic community. Does the culture of African children serve as a hindrance to adjusting so...

Catherine Enyonam Sævarsson




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Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6?12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43 were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%, and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%. In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 391-401




Chinese Mathematics (United States)

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.


The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children  

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Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

Kopas-Vukašinovi? Emina



Parent-School Relationships and Children's Academic and Social Outcomes in Public School Pre-Kindergarten (United States)

Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear…

Powell, Douglas R.; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R.



An obesity genetic risk score predicts risk of insulin resistance among Chinese children. (United States)

A great number of body mass index (BMI)/obesity-related loci have been identified by recent genome-wide association studies. The objective of the study is to investigate the associations of 11 obesity-related loci with insulin resistance (IR) in a Chinese children population. Participants included 3,468 Chinese children, aged 6-18 years. The 75 percentile (equal to 2.93) of homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index was considered as the cut-off of IR. A total of 868 IR cases and 2,600 control children were identified. In age- and sex-adjusted model, only two SNPs in/near GNPDA2 and KCTD15 genes were significantly associated with risk of IR [GNPDA2 rs10938397: allelic odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.34, P = 0.003; KCTD15 rs29941: allelic OR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.31, P = 0.034]; genetic risk score was also significantly associated risk of IR (OR = 1.08, 95 % 1.04-1.12, P = 1.18 × 10(-4)). After additional adjustment for BMI, none remained significant. The associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397 and the SNPs in combination with risk of IR remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrated that the associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397 and the SNPs in combination with risk of IR were statistically significant, which were dependent on BMI. PMID:24619288

Xi, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Hou, Dongqing; Cheng, Hong; Mi, Jie



Performance of 5- to 8-year-old typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder in a Chinese version of theHapp's strange stories  

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?This study set out to collect reference data on, and uncover the developmental changes in, advanced Theory-of-Mind (ToM) ability of Hong Kong typically-developing (TD) children and children with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) / High-functioning Autism (HFA) aged 5-0 to 8-11 using a Chinese version of the Happé’s Strange Stories. The study also aimed to assess the difference in performance on this advanced test of ToM between Hong Kong TD children and children with AS/HFA. Cross-cultural com...

Fung, Esther; ???.



Young Chinese Children's Anger and Distress: Emotion Category and Intensity Identified by the Time Course of Behaviors (United States)

A hierarchical cluster analysis of the time course of the videotaped reactions of 75 Chinese 2-4-year olds to mothers' toy-removal identified Distress, Low Anger, and High Anger behavior clusters. Anger often begins at low intensity; some children then escalate. The face-validity of Low and High Anger-cluster classifications was supported in…

He, Jie; Qiu, Peihua; Park, Ka Young; Xu, Qinmei; Potegal, Michael



Eye-Voice Span during Rapid Automatized Naming of Digits and Dice in Chinese Normal and Dyslexic Children (United States)

We measured Chinese dyslexic and control children's eye movements during rapid automatized naming (RAN) with alphanumeric (digits) and symbolic (dice surfaces) stimuli. Both types of stimuli required identical oral responses, controlling for effects associated with speech production. Results showed that naming dice was much slower than naming…

Pan, Jinger; Yan, Ming; Laubrock, Jochen; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold



'Wishing for Dragon Children': Ironies and Contradictions in China's Education Reform and the Chinese Diaspora's Disappointments with Australian Education (United States)

This paper argues that the re-traditionalisation of 'wishing for dragon children' creates difficulties for China's current education reforms and informs the disquiet expressed by Chinese-Australians about Australian education. We develop this argument around three key propositions. First, we explore Confucianism and the civil service examination…

Wu, Jianguo; Singh, Michael



The Study of Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours in Greek, Russian, Indian, and Chinese Children Using the Fairy Tale Test (United States)

The present study investigated externalizing and internalizing behaviours in Greek (n = 599), Russian (n = 596), Indian (n = 571), and Chinese (n = 376) 7- to 12-year-old children. The Fairy Tale Test was used to measure impulsive and motivated aggression, fear of aggression, anxiety, and depression. The results indicated culture-specific patterns…

Savina, Elena; Coulacoglou, Carina; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Zhang, Jianxin



Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children (United States)

This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng



Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children. (United States)

Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

DiGiuseppe, Raymond



Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age (United States)

We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke



Primary School Children's Self-Efficacy for Music Learning (United States)

The Self-Efficacy for Musical Learning questionnaire was adapted and tested with 404 primary school children, producing a robust Cronbach alpha (0.87) and confirming a single underlying factor through exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest scores showed the measure's stability over a 9-month period. Data were collected on children's prior music…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron



Social Network Profiles of Children in Early Elementary School Classrooms (United States)

This study characterized the social network roles and peer relationship features of early elementary school-age children from kindergarten to 2nd grade. Children were asked to identify who they liked and did not like to play with and peer groups who played together from their classroom. Consistent with the literature, we found similar patterns for…

Vu, Jennifer A.; Locke, Jill J.



Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste. (United States)

Studies 34 elementary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. Concludes that the children had good prior awareness of some behaviors that save energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on everyday intuitive ideas that involved…

Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike







An Investigation of School Violence through Turkish Children's Drawings (United States)

This study investigates Turkish children's perception of violence in school as represented through drawings and narratives. In all, 66 students (12 to 13 years old) from the middle socioeconomic class participated. To elicit children's perception of violence, they were asked to draw a picture of a violent incident they had heard, experienced, or…

Yurtal, Filiz; Artut, Kazim



Life style and behavior of school children without parental care  

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Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127, and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers. The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers. Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.. Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

Kvrgi? Svetlana T.



Too Cool for School?: Gifted Children and Homeschooling (United States)

Homeschooling can be a last resort for frustrated families where gifted children are not having their complex needs met through mainstream schooling. Unlike many other groups of homeschoolers, parents of highly able children take this option for pragmatic reasons rather than as a kind of moral stance. This article explores some of the ways that…

Winstanley, Carrie



Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling (United States)

By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

Kunzman, Robert



Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children (United States)

Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah



Expository Language Skills of Young School-Age Children (United States)

Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…

Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.



Schulkinderreime im Fremdsprachenunterricht (School Children's Rhymes in Foreign Language Teaching) (United States)

The rhymes and songs hitherto used in foreign language teaching such as nursery rhymes, carols, hymns, etc. belong almost exclusively to England's older culture. Since they are too difficult at least for Secondary grade 1, both as to language and as to content, school children's rhymes are suggested for teaching - that is, rhymes made by children

Ziegesar, Detlef von



Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes (United States)

This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo



Content Analysis of People with Disabilities in Chinese-Language Elementary School Textbooks  

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Full Text Available Textbooks are able to shape the attitude of students. The descriptions of people with disabilities in textbooks would influence students’ attitude to people with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to analyze people with disabilities described in Chinese-language elementary school textbooks, including the prevalence of categories of disabilities, the development of their character, significant others and inclusive education. The results of study include: (1 People with disabilities are significantly underrepresented in Chinese-language elementary school textbooks. The most prevalent disabilities found in textbooks focused on physical disabilities in nature. Four categories of disabilities neglected in textbooks including hearing impairment, autism, emotional disabilities, and developmental retardation. (2 Textbooks tended to emphasize the character development of well-known people with disabilities. (3 Significant others for people with disabilities including parents, teachers, and their peers. (4 Only two compositions regarding to inclusive education in textbooks. The themes focused on the participation of physically and mentally disabled students in class activities and experiencing disabilities.

Tsuey-Ling Lee



Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study (United States)

This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok



Making Children's Voices Visible: The School Setting Interview (SSI) (United States)

Children and young people with disabilities educated in their local school may need services to get equal access to the curriculum. To ensure that any educationally-relevant services achieve the best outcomes, the students' own voices and perspectives should also be included. This paper introduces the School Setting Interview (SSI), an…

Hemmingsson, Helena; Penman, Merrolee



Predicting Children's Liking of School from Their Peer Relationships (United States)

Prior studies have established that children's peer relationships and school adjustment are associated. The main aims of the current study were to test if four measures of peer relationships (Peer Acceptance, Presence/Absence of Best Friend, Number of Friends, and Perceived Peer Support) could predict School Liking concurrently and longitudinally…

Boulton, Michael J.; Don, Jacqui; Boulton, Louise



School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect (United States)

School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn



Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention (United States)

The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

Everhart, D. Erik



Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse (United States)

As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.



Multiple Predictors of Asian American Children's School Achievement (United States)

Research Findings: A structural equation model (SEM) and multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model were used to test family factors, parent psychological well-being, parent-child home activity, and parent school involvement in relation to children's school achievement. Data for this study were drawn from the Early Childhood…

Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Joohi



Integrated Primary Schooling of Blind Children in Papua New Guinea. (United States)

A program providing preparatory training and integrated primary schooling for blind children in Goroka (Papua New Guinea) is described. Specialized training at the Mt Sion Centre for the Blind prepares students for mainstreaming at the local community school. The center also provides teacher training services and a specialist resource teacher to…

Vlaardingerbroek, Barend



Obesity and Other Predictors of Absenteeism in Philadelphia School Children (United States)

Background: Limited data indicate that obese children are absent from school more than their normal-weight peers. We analyzed administrative data from a large urban school district to investigate the association of obesity and student sociodemographic characteristics with absenteeism. Methods: We analyzed 291,040 records, representing 165,056…

Rappaport, Elizabeth B.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Andrel, Jocelyn



Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care (United States)

Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study led…

Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.




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Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in ?wi?tajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

Podstawski Robert



Reading Performance Is Enhanced by Visual Texture Discrimination Training in Chinese-Speaking Children with Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

Background High order cognitive processing and learning, such as reading, interact with lower-level sensory processing and learning. Previous studies have reported that visual perceptual training enlarges visual span and, consequently, improves reading speed in young and old people with amblyopia. Recently, a visual perceptual training study in Chinese-speaking children with dyslexia found that the visual texture discrimination thresholds of these children in visual perceptual training significantly correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition, suggesting that deficits in visual perceptual processing/learning might partly underpin the difficulty in reading Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings To further clarify whether visual perceptual training improves the measures of reading performance, eighteen children with dyslexia and eighteen typically developed readers that were age- and IQ-matched completed a series of reading measures before and after visual texture discrimination task (TDT) training. Prior to the TDT training, each group of children was split into two equivalent training and non-training groups in terms of all reading measures, IQ, and TDT. The results revealed that the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT were significantly higher for the children with dyslexia than for the control children before training. Interestingly, training significantly decreased the discrimination threshold SOAs of TDT for both the typically developed readers and the children with dyslexia. More importantly, the training group with dyslexia exhibited significant enhancement in reading fluency, while the non-training group with dyslexia did not show this improvement. Additional follow-up tests showed that the improvement in reading fluency is a long-lasting effect and could be maintained for up to two months in the training group with dyslexia. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that basic visual perceptual processing/learning and reading ability in Chinese might at least partially rely on overlapping mechanisms. PMID:25247602

Meng, Xiangzhi; Lin, Ou; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Yuzheng; Song, Yan



Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children  

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The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind placebo controlled challenge with gelatine capsules was performed. The study included 281 children, 10 were excluded, and the remaining 271 children were given the open challenge (98 healthy controls and 173 with atopic symptoms). The open challenge was negative in all 98 healthy control children who had not reported any atopic symptoms. Of the 173 children reporting present or previous atopic disease 17 had a positive open challenge. Of these 17 children 1 experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, 13 reacted with aggravation of atopic eczema, and 3 with urticaria. Twelve of these 17 children went through the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%.



