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1

Behaviour problems in Chinese primary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine levels of behaviour problem in primary school children, and to explore key determinants relevant to the Chinese context: being an only child, urban living, school stressors, being bullied and physical punishment. METHODS: We administered a child self-completion questionnaire to children aged 7-13 and Rutter Parent Scales to their parents in nine primary schools, in urban and rural Zhejiang Province, eastern China. RESULTS: Full data were available for 2,203 child-parent pairs. Rutter Scores showed that 13.2% of the children (16.4% of boys, 9.4% of girls) had a behaviour problem. Girls manifest more emotional problems (5.3 vs. 2.3%) and boys more conduct problems. Questions about school stress showed that 78% worry "a lot" about exams, 80% felt pressure to perform at school "all the time", and 44% were bullied at least sometimes. Seventy-one percent were sometimes or often physically punished by their parents. Conduct problems were strongly significantly associated with male gender (OR 3.8 95% CI 3.0-4.6), rural residence OR 2.3, 1.3-3.4, having been bullied (1.8, 1.5-2.2) and frequent physical punishment (4.5, 3.2-5.8). Emotional problems were most strongly associated with being bullied (OR 4.9, 2.3-7.7). Being an only child was not associated with behaviour problems. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of behaviour problems in these Chinese children could relate to high expectations in a very competitive educational environment. Our results raise concerns for the future mental well-being of those children with behaviour problems.

Hesketh T; Zheng Y; Jun YX; Xing ZW; Dong ZX; Lu L

2011-08-01

2

Chinese Immigrant Parents’ Involvement in their Children’s School Education: High Interest but Low Action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using interview as the primary data collection method, this qualitative study examined how Chinese immigrant parents are involved in their children’s school education and what factors shape the formats of their involvement. Twelve Chinese immigrant families participated in this study. Data analysis reveals that Chinese parents got involved in their children’s school education regardless of personal experiences. They expressed beliefs that parental involvement is beneficial to both the school and children. However, generally speaking, participants did not go to their children’s school without teachers’ invitation. Language barrier, lack of time and energy, and unfamiliarity with the Canadian school culture were stated as the main reasons that contributed to participants’ limited involvement in school activities. Particularly, new immigrants often feel intimidated to talk to teachers since they do not know what they can say and what not given their unfamiliarity with the Canadian school culture. 

Lan Zhong; George Zhou

2011-01-01

3

Predicting school achievement from cognitive and non-cognitive variables in a Chinese sample of elementary school children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study had two aims: First, to investigate the joint and specific roles of working 17 memory (WM) and intelligence as predictors of school achievement. And second, to replicate 18 and extend earlier findings (Spinath, Spinath, Harlaar, & Plomin, 2006) on the incremental 19 validity of non-cognitive over cognitive abilities in the prediction of school achievement. The 20 present sample consisted of N=179 Chinese primary school children in the fourth grade. All 21 measures including working memory (WM), intelligence and motivational items were 22 assessed in class. Teachers provided test scores for the domains of Chinese and Math. We 23 found that WM was a good predictor of school achievement and comparable in predictive 24 power to intelligence. Together, cognitive ability including bothWMand intelligence explained 25 17.8% and 36.4% of the variance in children's Chinese and Math scores, respectively. The relative 26 importance of WMand intelligence varied with school domains with greater predictive power 27 of WM for Math while intelligence explained a greater proportion of the variance in Chinese 28 although the magnitude of this difference was only moderate. Domain-specific motivational 29 constructs contributed only marginally to the prediction of school achievement for both 30 Chinese and Math.

Lu, L.; Spinath, Weber

2011-01-01

4

Expanded and revised gross motor function classification system: study for Chinese school children with cerebral palsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: To determine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Expanded and Revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-ER) for cerebral palsy (CP) and to explore if there existed differences between parents and the other raters. Method: The GMFCS-ER was translated into Chinese. Children with CP age 6 to 18 years from two special education schools were assessed by 6 physiatrists, 21 physiotherapists, 15 teachers and parents. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed with inter-rater correlation coefficients (ICC). Validity was assessed using Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) score as the criterion standard. Results: Mean (SD) age of the 130 children (93 boys, 37 girls) was 11.5 (2.8) years. Overall ICCs ranged between 0.84 and 0.92. Reliabilities between physiatrists, physiotherapists and teachers (ICCs from 0.86 to 0.92) were higher than those between parents and the other raters (ICCs from 0.80 to 0.84) in 6-to-12 year age band. The overall correlation for criterion-related validity was -0.83. Conclusion: The Chinese version of the GMFCS-ER is a valid measure of functional ability in school children with CP and reliable enough for use by Chinese healthcare providers and parents. Effects of environmental and personal factors should be considered when practicing GMFCS-ER assessment. Implications for Rehabilitation Cerebral palsy. Research about GMFCS-ER is needed to promote a more extensive use of GMFCS-ER in China for school children with CP. The Chinese version of the GMFCS-ER is a valid measure of functional ability in school children with CP and reliable enough for use by Chinese healthcare providers. Effects of environmental and personal factors should be considered when performing the GMFCS-ER assessment.

Shi W; Yang H; Li CY; Zhou MQ; Zhu M; Wang Y; Qian X

2013-05-01

5

Stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese school children: cross-sectional survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The Chinese educational system is highly competitive from the start of primary school with great emphasis on academic performance and intolerance of failure. This study aimed to explore the pressures on primary schoolchildren, and to determine the relationship between these pressures and psychosomatic symptoms: abdominal pain and headache. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey using self-completion questionnaires. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 9- to 12-year-olds in primary schools in urban and rural areas of Zhejiang Province, eastern China. OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of children with defined school-related stressors and frequency of psychosomatic illness. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2191 children. All stressors were common in boys and girls and in urban and rural schools. Eighty-one per cent worry 'a lot' about exams, 63% are afraid of the punishment of teachers, 44% had been physically bullied at least sometimes, with boys more often victims of bullying, and 73% of children are physically punished by parents. Over one-third of children reported psychosomatic symptoms at least once per week, 37% headache and 36% abdominal pain. All individual stressors were highly significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms. Children identified as highly stressed (in the highest quartile of the stress score) were four times as likely to have psychosomatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The competitive and punitive educational environment leads to high levels of stress and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese primary schoolchildren. Measures to reduce unnecessary stress on children in schools should be introduced urgently.

Hesketh T; Zhen Y; Lu L; Dong ZX; Jun YX; Xing ZW

2010-02-01

6

Impact of low blood lead concentrations on IQ and school performance in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationships between blood lead concentrations and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) and school performance. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Participants were 1341 children (738 boys and 603 girls) from Jintan, China. Blood lead concentrations were measured when children were 3-5 years old. IQ was assessed using the Chinese version and norms of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised when children were 6 years old. School performance was assessed by standardized city tests on 3 major subjects (Chinese, Math, and English [as a foreign language]) when children were age 8-10 years. RESULTS: Mean blood lead concentration was 6.43 µg/dL (SD?=?2.64). For blood lead concentrations, 7.8% of children (n?=?105) had ?10.0 µg/dL, 13.8% (n?=?185) had 8.0 to <10.0 µg/dL, and 78.4% (n?=?1051) had <8.0 µg/dL. Compared to children with blood lead concentrations <8 µg/dL, those with blood lead concentrations ?8 µg/dL scored 2-3 points lower in IQ and 5-6 points lower in school tests. There were no significant differences in IQ or school tests between children with blood lead concentrations groups 8-10 and ?10 µg/dL. After adjustment for child and family characteristics and IQ, blood lead concentrations ?10 µg/dL vs <8 µg/dL at ages 3-5 years was associated with reduced scores on school tests at age 8-10 years (Chinese, ??=?-3.54, 95%CI?=?-6.46, -0.63; Math, ??=?-4.63, 95%CI?=?-7.86, -1.40; English, ??=?-4.66, 95%CI?=?-8.09, -1.23). IQ partially mediated the relationship between elevated blood lead concentrations and later school performance. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support that blood lead concentrations in early childhood, even <10 µg/dL, have a long-term negative impact on cognitive development. The association between blood lead concentrations 8-10 µg/dL and cognitive development needs further study in Chinese children and children from other developing countries.

Liu J; Li L; Wang Y; Yan C; Liu X

2013-01-01

7

Urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with body mass index and waist circumference in Chinese school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011-2012. According to the physical examination data in October, 2011, 124 normal weight, 53 overweight, and 82 obese students 8-15 years of age were randomly chosen from these schools on the basis of BMI-based age- and sex-specific criterion. First morning urine was collected in January, 2012, and fourteen urine phthalate metabolites (free plus conjugated) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the associations between naturally log-transformed urine phthalate metabolites and BMI or WC. RESULTS: The urine specific gravity-corrected concentrations of nine urine phthalate metabolites and five molar sums were positively associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children after adjustment for age and sex. However, when other urine phthalate metabolites were included in the models together with age and sex as covariables, most of these significant associations disappeared except for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Additionally, some associations showed sex- or age-specific differences. CONCLUSIONS: Some phthalate exposures were associated with BMI or WC in Chinese school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study and lack of some important obesity-related covariables, further studies are needed to confirm the associations.

Wang H; Zhou Y; Tang C; He Y; Wu J; Chen Y; Jiang Q

2013-01-01

8

Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate. METHODS: A total of 93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of 6-11 year-old and treated at West China Stomatology Hospital were selected. And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school in Chengdu. Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists. Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups. RESULTS: The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency. All patients showed elevations in behavior problems. But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties. Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

Ha P; Zhuge XQ; Zheng Q; Shi B; Gong CX; Wang Y

2013-02-01

9

Sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to (1) characterize sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children, (2) determine the prevalence of their short sleep duration and sleep disturbances based on clinical cutoffs, and (3) examine possible factors (socio-demographic factors and emotional/behavioral problems) that are associated with sleep disturbances. METHODS: A large representative sample of 912 children aged 6-14years was recruited from Shenzhen, China. Their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: The mean bedtime was 9:45pm (SD=1h 11min), mean wake-up time was 7:03am (SD=31min), mean sleep duration was 9h 14min (SD=46min), and 23.8% of the children had sleep duration <9h. Overall, 69.3% of the children suffered from global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Bedtime resistance (22.9%), sleep anxiety (22.1%), sleep duration (21%) and daytime sleepiness (20%) were the most prevalent sleep disturbances; followed by sleep disordered breathing (12.1%), parasomnias (9.4%), sleep onset delay (6.9%), and night waking (5.2%). The prevalence of specific sleep disturbances ranged from 3.2% (falling asleep while watching television) to 81.9% (awakening by others in the morning). Correlations between most domains of sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems were statistically significant (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that gender (?=0.10, p<0.01), school grade (?=-0.09, p<0.05), co-sleeping (?=0.25, p<0.01), emotional symptoms (?=0.24, p<0.01), conduct problems (?=0.09, p<0.05), and hyperactivity (?=0.17, p<0.01) accounted for significant variance in CSHQ total score. CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration and sleep disturbances are prevalent among Chinese school-aged children. Sleep disturbances are associated with gender, school grade, co-sleeping, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity.

Wang G; Xu G; Liu Z; Lu N; Ma R; Zhang E

2013-01-01

10

Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April to June 2009. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, Tanner stage, lipids, insulin and glucose levels were determined. Criteria analogous to ATPIII were used for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. Results Among 1844 children aged 7-14 years, 205 (11.1%) were overweight, and 133 (7.2%) were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.6% overall, 33.1% in obese, 20.5% in overweight and 2.3% in normal weight children. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI (3rd quartile)(OR 3.28; 95%CI 0.35-30.56), BMI (4th quartile)(OR 17.98; 95%CI 1.75-184.34), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) (2nd quartile) (OR2.36; 95% CI 0.46-12.09), HOMA-IR (3rd quartile) (OR 2.46; 95% CI 0.48-12.66), HOMA-IR (4th quartile) (OR3.87; 95% CI 0.72-20.71) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The current epidemic of obesity with subsequent increasing cardiovascular risk factors has constituted a threat to the health of school children in China. HOMA-IR and BMI were strong predictors of metabolic syndrome in children. Therefore, rigorous obesity prevention programs should be implemented among them.

Liu WeiJia; Lin Rong; Liu AiLing; Du Lin; Chen Qing

2010-01-01

11

Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. METHOD: 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. RESULTS: 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative.

Holmgren CJ; Lo EC; Hu D

2013-09-01

12

Macular pigment optical density and its relationship with refractive status and foveal thickness in Chinese school-aged children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and its relationship with refractive status and foveal thickness in Chinese school-aged children. METHODS: Ninety-four healthy Chinese children, 6 to 12 years old, were recruited to the study. MPOD was measured with a heterochromatic flicker photometer (HFP), and foveal thickness, including both minimum and central foveal thicknesses (MFT and CFT, respectively), were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fast macular map scan. A noncontact tonometer was used to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) followed by determination of the refraction using an autorefractor after cycloplegia. Information on body mass index (BMI) was obtained. The correlation between MPOD values and foveal thickness, spherical equivalent (SE) refraction, IOP, BMI, sex, and age was statistically analyzed using SAS 8.2 statistical software. RESULTS: The MPOD in examined school-aged children was 0.56?±?0.25, without any significant difference between boys and girls (p = 0.12). MPOD showed no significant association with age, BMI, IOP, SE, MFT, or CFT. In the myopia group, however, there was an inverse relationship between MPOD and MFT (R =-0.66, p = 0.028) and a positive relationship between MPOD and CFT (R = 0.67, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: MPOD was inversely related to MFT and positively related to CFT in Chinese school-age children with low-to-moderate myopia. MPOD showed no significant association with age, BMI, IOP, SE or foveal thickness.

Zheng W; Zhang Z; Jiang K; Zhu J; He G; Ke B

2013-01-01

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A Comparison of English and Chinese Reading Proficiency of Primary School Chinese Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|Hong Kong children's comprehension of Chinese and English text is of concern to parents and teachers since school leavers need to be proficient readers both of Chinese and English. Although Chinese has been officially designated the medium of instruction in most secondary schools, many parents want their children to be taught in English-medium…

Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee Elizabeth; Lam, Yu Hong Raymond; Lam, Wai Ip Joseph

2010-01-01

14

A Comparison of English and Chinese Reading Proficiency of Primary School Chinese Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Hong Kong children's comprehension of Chinese and English text is of concern to parents and teachers since school leavers need to be proficient readers both of Chinese and English. Although Chinese has been officially designated the medium of instruction in most secondary schools, many parents want their children to be taught in English-medium…

Tse, Shek Kam; Loh, Ka Yee Elizabeth; Lam, Yu Hong Raymond; Lam, Wai Ip Joseph

2010-01-01

15

The association between global self-esteem, physical self-concept and actual vs ideal body size rating in Chinese primary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the discrepancy between actual and ideal body size rating is related to Chinese children's global self-esteem and global physical self-concept. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of school children who completed questionnaires related to global self-esteem, global phys...

Lau, PWC; Lee, A; Ransdell, L; Yu, CW; Sung, RYT

16

[Epidemiologic study on current pubertal development in Chinese school-aged children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To survey the current status of pubertal development of Chinese children and to compare the precocious puberty prevalence of different regions. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted on 18 707 children and adolescents aged 6?18 y with male/female ratio of 9 812/8 895 from 6 representative geographical areas in China, including Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Chongqing and Nanning. The height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference(HC) and sexual maturation states (Tanner stages: breast stages for girls and testicular volume for boys) of children and adolescents were measured. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% confidence interval (CI) for onset of breast and testicular development. The prevalence of precocious puberty of different regions and BMI, waist circumference of different groups were compared. RESULTS: Breast development before 8 y was observed in 2.91% of girls, and testicular volume 4 ml or more before 9 y was observed in 1.74% of boys. The median age of onset of Tanner stages 2 for breast development in girls was 9.69 y (95% CI: 9.63? 9.75); the median age of onset of puberty as indicated by Tanner stages 2 for testicular development in boys was 11.25 y (95%CI:11.19? 11.30). The prevalence of precocious puberty (43 girls and 37 boys) was 0.43% (80/18 707). The prevalence of precocious puberty in northern region was higher than that in southwest region (0.736% compared with 0.282% P<0.05). There was no difference in onset age of precocious puberty in girls among three regions; but the onset age of precocious puberty in boys was earlier in east China [(7.4±0.28)y]. The SD values of BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (W/H) in precocious puberty children were higher than those in the peer normal children. There was no difference in BMI,waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio in the precocious puberty children among different regions. CONCLUSION: The current diagnostic criteria of precocious puberty are suitable for the children in the survey areas. The prevalence and the onset age of precocious puberty are various in different regions. A positive association between obesity and precocious puberty is found both in boys and girls.