The Relationship between Extrinsic Motivation, Home Literacy, Classroom Instructional Practices, and Reading Proficiency in Second-Grade Chinese Children (United States)

This study investigated how students' extrinsic motivation, home literacy and classroom instructional practices were related to the students' reading proficiency of 734 Chinese second-graders (48.2 per cent girls and 51.4 per cent boys) from twenty-two classes in seven primary schools in Hong Kong. The mean student age was 7.5 years. All…

Law, Yin-kum



Play as main road in children’s transition to school  

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This chapter deals with children’s transition to school and play. First part focuses on transition and shows a number of problem, which in short can be described as lack of continuity between preschool and school. The answer to this problem is to create transition strategies and activities. Besides a number of transition activities the author argues for play as pivot for successful transition and more specific dialogical reading followed by play. Thus play is not seen as children’s own free-flow play, but as an educational activity in which the preschool teacher has an active role.

Broström, Stig



Quality Education through Child-Friendly Schools: Resource Allocation for the Protection of Children’s Rights  

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Full Text Available The paper discusses the idea and purpose of Child-Friendly Schools (CFSs initiated by the UNICEF. It analyses the implications of CFSs in terms of improving children’s health and nutrition, promoting gender equality, protecting children’s rights, re-defining education quality and creating positive psycho-emotional environment at schools.




Emotional intelligence and academic achievement of school children.  

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Full Text Available In this research paper researcher tried to find out whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of school children who have not yet reached the adolescent age. The sample for the study consisted of 240 children (120 boys and 120 girls of class 5th having age range 10-11 years from various schools of Jammu city (East. High and low achiever (60 boys and 60 girls in each were differentiated based on their percentage in the last two consecutive examination results. In this study it is found that positive correlation between emotional intelligence & academic achievement of school children in all the four areas. It also seems that those children who have high emotional intelligence will also be high academic achievers. Girls are emotionally intelligent than boys. It may help them in perceiving assimilating, understanding and managing of emotions than boys

Satish Kumar Kalhotra



Re-examining the cognitive phenotype in autism: a study with young Chinese children. (United States)

Deficits consistently found in autism include an impaired "theory of mind", weak central coherence, and deficits in executive function. The current study examined whether this traditional cluster of symptoms existed in a group of Chinese-speaking children with autism. Sixteen high-functioning, non-retarded children with autism were matched to 16 typically developing (TD) children on gender, non-verbal IQ and age. Non-verbal IQ's of all participants were measured using the Raven Progressive Matrices. Each participant was tested individually on measures of "theory of mind", central coherence and executive function. Results indicated that most, but not all, participants with autism performed significantly poorer on two standard measures of first-order "theory of mind," although there was no significant difference on two other measures of that domain. As expected, they performed significantly worse on executive function tasks. However, the hypothesis of weak central coherence in autism was not substantiated. There was no evidence that these three cognitive impairments co-existed in individuals with autism. More likely, each of these deficits appears singly or in pair instead of forming a cluster. PMID:24171826

Lam, Yan Grace



A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group. Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education, b school environment support, c family involvement, and d fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819

Xu Fei



School Children's Happiness Inventory: The Validity and Reliability Study  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out the validity and the reliability study of the School Children’s Happiness Inventory. 358 Elementary school students, 195 (55% of which were female and 163 (45% male, participated in the research. The School Children’s Happiness Inventory, Depression Scale for Children and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience were used as data collection instruments in the research. For the validity study of the inventory, structure validity and criterion dependent validity were checked. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to identify reliability. At the end of the exploratory factor analysis carried out in order to determine the factor structure of the inventory, the inventory was composed of two factors, as is present in its original form. According to the confirmatory factor analysis, the fit indexes of the scale were determined to be at the acceptable level. At the end of the criterion dependent validity study, it was seen that there was a negatively significant relationship between the School Children’s Happiness Inventory and depression and negative experiences, and a positively significant relationship between the inventory and the positive experiences. At the end of the reliability study, it was seen that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the inventory was quite high. As a result of this validity and reliability study, it can be said that the inventory is a valid and reliable assessment instrument for evaluating the happiness of schoolchildren.

Bülent Baki Telef



Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals  

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Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI) with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of ...

Mackelprang Alyssa J; Royer Julie A; Guinn Caroline H; Hardin James W; Baxter Suzanne; Devlin Christina M



A Psychological Research on Characters in Middle School Chinese Textbooks in China  

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Full Text Available
This study made a statistical study and analysis of the Chinese textbooks for six-year-system students. The results showed: (1 in terms of nationality, the number of characters of the Han nationality was 4 times as many as that of minority nationalities. 74.3 per cent of the students can’t tell the differences. In comparison, in primary school Chinese textbooks (The People’s Education Press, in 1993[1], the progress had been made without doubt; (2 in terms of countries, the number of Chinese characters was 3.98 times as many as that of foreigners and the description of foreigners did not meet well the requirement of times development; (3 in terms of genders, characters of male were 2.4 times as many as female; (4 in terms of live environment, the proportion of the characters living in ancient was 46.7%. So the description of the contemporary and rural circumstance was not enough;(5 concerning identity and occupation, they focus on men of letters and so on, but pay little attention to ordinary people occupation.
Key words: Middle School Chinese Textbooks, Students, Character’s Feature
Résumé: Cette etude a fait des statistiques et l’analyse de matériels chinois pour les élèves du cycle de 6 ans d’études . Le résultat a montré: (1 En terme de nationalité, le nombre de caractères de la nationalité Han était de 4 fois celui des groupes minorités. 74.3 % des élèves ne parviennt pas à dire les différences. Comme comparaison, dans les écoles primaries, les matériels chinois (la Presse d’ Education du peuple, en 1993[1], il est indoutable qu’ils ont connu un progrès; (2 En terme de pays,le nombre de caractères chinois était de 3.98 fois celui des étrangers dont la description n’ont pas satisfait les demandes du développement; (3 en terme de genre, les caractères masculins étaient de 2.4 fois ceux des féminins; (4 En terme de l’environnement de vie, la proportion de caractères anciens était de 46.7%. Donc la description de la contemporaine and la circomstance rurale n’était pas suffisante;(5 Concernant l’identité et l’occupation, ils mettent un accentt sur les hommes de letttres etc, mais mettent très peu d’attention à l’ occupation des gens ordinaires.
Mots clés: Matériels Chinois dans les Ecoles Secondaires, Elèves, caractéristiques des caractères

Ben-xian YAO



Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. (United States)

This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity. PMID:23945411

Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul



Perspectives of Teachers and Parents of Chinese American Students with Disabilities about Their Home-School Communication (United States)

This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine the perspectives of teachers and parents of Chinese American students with disabilities regarding home-school communication in the special education field. The author recruited 2 parents and 2 teachers for this study. Different sources of data including observations, interviews, documentations,…

Chu, Szu-Yin



Employing Microsoft Live@edu Cloud Platform to Assist in Teaching Chinese Reading for Junior High School Students (United States)

This study aimed to investigate junior high school students' learning attitudes and learning effectiveness through administering Microsoft Live@edu to assist in teaching Chinese reading. Quasi-experimental approach was used and a total of 63 eighth grade students were divided into the experimental group (N = 32) and control group (N = 31).…

Shih, Ru-Chu; Cho, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer



Modernization Discourse, Academic Advocacy, and Vested Interests: The Promotion of English-Medium Instruction in Chinese Schools (United States)

Like many other developing countries around the world, China is witnessing a growing prominence of English in its school system. One immensely popular form of English provision in the country is Chinese-English bilingual education for majority-language students, which involves the varying use of English as a medium of instruction in the teaching…

Hu, Guangwei



Retooling Chinese Primary School Teachers to Use Technology Creatively to Promote Innovation and Problem Solving Skills in Science Classrooms (United States)

This paper reports on the initial phase of a Professional Learning Program (PLP) undertaken by 100 primary school teachers in China that aimed to facilitate the development of adaptive expertise in using technology to facilitate innovative science teaching and learning such as that envisaged by the Chinese Ministry of Education's (2010-2020)…

Lee, Kar-Tin; Chalmers, Christina; Vinesh, Chandra; Yeh, Andy; Nason, Rod



Negotiating Discourses of Gender, Ethnicity and Schooling: Ways of Being Malay, Chinese and Indian Schoolgirls in Malaysia (United States)

This article uses the notion of resistance as an analytical tool, emphasizing its sociopolitical significance and multidimensionality, to understand the complex link between ways of being Malay, Chinese and Indian schoolgirls, schooling and the wider Malaysian society. The macro and micro dynamics of the Malaysian ethnoscape, namely the ethnic…

Joseph, Cynthia



Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old) in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI) ?#249;5 percentile) were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education,...

Han Gyu Kim; Goh-woon Lim; Hae Soon Kim; Young Mi Hong,



SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children  

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Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

Jyoti P Khodnapur



Young Children’s Video/Computer Game Use: Relations with School Performance and Behavior  

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This study examined the amount and content of children’s video game playing in relation with behavioral and academic outcomes. Relationships among playing context, child gender, and parental monitoring were explored. Data were obtained through parent report of child’s game play, behavior, and school performance. Results revealed that time spent playing games was related positively to aggression and negatively to school competence. Violent content was correlated positively and educational ...

Hastings, Erin C.; Karas, Tamara L.; Winsler, Adam; Way, Erin; Madigan, Amy; Tyler, Shannon



The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children (United States)

This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia



Effects of Cross-Language Transfer on First-Language Phonological Awareness and Literacy Skills in Chinese Children Receiving English Instruction (United States)

The present investigation consists of two studies examining the effects of cross-language transfer on the development of phonological awareness and literacy skills among Chinese children who received different amounts of English instruction. Study 1 compared Chinese students in regular English programs (92 first graders and 93 third graders) with…

Chen, Xi; Xu, Fen; Nguyen, Thien-Kim; Hong, Guanglei; Wang, Yun



Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten. (United States)

Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. PMID:20609850

Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R



Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignores that uncertainty about future returns results in a need for risk diversification, that children function as old-age security providers when there are no available pension systems, that the human capital investment decision of one child is likely to be influenced by that of his/her siblings, and that rural parents face a choice of investing in either specific or general human capital of their children. In this paper, I investigate the effects of future income uncertainty on the joint human capital investment decision of children in a household. I develop and calibrate a simple illustrative human capital portfolio model and show that existing levels of uncertainty can indeed result in less than full school enrolment within a household, even in a world of perfect credit markets. The paper thus offers an alternative explanation for why it might be optimal for rural parents not to send all of their children to school.

LilleØr, Helene Bie



Use of traditional Chinese medicine in Singapore children: perceptions of parents and paediatricians.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: In a country dominated by western healthcare, interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is growing. The increasing popularity of TCM, occasionally used with conventional medicine, needs to be assessed, especially in a vulnerable paediatric population. This paper sought to evaluate the use of TCM in children, mainly to determine the common conditions they seek TCM, the pattern of acupuncture or herbal usage for various age groups, the extent of concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine, and the reasons for TCM use. Paediatricians\\' perceptions of TCM will allow us to gauge the acceptability of TCM by those who practise conventional medicine. These are assessed in another arm of this study, with a set of predictive characteristics for their personal TCM use, their perceptions of herb\\/acupuncture safety, and their own referral to TCM eventually determined. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was administered on 300 parents awaiting consultation at a large TCM clinic. Next, a separate qualitative questionnaire survey form was posted to 100 paediatricians. RESULTS: Herb usage in children is very common (84.3 percent) and 80 percent of parents admitted concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine for their children. Drug-herb interactions was an issue of concern for paediatricians. Paediatricians with a higher level of self-reported TCM knowledge were more likely to refer for a cure. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to determine the characteristics of children attending a large TCM clinic in a country which is dominated by western healthcare. It also provided insight into the perceptions of TCM among paediatricians in Singapore. Specifically, it gave us an idea of the predictor traits that determine their referral patterns to TCM and their perceptions of herb and acupuncture safety.

Loh, C H



Adapting and Designing Spaces: Children and their Schools  

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Full Text Available In schools, children experience their environment on three different levels: firstly, they constantly make spatial decisions by positioning themselves in relation to others and organising their immediate environment; secondly, they can potentially contribute to shaping the classroom spaces; and, thirdly, they are confronted with the designed school as a whole.It is argued here that our experiences of spaces are related to our memories, which provide us with a framework of references that allows us to ‘read’ and construct spaces. Whereas on the lowest level of spatial involvement children are natural decision makers, the higher levels require access to, and an understanding of, shared practices and discourses. Although existing data on children’s perceptions of their schools suggest that children’s participation in the school design process is laudable for all sorts of reasons, such participation means overcoming considerable barriers for omparatively little gain in terms of the design quality. It is the level of the classroom where a more genuine shared organisation and (recreation of space can take place on an everyday basis.

Andrea Kenkmann



Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program  

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Abstract Background To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB) program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. Methods A logic pathway was used to model the effects on b...



Partners in School Asthma Management: Evaluation of a Self-Management Program for Children with Asthma (United States)

The "Partners in School Asthma Management" program for inner-city elementary school children comprises (1) case finding; (2) linkage of school nurses, parents, and clinicians; (3) a computer-based tailored educational program; and (4) school environmental assessment and intervention. Case finding identified 1730 children in 60 elementary schools

Bartholomew, L. Kay; Sockrider, Marianna M.; Abramson, Stuart L.; Swank, Paul R.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Markham, Christine M.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shegog, Ross; Tyrrell, Shellie



Blood pressure percentiles by age and height for non-overweight Chinese children and adolescents: analysis of the china health and nutrition surveys 1991–2009 (United States)

Background Hypertension is an important health problem in China and raised blood pressure in children may lead to future hypertension. Accordingly we aimed to provide a reference blood pressure table for age, gender and height in Chinese children. Methods A reference sample of subjects was drawn from the Chinese Health and National Survey 1999–2009 aged 7–17 years after excluding overweight and obese children, the 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)are presented corrected for height and age by gender. These values are compared with existing Chinese and US recommendations. Results Results for the 50th, 90th and 95th percentile of SBP and DBP for 6245 boys and 5707 girls were presented by age and height percentiles. These observations were lower than existing Chinese recommendations before 13 years of age at median heightbut went higher in those >13 years old. At same age and height, SBP levels of American children were overall higher than Chinese counterparts from this study by average 9–10 mm Hg, but DBP did not show overall or significant difference. Conclusions The first height-specific blood pressure reference values are proposed for Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years. These are lower than existing US reference values and current Chinese cutoffs. PMID:24274040



Analyses of body composition charts among younger and older Chinese children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become a major public health problem in China. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age and sex on the relationship between fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass (FM, fat-free mass index (FFMI and fat mass index (FMI in Chinese children using body composition chart analysis, and to compare the changing pattern with Caucasian and Japanese counterparts. Methods A total of 1458 children (790 boys and 668 girls between 5 and 18 years of age were studied to determine a body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The relationship of FFM and FM, FFMI and FMI were delineated by body composition charts. Results Different changing patterns in body composition were observed during 5-11y (younger age group, and 12-18y (older age group, with non-significant sex difference with FM and FMI for the younger age group and significant sex and age differences for the older age group. For the younger age group, simultaneous increase of FFM and FM was found in both genders. However, for the older age group, the increase in weight and BMI with age is largely due to the increment of FFM and FFMI in boys, and of FM and FMI in girls. In addition, different changing patterns in body composition exist between Chinese children and their Caucasian and Japanese counterparts, largely due to the higher fat mass component in Chinese subjects. Conclusions Our results indicate that age- and gender-related changing patterns of body composition in Chinese children may differ at different growth stage, and differ with those in Caucasian and Japanese children at the same age period. Such changing patterns should be considered when designing the intervention proposal for childhood obesity in China.

Xiong Kai-Yu



School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children (United States)

Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

Rivers, Charisse L.



Commentary: School-Based Observations of Children at School--Promise with Prudence (United States)

Psychological assessment traditionally entails assessment processes and measures to address questions about children. In school settings, these questions usually center on why children experience difficulty learning, engage in inappropriate classroom deportment, and fail to develop adaptive peer relationships. The mini-series in this issue…

Rapport, Mark D.



[Food consumption of children eating lunch in school restaurants]. (United States)

In order to study the dietary intakes of children having lunch at school, 150 children were observed: 60 aged 5-6 years, 60 aged 9-10 years and 30, aged 5-13 years, attending 5 different schools (4 in town, 1 in the country). The estimation of spontaneous ingesta was made according to the weighing method. Energizing rations, the percentages of caloric intakes, the amounts of total, animal and vegetal lipids, of total carbohydrates and pure carbohydrates, of total, animal and vegetal proteins were estimated for each meal and each child. The analysis of these ingesta suggests that the dietary habits of children at school is a major factor of nutritional lack of balance, much more important than that related with the quality of the proposed food. PMID:6860067

Ghisolfi, J; Rivière, Y; Miquel, M; Lacour, J; Fernet, P; Boulze, D; Ser, N; Rives-Tocaven, M



The Pyramid Club Elementary School-Based Intervention: Testing the Circle Time Technique to Elicit Children’s Service Satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Children’s views of the social-emotional health services they use are important to service evaluation and development. However, often it is parental or clinician feedback that is gathered. In the current study Circle Time groups were run to identify children’s satisfaction with the Pyramid Club School-based intervention and to test the salience of this technique in eliciting children’s views. Children evaluated Clubs positively, reported no adverse effects and suggested ways to develop ...

Madeleine Ohl; Pauline Fox; Kathryn Mitchell



Elementary School Children's Beliefs about Matter. (United States)

Reports on an investigation of young children's (n=15) spontaneously constructed or naive understanding of the particulate nature of matter to any formal instruction in the domain. Speculates that children first develop local frameworks particular to different classes of substances, then slowly expand those frameworks to include a wide range of…

Samarapungavan, Ala; Nakhleh, Mary B.



Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners (United States)

Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine




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Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 children of 6-9 years correspond to normoemic type. This pattern doesn’t change with age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

Anosov I. P.



Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children and 140 controls (normal weight children were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Results Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p Conclusions It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

Srisorrachatr Suwat



The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children (United States)

Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

Cook, Judith; And Others



A Controlled Evaluation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention in Turkish School Children (United States)

This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…

Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim



Children's Perspectives on Their First Year of School: Introducing a New Pictorial Measure of School Stress (United States)

This paper describes the development, administration, and scoring of the Pictorial Measure of School Stress (PMSS). This instrument was designed to describe individual differences in children's feelings about everyday school situations and their coping strategies for dealing with these. The PMSS uses a semi-structured interview to present specific…

Murray, Elizabeth; Harrison, Linda J.



Family School Connectedness: An Examination of Participation for Foster Care Families with Children in Schools (United States)

Research (Henderson & Mapp, 2002) suggests the participation of teachers and families as partners in the education of students builds stronger foundations for the future development of children. This dissertation examined the participation of foster care families in schools and factors that contribute to their participation in the school setting…

Baehr, Katherine Bradley



Teachers’ Perceptions of Sex Education of Primary School Children  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sex education of children, a complex issue in any culture, has always been a controversial subject. Schools can play a vital role in imparting sex education to children, particularly in more conservative communities. The objective of this study was to find out primary school teachers beliefs, attitudes, values, and understandings regarding sex education of school pupils. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study we employed a community-based approach to design the project. Purposeful, voluntary and maximum variation sampling was used to recruit 22 teachers from selected schools in Western Tehran (21 female and 1 male teacher. Information was collected in 4 focus-group discussion sessions. Grounded theory and thematic analysis were used.Results: Findings revealed three major themes: 1 organizational role, 2 institution construction, and 3 individual characteristics. These themes were described by subthemes as follows: 1. for organizational role: organizational culture and policies; 2. for institution construction: family and educational institutions; 3. for individual characteristics: biology, gender, instincts, curiosity, knowledge, and behaviors.Conclusion: From the participants point of views, the school and the family are two important institutions in children sex education. However, teachers are not sufficiently competent in sex behavior education. Inappropriate policies, resource limitations, and the family cultural structure are obstacles in sex education of children in schools. The participants believe the following are priorities in childrens sex education: changing cultural attitudes in organizations and institutions, such as cultural diffusion; sound training approaches in sex-related topics; providing sufficient resources; improving knowledge and skills of teachers in the area of sex education of pupils; and effective interaction between families and school authorities.

H Taghdissi




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Full Text Available The precocious detention of visual problems is a measure of important primary assistance. Thus being,this work had as main objective, to verify the visual level of children and adolescents in Goiânia (Goiás ? Brazilpublic school, being used the simplified physical examination of health through Snellen Table. Of the 414evaluated children, 46 (11% had presented visual deficiency and had been directed for oftalmological consultationin the Hospital of the Clinics of the Federal University of Goiás.

Alexandra Isabel Amorim Lino



Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods: In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficie...

Boeke, Caroline E.; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-shiman, Sheryl L.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.



Diabetes Risk Factors in Middle Income Pakistani School Children  

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To assess the risk factors for diabetes such as dietary habits, physical fitness score, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and family history of diabetes amongst school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 103 children (ages 8-12 years), from middle-income families from two schools of Karachi. Data of physical fitness score was taken by a physical fitness test and BMI was calculated by measuring weight and height. Dietary records were taken by 24 hours self reported diet r...

Zafar Iqbal Hydrie, M.; Abdul Basit; Naeema Badruddin; Yakoob Ahmedani, M.