Zhu MQ; Fu JF; Liang L; Gong CX; Xiong F; Liu GL; Luo FH; Chen SK

2013-07-01

17

Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

Wu S; Miao D; Zhu X; Luo Z; Liu X

2007-12-01

18

Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds. PMID:18096885

Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

2007-12-01

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Association between bisphenol A exposure and body mass index in Chinese school children: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence suggesting that Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide, can interfere with the body's natural weight control mechanisms to promote obesity. However, epidemiological studies for this are limited, especially for children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association between BPA exposure and body mass index (BMI) in school children. Three primary and three middle schools were randomly selected from 26 primary and 30 middle candidate schools in Changning District of Shanghai City in China. According to the BMI-based criteria by age and sex for screening of overweight or obese children, we randomly chose 20 obese, 10 overweight, and 30 normal weight children aged 8-15 years of age from each selected school. First morning urine was collected and total urine BPA concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine the association of urine BPA concentrations and daily intake estimates with BMI. RESULTS: BPA was detected in 84.9% of urine samples with a geometric mean of 0.45 ng/mL. The daily intake estimates ranged from 0.03 ?g/day to 1.96 ?g/day with a geometric mean of 0.37 ?g/day. The average urine BPA concentrations and daily intake estimates were similar for boys and girls, but significantly higher in older children than younger ones, and showed an increasing trend with BMI. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that urine BPA concentrations were significantly associated with increasing BMI values in all subjects after adjustment for age and sex and the results were similar before and after corrected by urine specific gravity. When stratified by age or sex, the associations remained significant in females and in those 8-11 years of age before corrected by specific gravity. Similar results were shown for the association between BMI and daily intake estimates. CONCLUSIONS: There is a possibility that BPA exposure increases BMI in school children. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study, longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm BPA exposure as a contributor to increased BMI in children.

Wang HX; Zhou Y; Tang CX; Wu JG; Chen Y; Jiang QW

2012-01-01

20

Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork.

Stevenson, H.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Stigler, J.W.

1986-02-14

 
 
 
 
21

Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

1986-02-14

22

Evaluation of an Internet-short message service-based intervention for promoting physical activity in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluation of acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet and short message service (SMS) intervention for promoting physical activity (PA) in Hong Kong Chinese school children. An 8-week quasi-experimental study non-randomly assigned 78 school children (mean age=12.8 years) to (a) an intervention group that received a stage-matched, Internet PA program two times a week and tailored SMS messages daily; or (b) a no-treatment control. Data were collected from September 2008 until June 2009. Acceptability measures included exposure rate and participant's satisfaction. Efficacy measures were changes in stage of motivational readiness (SMR) and self-reported PA level. Intervention participants demonstrated significant pre-post increments in SMR (Z=-2.558, p=0.011) and self-reported PA level [F(1, 76)=4.50, p=0.04]. There was a non-significant trend between groups in both SMR (p=0.24) and PA (p=0.13). Despite the similar ratings of satisfaction between Internet (M=3.12±0.74) and SMS (M=3.12±0.84), participants displayed distinct patterns of exposure with 66% exhibiting a weekly login rate of 0.5 times/person and an average of 3.75 minutes/visit/person. In contrast, 79% of participants read an average of 1.3 SMS/person/week and 47% voluntarily replied to ?3.8 SMS/person. These findings demonstrate the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an Internet-SMS-based intervention for promoting PA in Hong Kong school children. The divergent exposure rates between the Internet and SMS may be a unique pattern for adolescents in early SMR. Future research should be cognizant of the importance of SMR since it may influence utilization and/or adherence.

Lau EY; Lau PW; Chung PK; Ransdell LB; Archer E

2012-08-01

23

Teaching Chinese Children. A Teacher's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

|A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…

Nuffield Foundation, London (England).

24

Living in Two Worlds: Code-Switching amongst Bilingual Chinese-Australian Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is based on an analysis of interviews, conducted at three primary schools in Melbourne, which sought to explore the determinants of code-switching between English and Chinese. Specifically, it examined school education and other specific possible determinants of code switching amongst Chinese-Australian bilingual children. The specific…

Zheng, Lin

2009-01-01

25

Health Shocks and Children's School Attainments in Rural China  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a long panel dataset of Chinese farm households covering the period of 1987-2002, this paper studies how major health shocks happening to household adults affect children's school attainments. We find that primary school-age children are the most vulnerable to health shocks, with their chances to enter middle school dropping by 9.9…

Sun, Ang; Yao, Yang

2010-01-01

26

School for beggars' children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634

Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D

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Family-school relations as social capital: Chinese parents in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guided by both Coleman and Bourdieu’s theories on social capital, I interviewed Chinese immigrant parents to understand their experiences in weaving social connections with the school and teachers to benefit their children’s education. This study confirms Coleman’s argument that human capital in par...

Wang, D

28

School-age children development  

Science.gov (United States)

School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities of children ages 6 - 12. ... PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children usually have smooth and ... However, their coordination (especially eye-hand), endurance, ...

29

Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children determined by a paired isotope dilution technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body ...

30

Chinese medicament for treating children cold  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a Chinese medicinal composition, in particular to a Chinese medicament for treating children cold, which is prepared from the following raw materials in part by weight: 3 to 5 parts of pepper, 3 to 5 parts of lychee seed, 1 to 2 parts of szechwan Chinaberry fruit, 4 to 6 parts of Chinese fever vine, 1 to 3 parts of oriental waterplantain rhizome, 2 to 4 parts of rice bean, 1 to 3 parts of corn stigma, 1 to 3 parts of paniculate swallowwort root, 5 to 10 parts of calculus bovis artifactus, 5 to 10 parts of antelope horn, 1 to 3 parts of musk, 2 to 4 parts of cow bile powder, 5 to 7 parts of ginseng, 10 to 12 parts of golden thread, 1 to 3 parts of clove and 5 to 7 parts of liquoric root. The Chinese medicinal composition has the advantages of quick response, good curative effect, convenient use, less toxic and side effects and no need of decocting, can treat diseases such as the children cold, fever and the like, can effectively improve actual cure rate of the children cold and fever and has no rebound for a long time.

DECHEN WANG; LI ZHANG; QIANG ZHENG

31

Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society.

Lee EH; Zhou Q; Eisenberg N; Wang Y

2013-01-01

32

Colonoscopy in Hong Kong Chinese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the safety and diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in Chinese children in whom the procedure is not often done.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all colonoscopies in consecutive children who underwent their first diagnostic colonoscopy from Jan 2003 to 2008.RESULTS: Seventy-nine children (48 boys, 31 girls; mean age 9.2 ± 4.2 years) were identified and reviewed with a total of 82 colonoscopies performed. Successful caecal and ileal intubation rates were 97.6% and 75.6% respectively. Forty patients (50.6%) had a positive diagnosis made in colonoscopy and that included colonic polyps (23), Crohn’s disease (12), ulcerative colitis (1), and miscellaneous causes (4). 80% of polyps were in the rectosigmoid colon. All but one were juvenile hamartomatous polyps. The exception was an adenomatous polyp. The mean ages for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and polyps were 11.3 and 4.3 years respectively. There was no procedure-related complication.CONCLUSION: Colonoscopy is a safe procedure in our Chinese children. The increasing diagnosis of IBD in recent decades may reflect a rising incidence of the disease in our children.

Yuk Him Tam, Kim Hung Lee, Kin Wai Chan, Jennifer Dart Yin Sihoe, Sing Tak Cheung, Jennifer Wai Cheung Mou

2010-01-01

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Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

Science.gov (United States)

|Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

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U.S. CHINESE LANGUAGE SCHOOL’S MANAGERIAL ADAPTATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL IMPACT  

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Full Text Available This study explores the international impact of Chinese language learning on the management policy of a community Chinese language school in the United States. Chinese language schools in the U.S. used to teach Mandarin to Mandarin-speaking students who are highly homogeneous in their linguistic and cultural backgrounds. However, as the impact of China's recent economic development has become more international, so has the influence of Chinese language learning? This international impact of Chinese language learning is reflected in the increasingly heterogeneous student population in many Chinese language schools in the United States. These schools have to adapt their management policy to accommodate these new students, who may have a multicultural, multilingual background and do not speak Mandarin at home. This study examines one such school.This study is a case study of a Chinese language school's adaptations in its management policy when it faces the international impact of Chinese language learning. The school, located in New York City, had one teacher, two students, two parents of these two selected students, and three administrators as participants. Data were collected through interviews and document collection. This study found that: 1. the school believed in the importance of learning Chinese and thus the necessity of well-accommodating new students of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds; and 2. the linguistic heterogeneity in the school was initiated by China's rising economy and would continue to be impacted by such an economic force in the future.

Wei-li Wu

2012-01-01

35

Reference standards for forced expiratory indices in Chinese preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spirometric testing is traditionally achievable in children of school-age and beyond. Incorporation of interactive incentives motivates preschool children to facilitate measurement of forced expiratory indices. Validated spirometric reference standards are available for Caucasian preschoolers but lacking in Asians. We established spirometric references in Chinese children aged 2-7 years, who were recruited from 19 randomly selected nurseries and kindergartens in Hong Kong. Parents completed International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, and children concurrently performed incentive spirometry on-site according to international guideline. Prediction equations for spirometric indices were formulated by linear regression. One thousand four hundred two (72.9%) of 1,922 consented children, with mean (SD) age 4.4 (1.0) years, successfully performed spirometry. Following exclusions due to medical and technical reasons, 895 (63.8%) children contributed spirometric data to our references. Girls had lower FEV(0.5) , FEV(0.75) , FEV(1) , FVC, and PEF but similar FEF(25-75) than boys, adjusted for age, weight, and standing height as covariates. Standing height was the most important predictor for FEV(0.5) , FEV(0.75) , FEV(1) , FVC, and PEF in both boys (adjusted R(2) 0.525-0.734) and girls (adjusted R(2) 0.583-0.721), whereas the best prediction model for both gender is formed by standing height, weight, and age. At various standing heights, our preschoolers had FEV(1) Z-scores 0.13-1.00 higher than those of collaborative Caucasian reference. This study justifies the need for ethnic-specific reference equations and presents spirometry references in young Chinese children. Their forced expiratory indices are determined by gender, age, weight and standing height, and standing height is the best anthropometric index to predict all spirometric indices. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Leung TF; Liu TC; Mak KK; Su X; Sy HY; Li AM; Lau JT; Lum S; Wong GW

2013-02-01

36

Xerophthalmia in school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of xerophthalmia was studied in 5135 school children of Jodhpur ranging between 6 and 16 years of age. The total prevalence of xerophthalmia was found to be 9.89%. Night blindness (XN) and milder conjunctival form (XIA, XIB) of the disease were predominantly prevalent in the studied population. Corneal disease (X2, X3A, X3B) was found in 8 cases and xerophthalmia scar (XS) in only one case. Recognition of early xerophthalmia and urgent vitamin A therapy is of paramount importance to preclude the onset of the corneal stage and irreversible blindness. It is suggested that xerophthalmia screening be made an essential component of routine medical check-up in schools with XN (night blindness with or without conjunctival xerosis) and XIB (Bitot's spots) used as criterion for screening to effectuate early detection and treatment of xerophthalmia.

Desai NC; Lohiya S; Keshan S; Nag V

1989-09-01

37

Neuroblastoma management in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study assesses the clinical features of neuroblastoma and survival. Data for 98 patients between January 2000 and December 2006 at Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, were retrospectively analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Diagnostic methods included imaging, 24-hr urine catecholamines, bone marrow biopsies, and histopathology analyses. Treatment followed the modified Japanese Study Group Protocol. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were depicted, and difficulties encountered were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 48 months. There were 3, 13, 31, 49, and 2 patients in stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4s disease, respectively. Positive urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) prevalence was low in localized disease (51.1%) and high in disseminated disease (70.6%, p = .03). Gross total resection rate was 60.8%. The five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 80% for stages 1 and 2, 48.3% for stage 3, and 20% for stage 4. The five-year OS rates significantly decreased in children older than 18 months (p < .01), and were higher after gross total resection was performed (p = .023). In stage 4 patients, gross total resection significantly improved the five-year OS rate (p = .029). CONCLUSION: From these data, we suggest that positive urinary VMA, age greater than 18 months, incomplete tumor resection, and advanced stage predict poor prognosis. The results in children with advanced neuroblastoma were not satisfactory in our center. We speculated that lack of multidisciplinary teamwork, nonstandardized treatment, resource limitation, and indigence were the main causes for poorer outcome in late stages.

Li K; Dong K; Gao J; Yao W; Xiao X; Zheng S

2012-04-01

38

Scaffolding interactions with preschool children: Comparisons between Chinese mothers and teachers across different tasks  

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This study investigated how Chinese adults adjusted their scaffolding in interactions with children during problem-solving tasks. Fifty-seven 5-year-olds (from low and high socioeconomic status [SES] backgrounds) completed a playlike task (puzzle) and a school-like task (worksheet) with their mother...

Sun, J; Rao, N

39

Coping behaviour checklist for Chinese children: Development and psychometric testing  

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li h.c.w., chung o.k.j., wong m.l.e. & ho k.y. (2010) Coping behaviour checklist for Chinese children: development and psychometric testing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 66(7), 1633-1643. Title.: Coping behaviour checklist for Chinese children: development and psychometric testing. Aim.: This paper i...

Li, HCW; Chung, OKJ; Wong, MLE; Ho, KY

40

Are physical activity and academic performance compatible? Academic achievement, conduct, physical activity and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academi...

Yu, CCW; Chan, S; Cheng, F; Sung, RYT; Hau, KT

 
 
 
 
41

Chinese High School Graduates’ Beliefs About English Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of a cohort of Chinese high school graduates’ beliefs about English learning. A 24-item questionnaire is administered on 171 high school graduates to investigate their beliefs about the nature, difficulty, autonomy and learning environment in English learning. The data are analyzed through frequency statistics. Results show that Chinese high school graduates in general: 1) underestimate the difficulty of learning English; 2) expect communicative language teaching model; 3) demonstrate a high preference for an immersion approach; and 4) display a high degree of autonomy in English learning. The findings are beneficial for need analysis and provide guidance for curriculum design to the University in research and other similar contexts.Key words: High school graduates; Beliefs about English learning; English learning experiences

Chi-li LI

2011-01-01

42

Family to School: Can Do Mandarin Chinese Learning in Kentucky  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes her experience of teaching Mandarin Chinese at Stopher Elementary School in Louisville, Kentucky. Through growing and learning with her students, the author has become a firm believer in the importance of early childhood language acquisition and a passionate advocate for world language education.

Chiang, Janna

2009-01-01

43

Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.

Liu Y; Lu Z

2012-10-01

44

Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms. PMID:22190389

Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

2011-12-22

45

Traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating children dermatosis and its preparation method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a traditional Chinese medicine preparation for treating children dermatosis and its preparation method, wherein the preparation comprises (by weight ratio) Chinese medicinal herbs including aloe, flavescent sophora root, dahurian angelica root, Chinese dittany bark, Xanthium sibiricum, broom cypress fruit, corktree bark, Chinese mugwort leafmulberry leaf, grassleaved sweetflag rhizome, Chinese angelica root, and gleditschia horrida.

LUO YUCHENG

46

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativ...

Bin Li

47

The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly’s Creative Push on Early Chinese Publishing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The School of Mandarin Duck and Butterfly, as an early Chinese popular literature important school, is a participant of early Chinese publishing industry who promoted early Chinese publishing industry development through creativities on publishing from four aspects such as publishing content creativity, graphic design creativity, marketing creativity and cross-media industry creativity.

Bin Li

2012-01-01

48

Help-seeking in the school context: understanding Chinese American adolescents' underutilization of school health services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This article examines whether school contextual factors, such as referral practices and peer dynamics, contribute to Chinese American students' underrepresentation in school health programs. METHODS: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N?=?1,744) as well as interviews and focus groups (N?=?51) with Chinese American users and nonusers of high school health programs were analyzed to identify aspects of the help-seeking process unique to Chinese American students. RESULTS: Chinese American students primarily defined the need for school health services as having personal problems, engaging in early sexual activity, or using drugs. For the most part, they did not recognize their own health or psychosocial concerns as falling in these categories. Teacher referrals and peer dynamics were also salient factors in students' decisions to seek help from school health programs. Relationships with providers in strengths-based prevention programs improved their utilization of individual therapy and reproductive health services. CONCLUSIONS: To increase Chinese American students' access of needed services, the organizational systems and social contexts of school health programs (in addition to the practices of individual clinicians) must be responsive to the needs and preferences of these ethnic minority youth.

Anyon Y; Whitaker K; Shields JP; Franks H

2013-08-01

49

Bing Xin: First Female Writer of Modern Chinese Children’s Literature  

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Full Text Available Bing Xin (1900-1999) was among the finest female writers of the early modern Chinese literature, and her poems and essays are full of praising of maternal love, glorification of sea and other natural scenes. They are most welcomed by children. For nearly a century, Bing Xin’s works have been avidly read by hundreds of millions of Chinese children and have been a fundamental force, shaping modern Chinese children’s literature. This paper examines the development of Bing Xin’s “philosophy of love” as a social remedy through analysing her early works.

Lijun Bi

2013-01-01

50

Traditional Chinese medicine for treating hernia for children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a traditional Chinese medicine for treating hernia for children, which is prepared by the following main components: 6g of radix bupleuri, 15g of white peony root, 12g of immature bitter orange, 10g of cordate houttuynia, 5g of pinellia tuberifera, 6g of liquorice, 12g of radix astragali, 6g of fructus schisandrae, 12g of lychee seed, 10g of radix scutellariae, 15g of hemerocallis root, 15g of clematis recta and other Chinese medical herbs. The traditional Chinese medicine for treating hernia for children is prepared according to the following steps: all the Chinese medical herbs are put in a container to be steeped for 30 min the steeped Chinese medical herbs are decocted on slow fire for 30 min, and dregs of a decoction are filtered to obtain the decoction of 100 ml. One dose of the decoction is taken after the supper every day for three days in one course of treatment. The preparation is prepared by the Chinese medical herbs with a traditional method, thereby preserving the medicine property of tonifying middle-Jiao and Qi, sending down abnormally ascended Qi, achieving the purpose of protecting health and treating hernia in children and having no side effect.

YANGFA PENG

51

A 4-year longitudinal study of the oral prevalence of enteric gram-negative rods and yeasts in Chinese children  

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A 4-year longitudinal study of the oral prevalence of enteric gram-negative rods and yeasts in 116 Chinese primary school children in Hong Kong was conducted. The oral prevalence of enteric gram-negative rods for each consecutive year was 25.3%, 37.0%, 24.0% and 25.8% respectively, with a weighted m...

Sedgley, CM; Samaranayake, LP; Chan, JCY; Wei, SHY

52

International school children's health needs: school nurses' views in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in international schools in Sweden, Germany, and Switzerland. Through qualitative semistructured interviews, the school nurses described that the international school children expressed common health needs similar to the ones faced by children in other school settings. However, children in the international schools expressed additional context-specific health needs related to their transient lifestyle, such as language and cultural difficulties, emotional distress, vulnerability, homesickness, alienation, and increased physical health needs related to their expatriate lifestyle. These factors often present a challenge for the school nurse whose profession is to interpret the child's health needs, which may be obscured by cultural diversity.

Hansson A; Clausson E; Janlöv AC

2012-04-01

53

Relations Between Aggression and Adjustment in Chinese Children: Moderating Effects of Academic Achievement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs.

Yang F; Chen X; Wang L

2013-04-01

54

The Comparison of Chinese Kites Art Deco Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese kite art not only has a long history because of the long tradition of folk culture, but also has its merits because of the colorful local cultures. Kite's decorative arts are in close contact with history of various periods, cultures of all regions and various nations. It also has inextricably link with music, dance, drama, folklore, religion. In the long course of historical development of society?distinctive decorative art of kite gradually has formed all over the country. The main features of kite art schools will be compared in this article.Keywords: kite; decoration; art schools; comparison

Qing WU

2010-01-01

55

Unhealthy Behaviours of School Children  

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Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to ascertain nutritional customs of pupils in grade schools.Material and Method: Anonymous questionnaires were done to a sample of 380 children, aged 10 to 14, in 20 fourth-to eight grade classes from 2 schools in Cluj-Napoca: one from down-town, the other one from a poorer neighbourhood.Results: Almost half of students revealed to have an irregular diet. In the last month, some of them did not have enough food or money to buy it (much of them come from the poorer neighbourhood). In this latest school, a triple percent of children have a vegetable diet (no meat, in fact). The obsession to lose weight and the irregular diet has conducted to lose appetite in over 30% of girls. About 60% take vitamins or nutritional supplements. Social status as well as the irregular diet is reflected in general status: over one third feel sad, alone, useless or cry without any reason. Some of the pupils which have problems with daily food supply, think the life is hard and do not worth to live it.Conclusions: There is a wide diversity in nutritional customs of children. Some of them are due to inappropriate nutritional knowledge or a wrong perception of being on fashion as well as to social status. Although the economic conditions are difficult to change, we consider that nutrition education should still be a part of health teaching.

Valeria LAZA; Lucia-Maria LOTREAN

2008-01-01

56

Clinical characteristics of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia in Chinese children  

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Purposes: Clinical course and treatment outcome of childhood chronic ITP are quite variable in the literature. We report in the current paper our observation on the clinical behavior of chronic ITP in Chinese children. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective review (Jan. 1990 to Dec. 2000...

Wong, MSC; Chan, GCF; Ha, SY; Lau, YL

57

Sleep problems, fatigue, and cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine sleep problems and fatigue and their associations with cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Jintan Child Cohort Study was conducted, which includes a cohort of 1656 kindergarten children in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, China. The sample used in the current study consisted of 1385 children (44.8% girls, mean age 5.72 [SD = 0.42] years) for whom data on sleep problems or cognitive performance were available. Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure child sleep problems and fatigue, and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised was used to assess child IQ. RESULTS: Sleep problems were prevalent, ranging from 8.9% for difficulty maintaining sleep to 70.5% for unwilling to sleep alone. Other reported sleep problems were difficulty initiating sleep (39.4%), nightmares (31.6%), sleep talking (28%), sleeping less (24.7%), and sleep resistance (23.4%). Fatigue was also prevalent, with 29.6% of children reported to be overtired and 12.6% lack of energy. Children with difficulty maintaining sleep, sleep talking, sleep resistance, or nightmares scored 2-3 points lower in full IQ than children without sleep problems. Children reported to have fatigue scored 3-6 points lower in full IQ than those children without fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems and fatigue are prevalent in Chinese kindergarten children. Furthermore, sleep problems and fatigue are associated with poor cognitive performance.

Liu J; Zhou G; Wang Y; Ai Y; Pinto-Martin J; Liu X

2012-09-01

58

[Height and weight standardized growth charts for Chinese children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To construct the height and weight growth charts for Chinese children and adolescents from birth to 18 years for both clinical and preventive health care uses. METHODS: Data from two national representative cross-sectional surveys which were The National Growth Survey of Children under 7 years in the Nine Cities of China in 2005 and The Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance of Chinese School Students in 2005. The data from 94,302 urban healthy children were used to set up the database of length/height (length was measured for children under 3 years) and weight. The LMS method was used to smooth the growth curves, with estimates of L, M, and S parameters, values of percentile and Z-score curves which were required were calculated, and then generated standardized growth charts. RESULTS: The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th smoothed percentiles curves and -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 Z-scores curves of weight-for-age, length/height-for-age for boys and girls aged 0-18 years were made out respectively. Comparison with the new WHO growth charts and 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States, the results showed that there was some big difference in weight and height among the three growth charts. For boys under 15 years of age and girls under 13 years of age, the China curves are slightly higher than WHO and CDC curves, but after those ages, the China curves fall behind and the difference became larger as age progresses. At the age of 18 years, the Chinese children are 3.5 cm shorter in boys and 2.5 cm shorter in girls as compared with the U. S. children. The difference in weights are very large for the school children, especially in girls. The weight of Chinese boys was 5.9 kg less than that of the U. S. boys at 18 years, and the difference was much bigger in girls, the weight of U.S. girls between 8 to 18 years was 4.1-20.5 kg more than that of Chinese girls at the same age range. CONCLUSION: The new growth charts of height and weight were based on national survey data and therefore are recommended as the China national growth standards for use in pediatric clinics and public health service. Application of the charts will promote child growth monitoring, discovering early growth disorder, and will be useful to diagnosis of diseases and assessment of therapeutic effects.

Li H; Ji CY; Zong XN; Zhang YQ

2009-07-01

59

Reliability and Validity Evidence of the Chinese Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale Scores among Taiwanese Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale-Second Edition (Piers-Harris 2) was designed to measure self-concept among children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the scores of the Chinese version of the Piers-Harris 2 (Chinese Piers-Harris). The Chinese Piers-Harris 2 was administered to 243 Taiwanese…

Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Chien-Mo

2011-01-01

60

Cognitive Development Assignment: Building Bridges between Chinese-Americans and Elementary School Classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary schools are ideal places to build the bridges between Chinese-Americans and the larger society. Studying the history of Chinese-Americans, examining their many contributions to the United States, and studying the contemporary Chinese-American population are good places to start. There are many books available to help students understand…

Schirmer, John

 
 
 
 
61

Correlates of physical activity and screen-based behaviors in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate individual, behavioral, social and environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) and screen-based behaviors ([SBBs] TV viewing, electronic games playing and Internet use) in Chinese boys and girls in Hong Kong. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: PA and SBBs were self-reported among 303 children. Individual, behavioral, social and environmental correlates were reported by children and parents. Children's height and weight were measured and population density of residence districts was divided into tertiles. Hierarchical multivariable regression analyses were conducted to determine the contributions of correlates in explaining PA and SBBs. RESULTS: Participation in school sport teams and self-efficacy was positively associated with PA in boys. Girls who reported participation in school sport teams, who perceived more peer support, had a more supportive home PA environment, and spent more time doing homework were more physically active. Family support for PA was negatively and homework was positively, associated with boys' SBBs. Body mass index and parent role modeling of TV was positively associated with TV viewing, whilst more sedentary opportunities in the home were associated with higher Internet use/e-games playing among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences existed among the individual, behavioral, social and home environmental factors related to PA and SBBs. Interventions should consider multiple and sex-specific factors for promoting an active lifestyle and reducing sedentary time among Chinese children.

Huang WY; Wong SH; Salmon J

2013-01-01

62

The Association of Weight Status with Physical Fitness among Chinese Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the association of weight status with physical fitness among Chinese children. Methods. A total of 6929 children aged 6–12 years were selected from 15 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in eastern China. The height and fasting body weight were measured. The age-, sex-specific BMI WHO criteria was used to define underweight, overweight and obesity. Physical fitness parameters including standing broad jump, 50?m sprint, and 50?m?8 shuttle run were tested. Results. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was 3.1%, 14.9%, and 7.8%, respectively. Boys performed better than girls, and the older children performed better than their younger counterparts for all physical fitness tests. No significant difference in all three physical fitness tests were found between children with underweight and with normal weight, and they both performed better than their counterparts with overweight and obese in all three physical fitness tests. The likelihood of achieving good performance was much lower among overweight and obese children in comparison with their counterparts with normal weight (OR=0.13–0.54). Conclusions. An inverse association of obesity with cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle explosive strength, and speed was identified among Chinese children.

Xianwen Shang; Ailing Liu; Yanping Li; Xiaoqi Hu; Lin Du; Jun Ma; Guifa Xu; Ying Li; Hongwei Guo; Guansheng Ma

2010-01-01

63

School integration of children with autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider that children with autism are invisible in contemporary Romanian society; there is even a lack of statistical data regarding children with autism in Romania. In this paper we emphasize how important it is for the education of children with autism to integrate in the school community. First we present the characteristics of children with autism, then we argue about how important it is for these children to integrate in the general education system and finally we present a model that teacher can use in order to promote school integration of these children and thus intercultural education.

Lavinia Haiduc

2009-01-01

64

Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Chinese-Speaking Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Inference making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between inference making skills, as measured by riddle appreciation ability, and reading comprehension performance in typically developing Cantonese-speaking children in the Fourth Grade. Methods Forty Cantonese-speaking children between the ages of 9;1 and 11;0 were given tests of reading comprehension and riddle appreciation ability. Chinese character reading and auditory comprehension abilities were also assessed using tests standardized in Hong Kong. RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that riddle appreciation explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension ability after variance due to character reading skills and auditory comprehension skills were first considered. Lexical, morphological, orthographic, and syntactic riddles were also significantly correlated with reading comprehension ability. CONCLUSIONS: Riddle appreciation skills predict reading comprehension in Chinese-speaking Fourth Grade children. Therefore, training riddle appreciation should be effective in improving reading comprehension for Chinese speakers.

Tang IN; To CK; Weekes BS

2013-07-01

65

Growth Curves for School Children From Kuching, Sarawak: A Methodological Development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article, the authors propose reference curves for height and weight for school children in the Kuching area, Sarawak. The school children were from primary to secondary schools (aged 6.5 to 17 years old) and comprised both genders. Anthropometric measurements and demographic information for 3081 school-aged children were collected (1440 boys and 1641 girls). Fitted line plots and percentiles for height and weight (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles) were obtained. The height of school boys and school girls were almost similar at the start of their school-going age. For school girls, height and weight values stabilized when they reached 16 or 17 years old but kept increasing for school boys. School boys were taller than school girls as they entered adolescence. Height differences between school boys and school girls became significantly wider as they grew older. Chinese school children were taller and heavier than those of other ethnic groups.

Bonn Bong Y; Ahmad Shariff A; Mohamed AM; Merican AF

2012-05-01

66

Migration, remittances and children's schooling in Haiti  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we focus on the use of remittances to school children remaining in migrant communities in Haiti. After addressing the endogeneity of remittance receipt, we find that remittances raise school attendance for all children in some communities regardless of whether they have household memb...

Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Georges, Annie; Pozo, Susan

67

Development of numerical estimation in Chinese preschool children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much is known about the development of mental representations of numbers, it is not clear how early children begin to represent numbers on a linear scale. The current study aimed to examine the development of numerical estimation of Chinese preschoolers. In total, 160 children of three age groups (51 3- and 4-year-olds, 50 5-year-olds, and 59 6-year-olds) were administered the numerical estimation task on three types of number lines (Arabic numbers, dots, and objects). All three age groups took the test on the 0-10 number lines, and the oldest group also took it on the 0-100 and 0-1000 Arabic number lines. Results showed that (a) linear representation of numbers increased with age, (b) representation of numbers was consistent across the three types of tasks, (c) Chinese participants generally showed earlier onset of various landmarks of attaining linear representations (e.g., linearity of various number ranges, accuracy, intercepts) than did their Western counterparts, as reported in previous studies, and (d) the estimates of older Chinese preschoolers on the 0-100 and 0-1000 symbolic number lines fitted the two-linear and linear models better than alternative models such as the one-cycle, two-cycle, and logarithmic models. These results extend the small but accumulating literature on the earlier development of number cognition among Chinese preschoolers compared with their Western counterparts, suggesting the importance of cultural factors in the development of early number cognition. PMID:23933179

Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Chuansheng; Pan, Maoming; Li, Na

2013-08-07

68

Development of numerical estimation in Chinese preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although much is known about the development of mental representations of numbers, it is not clear how early children begin to represent numbers on a linear scale. The current study aimed to examine the development of numerical estimation of Chinese preschoolers. In total, 160 children of three age groups (51 3- and 4-year-olds, 50 5-year-olds, and 59 6-year-olds) were administered the numerical estimation task on three types of number lines (Arabic numbers, dots, and objects). All three age groups took the test on the 0-10 number lines, and the oldest group also took it on the 0-100 and 0-1000 Arabic number lines. Results showed that (a) linear representation of numbers increased with age, (b) representation of numbers was consistent across the three types of tasks, (c) Chinese participants generally showed earlier onset of various landmarks of attaining linear representations (e.g., linearity of various number ranges, accuracy, intercepts) than did their Western counterparts, as reported in previous studies, and (d) the estimates of older Chinese preschoolers on the 0-100 and 0-1000 symbolic number lines fitted the two-linear and linear models better than alternative models such as the one-cycle, two-cycle, and logarithmic models. These results extend the small but accumulating literature on the earlier development of number cognition among Chinese preschoolers compared with their Western counterparts, suggesting the importance of cultural factors in the development of early number cognition.