Elementary school children's cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates. (United States)

Elementary school children's cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates were investigated using a guessing game. Children (n=95) between 8 and 12 years of age were asked to guess which side of the screen a coin would appear on and received rewards based on their self-reported accuracy. Children's cheating behavior was measured by examining whether children failed to adhere to the game rules by falsely reporting their accuracy. Children's theory-of-mind understanding and executive functioning skills were also assessed. The majority of children cheated during the guessing game, and cheating behavior decreased with age. Children with better working memory and inhibitory control were less likely to cheat. However, among the cheaters, those with greater cognitive flexibility use more tactics while cheating. Results revealed the unique role that executive functioning plays in children's cheating behavior: Like a double-edged sword, executive functioning can inhibit children's cheating behavior, on the one hand, while it can promote the sophistication of children's cheating tactics, on the other. PMID:24464240

Ding, Xiao Pan; Omrin, Danielle S; Evans, Angela D; Fu, Genyue; Chen, Guopeng; Lee, Kang



Children of Separation and Divorce: A Review of School Programs and Implications for the Psychologist. (United States)

Divorce and separation affect how children behave and learn in school. School psychologists can help children and parents cope with the feelings and the effects of divorce. Relevant issues in developing and implementing programs are considered. (Author/RL)

Drake, Ellen A.; Shellenberger, Sylvia



Memory performance in Brazilian school-age children  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate different memory systems among children of different school ages. Ninety children who attend schools within the Rio de Janeiro municipality school system, ages 6 to 10 years, were studied. The study excluded children with learning disabilities. All children underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. A two-way analysis of variance revealed significant gender differences in the free delay episodic memory. Age differences were found for the free delay episodic memory and recognition on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT as well as the recall of the Rey Figure. Semantic memory correlated with Semantic Verbal Fluency. Working Memory as measured by Digit Span subtest of the WISC correlated with the first list learning of the RAVLT. Overall, study results indicated a lower performance among 6-year-old children and gender differences in children 8 and 10 years of age. Data are consistent with the literature and show a distinction in the evolution of different memory systems throughout life.

Luciana Brooking



Memory performance in Brazilian school-age children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate different memory systems among children of different school ages. Ninety children who attend schools within the Rio de Janeiro municipality school system, ages 6 to 10 years, were studied. The study excluded children with learning disabilities. All [...] children underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. A two-way analysis of variance revealed significant gender differences in the free delay episodic memory. Age differences were found for the free delay episodic memory and recognition on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) as well as the recall of the Rey Figure. Semantic memory correlated with Semantic Verbal Fluency. Working Memory as measured by Digit Span subtest of the WISC correlated with the first list learning of the RAVLT. Overall, study results indicated a lower performance among 6-year-old children and gender differences in children 8 and 10 years of age. Data are consistent with the literature and show a distinction in the evolution of different memory systems throughout life.

Luciana, Brooking; Emmy, Uehara; Helenice, Charchat-Fichman; J., Landeira-Fernandez.


Diabetes Risk Factors in Middle Income Pakistani School Children  

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Full Text Available To assess the risk factors for diabetes such as dietary habits, physical fitness score, physical activity, body mass index (BMI and family history of diabetes amongst school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 103 children (ages 8-12 years, from middle-income families from two schools of Karachi. Data of physical fitness score was taken by a physical fitness test and BMI was calculated by measuring weight and height. Dietary records were taken by 24 hours self reported diet recall charts of two weekdays. Health knowledge was obtained by a questionnaire given to children and a separate questionnaire was given to mothers to get this information. Majority of the children took less healthy food from the choice given to them; according to the self reported dietary intakes, 88% had poor intake of vegetables, 84% had poor intake of milk while 80% had poor intake of fruits. More than 40% of the children consumed soft drinks and fast foods daily. A child on the average watched 2.9 hours of TV/per day on weekdays and 3.5 hours of TV of weekends. Physical fitness score of 45% of the children was unsatisfactory while 29% of children had BMI > 20 Kg/m2. Eighty four percent of the children had first or second degree relative with diabetes. Majority of the children had high risk factors for diabetes with unhealthy diet and low physical activity patterns augmented by strong family history of diabetes. This shows that these children are at increased risk of developing diabetes in later years and preventive measures are required early in life, including lifestyle and behavioral changes to save our future generations from developing diabetes. This information will help in designing interventions for better lifestyle and eating habits which may reduce the later incidence of diabetes in children at adulthood.

M. Zafar Iqbal Hydrie



Children approach to a prevention of violence at school  

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THE TOPIC OF THE DISCUSSION: “ Children approach to a prevention of violence at school” SUPERVISOR: Dr. Ieva Kuginyt? VILNIUS PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY, VILNIUS, 2005 Violence at school is very actual problem not only in Lithuania also worldwide. There is a lot of prevention programmes at this moment witch could reduce such phenomenon spread. The aim of this paper is to evaluate pupils’ opinion to violence prevention. First part of this paper analyzes violence prevalence. The author gives...

Batulevic?iene?, Vida



Obesity among school children in a province of southern Thailand and its association with socioeconomic status  

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The association of nutrition status of children aged 7–12 years (n=663) with socioeconomic factors in a province of southern Thailand in 1995 was investigated. Three type of schools were surveyed: a school with a higher educational standard (elite school) in the municipality of the province, a school with many children from low-income families (low-income school) in the same municipality, and five ordinary schools in rural areas of the province (district schools). The proportions of obese c...

Hirata, Mari; Kuropakornpong, Valaya; Funahara, Yoshinori; Kamae, Isao; Sato, Shigeaki



School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: the role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics. (United States)

School connectedness includes liking school and positive relations with teachers and peers. School connectedness is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods that are related to school connectedness. In the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, school connectedness was reported by 13,207 students (grades 6-10) in 340 schools. HBSC measured a variety of student characteristics. Characteristics of schools were culled from data maintained by Quality Education Data, and school neighborhood characteristics were derived from the 2000 decennial census. Associations between connectedness and student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics were estimated using hierarchical linear models. Characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods were associated with school connectedness. Connectedness was greater among younger students, females, students with better academic performance and greater extracurricular involvement, students with greater self-rated physical attractiveness, students with more friends, students from 2-parent families, and students whose parents were more involved with school. Connectedness was greater in smaller schools, more racially homogeneous schools, and schools with more students from relatively wealthy households. School connectedness was higher in neighborhoods with a greater percentage of non-US citizens. As the percent of renters in the neighborhood increased beyond 20%, school connectedness tended to decrease. The findings point to possible strategies for fostering school connectedness. PMID:16918872

Thompson, Douglas R; Iachan, Ronaldo; Overpeck, Mary; Ross, James G; Gross, Lori A



Formation of concept of decimal system in Mexican school children  

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Full Text Available The present study deals with initial formation of concept of decimal system in second year of education at primary school in Mexico (City of Puebla. Our research is based on Activity Theory conception of teaching-learning process and of gradual introduction of scientific concepts in school age. The method has been designed and worked out with the help of actions in which logic, symbolic, spatial and mathematical aspects were implemented. All actions were introduced within divided activity of children in group guided by adult. A pretest-posttest design was used with an experimental group of Mexican school children. The results showed that children have developed the significant skills necessary for understanding the concept of decimal number system. They were also able to apply this concept for new kind if activity al the end of school year. Such new activity was solving of mathematic problems, which was not included in official school program. We consider that proposed method can be an approximation for solution of common difficulties which arise at primary school concerning teaching of mathematics.

L. Quintanar Rojas



Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children. (United States)

The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir of enteropathogens but also by encouraging pica. PMID:7338868

Newton, R W; Stack, T; Blair, R E; Keel, J C



Time Concepts for Elementary School Children. (United States)

Points out that children have difficulty learning time concepts. Presents instructional activities for concepts associated with clocks, calendars, and chronology. Outlines Jerome Bruner's three different stages of representation for each concept: enactive, iconic, and symbolic. (DB)

Muir, Sharon Pray



Variant rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index among Chinese children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene is a gene located in chromosome region 16q12.2. Genetic variants in FTO are associated with the obesity phenotype in European and Hispanic populations. However, this association still remains controversial in Asian population. We aimed to test the association of FTO genetic variants with obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits among children living in Beijing, China. Methods We genotyped FTO variants rs9939609 in 670 children (332 girls and 338 boys aged 8-11 years living in Beijing, and analyzed its association with obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits. Overweight and obesity were defined by age- and sex-specific BMI reference for Chinese children. Obesity-related metabolic traits included fasting plasma glucose, lipid profiles, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and blood pressures. Results The frequency of rs9939609 A allele was 12.2%, which was 21.9% for the heterozygote and 1.2% for the homozygote of the A allele. The obesity prevalence among the carriers of AA/AT genotypes was significantly higher than that among those with TT genotype (36.4% vs. 22.6%, P = 0.004. Compared to the carrier of TT genotype, the likelihood of obesity was 1.79 (95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.20-2.67, P = 0.004 for the carrier of AA/AT genotype, after adjustment of sex, age and puberty stages. The BMI Z-score of children with AA/AT genotype were significantly higher than that of their counterparts with the TT genotype (1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1, P = 0.02. The concentration of triglyceride was 1.03 ± 0.52 mmol/L among TT carrier and 1.13 ± 0.68 mmol/L among AA/AT carrier (P = 0.045. While, the concentrations of adiponectin were 18.0 ± 0.4 ?g/ml among carriers of TT and 16.2 ± 0.7 ?g/ml among subjects with AA/AT genotype (P = 0.03. The level of glucose marginally increased in the AA/AT genotype subjects (4.67 ± 0.40 mmol/L vs. 4.60 ± 0.35 mmol/L, P = 0.08. The evidence of association was reduced after adjustment for BMI (P = 0.38 for triglyceride, P = 0.20 for adiponectin and glucose. There was weak evidence of association between rs9939609 and other obesity-related metabolic traits including total cholesterol (3.92 ± 0.03 mmol/L vs. 4.02 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.10, insulin (2.69 ± 1.77 ng/ml vs. 3.12 ± 2.91 ng/ml, P = 0.14, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 0.56 ± 0.03 vs. 0.66 ± 0.05, P = 0.10. Conclusions Genetic variation in the FTO gene associates with obesity in Chinese children.

Liu Ailing



Meta-analysis of Zn, Cu and Fe in the hair of Chinese children with recurrent respiratory tract infection. (United States)

Abstract Trace elements play an important role in maintaining the normal metabolic and immune function. The onset of recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRI) is associated with the immune function, genetic factors and nutritional status. However, the association between the levels of trace elements and RRI remains inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the alterations of hair levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) in Chinese children with RRI by performing a meta-analysis. A predefined electronic databases search was performed to identify eligible studies for the analysis of hair Zn, Cu or Fe levels in Chinese children with RRI. Thirteen studies were included. RRI patients displayed significantly lower levels of hair Zn (13 studies, random effects SMD: - 1.215, 95% CI: - 1.704 to - 0.725, p analysis did not change the results significantly. In conclusion, the deficiency of Zn, Cu and Fe may be contributing factors for the susceptibility of RRI in Chinese children. However, more studies in different ethnicities should be performed in the future. PMID:24874085

Mao, Song; Zhang, Aihua; Huang, Songming



Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children  

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Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

Sorensen William



[Key technologies elements of clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema]. (United States)

We assessed and graded the evidence of relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials, combined with our clinical study practice to identify eleven key elements as a focus for the clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema: the primary purpose and design of the study, the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, the treatment, the trail procedure,the effectiveness and safety evaluation, and quality control, etc, as well. In addition, seven recommendations for the design of clinical study of TCM new drugs on children's dermatitis and eczema were provided. PMID:24010308

Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Chun; Hu, Si-Yuan



Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia (United States)

Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna



Cultural Relay in Early Childhood Education: Methods of Teaching School Behavior to Low-Income Children (United States)

There is a distinct class difference in the way that children are taught school behavior. Teachers in affluent schools use more implicit teaching techniques while teachers of low-income children are more explicit in their teaching of behavior. This stems largely from the alignment of the home culture of middle class children to school behavior and…

Smith, Stephanie C.