Xu X; Chen C; Pan M; Li N

2013-08-01

69

Enhancing orthographic knowledge helps spelling production in eight-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effects of enhancing orthographic knowledge on the spelling of Chinese characters and words in 131 eight-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia. The traditional approach (37 children) emphasizing memory and repeated writing was the control condition. The analytic and synthetic approach (ASA, 33 children) stressed insight into character structure. The integrated analytic and synthetic approach added to ASA self-correction and metacognitive activities (INA, 61 children). The children were first asked to write down as many words as possible associated with pictures of home, school, and community; the correctly written words formed the baseline information. The children were then instructed by their classroom teachers in six especially designed short texts and assessed in eight measurable bujian or radical tasks subserving three constructs: morpheme completion, bujian analysis and synthesis and bujian compounding. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that the children in the INA condition outperformed those in the other conditions in three of the measurable bujian tasks. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the stability of the eight tasks and their clustering into three constructs. From these results, we tentatively propose a "bujian sensitivity hypothesis" as a means of helping young Chinese children at risk for spelling disorders.

Leong CK; Loh KY; Ki WW; Tse SK

2011-06-01

70

Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

Chen X; Yang F; Wang L

2013-07-01

71

Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives, it is found that children build friendships, assist, inspire, and imitate one another in their collaborative encounters in paedagogical activities. In order to better support children’s learning and engaged participation in paedagogical activities, an increased attention to the institutional demands on children’s collaborative encounters in early childhood education is suggested.

Svinth, Lone

2012-01-01

72

Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier, this adverbial modifier must be recovered at the elided site in the second clause. However, if the antecedent clause of a null object construction contains an adverbial modifier, the reconstruction of this adverbial modifier at the elided site is not necessary. Two experiments were conducted to examine whether young Mandarin-speaking children are sensitive to this structural difference between the two ellipsis constructions. The results show that children exhibited adult-like performance in both experiments. This is evidence that young Mandarin-speaking children have knowledge of the structural difference between VP-ellipsis and null object constructions with regard to adverbial recovery. We interpreted the findings in conjunction with previous research as evidence that children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions is innately specified.

Zhou P

2013-08-01

73

Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PMID:23244457

Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

2012-12-01

74

Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies.

Chen X; Li D

2012-12-01

75

Children's accommodation during reading of Chinese and English texts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Inaccurate accommodation during nearwork and subsequent accommodative hysteresis may influence myopia development. Myopia is highly prevalent in Singapore; an untested theory is that Chinese children are prone to these accommodation characteristics. We measured the accuracy of accommodation responses during and nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) after periods spent reading Chinese and English texts. METHODS: Refractions of 40 emmetropic and 43 myopic children were measured with a free-space autorefractor for four reading tasks of 10-minute durations: Chinese (SimSun, 10.5 points) and English (Times New Roman, 12 points) texts at 25 cm and 33 cm. Accuracy was obtained by subtracting accommodation response from accommodation demand. Nearwork-induced transient myopia was obtained by subtracting pretask distance refraction from posttask refraction, and regression was determined as the time for the posttask refraction to return to pretask levels. RESULTS: There were significant, but small, effects of text type (Chinese, 0.97 ± 0.32 diopters [D] vs. English, 1.00 ± 0.37 D; F1,1230 = 7.24, p = 0.007) and reading distance (33 cm, 1.01 ± 0.30 D vs. 25 cm, 0.97 ± 0.39 D; F1,1230 = 7.74, p = 0.005) on accommodation accuracy across all participants. Accuracy was similar for emmetropic and myopic children across all reading tasks. Neither text type nor reading distance had significant effects on NITM or its regression. Myopes had greater NITM (by 0.07 D) (F1,81 = 5.05, p = 0.03) that took longer (by 50s) (F1,81 = 31.08, p < 0.01) to dissipate. CONCLUSIONS: Reading Chinese text caused smaller accommodative lags than reading English text, but the small differences were not clinically significant. Myopic children had significantly greater NITM and longer regression than emmetropic children for both texts. Whether differences in NITM are a cause or consequence of myopia cannot be answered from this study.

Yeo AC; Atchison DA; Schmid KL

2013-02-01

76

School Refusal Behavior in Young Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School refusal behavior is defined as any child-motivated refusal to attend classes and/or difficulty remaining in classes for an entire day. Although many researchers have focused on older children and adolescents in their samples, few have specifically focused on young children aged 5-9 years (i.e., kindergarten to third grade). In this article, a general description is made of school refusal behavior, and illustrative data from 55 young children with school refusal behavior are provided. Recommendations for assessing and treating this young population are made as well.

Christopher A. Kearney; Gillian Chapman; L. Caitlin Cook

2005-01-01

77

Humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researchers studied humour among Chinese and Greek preschool children in relation to cognitive development. The sample included 55 Chinese children and 50 Greek children ages 4½ to 5½ years. Results showed that both Chinese and Greek children‘s humour recognition were significantly and positively correlated to their cognitive development, but there was a different correlation pattern between humour response levels and cognitive development. Chinese children‘s level of humour responses was negatively and moderately correlated to their level of cognitive development in contrast to the positive correlation between these two variables among the Greek children. It would appear that cultural factors play a strong role in determining the correlation between humour response and cognitive development among young children.

Juan GUO; XiangKui ZHANG; Yong WANG; Aphrodite XEROMERITOU

2011-01-01

78

Hearing evaluation of school children in Kuwait.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Hearing level in some children may be abnormal due to conductive or sensorineural causes. In Kuwait, the hearing screening test is not conducted for newborns at public hospitals. We evaluated the hearing level of 159 Kuwaiti school children (age 6-12 years) at the Audiology Clinic of Ahmadi hospital to determine the extent and causes of hearing loss in these children. METHODS: Each child was evaluated by otoscopic examination, tympanogram, acoustic reflex threshold (ART), audiogram, and distortion product oto-acoustic emission (DPOAE). RESULTS: 120 children were found to have normal ear conditions, while 39 children had abnormal results. The abnormalities were 21 children with ear wax, 16 children with secretory otitis media (SOM), and 2 children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). In the children with ear wax, 3 had normal hearing level, while 18 had mild conductive hearing loss in the 250-500 Hz frequency range. In the children with SOM, 3 had normal hearing level, 9 had mild conductive hearing loss in the 250-500 Hz frequency range, while 4 had moderate conductive hearing loss in the 250-2000 Hz frequency range. The children with SNHL had moderate hearing loss in the 4000-8000 Hz frequency range. CONCLUSION: Wax in the ear canal and SOM were the main factors associated with hearing loss in these Kuwaiti school children. It is necessary to establish a national program of school entry hearing screening in Kuwait.

Al-Kandari JM; Alshuaib WB

2010-09-01

79

[Body mass index growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To construct the body mass index (BMI) reference data and curves for Chinese children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. METHODS: Data from two national representative cross-sectional surveys which were The National Growth Survey of Children under 7 years in the Nine Cities of China in 2005 and The Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance of Chinese School Students in 2005. Height (length was measured for children under 3 years) and weight data of 93,702 urban healthy children from nine cities/provinces used to calculate the BMI. The LMS method was used to smooth the BMI, with estimates of L, M, and S parameters, values of percentile and Z-score curves which were required were calculated, and then standardized growth charts were generated. Adult cut-offs for overweight and obesity at 18 years was used to study the cut-offs for children 2 to 18 years of age. RESULTS: The smoothed percentiles and Z-scores reference data and curves of BMI-for-age for boys and girls aged 0-18 years were made out respectively. BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity for children from 2 to 18 years of age were also defined. At 18 years, the BMI values are equivalent to the overweight cut-off (> or =24 kg/m2) and obesity cut-off (> or =28 kg/m2) for Chinese adults. Comparison with the reference of the WHO and 2000 CDC for the United States, there were some difference among them, at the 97th percentile curve there was a big difference between Chinese and U. S. adolescents. On the whole, the China BMI curve for boys was higher than the new WHO curve and lower than 2000 CDC at 97 percentile curve, but the China BMI curve for girls was lowest among the three curves. There was also significant difference between China and Japan BMI values at 97 percentile curve. CONCLUSION: BMI growth curves are very useful in child growth monitoring and nutritional surveillance, discovering overweight and obesity. The BMI growth charts are recommended for use in pediatric clinic and public health service.

Li H; Ji CY; Zong XN; Zhang YQ

2009-07-01

80

Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

|The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Relationships between Mild and Severe Corporal Punishment and Children's Internalizing Problem Behavior in a Chinese Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to investigate the sex differences in the reciprocal relations between parental corporal punishment and child internalizing problem behavior in China. Four hundred fifty-four Chinese elementary school-age children completed measures of their parental corporal punishment toward them and their own internalizing problem behavior at…

Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang

2013-01-01

82

Novel Noun and Verb Learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking Children  

Science.gov (United States)

When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…

Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

2008-01-01

83

Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence: Mediation through School Liking  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive…

Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Castro, Kimberly S.

2007-01-01

84

Validation of the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS) for primary school students in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are more children diagnosed with specific learning difficulties in recent years as people are more aware of these conditions. Diagnostic tool has been validated to screen out this condition from the population (SpLD test for Hong Kong children). However, for specific assessment on handwriting problem, there seems a lack of standardized and objective evaluation tool to look into the problems. The objective of this study was to validate the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS), which is designed to measure both the process and production of handwriting. The construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of CHAS was analyzed using the data from 734 grade 1-6 students from 6 primary schools in Hong Kong. Principal Component Analysis revealed that measurements of CHAS loaded into 4 components which accounted for 77.73% of the variance. The correlation between the handwriting accuracy obtained from HAS and eyeballing was r=.73. Cronbach's alpha of all measurement items was .65. Except SD of writing time per character, all the measurement items regarding handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (r=.72-.96), while measurement on the numbers of characters which exceeded grid showed moderate reliability (r=.48). Although there are still ergonomic, biomechanical or unspecified aspects which may not be determined by the system, the CHAS can definitely assist therapists in identifying primary school students with handwriting problems and implement interventions accordingly.

Li-Tsang CW; Wong AS; Leung HW; Cheng JS; Chiu BH; Tse LF; Chung RC

2013-09-01

85

Validation of the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS) for primary school students in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are more children diagnosed with specific learning difficulties in recent years as people are more aware of these conditions. Diagnostic tool has been validated to screen out this condition from the population (SpLD test for Hong Kong children). However, for specific assessment on handwriting problem, there seems a lack of standardized and objective evaluation tool to look into the problems. The objective of this study was to validate the Chinese Handwriting Analysis System (CHAS), which is designed to measure both the process and production of handwriting. The construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of CHAS was analyzed using the data from 734 grade 1-6 students from 6 primary schools in Hong Kong. Principal Component Analysis revealed that measurements of CHAS loaded into 4 components which accounted for 77.73% of the variance. The correlation between the handwriting accuracy obtained from HAS and eyeballing was r=.73. Cronbach's alpha of all measurement items was .65. Except SD of writing time per character, all the measurement items regarding handwriting speed, handwriting accuracy and pen pressure showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (r=.72-.96), while measurement on the numbers of characters which exceeded grid showed moderate reliability (r=.48). Although there are still ergonomic, biomechanical or unspecified aspects which may not be determined by the system, the CHAS can definitely assist therapists in identifying primary school students with handwriting problems and implement interventions accordingly. PMID:23816625

Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Wong, Agnes S K; Leung, Howard W H; Cheng, Joyce S; Chiu, Billy H W; Tse, Linda F L; Chung, Raymond C K

2013-06-29

86

Leprosy among school children in Trivandrum city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School surveys followed by contact surveys were done in an urban area to studv the epidemiology of childhood leprosy. In a survey of 10, 112 school children in the urban leprosy zone under the Trivandrum Medical College Hospital. leprosy was detected in 55 (a prevalence of 5 per 1000 school children) of these 5 (9%) had multibacillary leprosy. Prevalence rate was more in boys than in girls (M:F ratio 1.6:1). More cases were seen in children above 10 years and this preponderance was more in boys. The prevalence of leprosy was more in Government schools than that in private schools. The majority of children had only single lesions which were on exposed parts of the body. Examination of intrafamilial contacts of cases and matched controls revealed leprosy in 20 houses (47%) among cases, and in 3 families (5%) among controls. Majority of younger children (81%) below 10 years of age had source case in the family itself. The father was the most common (58%) primary source of infection. Majority of index cases (73%) were multibacillary. This study reaffirms the value of school surveys and contact tracing in the detection of leprosy in urban areas.

Wesley Ramani; Gopalakrishnan Nair T; Nair BKH

1990-01-01

87

Validation of the Chinese version of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) among Chinese adolescents in the aftermath of the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the psychometric properties of the 13-item Chinese version of the revised Impact of Event Scale for Children (CRIES) among 3160 high school students in Chengdu, China, 1 month after the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008. METHODS: Participants self-administered a structured questionnaire in classroom settings. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (using the Chinese version of the CRIES) and other psychological variables, including depression, anxiety, thoughts of physical threat, and earthquake-related experiences, were measured. Confirmatory factor analysis and Spearman correlation analyses were conducted to confirm the factor structure and examine the validity of the CRIES. RESULTS: As in previous Western studies, confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the 3-factor structure of the CRIES (intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal) provided a significantly better fit than the single-factor model and the 2-factor model. The CRIES showed good reliability (Cronbach ?s for the full scale and subscales ranged from .74 to .85). The CRIES total score was positively correlated with depression, anxiety, automatic thought of physical threat, earthquake-related worries, and postearthquake suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: The CRIES has shown to be reliable and valid in assessing Chinese adolescents' symptoms of potential posttraumatic stress disorder. Our findings also support the 3-factor measurement model of posttraumatic stress symptoms, which is comparable with their Western studies. Further validation studies on other forms of traumatic experience among Chinese adolescents are warranted.

Lau JT; Yeung NC; Yu XN; Zhang J; Mak WW; Lui WW; Zhang J

2013-01-01

88

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children. PMID:23707968

Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Berhane, Kiros; Dunton, Genevieve; Shankardass, Ketan; Reynolds, Kim; Chang, Roger; Wolch, Jennifer

2013-04-17

89

Factors influencing whether children walk to school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated multiple levels of influence on whether children walk to school. A large cohort of 4338 subjects from 10 communities was used to identify the determinants of walking through (1) a one-level logistic regression model for individual-level variables and (2) a two-level mixed regression model for individual and school-level variables. Walking rates were positively associated with home-to-school proximity, greater age, and living in neighborhoods characterized by lower traffic density. Greater land use mix around the home was, however, associated with lower rates of walking. Rates of walking to school were also higher amongst recipients of the Free and Reduced Price Meals Program and attendees of schools with higher percentage of English language learners. Designing schools in the same neighborhood as residential districts should be an essential urban planning strategy to reduce walking distance to school. Policy interventions are needed to encourage children from higher socioeconomic status families to participate in active travel to school and to develop walking infrastructures and other measures that protect disadvantaged children.

Su JG; Jerrett M; McConnell R; Berhane K; Dunton G; Shankardass K; Reynolds K; Chang R; Wolch J

2013-07-01

90

Academic achievements and classroom performance in Mandarin-speaking prelingually deafened school children with cochlear implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To document academic achievements and classroom performance in 35 Mandarin-speaking, congenital/pre-lingual, deafened children who used cochlear implants (CIs) for 5-11 years. The possible associated factors were also analyzed. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional case series. METHODS: Standardized Chinese literacy ability and mathematics tests were administered to evaluate the academic achievement of these children. Raw scores derived from both literacy ability and mathematics tests were compared with normative data from children with normal hearing (NH). A modified Mandarin edition of the Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (SIFTER) and a Regular School Adjustment Scale (RSAS) for students with hearing impairments filled out by regular classroom teachers were used to assess the children's classroom performances. RESULTS: The mean standard T-scores for Chinese literacy ability and mathematics ability were 48.6 and 50.3 (NORM=50 ± 10), respectively. A total of 85.7% of children with CIs scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers in Chinese literacy ability, and 82.9% were within normal ranges in mathematics ability. The SIFTER results showed that 45.7% failure was noted on the communication subscale, and the RSAS also indicated 40% of CI students to have communication problems. The academic subscale scores on the SIFTER were associated with the children's Chinese literacy abilities. The Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) of the Wechsler IQ test IV was related to the children's mathematics abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The academic achievements of Mandarin-speaking children who receive CIs from a young age and are integrated into mainstream elementary school system appear to fall within the normal range of their age-matched hearing counterparts after 5-11 years of use. This study strongly suggests the need for future ongoing support for these children in communication field.

Wu CM; Liu TC; Liao PJ; Chen CK; Chang BL; Lin BG

2013-09-01

91

Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Chan, Yu.Lung [Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Au, Kit Sum Agnes [James Cook University, Department of Psychology, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Yeung, Ka Wai David; Kwan, Ting Fai; To, Cho Yee

2005-06-01

92

Morphometry of the corpus callosum in Chinese children: relationship with gender and academic performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corpus callosum has been widely studied, but no study has demonstrated whether its size and shape have any relationship with language and calculation performance. To examine the morphometry of the corpus callosum of normal Chinese children and its relationship with gender and academic performance. One hundred primary school children (63 boys, 37 girls; age 6.5-10 years) were randomly selected and the standardized academic performance for each was ascertained. On the mid-sagittal section of a brain MRI, the length, height and total area of the corpus callosum and its thickness at different sites were measured. These were correlated with sex and academic performance. Apart from the normal average dimension of the different parts of the corpus callosum, thickness at the body-splenium junction in the average-to-good performance group was significantly greater than the below-average performance group in Chinese language (P=0.005), English language (P=0.02) and mathematics (P=0.01). The remainder of the callosal thickness showed no significant relationship with academic performance. There was no significant sex difference in the thickness of any part of the corpus callosum. These findings raise the suggestion that language and mathematics proficiency may be related to the morphometry of the fibre connections in the posterior parietal lobes. (orig.)

2005-01-01

93

Secular change in stature of urban Chinese children and adolescents, 1985-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Research evidence shows a secular trend in Chinese physical growth in recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze and assess changes in stature of children and adolescents during the 25 years from 1985-2010, using national data. METHODS: Data came from successive cycles of the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). Subjects were 7- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. RESULTS: An overall positive secular trend occurred in urban China during 1985-2010. The overall average rates of increment were 2.4 and 1.7 cm/decade for boys and girls, respectively. Total increases in adult stature for boys and girls were 2.6 and 1.7 cm, yielding rates of 1.0 and 0.7 cm/decade, respectively. Cities with different socioeconomic levels had different characteristic trends. Mean stature increases in big cities were larger than those in moderate and small cities, and boys and girls in moderate and small cities showed greater potential for growth in stature. CONCLUSION: An overall positive secular growth trend was associated with socioeconomic progress and differed with area socioeconomic levels. School policies and strategies should be developed based on increased stature, and should continue narrowing the inequity between different socioeconomic populations.

Chen TJ; Ji CY

2013-01-01

94

Teaching Mathematics in Two Languages: A Teaching Dilemma of Malaysian Chinese Primary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a teaching dilemma faced by mathematics teachers in the Malaysian Chinese primary schools in coping with the latest changes in language policy. In 2003, Malaysia launched a new language policy of teaching mathematics using English as the language of instruction in all schools. However, due to the complex sociocultural demands…

Lim, Chap Sam; Presmeg, Norma

2011-01-01

95

History and Performance of Chinese Law School Admission Test Takers. LSAC Research Report Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) has been administered to Chinese test takers in Taiwan and Hong Kong for more than 22 years, and in China for the past decade, there is very little documentation on the history, test taker volumes, performance, and law school admission rates of these candidates. This study reviewed the history of LSAT…

Wang, Xiang Bo; Harris, Vincent F.

96

Gender and Language Learning Strategy Use — in the Case of Chinese High School Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated the relationship between gender and learning strategy preferences of Chinese senior high school students. Analyses indicated that high school students under investigation used a variety of learning strategies to study English at a medium to low frequency. Female stu...

Min LIU

97

Gender and Language Learning Strategy Use — in the Case of Chinese High School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between gender and learning strategy preferences of Chinese senior high school students. Analyses indicated that high school students under investigation used a variety of learning strategies to study English at a medium to low frequency. Female students used more learning strategies and at a greater frequency than male students. The findings of the study will cast some light on Chinese EFL teaching, learning and future studies.Key words: Gender; English learning strategy; High school students

Min LIU

2012-01-01

98

English Language Learning Strategy Use by Chinese Senior High School Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students’ learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person’s education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that Chinese senior high school students use compensation strategies most frequently; that significant differences exist between male students and female students with female students using strategies more frequently than males; and that differences also exist in the strategy use among the three grades. The reasons for these differences in strategy use by Chinese senior high school students are discussed and implications for the future language learning strategy training and English teaching are put forward.

Yaping Zhou

2010-01-01

99

A Tale of Two Writing Systems: Double Dissociation and Metalinguistic Transfer Between Chinese and English Word Reading Among Hong Kong Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the rate of school-aged Chinese-English language learners at risk for reading difficulties in either Chinese or English only, or both, among second and fifth graders in Hong Kong. In addition, we examined the metalinguistic skills that distinguished those who were poor in reading Chinese from those who were poor in reading English. The prevalence of poor English readers among children identified to be poor in Chinese word recognition across the five participating schools was approximately 42% at Grade 2 and 57% at Grade 5. Across grades, children who were poor readers of both languages tended to have difficulties in phonological and morphological awareness. Poor readers of English only were found to manifest significantly poorer phonological awareness, compared to those who were poor readers of Chinese only; their average tone awareness score was also lower relative to normally developing controls. Apart from indicating possible dissociations between Chinese first language (L1) word reading and English second language (L2) word reading, these findings suggested that the degree to which different metalinguistic skills are important for reading in different writing systems may depend on the linguistic features of the particular writing system.

Tong X; Tong X; McBride-Chang C

2013-06-01

100

Prevalence of naevi in school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of naevi in general and pigmented (melanocytic) naevi in particular was studied in school children. Naevi were seen in 73.6% of the examined children, while 73.1% of them had pigmented naevi. The average number of naevi was 5.4 per child with slight male preponderance. There was complete absence of naevi over palms and soles.

Sharma N; Sharma R

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

102

Second language learning difficulties in chinese children with dyslexia: What are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to english and chinese word reading?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (R...

Chung, KKH; Ho, CSH

103

Associations of obesity susceptibility loci with hypertension in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body mass index (BMI)/obesity. OBJECTIVE: As obesity is an independent risk factor for hypertension, the objective of the study was to investigate the associations of obesity susceptibility loci with blood pressure (BP)/hypertension in a population of Chinese children. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a genotype-phenotype association study. Participants included 3077 Chinese children, aged 6-18 years. Based on the Chinese age- and sex-specific BP standards, 619 hypertensive cases and 2458 controls with normal BP were identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BP was measured by auscultation using a standard clinical sphygmomanometer. RESULTS: Of the 11 SNPs, only FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP; P=0.034) and three SNPs were significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP; GNPDA2 rs10938397: P=0.026; FAIM2 rs7138803: P=0.015; NPC1 rs1805081: P=0.031) after adjustment for age, sex and hypertension status. In addition, three SNPs were significantly associated with hypertension risk after adjustment for age and sex (FTO rs9939609: odds ratio (OR)=1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.62, P=0.001; MC4R rs17782313: OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.42, P=0.007; GNPDA2 rs10938397: OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34, P=0.021). After additional adjustment for BMI, none remained significant. The genetic risk score (GRS), based on three significant SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397), showed a positive association with SBP (P=5.17 × 10(-4)) and risk of hypertension (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.33, P=6.07 × 10(-6)). Further adjustment for BMI abolished the positive associations (SBP: P=0.220; DBP: P=0.305; hypertension: P=0.052). Only FTO rs9939609 and GRS were statistically associated with hypertension risk in the age- and sex-adjusted model after correction for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that FTO rs9939609 and combined SNPs were significantly associated with risk of hypertension, which seems to be dependent on BMI.

Xi B; Zhao X; Shen Y; Wu L; Hotta K; Hou D; Cheng H; Wang X; Mi J

2013-07-01

104

Corporal Punishment and Physical Maltreatment against Children: A Community Study on Chinese Parents in Hong Kong  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study aimed to examine rates and associated factors of parent-to-child corporal punishment and physical maltreatment in Hong Kong Chinese families. Method: Cross-sectional and randomized household interviews were conducted with 1,662 Chinese parents to collect information on demographic characteristics of parents and children,…

Tang, Catherine So-kum

2006-01-01

105

A Valuable Experience for Children: The Dim Sum and Chinese Restaurant Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the Dim Sum and Chinese Restaurant Project undertaken by 6-year-old kindergarten children in Hong Kong. The article discusses the importance of listening, observing, and documenting children’s actions to meet their needs and interests.

Yuen Lai Ha (Freda)

2010-01-01

106

The Deficit Profile of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Updating in Chinese Children with Reading Difficulties  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated executive function deficits among Chinese children with reading difficulties. Verbal and numerical measures of working memory, inhibition, updating, and processing speed were examined among children with only reading difficulties (RD), children with reading and mathematics difficulties (RDMD), and typically developing peers…

Peng, Peng; Sha, Tao; Li, Beilei

2013-01-01

107

School children halt growing energy use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through an ongoing cooperative project called Practical Solidarity, school children in Stjordal, in central Norway, have managed to halt the increase in household energy use. At the same time, energy use in local government buildings has been substantially reduced. This alone has caused a marked annual reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

Hilmo, P. [Energy Efficiency Center for Nord-Trondelag County (Norway)

1998-03-01

108

Resting Heart Rate, Vagal Tone, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Chinese Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proactive aggression, and (2) whether the HR-aggression relation can be replicated in non-Western contexts. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent and prospective relations between resting HR, vagal tone, and Chinese children's reactive and proactive aggression. Participants were 183 children (M age?=?7.64 years, 91 girls) recruited from an elementary school in Zhenjiang, PRC. Children's resting HR and vagal tone were assessed in the second grade (T1). Teachers rated children's reactive and proactive aggression in the second (T1) and fourth grade (T2). Results showed that lower resting HR at T1 was associated with higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2, and higher vagal tone was associated with lower HR, which in turn was related to higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2. Lower vagal tone was directly related to higher reactive but not proactive aggression at T1 and T2, whereas lower HR was related to higher reactive aggression at T2 for children with low or moderate vagal tone but was not for children with high vagal tone. These psychophysiological findings from a non-Western context add additional support for both similarities and differences between reactive and proactive aggression in childhood.

Xu Y; Raine A; Yu L; Krieg A

2013-08-01

109

SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation), the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

Stanika DIKIC; Branka ESKIROVIC; Vesna VUCINIC

1998-01-01

110

School children training for basic life support.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the background knowledge of high school children on basic life support by calculating the points scored in a MCQ-based test; to evaluate results of teaching basic life support skills to them; and assessing their power of retention by re-testing them on skills and MCQ test after the workshop. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from 1st September to 31st December 2008. METHODOLOGY: Thirty children aged 11 - 15 years from 9 different schools of Rawalpindi were subjected to knowledge and skill based test at three different times. First was taken just after brief introduction to the subject of CPR and its related definitions, second after providing them hands-on CPR training, and last, after 3 months of CPR training, knowledge as well as CPR skills were tested. RESULTS: The children showed highly significant improvement in knowledge after CPR training and retention of knowledge and skills of CPR after 3 months period. There was no correlation of age, gender and weight to depth of compression and fatigue. There was a correlation between height and depth of compression. CONCLUSION: Children can learn and perform basic life support skills with reasonable accuracy and can retain these skills for longer periods. CPR training should be provided to all school children after 6th grade.

Naqvi S; Siddiqi R; Hussain SA; Batool H; Arshad H

2011-10-01

111

Screening cluster A and cluster B personality disorders in Chinese high school students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Personality disorders (PDs) during adolescence may, in addition to increasing risk for violent behaviors and suicide, also increase risk for elevated PD traits in adulthood. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of Cluster A and Cluster B PD traits and their relationships to demographic variables in Chinese high school students. METHODS: A cohort of 3,552 students from eight high schools completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) and MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status-youth version (SSSy) questionnaires. RESULTS: Boys scored higher than girls on the paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, and narcissistic PDs. Freshmen and sophomores scored higher than juniors on schizoid, borderline, and antisocial PDs. Children in single-child families scored higher than nonsingletons on the paranoid and antisocial PDs. Students from single-parent households scored higher than students from double-parent households on the schizotypal and antisocial PDs, and students with remarried parents scored higher than students from double-parent households on the borderline and antisocial PDs. Students who had low perception of social status in the society ladder scored higher than those with a high perceived status on the schizoid and borderline PDs, but scored lower on the histrionic PD; students with a low subjective social status in the school community ladder scored higher scores than those with a high perceived status on the paranoid, schizoid, borderline, and antisocial PDs, but scored lower on the histrionic PD. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, grade, family structure, and subjective social status may affect the development of PDs. Longitudinal studies and studies of the full scope of PDs are needed to fully elucidate the impact of demographic variables on PD prevalence rates in adolescence and adulthood.

Wang Y; Zhu X; Cai L; Wang Q; Wang M; Yi J; Yao S

2013-01-01

112

Lactase deficiency in Australian school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of lactase deficiency is high in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Asian countries, which suggests that many immigrants and immigrant children from these regions may be unable to produce lactase. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in primary school-aged children, in two communities with a high proportion of immigrants in metropolitan Sydney. A total of 109 children, aged five to 12 years, were studied by means of the breath hydrogen method. Forty per cent (44/109) showed lactose malabsorption, as defined by a rise in end-expiratory hydrogen levels of 20 ppm or more, two hours after loading with lactose. The prevalence was highest in the subjects of Asian origin (93%; 14/15), followed by Greek subjects (56%; 14/25) and subjects from other Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries (41%; 15/37). Of the 77 children who were available for follow-up, 57% (44) reported symptoms of lactose intolerance, of whom nearly two-thirds were children who showed lactose malabsorption. The high prevalence of lactase deficiency in children at both schools underlines the need to consider the multiracial identity of Australians in planning educational programmes about nutrition.

Brand JC; Darnton-Hill I

1986-10-01

113

School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. SUBJECTS/SETTING: The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. RESULTS: Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (P<0.01) and by 28 kcal in high school children (P<0.01). The lack of a pouring rights contract in a school reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 16 kcal (P<0.05), and no à la carte offerings in a school reduced consumption by 52 kcal (P<0.001) in middle school children. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (P<0.01) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 41 kcal in high school children (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To improve children's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack bars, improving à la carte choices, and reducing the frequency of offering french fries merit testing as strategies to reduce energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods at school.