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The present study on body mass index and health related physical fitness of school children was undertaken with the view of portraying the health related fitness profile of school children in Kannur district of Kerala. Data on body mass index and health related fitness according to ICHPER.SD Asia Youth Health Related Fitness test was collected from 1000 school children from different schools of Kannur district, Kerala. The study had sub samples of 250 boys and 250 girls from schools belonging...




Are Handicapped Children Welcome in Catholic Schools? (United States)

Reviews research examining nonpublic school teachers' attitudes toward the disabled, comparing the attitudes of Catholic and non-Catholic educators. Variables associated with positive attitudes included age, education, teaching experience, and sex. (DMM)

Brooks, Benjamin L.; Simms, Rochelle B.



Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur  

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In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))



Providing Guidance for School Personnel Making Decisions in the Service of School Children with Congenital Heart Disease (United States)

Due to improved medical procedures, more and more children with congenital heart disease are entering the school system. In order to help both school and health professionals involved in the education of children, we provide a brief review of the literature, review real-life dilemmas that school personnel face on a daily basis, and interpret the…

Roberts, Jillian; MacMath, Sheryl



Effects of Divorce on Children, Traits of Resiliency and School Intervention. (United States)

Gaining an awareness of the needs of children of divorce and how children achieve resilience should help students become well-adjusted and productive. This paper explores ways in which school systems and school counselors can meet the needs of these children. It portrays the effects of divorce on children by drawing on the literature, observations…

Ackerman, Betty J.


Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana  

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Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2% of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02 less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03 less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001 less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National Community on Water and Sanitation Programme, health workers, and the Parents Teacher Associations (PTAs.This union will foster stronger linkages that will pave the way for educating and monitoring the school children for effective hand washing practices.

M. Steiner-Asiedu



Leisure time activities of elementary school children. (United States)

The three most common leisure time activities of 2,200 third and fourth grade children (mean age 8.8 + 0.8; 50.7% girls) and the association of the intensity levels of those activities with demographic variables and risk factors for cardiovascular disease are reported. Activities reported most often by boys were playing video games (33%), playing football (32%), bicycling (31%), watching television (28%), and playing basketball (26%). The girls reported doing homework (39%), bicycling (31%), watching television (30%), dancing (27%), and reading (23%). Overall, the children, especially girls, reported fairly sedentary activities, with an average metabolic equivalent level of 4.2 for girls and 4.8 for boys. Among boys, African Americans reported more vigorous activities than Whites, but the activities reported by White girls were somewhat more vigorous than those reported by non-White girls. Children from a higher socioeconomic status (SES), especially boys, reported a greater proportion of sedentary activities than lower SES children. The risk factors of cholesterol, blood pressure, skinfold thickness, and body mass index were not significantly associated with total activity score. However, significantly more nonobese than obese children reported a vigorous (high-intensity) activity as one of their top three activities. PMID:9316596

Harrell, J S; Gansky, S A; Bradley, C B; McMurray, R G



Action Schools! BC: A Socioecological Approach to Modifying Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Elementary School Children  

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Full Text Available Background Childhood physical inactivity and obesity are serious public health threats. Socioecological approaches to addressing these threats have been proposed. The school is a critical environment for promoting children’s health and provides the opportunity to explore the impact of a socioecological approach. Context Thirty percent of children in British Columbia, Canada, are overweight or obese, and 50% of youths are not physically active enough to yield health benefits. Methods Action Schools! BC, a socioecological model, was developed to create 1 an elementary school environment where students are provided with more opportunities to make healthy choices and 2 a supportive community and provincial environment to facilitate change at the school and individual levels. Consequences The environment in British Columbia for school- and provincial-level action on health behaviors improved. Focus group and project tracking results indicated that the Action Schools! BC model enhanced the conceptual use of knowledge and was an influencing factor. Political will and public interest were also cited as influential factors. Interpretation The Action Schools! BC model required substantial and demanding changes in the approach of the researchers, policy makers, and support team toward health promotion. Despite challenges, Action Schools! BC provides a good example of how to enhance knowledge exchange and multilevel intersectoral action in chronic disease prevention.

Patti-Jean Naylor, PhD



Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France (United States)

Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie



Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt (United States)

Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo



Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists (United States)

Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy



School-based Interventions for Children of Divorce. (United States)

Examines some of the best school-based interventions being used for children of divorce and their effectiveness. These interventions include consideration of developmental stages, parent and teacher involvement, structured activities, and skill building. Offers a delineation of the salient features across the models. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

Richardson, Christina D.; Rosen, Lee A.



Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures? (United States)

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca



Epidemiologic survey of eye in Cangzhou school children  

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Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the common ocular diseases in school children age of 6 to 14 years old in Cangzhou, Hebei, China and find the relative risk factors. METHODS:From March 2011 to October 2012, 20 schools including 1 and 6 grade school children were randomly selected as survey venues by Cangzhou Eye Hosipital. Then, 3 150 people as the selected residents were enrolled, which was figured out through the random cluster sampling procedure. Every participant completed questionnaire, and a series of examination. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Totally 3 150 residents finally took part in this study.(1There were 2672 eyes suffered lower vision CONCLUSION:The rate of low vision in school children is higher, among these the rate of myopia is the highest. All these result suggested: Family and community should pay sufficient attention to conduct children's eye health and prepare a balanced behaviour, to prevent the occurrence of ophthalmopathy.

Li-Dong Yang



Children's First School Books. Introductions to the Culture of Literacy. (United States)

Interweaving sociological/interpretive and cognitive/linguistic perspectives, this book explores the ways in which children first encounter the written word in formal schooling. The book examines the "culture" of literacy as it is introduced and practiced in a corpus of 163 basal and supplementary readers used in a representative educational…

Baker, Carolyn D.; Freebody, Peter


Developmentally Appropriate Soccer Activities for Elementary School Children (United States)

The sport of soccer has seen significant growth across multiple levels for the past two decades. Nowhere has this growth been more dramatic than at the youth level. It is estimated that well over 20 million children have some involvement with the game each year. As a result of this growth in community youth soccer, elementary school students are…

Quinn, Ronald; Carr, David



Hearing Aid Selection and Evaluation for Pre-school Children. (United States)

Focuses upon the selection and fitting of hearing aids for young children in Japan. Explains fitting methods and their evaluation. Suggests that although most of the schools for the deaf are making serious efforts to establish binaural fitting and use of residual hearing, lack of professional training hinders those efforts. (AA)

Tachiiri, Hajime



Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children (United States)

Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.



Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran (United States)

Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid



Trait Emotional Intelligence and Children's Peer Relations at School (United States)

Trait emotional intelligence ("trait EI" or "trait emotional self-efficacy") is a constellation of emotion"related self"perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of personality. The present study investigated the role of trait EI in children's peer relations at school. One hundred and sixty pupils (83 girls; mean age = 10.8…

Petrides, K. V.; Sangareau, Yolanda; Furnham, Adrian; Frederickson, Norah



Children's School Achievement and Parental Work: An Analysis for Sweden (United States)

Data from Statistics Sweden on 70 000 students entering upper secondary school in 1994 are used along with socioeconomic characteristics from the 1990 census to explore the relationship between market work by parents in Sweden and their children's educational achievement, measured as the Grade Point Average. The results show that there is a…

Norberg-Schonfeldt, Magdalena



Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children (United States)

Self-regulation is a key construct in children's healthy and adaptive development. In this chapter, the authors situate self-regulation in a theoretical context that describes its underlying components that are most important for early school success: flexible attention, working memory, and inhibitory control. The authors review evidence that…

McClelland, Megan M.; Cameron, Claire E.



Body piercing in school children: a review of the issues. (United States)

Over recent years piercing of parts of the body other than the earlobes has become more common among school children. This article seeks to explore the issues raised by the practice, particularly for the school nurse, who may be involved in the management of children with body piercing in school. An overview of the different types of body piercing is provided, as well as a discussion of the legal aspects of body piercing in children under the age of 18. The infectious and non-infectious complications that may arise are examined. The article also addresses some of the psychological issues around body piercing, in particular exploring what motivates children to have a piercing done, and looks at the evidence that associates body piercing with high risk behaviours in this age group. Finally, the article provides practical guidance to healthcare professionals about managing children with body piercings, looking in particular at steps that can be taken to promote safe healing and the avoidance of complications. PMID:17061664

Marcer, Hilary; Finlay, Fiona; Jordan, Natasha



Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran  

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Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

Morteza Naserbakht




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Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.




Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children. (United States)

Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children. PMID:21398046

Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G



Stronger vection in junior high school children than in adults.  

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Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that even elementary school-aged children (7 and 11 years old experience visually induced perception of illusory self-motion (vection (Lepecq et al., 1995, Perception, 24, 435–449 and that children of a similar age (mean age = 9.2 years experience more rapid and stronger vection than do adults (Shirai et al. 2012, Perception, 41, 1399–1402. These findings imply that although elementary school-aged children experience vection, this ability is subject to further development. To examine the subsequent development of vection, we compared junior high school students’ (N = 11, mean age = 14.4 years and adults’ (N = 10, mean age = 22.2 years experiences of vection. Junior high school students reported significantly stronger vection than did adults, suggesting that the perceptual experience of junior high school students differs from that of adults with regard to vection and that this ability undergoes gradual changes over a relatively long period of development.




Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity (United States)

Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…

Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.



Associations between Serum Apelin-12 Levels and Obesity-Related Markers in Chinese Children (United States)

Objective To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Methods Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42±2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. Results All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05). In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05). Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P?=?0.024), and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls) apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG). No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. Conclusions Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity. PMID:24475149

Ba, Hong-Jun; Chen, Hong-Shan; Su, Zhe; Du, Min-Lian; Chen, Qiu-Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Ma, Hua-Mei



34 CFR 200.62 - Responsibilities for providing services to private school children. (United States) to private school children. (a...officials of private schools, an LEA must— ...under subpart A of this part, on an equitable...elementary and secondary schools; and (2) Ensure that teachers and families of...



The effectiveness of nutrition education programme for primary school children. (United States)

This study was conducted to determine changes in nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of 8-year-old school children after receiving a nutrition education package. A total of 418 school children from urban and rural areas participated in this study. The intervention group consisted of 237 children while 181 children who did not receive the nutrition education package acted as controls. The nutrition education programme that was conducted for 3 weeks comprised of a video viewing session and a comic reading session followed by exercise questions as reinforcement for each session, and also classroom activities. Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaires were distributed to the children before (pre-intervention) and after (postintervention) receiving the nutrition education programme. A follow-up visit was conducted six months after the programme had elapsed. The results obtained indicated that the nutrition knowledge score increased significantly in the intervention group from 48.3±13.2 at pre-test to 54.6±16.2 in post-test and 55.0±14.3 in follow-up test (phabits in children were seen. It is hoped that the improvements would be sustained throughout their lives. PMID:22692188

Ruzita, A T; Wan Azdie, M Ab; Ismail, M N



Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures of EF than non-clinical children; at the individual level, there appeared to be heterogeneity in EF impairment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; XX(X) 1-XX).

Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary



Sleep problems, strengths and difficulties in elementary school children  

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Full Text Available Aim: To assess behavioral and sleep disturbances in childhood, it is necessary to implement standardized brief questionnaires for children and their parents. Especially complaints of insomnia often are underdiagnosed in pediatric medicine. Methods: We developed a sleep questionnaire (K?SI-KJ and used it together with German versions of the SDQ (parent and child reports for epidemiologic studies in Cologne. The sleep questionnaire obtains 33 items for parents and 28 items for children. Ratings were dichotomized for this analysis in “sometimes/ often present” versus “not present”. The German versions of SDQ contain 5 subscales each with 5 items. Data from a sample of 1490 children of fourth grade in elementary schools inCologne(age ranged from 8 to 11 years are shown. Results: Children indicate signs of sleep disturbances in higher frequency than their parents do. Concerning gender and ethnical group, there no significant differences can be shown. Children with signs of insomnia, dyssomnia, daytime sleepiness or restless sleep showed significantly higher scores for all relevant SDQ subscales in parental and children's reports. Children with signs of parasomnia showed higher scores concerning emotional problems and the SDQ total score. Children with enuresis showed higher scores for all SDQ subscales and the total score.

Leonie Fricke-Oerkermann



The Relationship between Self-Concept, Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Determination and Academic Achievement among Chinese Primary School Students  

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The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between self-concept, intrinsic motivation andself-determination with academic achievement among the respondents. The sample of the study was 200 studentsin standard 5 and standard 6 from a Chinese primary school in Johor, Malaysia. Data was collected using aself-developed set of questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha and theresult was 0.941. The data was analyze...

Nooraini Othman; Kong Bee Leng



Keys to Reading among Middle School Children (United States)

A recent decline in reading has become a major issue, as Americans are not reading out of necessity or as a leisure activity. In addition, a connection has been found between children's leisure reading habits and their level of academic achievement, causing even more concern. (Contains 1 table.)

Smith, Nichole; Day, Barbara



School Gardens: Raising Environmental Awareness in Children. (United States)

This paper explores the reasons for gardens and natural spaces on school campuses and the effects that such exposure to the natural world has on the students. Blending case studies, observational data, and personal experience, the paper discusses the impacts a garden has on the students who participate in it. During the evolution from rough…

Brynjegard, Shira


How do children at special schools and their parents perceive their HRQoL compared to children at open schools?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been some debate in the past as to who should determine values for different health states for economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL in children attending open schools (OS and children with disabilities attending a special school (SS and their parents in Cape Town South Africa. Methods The EQ-5D-Y and a proxy version were administered to the children and their parents were requested to fill in the EQ-5D-Y proxy version without consultation with their children on the same day. Results A response rate of over 20% resulted in 567 sets of child/adult responses from OS children and 61 responses from SS children. Children with special needs reported more problems in the "Mobility" and "Looking after myself" domains but their scores with regard to "Doing usual activities", "Pain or discomfort" and "Worried, sad or unhappy" were similar to their typically developing counterparts. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score of SS children was (88.4, SD18.3, range 40-100 which was not different to the mean score of the OS respondents (87.9, SD16.5, range 5-100. The association between adult and child scores was fair to moderate in the domains. The correlations in VAS scores between Open Schools children and female care-givers' scores significant but low (r = .33, p Discussion It would appear that children with disabilities do not perceive their HRQoL to be worse than their able bodied counterparts, although they do recognise their limitations in the domains of "Mobility" and "Doing usual activities". Conclusions This finding lends weight to the argument that valuation of health states by children affected by these health states should not be included for the purpose of economic analysis as the child's resilience might result in better values for health states and possibly a correspondingly smaller resource allocation. Conversely, if HRQoL is to be used as a clinical outcome, then it is preferable to include the children's values as proxy report does not appear to be highly correlated with the child's own perceptions.

Ramma Lebogang



Perceptions of animal welfare by children in primary school  

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Full Text Available This study aims to identify children’s perceptions of the welfare of animals. The study sample consisted of 123 children aged 8 to 10, attending primary schools, who were interviewed. The questions were designed so as to generate both anthropocentric (centred on the interests of the human being and/or biocentric (centred on the interests of other beings arguments. Results showed a high incidence of biocentric arguments, associated with a contact with animals in places where nature is managed (zoos and other thematic places with animals, thus contradicting the idea that children have an exclusive utilitarian view of animals. Some of them even seem to understand the ecological role of animals, and produce reasons of an ecocentric character.

António Almeida



An Explorative Analysis of Children’s Dropouts from Rural Schools of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an explorative analysis about the causes of children’s high proportion of drop-outs from rural schools of Pakistan. For this purpose, simple random sampling technique was used by taking a sample size of 120 respondents from six villages of the rural areas of district Jhang, Pakistan in 2010. The major objectives of the said research were to investigate the socio-economic hurdles of the drop-outs of children from schools, to find out the attitude of parents towards the drop-outs, and finally to suggest the measures for solving the problems regarding drop-outs of rural children from schools. Initially, the pre-testing was done on ten respondents before starting the actual research. As a result of the said research, it was found that there are certain factors, e.g. uneducated parents, teachers’ behavior, low mental ability, bad habits, bad peer group and scarcity of educated people in the community, which not only affects the performance of the children but also ends it in the form of their drop out from school.

Muhammad Mehar AKRAM



An obesity genetic risk score is associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese children. (United States)

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI)/obesity. In this study, we aim to examine the associations of obesity related loci with risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a children population from China. A total of 431 children with MetS and 3046 controls were identified based on the modified ATPIII definition. 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) were genotyped by TaqMan 7900. Of 11 SNPs, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, and FAIM2 rs7138803 were nominally associated with risk of MetS (GNPDA2 rs10938397: odds ratio (OR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.40, P=0.016; BDNF rs6265: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.03-1.39, P=0.021; FAIM2 rs7138803: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.02-1.40, P=0.025); genetic risk score (GRS) was significantly associated with risk of MetS (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.04-1.15, P=5.26×10(-4)). After further adjustment for BMI, none of SNPs were associated with risk of MetS (all P>0.05); the association between GRS and risk of MetS remained nominally (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.96-1.08, P=0.557). However, after correction for multiple testing, only GRS was statistically associated with risk of MetS in the model without adjustment for BMI. The present study demonstrated that there were nominal associations of GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, and FAIM2 rs7138803 with risk of MetS. The SNPs in combination have a significant effect on risk of MetS among Chinese children. These associations above were mediated by adiposity. PMID:24269186

Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Xi, Bo; Shen, Yue; Wu, Lijun; Hou, Dongqing; Cheng, Hong; Mi, Jie



Intergenerational influence and rituals - children’s behaviour with new school year  

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Full Text Available After Christmas, back-to-school is the most important season for all retailers. Yet, consumer behavior research overlooks this ritual. This paper presents findings from observational and interview data collected at Borovo shoe stores in Croatia in 2010. It considers how research from the back-to-school context contributes to the theories of intergenerational influence for brands and children as marketplace actors.

Katharine C. Sredl



Snoring, intermittent hypoxia and academic performance in primary school children. (United States)

Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with impaired attention and neurocognitive deficits. We assessed the association of snoring and intermittent hypoxia with poor academic performance in third grade school children (1,144 children). Snoring frequency and intermittent hypoxia were investigated using parental questionnaire and nocturnal home pulse oximetry. Intermittent hypoxia was specified as desaturation events of 90% or less pulse oximeter saturation. Poor academic performance was defined as grade 4-6 on a six-point scale (i.e., approximately the lowest quintile grades) in mathematics, science, reading, spelling, and/or handwriting in the most recent school report. Snoring "always" was significantly associated with poor academic performance in mathematics (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 3.6; 1.3-10.1), science (4.3; 1.3-14.6), and spelling (3.5; 1.2-10.3). Snoring "frequently" was also significantly associated with poor academic performance in mathematics (2.4; 1.3-4.7) and spelling (2.0; 1.04-3.8). A significant relationship between snoring and poor academic performance was also found in children without intermittent hypoxia, whereas intermittent hypoxia did not show an independent association with poor academic performance. Thus, habitual snoring (i.e., snoring frequently or always) was associated with poor academic performance in these primary school children. PMID:12773324

Urschitz, Michael S; Guenther, Anke; Eggebrecht, Esther; Wolff, Judith; Urschitz-Duprat, Pilar M; Schlaud, Martin; Poets, Christian F



Asymptomatic Proteinuria and Hematuria in School Going Children  

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Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken because many cases of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria are present in school children.Aims and Objectives:The study was under taken to evaluate asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria in 100 school children of both sexes from 6 to 15 years of age. Material and Methods: Samples were collected randomly from students of different classes at the Government Kannada Primary School, K H B Colony,Bijapur, Karnataka (India. The midstream urine sample was collected in a clean wide mouth jar,examined by dipsticks for proteinuria and hematuria by microscopy. Results:We found that asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria was more prevalent amongst the children between 10 to 13 years of age group with female predominance i.e.16% proteinuria and 5% of microscopic hematuria respectively. Conclusion:By this study we conclude that it would be possible to screen a large population of children for asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria at a relatively low cost.

Vijaya M. Sorangavi




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Full Text Available Aim of the study: the aim of the study was determining relation between selected health behaviour aspects and level of physical fitness in 1 st - 3 rd grade pupils at primary school in Malbork (Pomorskie province. Materials and Methods: the research was conducted in 2009 among 153 children aged 7-10 years. The research group consisted of 80 girls and 73 boys. The diagnostic survey method with use of a questionnaire technique and a set of indirect motor trials was applied. Results: the research has shown that the health behaviours of young Polish children do not differ from their peers in other countries. The largest percentage of early school-age children in Malbork achieved the average level of physical fitness (57.0%, while the percentage of students with low (22.0% and high (21.0% level was similar. Conclusions: the connection between pro-health attitudes of early school-age children (i.e., leisure activities, own health condition, nutrition and the use of drugs and the level of their physical fitness was not ascertained.

Podstawski Robert



Snoring in primary school children and domestic environment: A Perth school based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide, may increase the risk of snoring for children. The aim of this study was to investigate domestic environmental factors associated with snoring in children. Methods A school-based respiratory survey was administered during March and April of 2002. Nine hundred and ninety six children from four primary schools within the Perth metropolitan area were recruited for the study. A sub-group of 88 children aged 4–6 years were further selected from this sample for domestic air pollutant assessment. Results The prevalences of infrequent snoring and habitual snoring in primary school children were 24.9% and 15.2% respectively. Passive smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for habitual snoring (odds ratio (OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.20–2.61, while having pets at home appeared to be protective against habitual snoring (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92. Domestic pollutant assessments showed that the prevalence of snoring was significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide during winter. Relative to the low exposure category (3, the adjusted ORs of snoring by children with medium (30 – 60 ?g/m3 and high exposures (> 60 ?g/m3 to NO2 were 2.5 (95% CI: 0.7–8.7 and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.4–14.3 respectively. The corresponding linear dose-response trend was also significant (P = 0.011. Conclusion Snoring is common in primary school children. Domestic environments may play a significant role in the increased prevalence of snoring. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in domestic environment is associated with snoring in children.