Briefel RR; Crepinsek MK; Cabili C; Wilson A; Gleason PM

2009-02-01

114

Parenting Attitude and Style and Its Effect on Children’s School Achievements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reviewed empirical studies on children’s school achievements. The contributions of parenting attitudeand style were examined in relation to children’s school achievement. A strong relationship between children’sschool achievement and parenting attitude and style was reported in the paper. Findings from the review revealedthat authoritative parenting styles were associated with higher levels of children’s school achievement, thoughfindings remain inconsistent across cultures and societies. Future studies may explore some of the salient issuesunderlying the inconsistencies reported in the study, particularly the contradictory results between Asian andEuropean American school children.

Abdorreza Kordi; Rozumah Baharudin

2010-01-01

115

Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from general environmental air quality standards to more specific legislation that targets diesel exhaust near school children. School nurse standards of practice specify that school nurses should attain current knowledge of environmental health concepts, implement environmental health strategies, and advocate for environmental health principles. This article provides a description of the professional responsibilities of school nurses in protecting children from harmful environmental exposures, provides an overview of legislative initiatives intended to protect school children from diesel exhaust exposure, and summarizes one school district's effort to reduce diesel exhaust exposure among school children.

Mazer ME; Vann JC; Lamanna BF; Davison J

2013-07-01

116

Is There a Developmental Slump in Creativity in China? The Relationship between Organizational Climate and Creativity Development in Chinese Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

|The major objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of creativity development of Chinese children, the creative organizational climate of Chinese schools, and the relations among them. The results provided evidence that the creativity scores of children in elementary school were significantly higher than those of children in…

Yi, Xinfa; Hu, Weiping; Plucker, Jonathan A.; McWilliams, Jenna

2013-01-01

117

Whole body measurements in Bavarian school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On behalf of the Bavarian State Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs measurements were conducted using the whole body counters at the Institute for Radiation Hygiene (of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection), and the Institute for Radiation Biology (of the GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health). Between September 1988 and July 1990 about 1600 school children from all over Bavaria were investigated for incorporated radiocesium. The aim of these measurements was to evaluate the whole body activity due to regionally differing soil contaminations in Bavaria following the accident in the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl and to assess the effective dose from an intake of radionuclides for the pupils by comparing the results of their WBC measurements with those of reference groups of children which underwent WBC examinations at regular intervals at both institutes since the middle of the year 1986. The results of the WBC measurements of those pupils who had not eaten mushrooms in the days before the measurement are in good agreement with the results of comparative measurements in children living in the regions of Munich and Frankfurt-am-Main. Based on these results an effective dose of 0,2 mSv for the Munich region children and of 0,1 mSv for Nothern Bavarian children can be derived. For children living in the highest contaminated region of Bavaria, i.e. the counties adjacent to the Alps, no comparable reference group results are available, but the amount of incorporated radiocesium is only twice that for pupils in the Munich region. The mean value for the specific activity of radiocesium in South Bavarian school children who consumed mushrooms was found to be twice the value of pupils who did not. This is also true for that group of children whose parents had bought allegedly low contaminated foodstuffs. Other effecs of nutrition habits on the specific whole body activity could not be found. (orig.)

1992-01-01

118

Health-related quality of life in Icelandic school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among 10 to 12-year-old Icelandic school age children who were either with or without chronic health condition. The children and their parents answered self-report questionnaires. For the 480 children who participated, girls were found to perceive their HRQOL significantly higher than the boys, children who visited the school nurse over a one-week period and children who indicated they were bullied by other children, perceived their HRQOL to be significantly lower than children who did not visit the school nurse over this time period or children who did not indicate they were bullied by other children in school. From the stepwise regression analysis, perception of health, school connectedness, health promotion, bullying victimization, visits to the school nurse and age, significantly predicted 43.8% of the variance of the girls' perception of their HRQOL. However, perception of health, school connectedness, and chronic health condition/illnesses, bullying victimization and after school activities predicted 48.1% of the boys' perception of their HRQOL. Children with chronic health condition or illnesses, reported their HRQOL to be significantly lower than children without chronic health condition. Assessing HRQOL among 10 to 12-year-old children might be helpful to take preventive action early on in children's life and development.

Svavarsdottir EK; Orlygsdottir B

2006-06-01

119

Asymptomatic bacteriuria in school going children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in school going children of different age groups and sex and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and to know their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. METHODS: A total of 1817 school children were screened by collecting mid-stream urine and isolating the organisms. RESULTS: Asymptomatic bacteriuria was observed in 192 cases (10.57%) with female preponderance over male. The maximum isolates were E.coli (32.8%). Followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study there was a steady increase in the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in different age groups. Most of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics.

Kumar C; Jairam A; Chetan S; Sudesh P; Kapur I; Srikaramallya

2002-01-01

120

Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children can be…

Crain, William

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A Survey of Attitudes toward Mediation among Chinese High School EFL Teachers and Their Classroom Constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper raises concerns about Chinese high school EFL teachers’ attitudes toward mediation and their classroom constraints. From the data gathered in the survey of 152 EFL teachers, the findings indicate that most teachers fail to mediate students’ learning due to situational constrai...

Xiongyong Cheng

122

Investigating teachers' educational beliefs in Chinese primary schools: socioeconomic and geographical perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This empirical study explores the nature of and profiles in primary teachers’ educational beliefs in the Chinese educational settings. A survey of 820 primary school teachers was conducted using a questionnaire focusing on teachers’ traditional and constructivist beliefs about teaching and learning....

Sang, Guoyuan; Valcke, Martin; van Braak, Johan; Tondeur, Jo

123

Investigating Teachers' Educational Beliefs in Chinese Primary Schools: Socioeconomic and Geographical Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This empirical study explores the nature of and profiles in primary teachers' educational beliefs in the Chinese educational settings. A survey of 820 primary school teachers was conducted using a questionnaire focusing on teachers' traditional and constructivist beliefs about teaching and learning. Analysis of variance and cluster analysis were…

Sang, Guoyuan; Valcke, Martin; van Braak, Johan; Tondeur, Jo

2009-01-01

124

Status epilepticus in 37 Chinese children: aetiology and outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aetiology and clinical features of status epilepticus (SE) are described, with the aim of defining any relationship between risk factors and clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was performed of 37 Chinese children admitted to Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, from 1989 to 1993 with the diagnosis of SE. RESULTS: Eighty-six per cent had onset before 5 years of age; 60% were due to an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult, 11% were idiopathic, 13% had a pre-existing CNS insult, 5% were febrile and 11% were due to progressive encephalopathy. An abnormal neurological status was present in 24% before the episode of SE, and a history of seizures before the onset of SE was present in 35% of patients. Fifty-four per cent of the episodes of SE were generalized. The mortality rate was 11% during the period of follow up but no deaths were attributed to SE. Neurological sequelae were observed in 27% of patients and recurrent SE occurred in 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In those patients with normal neurological status before an episode of SE and without acute CNS insult or progressive encephalopathy, the outcome was favourable.

Kwong KL; Lee SL; Yung A; Wong VC

1995-10-01

125

Traditional Chinese medicine special for treating children anorexia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention is concerned with a kind of Chinese traditional medicine to cure infantile anorexy. It relates to 50 g gleditschia horrida, 250 g Rhizoma Dioscoreae, 250 g semen coicis, 150 g chickens gizzard-membrane, 150 g seed of gordon euryale, 150 g Jave Amonum Fruit and 6000 g rice. Select bister, dry, hard, smoothing and good gleditschia horrida, brush off marl and cut, put into iron pan, use strong fire at first then change into slow fire until it does not have raw core and grind into powder. Put other materials into pan respectively and fry with slow fore until changing into straw yellow, mix together and grind into fine powder, add fine powder of gleditschia horrida and fill bottles. This herbal medicine has easy compatibility of medicines with simple preparation method with crude herb, and it has good cured effect and low price for children having infantile anorexy illness who live in remote hamlet far away from villages and towns, and it solves some problem, such as low earning, poor life and shortage of medical treatment condition.

KEHUA YIN

126

Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the winter of 1988--1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5--14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985--1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; urban Wuhan, 406 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; Guangzhou, 296 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and suburban Wuhan, 191 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for couch, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence.

Qian, Z.; Chapman, R.S.; Tian, Q.; Chen, Y.; Lioy, P.J.; Zhang, J.

2000-04-01

127

THE NATURE OF SCHOOL ANXIETY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CHILDREN'S SCHOOL BEHAVIOR.  

Science.gov (United States)

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, A PROJECT WAS INITIATED TO--DEVELOP A SCHOOL ANXIETY SCALE AND TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH SCHOOL ANXIETY IS A FUNCTION OF SCHOOL EXPERIENCE, SCHOOL BEHAVIOR IS A FUNCTION OF SCHOOL ANXIETY, AND HOW THESE RELATIONSHIPS APPLY TO CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS. UPPER, MIDDLE, AND LOWER CLASS FOURTH-GRADERS…

PHILLIPS, BEEMAN N.

128

Interparental Conflict Styles and Parenting Behaviors: Associations with Overt and Relational Aggression among Chinese Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how interparental conflict styles related to Chinese children's overt and relational aggression directly and indirectly through parenting behaviors. Mothers (n = 670) and fathers (n = 570) reported their overt and covert interparental conflict styles and different parenting behaviors. Children's (n = 671) aggression was…

Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Su, Yanjie

2011-01-01

129

Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

|Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

2011-01-01

130

Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

2013-01-01

131

Children's Knowledge of Teen Quantities as Tens and Ones: Comparisons of Chinese, British, and American Kindergartners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three studies were conducted to examine the effects of individual differences and language differences on children's understanding of teen quantities (11 ? n ? 19) as counted cardinal tens and ones (embedded-ten cardinal understanding). At age 4, most Chinese children, using named-ten number words (...

Ho, CSH; Fuson, KC

132

Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Mastery Motivation among Chinese Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

|The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…

Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S. K.

2013-01-01

133

Speech assessment of Chinese-English bilingual children: accent versus developmental level.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to evaluate the phonological profiles of Chinese-English bilingual children in primary grades relative to those of English monolinguals, and to compare these profiles with speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') ratings of children's speech in terms of accent or developmental level. Participants were 29 Chinese-English bilinguals and 25 English-monolingual children. Speech samples were collected using the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-2, either a Cantonese or Mandarin phonology test, and three sentences in a delayed repetition task. In addition, 10 SLPs rated each of the randomized sentences on either an accent or developmental level scale. Bilingual children with identified accents had significantly lower standard scores than monolingual children on the GFTA-2, but on the Chinese phonological assessments the same children showed age-expected speech. The differences in the bilingual children's scores on phonology tests in English vs Chinese highlight the need for phonological assessment in both languages. The SLP listener results further suggest that perceptual judgement may be a useful complement in phonological assessment of bilingual children but not a replacement for more formal testing. PMID:23145544

Hack, Jamie; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; May Bernhardt, B

2012-12-01

134

Intestinal protozoan parasitic infection among school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoan parasitosis is highly prevalent among general population, majority of them are children. The objective of the study is to find out the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in school children of Sindhuli. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from school children of Sindhuli in June 2011 and investigated in National Institute of Tropical Medicine and Public Health Research, Laboratory by using formal-ether concentration method. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chi-Square test. RESULTS: A total of 342 stool samples were collected and 68 (19.8%) protozoan parasites were identified. The prevalence rate of protozoa in boys and girls were 16.9% and 22.0% respectively. Altogether 5 species of protozoan parasites were detected. Of them Entamoeba coli was most common followed by Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana. Positive rate was highest in Dalit (20.3%), and least in Indo-Aryan (19.6%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasitosis among children even though this study emphasizes the need for improved environmental hygiene i.e. clean water supplies and enhanced sanitation.

Mukhiya RK; Rai SK; Karki AB; Prajapati A

2012-09-01

135

The Strategic Research of Sustainable Development in Chinese-foreign Cooperation in Running Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools has appeared. Especially after our country’s accession to WTO, the development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools has remarkably developed with a larger size appearance over time. As a result, the educational levels constantly improve and educational models increasingly diversify. However, with the profound development of Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools, various new questions emerge. The existing researches have broad discussed and proposed some constructive strategies and suggestions. Thus, those researches concentrate on the existing problems in Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools with specific regional observation and lack of general analysis. Key words: Chinese-foreign cooperation in running schools; higher education; internationalization; sustainable development Résumé: À la fin du 20e siècle, la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles est apparue. Surtout après l'adhésion de notre pays à l'OMC, la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles s'est remarquablement développée avec une apparence de plus grande taille au fil du temps. En conséquence, les niveaux d'enseignement s'améliorent constamment et les modèles d'enseignement se diversifient de plus en plus. Cependant, avec un développement profond de la coopération sino-étrangère de la gestion des écoles, de nouvelles questions diverses s'apparaissent. Les recherches existantes ont proposé des stratégies constructives et des suggestions. Ainsi, ces recherches se concentrent sur les problèmes existant de la coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles avec des observations spécifiques régionales et le manque d'analyse générale. Mots-clés: coopération sino-étrangère dans la gestion des écoles; enseignement supérieur; internationalisation, développement durable

Yan WANG

2010-01-01

136

Construction of a new growth references for China based on urban Chinese children: comparison with the WHO growth standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Growth references for Chinese children should be updated due to the positive secular growth trends and the progress of the smoothing techniques. Human growth differs among the various ethnic groups, so comparison of the China references with the WHO standards helps to understand such differences. METHODS: The China references, including weight, length/height, head circumference, weight-for-length/height and body mass index (BMI) aged 0-18 years, were constructed based on 69,760 urban infants and preschool children under 7 years and 24,542 urban school children aged 6-20 years derived from two cross-sectional national surveys. The Cole's LMS method is employed for smoothing the growth curves. RESULTS: The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at age 6-7 years and continuity of curves from 0 to 18 years. Varying differences were found on the empirical standard deviation (SD) curves in each indicator at nearly all ages between China and WHO. The most noticeable differences occurred in genders, final height and boundary centiles curves. Chinese boys' weight is strikingly heavier than that of the WHO at age 6-10 years. The height is taller than that of the WHO for boys below 15 years and for girls below 13, but is significantly lower when boys over 15 years and girls over 13. BMI is generally higher than that of the WHO for boys at age 6-16 years but appreciably lower for girls at 3-18 years. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between China and WHO are mainly caused by the reference populations of different ethnic backgrounds. For practitioners, the choices of the standards/references depend on the population to be assessed and the purpose of the study. The new China references could be applied to facilitate the standardization assessment of growth and nutrition for Chinese children and adolescents in clinical pediatric and public health.

Zong XN; Li H

2013-01-01

137

AN ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF ANXIETY AMONG CHILDREN IN SCHOOL.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE BASIC PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ATTEMPT TO FIND OUT WHETHER ANXIETY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WAS TO A SIGNIFICANT DEGREE THE RESULT OF SCHOOL EXPERIENCES AND CONDITIONS. THE ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY WERE ALSO TO BE ANALYZED. THE METHOD OF STUDY INVOLVED OBTAINING MEASURES OF SCHOOL ANXIETY AT THE BEGINNING AND END…

PHILLIPS, BEEMAN N.

138

Study on the Infrared Fingerprints of Three Kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines for Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The consistency of the infrared spectrograms of thirty samples of each kind of Chinese Patent Medicines for Children was investigated by cluster analysis. The results show that the infrared spectrograms of thirty samples of Xiao’er Biyan Pian, Xiao’er Qingfeizhike Pian and Xiao’er Qingganling Pian were in good agreement, respectively. The infrared fingerprints of three kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines were established by average method. The infrared fingerprints of three kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines were compared using the similarity degrees of the characteristic curves. The results indicate that the significant difference was observed between two kinds of Chinese Patent Medicines and the infrared fingerprints can be used to the quality identification of Chinese Patent Medicines.

Lili Yang; Xuhua Qin; Yongjing Luo; Jinzhi Jiang; Zhi Ling; Deqiang Zhang

2011-01-01

139

Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

Kim SY; Chao RK

2009-01-01

140

Promoting social-emotional learning in Chinese schools: A feasibility study of PATHS implementation in Hong Kong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot study of a reduced version of the PATHS Curriculum, a Usdeveloped evidence-based SEL program, among schools in Hong Kong SAR (China). Three hundred and sixteen 12th grade students in three elementary schools participated in the study. A limited number of first grade PATHS lessons were adapted and translated into Chinese. Twelve teachers learned and adopted these lessons in their teaching. Students in these classrooms learned about different emotions and practiced self-control. The intervention lasted four months. After the intervention, students showed improvement in emotion understanding, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior. No change was observed in the level of children's problem behaviors. Over 65% of the teachers reported a high degree of satisfaction and willingness to adopt the intervention. The effects of the intervention varied among schools, with variations in the level of intervention and principal support, but not in the quality of implementation. Discussion is focused on the factors that could shape the adoption and implementation of SEL programs, especially the role of the difference in school systems between Hong Kong and the United States.

Chi-Ming Kam; Lance Wai-lap Wong; Kennis Mei-sze Fung

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chinese herbal medicine, sibship, and blood lead in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for increased blood lead concentration (BPb) has been investigated. However, the effect of sibship and Chinese herbal medicine on BPb has not been systematically studied. In this study BPb data from voluntary testing was used to determine if Chinese herbal medicine and ...

Cheng, T. J.; Wong, R. H.; Lin, Y. P.; Hwang, Y. H.; Horng, J. J.; Wang, J. D.

142

Understanding the Culture of Chinese Children and Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing appropriate health care to a client can be accomplished only in an environment that is sensitive to the cultural values and beliefs of the client. As the population of first-and second-generation Chinese immigrants increases in the United States, the need to develop culturally sensitive health care becomes significant. Chinese immigrants…

Cheung, Ruth; Nelson, Warren; Advincula, Luzelle; Cureton, Virginia Young; Canham, Daryl L.

2005-01-01

143

Helping children gain asthma control: bundled school-based interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the success of a community asthma quality improvement initiative to improve outcomes for children with asthma attending Cincinnati Public Schools with school-based health centers (SBHC), several members of the original initiative formed a new asthma improvement collaborative to spread the initiative's improvement work to inner-city children with asthma attending other schools with and without SBHCs. This article describes the collaborative's plan, which features a nurse practitioner using bundled, evidence-based, school-based interventions to improve asthma control for inner-city children in high poverty schools. PMID:23926750

Toole, Kimberly P

144

Helping children gain asthma control: bundled school-based interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Following the success of a community asthma quality improvement initiative to improve outcomes for children with asthma attending Cincinnati Public Schools with school-based health centers (SBHC), several members of the original initiative formed a new asthma improvement collaborative to spread the initiative's improvement work to inner-city children with asthma attending other schools with and without SBHCs. This article describes the collaborative's plan, which features a nurse practitioner using bundled, evidence-based, school-based interventions to improve asthma control for inner-city children in high poverty schools.

Toole KP

2013-05-01

145

Prevalence of hypertension in overweight and obese children from a large school-based population in Shanghai, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing rise in the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is considered to be accompanied with the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity. In this study, we established a large scale cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China, which presented a new evidence for the correlation of hypertension prevalence with overweight and obesity stages in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during February to December 2009 in Shanghai, China, including total 78,114 children and adolescents. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Overweight and obesity were defined according to sex- and age- specific Chinese reference data. Results Both SBP and DBP were very significantly increased in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) groups. With age and sex controlled, BMI and WC were independently positively correlated with SBP and DBP. The prevalence of high SBP, DBP and hypertension were markedly higher among OW and OB children than normal weight (NW) group. Odds ratios (ORs) for high SBP, high DBP and high BP were significantly greater in OW and OB children than NW group, and showed a trend increase correlating with obesity stages (all P Conclusions In this study on a large school-based population in Shanghai, China, BMI and WC are positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Being overweight or obese greatly increased the risk of hypertension in Chinese children and adolescents, in which WC is considered as a more sensitive indicator than BMI.

Lu Xi; Shi Peng; Luo Chun-Yan; Zhou Yue-Fang; Yu Hui-Ting; Guo Chang-Yi; Wu Fan

2013-01-01

146

Triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese Han children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of serum cholesterol and triglyceride in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Childrens Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. SUBJECTS: Children from 6 years to 17 year old. 188 with simple obesity, and 431 with obesity and metabolic abnormalities. 274 age and gender-matched healthy children as controls. METHODS: Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the detection of cardiovascular disease risk factors by cholesterol and triglyceride in children and adolescents. RESULTS: The ranges of areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 0.798-0.860 and 0.667-0.749, respectively to detect cardiovascular disease risk factors. The ranges of AUC for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 0.631-0.718, 0.596-0.683, and 0.292-0.376, respectively. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Chinese Han children and adolescents.

Zhu WF; Liang L; Wang CL; Fu JF

2013-04-01

147

Technology Infusion in a Chinese Middle School: A Comparative Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on an investigation of technology infusion at QiBao Middle School, one of the leading secondary schools in Shanghai (China). Major focuses of the study are models of professional development for teachers and how teachers enlist the help of their students. Results are presented related to: technology infrastructure; technology…

Lan, Jiang; He, Shujia; Ouyang, John Ronghua; Zhonghai, Qiu; Bao, Qiu

148

Thyroid function and morphology in overweight and obese children and adolescents in a Chinese population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in thyroid function and morphology in overweight and obese school-aged children and adolescents in Chinese population. METHODS: Altogether, 880 children and adolescents were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in Anhui Province and we assessed thyroid function, thyroid ultrasound, metabolic indicators and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in 781 subjects, which were divided into obesity (n=327), overweight (n=242), and normal-weight (n=212) groups. Overweight and obese subjects were further divided into four subgroups according to thyroid peroxidase antibody and ultrasound pattern to compare thyroid function and morphology with or without thyroid autoimmune evidence. RESULTS: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (FT3), as well as thyroid volume, were found to be positively associated with body mass index Z-score, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and/or waist circumference (WC). Conversely, free thyroxine was negatively associated with WC. The detection rates of thyroid nodules among these groups were not significantly different (p=0.828). Among the four subgroups in 569 overweight or obese subjects, the changes in thyroid function and volume were more obvious in group D which showed no autoimmune evidence. The levels of hs-CRP were also higher in the overweight and obese groups with or without autoimmune evidence than in the normal-weight group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Thyroid function and morphology may be affected in obese and overweight children and adolescents with elevated TSH, FT3 and thyroid volume. The detection rates of thyroid nodules may not be affected by obesity. Alterations in thyroid function and morphology cannot be completely explained by local autoimmune responses. Low-grade inflammation may be involved in the changes in thyroid function and morphology in obesity.

Chen H; Zhang H; Tang W; Xi Q; Liu X; Duan Y; Liu C

2013-01-01

149

Assessment of dental maturity of western Chinese children using Demirjian's method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Dental maturity, expressed as dental age, is one of the common indices for age estimation. Demirjian's method, first described in 1973 and based on a large number of French-Canadian samples, is one of the most widely used methods for dental age assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian's method for dental age estimation in western Chinese children. Digital panoramic radiographs of 445 children of western Chinese origin, ranging from 8 to 16 years old, were assessed in Demirjian's method. The dental maturity scores (DMSs) and dental ages of all the subjects were calculated by a single observer. The dental ages were compared to the chronological ages with a paired t-test. The general trend in this research showed that the western Chinese children demonstrated a more advanced dental age compared to French-Canadian children as previously presented by Demirjian. The mean difference in each age group between the dental age and chronological age ranged from 0.0071 to 1.2500 years in girls and from -1.0000 to 1.3000 years in boys. The standards of dental age assessment provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may be not suitable for western Chinese children. As a result, specific standards of dental age assessment should be established for this population. PMID:20056365

Chen, J W; Guo, J; Zhou, J; Liu, R K; Chen, T T; Zou, S J

2010-01-06

150

Assessment of dental maturity of western Chinese children using Demirjian's method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Dental maturity, expressed as dental age, is one of the common indices for age estimation. Demirjian's method, first described in 1973 and based on a large number of French-Canadian samples, is one of the most widely used methods for dental age assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian's method for dental age estimation in western Chinese children. Digital panoramic radiographs of 445 children of western Chinese origin, ranging from 8 to 16 years old, were assessed in Demirjian's method. The dental maturity scores (DMSs) and dental ages of all the subjects were calculated by a single observer. The dental ages were compared to the chronological ages with a paired t-test. The general trend in this research showed that the western Chinese children demonstrated a more advanced dental age compared to French-Canadian children as previously presented by Demirjian. The mean difference in each age group between the dental age and chronological age ranged from 0.0071 to 1.2500 years in girls and from -1.0000 to 1.3000 years in boys. The standards of dental age assessment provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may be not suitable for western Chinese children. As a result, specific standards of dental age assessment should be established for this population.

Chen JW; Guo J; Zhou J; Liu RK; Chen TT; Zou SJ

2010-04-01

151

Beyond distance: children's school travel mode choice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Long distance is a leading environmental barrier to walking to school and requires long-term, multilevel interventions. Meanwhile, childhood obesity remains highly prevalent, calling for more immediate solutions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine attitudinal and environmental correlates of walking to the elementary school, controlling for distance. METHODS: Using parental survey data, 601 child pairs with matched home locations and different school travel modes (walking vs. private automobile) were examined, using conditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: Despite the same/similar objectively measured distance and home location, perceptions of distance, sidewalk and traffic conditions, park presence, and convenience of walking differed between walkers and automobile users. Parental attitudes and children's preferences were associated with the odds of walking. Safety concerns (traffic danger, stranger danger, and getting lost) were higher among drivers, but only significant in bivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: To promote walking to school, route/street improvements appear promising, but parallel educational and promotional efforts may be needed to address perceptual and attitudinal barriers.

Lee C; Zhu X; Yoon J; Varni JW

2013-02-01

152

School children halt growing energy use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article charts the success of the Practical Solidarity project where children in Stjordal in central Norway managed to halt the growing household energy use as well as reducing energy consumption in local government buildings which resulted in a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. The background to the project is traced, and the goal to understand the connection between life styles and their environmental impacts, the project objective to improve energy efficiency in the Stjordal region, and the project strategy to use the school resources to increase awareness of the impacts of energy use are discussed. Details are given of the use of teaching materials, practical exercises for pupils and parents, registration of energy use in the school and homes, incorporation of the educational programme in the curriculum, and implementation of energy saving measures. The project results indicating the reduction of annual energy use are discussed, and opportunities and applications demonstrated by the project are considered.

Hilmo, P. [Energy Efficiency Center for Nord-Troendelag County (Norway)

1998-03-01

153

Elementary school practices and children's objectively measured physical activity during school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation of physical activity practices covering physical education (PE), recess, and classroom time in elementary schools to children's objectively measured physical activity during school. METHODS: Participants were 172 children from 97 elementary schools in the San Diego, CA and Seattle, WA USA regions recruited in 2009-2010. Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school was assessed via accelerometry, and school practices were assessed via survey of school informants. Multivariate linear mixed models were adjusted for participant demographics and unstandardized regression coefficients are reported. The 5 practices with the strongest associations with physical activity were combined into an index to investigate additive effects of these practices on children's MVPA. RESULTS: Providing ?100min/week of PE (B=6.7 more min/day; p=.049), having ?75 students/supervisor in recess (B=6.4 fewer min/day; p=.031), and having a PE teacher (B=5.8 more min/day; p=.089) were related to children's MVPA during school. Children at schools with 4 of the 5 practices in the index had 20 more min/day of MVPA than children at schools with 0 or 1 of the 5 practices (p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple school physical activity practices doubled children's physical activity during school.

Carlson JA; Sallis JF; Norman GJ; McKenzie TL; Kerr J; Arredondo EM; Madanat H; Mignano AM; Cain KL; Elder JP; Saelens BE

2013-08-01

154

Perception of stop onset spectra in Chinese children with phonological dyslexia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra were varied. Children with PD showed lower identification accuracy and exhibited a smaller vowel context effect for some stop-vowel combinations compared with the chronological age-matched control group. Further analyses revealed that the PD group had more variable response patterns, and their responses were less consistent with the acoustic characteristics of stop onset spectra. The results suggest that Chinese children with PD do not show greater sensitivity to allophonic acoustic variability compared with control children and exhibit a generally less robust response pattern to phonetic categories.

Liu W; Yue G

2012-11-01

155

Secular Changes on the Distribution of Body Mass Index among Chinese Children and Adolescents, 1985-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the change in Body Mass Index (BMI) distribution among Chinese children and adolescents for the development of more effective intervention for childhood obesity. METHODS: Data on the national students' constitution and health survey between 1985 and 2010 was used for this study. Subjects were students aged 7-18 randomly selected from 30 provinces in China. BMI for-age curves were developed by LMS method, and the trend of BMI distribution was determined by comparing the upper BMI percentiles and analyzing the skew shift of distribution between 1985 and 2010. RESULTS: An overall positive swift trend of BMI between 1985 and 2010 was observed among the Chinese school-age children and adolescents. The average median of the BMI increased from 16.8 and 17.0 kg/m2 to 18.2 and 17.9 kg/m2 in 25 years, with increments 0.56 and 0.36 kg/m2 per decade for males and females, respectively. The more obvious increments were found at the high BMI. The total increments of BMI in this period were 4.03 and 2.20 kg/m2 at the 85th, 6.14 and 3.57 kg/m2 at the 95th, and 6.99 and 4.27 kg/m2 at the 97th percentiles, for males and females, respectively. CONCLUSION: Obvious increments were observed at high BMI of the Chinese children and adolescents. More effective interventions should be taken for control and prevention of obesity and its health consequence for these subgroups. It is necessary to establish a risk-complex system consisting of the identification of BMI scope, the screen of the disease risk factors and the assessment of excessive adiposity.

Ji CY; Chen TJ; Sun X

2013-07-01

156

Do You See What I See? School Perspectives of Deaf Children, Hearing Children and Their Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

|Perspectives on academic and social aspects of children's school experiences were obtained from deaf and hearing children and their (deaf or hearing) parents. Possible differences between (1) the views of children and their parents and (2) those of hearing children and their parents compared to deaf children and their parents were of particular…

Marschark, Marc; Bull, Rebecca; Sapere, Patricia; Nordmann, Emily; Skene, Wendy; Lukomski, Jennifer; Lumsden, Sarah

2012-01-01

157

School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity: a cross-sectional study of Danish primary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 594 school children measured at preschool (age 6 to 7 years) and 3 years later in third grade (518 children age 9 to 10 years) from 18 schools in 2 suburban municipalities in Denmark. Physical activity data were obtained using accelerometers. These were related to the number of permanent play facilities in school grounds and the school playground area (m2). RESULTS: The number of play facilities in the school grounds was positively associated with all measures of children's activity. In preschool every 10 additional play facilities the children had access to was associated with an increase in the average accelerometer counts of 14% (r = .273, P < .001) in school time and 6.9% (r = .195, P < .001) overall. For the children in third grade, access to 10 additional play facilities was associated with an increase in school time activity level of 26% (r = .364, P < .001) and an increase in overall activity level of 9.4% (r = .211, P < .001). School playground area did not affect activity levels independently of the number of permanent play facilities. CONCLUSION: Increasing the number of play facilities in primary school playgrounds may increase the level of children's daily physical activity.

Nielsen G; Bugge A; Hermansen B; Svensson J; Andersen LB

2012-01-01

158

Smokeless tobacco use among Native American school children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven published and two unpublished surveys of Native American school children's use of smokeless tobacco (ST) are reviewed. The surveys represent school children in the States of South Dakota, Montana, Nebraska, Washington, Arizona, New Mexico, and Alaska. This review describes and discusses the su...

Bruerd, B

159

Injuries in Children with Extra Physical Education in Primary Schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: Children enrolled in EPE-schools with high OSP have the highest odds of injury and a high probability of sustaining a higher injury count compared to their peers at schools with normal PE. Special attention should be assigned these children during the compulsory PE.