Lee Andy H



Sensitivity to the Positional Information of Morphemes inside Chinese Compound Words and Its Relationship with Word Reading (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate developmental differences in lexical processing and sensitivity to the positional information of constituent morphemes with reference to Chinese word-reading ability. One hundred mainland Chinese children (50 second graders and 50 third graders) and 22 high school students were tested with a…

Liu, Duo; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Zhang, Yimin; Lu, Zheng



Staging an educated self : Linguistic displays of schooling among rural Zambian children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores local meanings of schooling as displayed by 7-12 year old children in a rural Zambian community. Applying linguisticanthropological analyses of their peer interactions, the author discusses symbolic reworkings of schooling and ‘educatedness’ among children frequently labeled as ‘slow’ or ‘backwards’ in the classroom setting. The discussion includes the apparent disparities between the tangible and symbolic roles of school in the context of these children’s lifeworlds and future horizons.

Clemensen, Nana




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The diploma paper deals with yoga from the point of view of a preeschooler. The teoretical part presents a thorough insight into the development of preeschoolers growth and development, development of motor skills, perceptual and cognitive characteristics of preschoolers and the basics of yoga. Everyday yoga, laughter yoga and yoga for preschoolers are also introduced. The aim of the diploma paper was to find out how yoga schools work with preschoolers: their common guidelines, the differe...

Flac, Jasmina



Children's Perception Of Parenting Styles In Relation To Schooling Background  

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Full Text Available A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sampling. Aself- structured questionnaire was prepared on children's perception on parenting styles with 10 hypothetical statements. The tool was validated and the reliability of the tool was found Father: r = 0.979, Mother: r= 0.983. The data was quantitatively analyzed. The findings indicate that the schooling background doesn't affect the parenting styles. Most of the parents use authoritative parenting styles, want their children to be responsive and mature, they develop a sense of independence in their children, but still have limits and consequences.

Asha Menon



Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)


A comparison of fathers' and mothers' contributions in the prediction of academic performance of school-age children in Hong Kong. (United States)

Asystematic study of the linkages between gender issues and parenting is made among Chinese families. This study examines sex differences in parenting attributes across fathers and mothers and towards sons and daughters, and compares the contributions of fathers and mothers to the prediction of academic performance across boys and girls. Four parenting attributes are included: nurturance, psychological control, parental involvement in education, and parental academic efficacy. Data were collected from 461 Chinese father-mother-child triads of children studying Grade 3 to 5 in Hong Kong. Findings of this study, based on multivariate analysis of variance, showed that parental roles followed traditional Chinese cultural expectations. Compared to the fathers, Chinese mothers of school-age children in Hong Kong were more loving and caring, more involved in children's education, and more efficacious in promoting children's academic performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis examining the role of child's sex as a moderator showed cross-sex influence in parental contribution to academic performance with respect to parental psychological control and academic efficacy. Specifically, boys benefited more from maternal efficacy than girls did and they were also more hampered by mothers with high psychological control, while girls' academic performance was more enhanced by paternal academic efficacy than boys. A gender-balance approach that highlights the significance of gender in moderating parental contributions to academic performance was thus supported. Future research should continue to focus on psychological control and domain-specific parental attributes as potential sources of gender-linked parent-child associations. Investigations should also explore other cognitive and noncognitive domains of child outcome, different child age groups, as well as Chinese populations in various geographical regions. PMID:22029456

Tam, Vicky C W




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The main idea of my diploma was to introduce a year-long aerobics programme in the second triennium of primary school and, what is more, to performe and evaluate some areobics lessons. The theoretical part of my diploma explains what kind of exercise children need for a healthy life, the definition of the term aerobics and its short history. One of the aims was to show how aerobics effects children's motor skills. The theoretical part also covers planning and preparation of aerobics lessons....

Pos?, Mojca



Children's Perception Of Parenting Styles In Relation To Schooling Background  

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A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sam...

Asha Menon



Personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children attending elementary schools adjacent to industrial complex (United States)

The major deficiency in linking the effects of environmental exposure to children's health is the lack of data on the exposure of children to hazardous environmental pollutants. Accordingly, the present study compared the personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children from four elementary schools at different proximities to the Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) and adjacent to different traffic densities. The personal air concentrations of four VOCs (toluene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene) were significantly higher for the children attending the school (S1) closest to the boundary of the DDIC compared to the children attending the school (S2) further away. The DDIC was the likely primary cause for the elevated personal air concentrations of the four VOCs in the children attending the school nearest the DDIC. The personal exposure to toluene and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) for the children attending the school near a major roadway with a high traffic density was significantly higher than that for the children attending the school near a roadway with a low traffic density. The difference in the breath concentrations was generally similar to the difference in the personal air concentrations among the children from the four schools. In contrast to the children attending schools in low-income areas, the children attending schools in high-income areas exhibited no significant difference in the concentrations of any of the target VOCs in the personal air and breath samples between the children living with and without a smoker in the home.

Park, Kun-Ho; Jo, Wan-Kuen


Chinese and German Teachers' Conceptions of Play and Learning and Children's Play Behaviour (United States)

Commonalities and distinctions in Hong Kong-Chinese and German kindergarten teachers' conceptions of play and learning were examined. Six video clips of play episodes reflecting common play behavior and themes were selected from observations made during free play in two kindergartens in Hong Kong and two in Germany. Ten Chinese and seven German…

Wu, Shu-Chen; Rao, Nirmala



Linking immigrant parents' educational expectations and aspirations to their children's school performance. (United States)

The authors examined the relationships of parental expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment to children's academic performance in school among 783 immigrant-origin children aged 5-18 years in Canada. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after accounting for student and family background characteristics, indicated that immigrant parents' expectations and aspirations for their children's educational attainment were positively linked to immigrant-origin children's academic performance in school. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:24796154

Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Lee, Daphnee H L



The Impact of a 3-Year After-School Obesity Prevention Program in Elementary School Children (United States)

Abstract Background Children tend to be sedentary during the after-school hours, and this has deleterious effects on their health. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a 3-year after-school physical activity (PA) program, without restriction of dietary energy intake, on percent body fat (%BF), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cardiometabolic markers in children. Methods A cluster randomization design was employed. A total of 574 3rd grade children from 18 elementary schools in the southeastern United States participated. The intervention consisted of 80 minutes of age-appropriate moderate-to-vigorous PA each school day. The main outcomes of interest were %BF measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; CRF measured by heart rate in response to a submaximal step test; nonfasting total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and resting blood pressure (BP). Results Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant treatment by time interactions for %BF (p=0.009) and CRF (p=0.0003). The change pattern of the means suggested that %BF and CRF in intervention children improved relative to control children during the school months, rebounding to the levels of control children over the summers following years 1 and 2. Year-by-year analyses of what occurred during the months when the program was offered revealed dose–response relations for %BF and CRF, such that the clearest beneficial effects were seen for those youth who attended at least 60% of the after-school sessions. No significant intervention effects were seen for cholesterol or BP. Conclusions An after-school PA program was effective in reducing adiposity and improving CRF, especially in the children who attended the sessions at least 3 days/week. However, the favorable effects on %BF and CRF were lost over the summer. Thus, it is critical to incorporate strategies that attract and retain the children to receive an adequate dose of PA year-round. Trial Registration number, NCT00061841. PMID:22799482

Moore, Justin B.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Vernon, Marlo M.; Gutin, Bernard



Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x1013 neutron cm-2 sec-1, (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison standard sample IAEA NN and NN-1 (hair homogenate) as well as comparative method. Accuracy of analysis results of the applied method made up from 7 to 30% depended on concentration and nuclear-physical characteristics. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that microelemental contents in hairs and other liquids in children of school age somehow differed from that of in adults. So, contents of iron in children's hair are significantly higher (three times - 81.38±8.55 mkg/g). In erythrocytes of 22 examined sound children the contents of the iron equaled to 2964±52 mg/l, in saliva - 584 351.7 mg/l. In the study of Zn contents in blood of healthy children it was equal to 59 mkg/g, in formed elements of blood it was equal to 32.3 mkg/g which was much less than similar index in adults [3]. According to our data the contents of Zn in blood made up 39.25±4.30 mkg/g which was significantly low compared with similar index in adults (according to V.V.Nasolodin, 1987 the contents of zinc in plasma varies from 86 to 106 mkg/g). In 20 examined children the contents of Zn in erythrocytes equaled to 32.3±1.5 mkg/g. The contents of Zn in saliva of sound children of school age was 518.0±54.17 mkg/g and in urine 386±18.24 mkg/g. In practically sound school children of Zarafshan valley the contents of Zn in hair made up 182.9±6.6 mkg/g. It was established that the contents of Zn in sound school children of Zarafshan valley is in middle position amongst similar data referred in scientific articles [2]. The contents of Cu in hairs of practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley was 9.24±0.84 mkg/g which was low (two times) compared with adults. We found out that the contents of Cu in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshan valley was lower compared with the data presented by other authors [2] and other regions respectively. A low content of Cu in hairs probably depends on the food-stuff ingredients and peculiarities of the natural condition in biogeochemical area. The obtained results have shown that practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley the contents of cobalt and manganese in hair formed: 0.11±0.017 and 2.75±0.76 and mkg/g respectively and somehow differ from similar indices in adults. So, the contents of cobalt in hairs of children were 2-5 times lower, manganese 2-3 times higher compared with adults. The contents of cobalt in hairs were approximately uniform in boys and girls, and as for manganese in girls it was a little bit higher than in boys. In practically healthy children concentration of cobalt in blood serum makes 0.07 mg/l. in formed elements of blood - 0.019±0.002 mg/l. which is insignificantly lower than in adults [3]. In blood serum of 22 examined practically sound children the contents of cobalt made 0.08±0.03 mg/l, in their saliva - 2.7±1.2 mg/l. These data considered to be the average value of cobalt and manganese concentration which we received during examination of schoolchildren in different age groups. Thus, the results of our investigation indicate that in estimation of microelement index - cobalt and manganese in biosubstrate of practically sound children of school age, it is necessary to take into account the age and sex, as well as biogeochemical peculiarities of the place of residence of the children. The limits of normal values (M±m) indices of the named microelements in children of school age which we have established should be recommended for implementation in making diagnosis of the deficiency of these microelements. It affor


Nutritional anaemia and malaria in pre-school and school age children  

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Full Text Available Background : The most common cause of anemia is a deficiency of iron; but it may also be caused by deficiencies of folates, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemias are not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pre-school and school- aged children in two rural areas of Odogbolu Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Methods : A total of 177 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin and hematocrit were used to classify anemia. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serum ferritin was compared with standard methods of determining iron deficiency. Under- nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight was classified according to the National Centre for Health Statistics standards. Values below - 2SD were defined as mild-moderate under-nutrition, and those below -3SD as severe malnutrition. Results : Most of the children were anemic, 87.1%, having PCV values below the 32% cut-off and 95% with hemoglobin levels lower than the 11g/dl, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 36% of the children were stunted, 18.3% wasted and 44.2% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than PCV in detecting anemic children. Although anemia was higher in boys and preschoolers compared to girls and school aged children, the difference was significant only in preschoolers (P = .004. Anaemia was also significantly higher in Irawo village school than in Iloti (P = .0001 Conclusion : The anemia detected in this population may be due more to under-nutrition than to malaria.

Anumudu C



Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150370

Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye



Mutation analysis and audiologic assessment in six Chinese children with primary distal renal tubular acidosis. (United States)

Abstract The objective of this study is to identify ATP6V1B1, ATP6V0A4 and SLC4A1 genes mutations and assess audiologic characteristics in six Chinese children with primary distal renal tubular acidosis from four unrelated families between the ages of 2 and 13 years. Both ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes were preferentially screened in all index cases by direct sequence analysis. If inconclusive then SLC4A1 gene should be analyzed for mutation. Their clinical features, hearing status and inner ear imaging structure were also investigated. Six loss-of-function mutations were identified in six patients. Two novel mutations were identified in either of ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes, respectively. Two probands from different kindreds with mutations in ATP6V1B1 presented early onset profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). Two from different families carrying ATP6V0A4 mutations manifested early onset moderate mixed HL and moderate SNHL, respectively, the former comorbid with EVA, while the latter not; however, both their elder sisters showed normal hearing and inner ear. These findings expand the spectrum of mutations in the ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes associated with primary dRTA. Our study confirms the association of EVA and mutations in either of these two genes. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between dRTA, SNHL, EVA, and gene mutations. PMID:24975934

Gao, Yanxia; Xu, Yan; Li, Qingyang; Lang, Yanhua; Dong, Qian; Shao, Leping



The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour (United States)

The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter



A preliminary study of hyperlipidemia in Bangkok school children. (United States)

As a preliminary study, we determined the serum lipid profiles among primary school children from four Bangkok schools and identified the risk factors and their association with child lipid profiles. We conducted a cross-sectional study using fasting blood samples and food frequency questionnaires. Overall, there were 40% that had hypercholesterolemia with total cholesterol (TC) at > or = 200 mg/dl and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at > or = 130 mg/dl. Overall, 5.4% had high triglyceride (TG) levels at > or = 150 mg/dl. There was no association between lipid profiles and age, gender or nutritional status, except that higher TG levels were found among obese children than others (p healthy eating habits, healthy food choices and physical exercise should pave the way to healthy Thai kids and growing adults with better quality of life. PMID:17153077

Sirikulchayanonta, C; Pavadhgul, P; Chongsuwat, R; Srisorrachata, S



Intake of phytate and its effect on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) and calcium in Chinese preschool children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A metabolic balance experiment of 2 periods was conducted. In period 1, foods were eaten as usual. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 538 {plus minus} 18 mg/day, 829 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/day and 341 {plus minus} 8 mg/day respectively. The molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 14 {plus minus} 2% and 29 {plus minus} 9%. According to the usual diet of children in rural areas of China, products of corn and soybean were added in period 2. Before period 2, subjects had been adapted to the diet for one week. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 826 {plus minus} 26 mg/day, 7.7 {plus minus} 0.16 mg/day and 343 {plus minus} 6 mg/day respectively. The molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 10.64 and 0.14. The absorption of Zn and calcium were 13 {plus minus} 2% and 16 {plus minus} 2%. In summary intake of Chinese children was 80% of US RDA and calcium was 43% of US RDA. The absorption of Zn and calcium were low. Phytic acid was one of the factors affecting the bioavailability of calcium while inhibitory effect of phytic acid could not be found on Zn absorption in current dietary condition of Chinese children.

Lei Sian; Liu Shengjie (Beijing Pediatric Research Inst. (China))




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Full Text Available Dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease which affects children. Prevalence of dental caries is five times more common than asthma and seven times common than hay fever and it is very high in developing countries. The study was carried out to assess the knowledge of school children regarding prevention of dental caries. In this study we found that urban school children have more knowledge on dental caries than rural school children and significant association between the knowledge of children in urban and rural school.

Archana Singh* and Prabhakar S Bais



Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.  

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Full Text Available The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls. The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of children. The general assessment shows only 48% of children have sufficient availability for school education.

Leschinska K.O.



Local school children curious about CMS  

CERN Document Server

Imagine the scene: about 20-30 schoolchildren aged 8-11 and about 1.25 m tall; a couple of adults, let’s say on average 1.75 m tall, and then one high-energy physics experiment 15 m tall. This is what you could have seen on 2, 6 and 9 February in the CMS cavern, as two local schools participated in the “Be a scientist!” programme.   "I think they've got it..." Two classes from the primary school in the village of Cessy, where CMS is located, took part in the visits on 2 and 9 February, and all 36 pupils from CM2 (Year 6) at the Ecole des Bois in nearby Ornex took part in the visit on 6 February. “They asked so many questions,” says Sandrine Saison Marsollier, CERN’s educational officer for the local community, who accompanied some of the classes to CMS. “Most of them had practical questions about what they saw, for example how big and how heavy the experiment is, and which bit goes where. But some ...

Joannah Caborn Wengler



Enhancing schools' capacity to support children in poverty: an ecological model of school-based mental health services. (United States)

School based mental health services for children in poverty can capitalize on schools' inherent capacity to support development and bridge home and neighborhood ecologies. We propose an ecological model informed by public health and organizational theories to refocus school based services in poor communities on the core function of schools to promote learning. We describe how coalescing mental health resources around school goals includes a focus on universal programming, mobilizing indigenous school and community resources, and supporting core teaching technologies. We suggest an iterative research-practice approach to program adaptation and implementation as a means toward advancing science and developing healthy children. PMID:18581225

Cappella, Elise; Frazier, Stacy L; Atkins, Marc S; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Glisson, Charles




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distal radial epiphyseal fractures represent about 6% of fracture in school aged children and happen mostly in boys. Several therapeutic solutions have been proposed; both conservative and surgical approaches showed good results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically patients affected by distal radial epiphyseal fractures treated with Kirschner wires and cast immobilization in order to verify its validity.

Giorgia Martina Costanzo



Video games and problem solving effectiveness of primary school children  

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The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...

Jakos?, Andrej




Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the thesis, we present the descriptive method of different definitions of divorce, separation, divorce affects on child, and the impact of divorce on children and their school performance. We focuse on the child's experience of divorce, his response in primary and secondary education and his gender. Moreover, we also shed light on the consequences of divorce with regard to a child. When it comes to academic achievements and their factors, we focuse on the parents' involvement in their chil...

Ludvik, Natalija



Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children (United States)

The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

Ozsoy, Sibel



Primary School Children Excluded from School: Numbers, Characteristics, Reasons and Circumstances. (United States)

Through a national questionnaire, 3 case studies of Local Educational Authorities (LEAs), and additional case studies of 38 children, this national study examined primary school exclusion. This document focuses on national level data. Findings included that: (1) other metropolitan LEAs had about twice the number of exclusions as London and as…

Hayden, Carol; Lawrence, Brenda


The Subjective Wellbeing of High-School Students: Validating the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children (United States)

The Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children (PWI-SC) is designed as a parallel form of the adult PWI-A, to measure subjective wellbeing. This study examines the psychometric properties of the PWI-SC. Data from 351 students, aged between 12 and 20 years, were collected by two independent studies over the years 2005-2006. Using the combined data,…

Tomyn, Adrian J.; Cummins, Robert A.



Recommendations for Working with African American Parents of Primary School Children in Low-Resourced Schools (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…

Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael



School Nursing for Children with Special Needs: Does Number of Schools Make a Difference? (United States)

Background: Few recent studies have focused on the role of school nurses who predominantly care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The primary aim of this study was to explore differences related to (a) child health conditions covered, (b) direct care procedures, (c) care management functions, and (c) consultation sources used…

Kruger, Barbara J.; Toker, Karen H.; Radjenovic, Doreen; Comeaux, Judy M.; Macha, Kiran



Children's Behavioral Adjustment in Pre-Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Multilevel Approach (United States)

Research Findings: The present study concerns children's behavioral adjustment in the context of pre-primary schools in Tanzania. Twenty teachers and 320 children from 20 pre-primary schools participated in the study. Teacher-child relationships, children's behavioral adjustment, and teachers' cultural beliefs were reported by…

Shavega, Theresia J.; Brugman, Daniel; van Tuijl, Cathy



Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing. (United States)

Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah



Us and Them--Children's Identity Work and Social Geography in a Swedish School Yard (United States)

The article focusses on constructions of social identities in school and how children in their identity work (re-)construct common and segregated places in the school yard. Data were drawn from an ethnographic research in the daily lives of children aged 11-13. The fieldwork consisted of traditional ethnographic field work as well as children's…

Gustafson, Katarina



The Effect of Immigrant Concentration in Schools on Native and Immigrant Children's Reading and Math Skills (United States)

Using a unique and very rich PISA dataset from Denmark, we show that the immigrant concentration in the school influences reading and math skills for both immigrant children and native children. Overall, children in schools with a high immigrant concentration score lower on reading and math test scores. The negative effects associated with…

Jensen, Peter; Rasmussen, Astrid Wurtz



Effect of pet ownership on respiratory responses to air pollution in Chinese children: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study (United States)

Previous studies examining pet ownership as a risk factor for respiratory conditions have yielded inconsistent results. Little is known about whether or not pet ownership modifies the relationship between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children. In order to evaluate the interaction between pet and air pollution on respiratory health in children, we recruited 30,149 children, aged 2-12 years, from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China. Parents of the children completed questionnaires that characterized the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and illnesses and associated risk factors. Average ambient annual exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were estimated from monitoring stations in each of the 25 study districts. The results showed that among children without pets at home, there were statistically significant associations between both recent exacerbations of asthma among physician-diagnosed asthmatics and respiratory symptoms and all pollutants examined. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.26] to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.24-1.61) per 31 ?g m-3 for PM10, whereas, among children with pets at home, there were no effects or small effects for either asthma or the symptoms. The interactions between dog ownership and PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 were statistically significant, such that children with a dog at home had lower reporting of both current asthma and current wheeze. In conclusion, this study suggests that pet ownership decreased the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and asthma among Chinese children.

Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Dong, Guang-Hui; Ren, Wan-Hui; Simckes, Maayan; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Trevathan, Edwin



Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

Helvac?o?lu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün



Developing Primary School Children's Understanding of Energy Waste (United States)

This was an interview study of 34 primary school children's understanding of five aspects of energy waste, and the ways in which these conceptions develop following teaching. The aspects covered were: (i) saving energy by `using less'; (ii) saving energy by using `just enough'; (iii) energy waste through unintended transfers; (iv) energy waste in a household device; and (v) the meaning of the term `efficiency'. It was found that this group of primary school children had good prior awareness of some behaviours which save (or conserve) energy, but their reasons for thinking this were based largely on intuitive `everyday' ideas which involved human-centred notions of energy in the particular contexts presented or the movement of `heat' or `cold'. Notions of waste due to unintended outcomes were seen in only a few pupils initially but after teaching became far more prevalent. The study showed that basic ideas about energy waste which underpin energy conservation (using less energy) and the critically important scientific concept of efficiency were made accessible to an `average' group of primary school children. Moreover, this was done by ordinary practitioners who are not specialist teachers of science but who have had their subject and teaching knowledge enhanced by appropriate training.

Kruger, Colin; Summers, Mike