Christiansen C; Andersen LB; Ersbøll AK; Jespersen E; Franz C; Wedderkopp N

2013-10-01

160

Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep ques...

Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Salehi; Maryam Rasoulain; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Morteza Naserbakht

 
 
 
 
161

Children with cancer: quality of information for returning to school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A children's oncology unit in the UK carried out an initial audit of the information given by healthcare professionals to children, families, teachers and educational institutions about the return to school of pupils with cancer. The findings were collated and presented to those involved. The audit has led to the provision of more consistent, continuing information to families and schools.

Selwood K; Hemsworth S; Rigg J

2013-06-01

162

RESEARCH OF THE CHINESE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ DEMAND FOR THE RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SERVICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. The article presents some primary causes of the Chinese secondary school students’ interests in the foreign education and factors which are considered by them as favorable to make a decision what type of the higher schools of the Russian Federation (RF) to choose for further education. The methodology of research. The quantitative technique of data gathering such as survey (especially personal interview) was used as a method of research. The results of research. According to this research we defined some major factors which were favorable to the Chinese students choosing the foreign higher education, and also positive and negative factors influencing them to choose Russian universities for further education. Practical implications. The research results can be used by universities in the RF to promote their educational services to the foreign market.

Vorozhbit Olga Yurevna; Yurchenko Natalya Aleksandrovna

2012-01-01

163

Chinese Children’s Literature in the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In China’s Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), childhood was portrayed as a battlefield in which opposing classes strived to fulfil the political impetus of training their heirs. In order to represent the new socialist morality, the few stories produced for children had to shift their focus to the space of the adult world, where there were more activities of “revolution” and “class struggle”. Consequently in these stories, the child protagonists talked and behaved like adult political instructors voicing the whole vocabulary of abstract revolutionary rhetoric. Stories written in those years are often readily seen, in their political context, as propaganda. Nevertheless, this paper argues that, from the perspective of the twenty-first century, the ideology of the 1960s and 1970s may look less like “propaganda” and more like “legend” due to the way in which the passing of time is capable of transforming propaganda into traditional art.Key words: Chinese children’s literature; Cultural Revolution; Propaganda

Lijun BI

2013-01-01

164

Increases in the prevalence of reduced visual acuity and myopia in Chinese children in Guangzhou over the past 20 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background/aimsTo estimate the prevalence of myopia based on reduced unaided visual acuity (VA) in Chinese school children over the past 20 years.MethodsGuangzhou school health authorities have measured VA on Grade 1-12 students from 1988 to 2007 annually, using a LogMAR tumbling E chart. VA is reported as Snellen categories: normal (VA?6/6), mildly reduced (6/9children in Grade 1 (age 6 years) and about 30% in Grade 12 (age 17 years) had normal unaided VA. By 2007, this dropped to only 60% in Grade 1 and about 10% in Grade 12. Conversely, the prevalence of moderately and severely reduced unaided VA increased from 6.2% in Grade 1 and 62.5% in Grade 12 in 1988 to 14.5% in Grade 1 and 84.11% in Grade 12 in 2007. This rate was unchanged from 2003 to 2007 at both the Grade 1 and Grade 12 levels.ConclusionsIn Guangzhou, the prevalence of reduced unaided VA has increased markedly in the past 20 years, but has stabilized in the past few years. This increase may result from environmental changes, such as increased schooling intensity and urbanization.Eye advance online publication, 6 September 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.194.

Xiang F; He M; Zeng Y; Mai J; Rose KA; Morgan IG

2013-09-01

165

The association of overweight and obesity with blood pressure among Chinese children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9% for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95% CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR% for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4% of high BP cases.

Dong B; Ma J; Wang HJ; Wang ZQ

2013-06-01

166

Incidence of chronic hoarseness among school-age children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A speech and voice screening of a kindergarten through eight grade Hebrew day school indicated that: (1) 38 (23.4%) of the 162 children in the school exhibited chronic hoarseness, (2) the incidence was higher in the primary grades, and (3) more boys than girls exhibited the disorder. Vocal nodules were diagnosed in 77.7& of the children examined by otolaryngologists. The findings of this and other recent studies indicate that a large number of school-age children, particularly those in the primary grades, exhibit chronic hoarseness. Futhermore, many such children may be expected to have vocal nodules.

Silverman EM

1975-05-01

167

Private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the relation between private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese elementary school children. Of 1,073 children studied, 67.3 percent attended private schools to study such subjects as calligraphy, abacus, and music. Of these children, 25.3 percent attended three to four times per week, and 18.1 percent five times and more. Statistical analysis showed that frequently attending children exhibited symptoms of dizziness, sleep disturbance, and other psycholphsiological problems. The results may warn educators as well as parents of some of the unfavorable effects of these extracurricular activities. PMID:1139974

Matsumoto, K; Kaku, R; Nakagawa, K; Kaneko, Z

1975-01-01

168

Private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates the relation between private school activities and psychosomatic problems in Japanese elementary school children. Of 1,073 children studied, 67.3 percent attended private schools to study such subjects as calligraphy, abacus, and music. Of these children, 25.3 percent attended three to four times per week, and 18.1 percent five times and more. Statistical analysis showed that frequently attending children exhibited symptoms of dizziness, sleep disturbance, and other psycholphsiological problems. The results may warn educators as well as parents of some of the unfavorable effects of these extracurricular activities.

Matsumoto K; Kaku R; Nakagawa K; Kaneko Z

1975-01-01

169

Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school subject differentiation). These two differential approaches have led to important discoveries and provided a better understanding of student motivational dynamics. However, little research has combined these two approaches. AIMS: This study examines young elementary students' motivations across school subjects (writing, reading, and maths) from the stance of self-determination theory. First, we tested whether children self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation towards specific school subjects. Second, we verified whether children self-report differentiated types of motivation across school subjects. SAMPLE: Participants were 425 French-Canadian children (225 girls, 200 boys) from three elementary schools. Children were in Grades 1 (N=121), 2 (N=126), and 3 (N=178). RESULTS: Results show that, for a given school subject, young elementary students self-report different levels of intrinsic, identified, and controlled motivation. Results also indicate that children self-report different levels of motivation types across school subjects. Our findings also show that most differentiation effects increase across grades. Some gender effects were also observed. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of distinguishing among types of school motivation towards specific school subjects in the early elementary years.

Guay F; Chanal J; Ratelle CF; Marsh HW; Larose S; Boivin M

2010-12-01

170

Exposure-response relationships between lifetime exposure to residential coal smoke and respiratory symptoms and illnesses in Chinese children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data collected in a large epidemiologic study were analyzed to examine respiratory health effects of residential coal use in 7058 school children living in the four Chinese cities of Chongqing, Guangzhou, Lanzhou, and Wuhan. A Scenario Evaluation Approach was used to develop two exposure variables, heating coal smoke and cooking coal smoke. Estimated lifetime exposures to heating coal smoke and cooking coal smoke were both classified into four-level ordinal scales, as follows: no reported exposure (control); lightly exposed; moderately exposed; and heavily exposed. Zero-one dummy variables were constructed for each exposure level other than the control level (total six variables). These variables were entered into the analytical model. We tested for exposure-response relationships using logistic regression models, while controlling for other relevant covariates, including an indicator variable of ambient air pollution levels. We observed monotonic and positive exposure-response relationships of exposure to heating coal smoke with modeled odds ratios (ORs) of phlegm, cough with phlegm, and bronchitis. Other health outcomes were not associated with such exposure in a monotonic exposure-response pattern. However, ORs for cough, wheeze, and asthma were all higher in the exposed groups than in the control group. We observed no consistent associations between cooking coal smoke and the examined health outcomes. We conclude that exposure to heating coal smoke could have adverse effects on children's respiratory symptoms and illnesses in these four Chinese cities.

Qian, Z.M.; Zhang, J.F.; Korn, L.R.; Wei, F.S.; Chapman, R.S. [Penn State University, Hershey, PA (United States). College of Medicine

2004-04-01

171

Traditional Chinese medicine for treating customary children's urorrhea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A traditional Chinese medicine for curing inertia bed-wetting belongs to a traditional Chinese medicine for curing bed-wetting. The components include: 20g of astragalus root, 10g of tangshen, 10g of dodder seed, 10g of ootheca mantidis, 10g of cherokee rose fruit, 10g of fructus rubi pe, 8g of sharpleaf galangal fruit, 8g of desertliving cistanche and 8g of Chinese magnolivine fruit the auxiliary prescription includes: for the tired and sluggish patients, 10g of largehead atractylodes rhizome and 10g of hawthorn fruit are added for the sleepiness, 10g of grassleaf sweetflag rhizome is added. The substances in the prescription are made from natural traditional Chinese medicine plus traditional preparing methods. The materials are easy to collect, the prescription and the preparation methods are simple, and the cost of medicine preparation is low. The compatibility of the traditional Chinese medicine is simple the medicine used in the prescription is fully natural herbal medicine, which is easy to collect and use the preparation method is simple the effects for taking and curing are good the cost of the medicine is low, and the medicine is in particular suitable for the people living in remote villages far from towns the cost is low for curing the people suffering from inertia bed-wetting, which solves the problem that the local area lacks medical conditions to cure the disease because of low household income and poor living condition.

YUTANG FAN

172

Free Time Motivation and Physical Activity in Middle School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined free time motivation and physical activity in 68 middle school children from a rural public school system (N = 24) and a private school located in the same area of the Midwest (N = 44). Results indicated that free time motivation did not explain variability in physical activity behavior during free time or while students were…

Kozub, Francis M.; Farmer, James

2011-01-01

173

Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignores t...

Lilleør, Helene Bie

174

Children's social/emotional characteristics at entry to school: Implications for school nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children entering school need to build healthy peer relationships; school, however, is the central place for bullying. School nurses have a growing focus on providing care for students with social, emotional and behavioural problems. We examined the relational development of children at school entry in regard to aggression and empathy, showing that teacher-reported aggression decreased between Pre-primary and Year One, while empathy increased between Year One and Year Two classes. No gender difference was found in teacher-reported total, or covert aggression. Understanding how development of empathy can be supported in children at school entry is important, thereby supporting development of pro-social behaviour and decreasing bullying. School nurses must understand the importance of surrounding children with safety in relationships as they begin school.

Nelson H; Kendall G; Shields L

2013-09-01

175

Children's social/emotional characteristics at entry to school: Implications for school nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children entering school need to build healthy peer relationships; school, however, is the central place for bullying. School nurses have a growing focus on providing care for students with social, emotional and behavioural problems. We examined the relational development of children at school entry in regard to aggression and empathy, showing that teacher-reported aggression decreased between Pre-primary and Year One, while empathy increased between Year One and Year Two classes. No gender difference was found in teacher-reported total, or covert aggression. Understanding how development of empathy can be supported in children at school entry is important, thereby supporting development of pro-social behaviour and decreasing bullying. School nurses must understand the importance of surrounding children with safety in relationships as they begin school. PMID:23455873

Nelson, Helen; Kendall, Garth; Shields, Linda

2013-03-01

176

Aphasia of Chinese Culture in Senior High School English Teaching—Taken a Key Middle School in Kunming as the Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on aphasia of Chinese culture in college English teaching have been focused for a long time. Yet little attention has been paid to the senior high school English teaching concerning this problem. As a matter of fact, senior high school English teaching plays an essential role in English learning. In order to find out whether aphasia of Chinese culture exists in this stage and dig out the factors, the author has carried out a survey with quantitative and qualitative methodologies in the senior high school students of Grade one and teachers of a key middle school in Kunming. The survey reveals that this phenomenon does exist in senior high school English teaching and the extent is rather severe. The main reasons are lack of introduction on Chinese culture in English class, inadequacy of Chinese culture in textbooks and no emphasis on Chinese culture in English test. According to the explored reasons, the author proposes the corresponding suggestive solutions to the problem. They are: to reform the culture teaching, to add more Chinese culture in textbooks and to revise NMET (National Matriculation English Test).

Dimin Luo

2011-01-01

177

Guillain-Barre syndrome in southern Chinese children: 32 year experience in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical pattern of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) in southern Chinese children in Hong Kong and to compare the clinical outcome of early versus delayed intervention with i.v. immunoglobulin (IVIg). Methods: A retrospective review of...

Ma, YM; Liu, TKT; Wong, V

178

Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-01

179

Weaknesses in Semantic, Syntactic and Oral Language Expression Contribute to Reading Difficulties in Chinese Dyslexic Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Xiao XY; Ho CS

2013-07-01

180

Bidirectional Longitudinal Relations between Father-Child Relationships and Chinese Children's Social Competence during Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

|Using a two-year and three-wave cross-lagged design with a sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined bidirectional longitudinal relations between father-child relationships and children's social competence. The results of structural equation modeling showed bidirectional effects between father-child conflict and social…

Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, and Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a sing...

Lai, MY; Leung, FKS

182

Assessment of Obesity in School Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction:The WHO refers obesity as a globalepidemic because of rapid increase in thenumber of overweight and obese individualsin last 20 years. The onset of obesity mayoccur at any age and it maybe triggered byfactors such as early weaning, inadequatefood intake, eating disorders and problemsrelated to disturbed family relationships.Objectives:1. Assessment of nutritional status ofschool children2. To analyze the relationshipbetween obesity with physicalactivity and sleeping hours.3. To analyze the relationshipbetween obesity and correlationbetween waist hip ratio and bodymass index.Materials and methods:We measured the weight, height, body massindex and mid arm circumference ofchildren. The children were classified asnormal, underweight, overweight or obese,according to body mass index per age. 54children were assessed at a school nearBhavnagar Medical CollegeResults:Out of 54 students, there were 32 girls and22 boys. Out of 32 girls 11 were normal, 3were overweight and 18 were under weightand out of 22 boys 6 were normal, 1overweight and 15 were under weight.Discussion:The prevalence of overweight and obesity inschool-aged children in our study counterthe results obtained from other studies.Present data was analyzed statistically andwe had tried to correlate it with sleepinghours, time spent in front of TV andcomputer as well as physical activity. Wehave also tried to find out the association ofparents occupation with their weight status.Conclusion:We observed an association betweenexcess weight and obesity and inactivity inchildren. The time spent in sleeping was apositive factor for maintaining a balancebetween weight and height. There was alsoan association between underweightchildren and working mothers.Key Words :

Shah C; Diwan J,; Rao P; Bhabhor M; Gokhle P; Mehta H

2008-01-01

183

Teacher Expectations, Children's Perceived Powerfulness and School Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Children's Perceived Powerfulness Scale (CPPS) was administered to 1200 suburban elementary grade school children. At each of four grade levels, three classes were designated as High Powerful (HP) and three as Low Powerful (LP). Results indicate that children in HP classes were viewed more favorably by their teachers, obtained higher scores on…

Nagler, Sylvain; Hoffnung, Robert

184

Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

2011-01-01

185

Discourses on bad children and bad schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

First, discourse is discussed as concerning the subtler lineaments of knowledge production in notions about difference and difficulty. The unhelpful influences that these notions have had on the development of special education research and practice are discussed. The importance of the scholar-practitioner in undoing some of these understandings is further developed. Second, the point is stressed that politics and political questions are intertwined with empirical questions and that a discourse of objectivity propagates and fosters a belief that the supposed paraphernalia of science (measurement, experiment, prediction) can be employed without cost. Third, the point is made that the individual discourse is rooted in the theoretical context of special education--with unhelpful consequences for the way that difficulty continues to be construed as rooted in individuals, whether those individuals be children or schools.

Thomas G; Loxley A

2005-03-01

186

Discourses on bad children and bad schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

First, discourse is discussed as concerning the subtler lineaments of knowledge production in notions about difference and difficulty. The unhelpful influences that these notions have had on the development of special education research and practice are discussed. The importance of the scholar-practitioner in undoing some of these understandings is further developed. Second, the point is stressed that politics and political questions are intertwined with empirical questions and that a discourse of objectivity propagates and fosters a belief that the supposed paraphernalia of science (measurement, experiment, prediction) can be employed without cost. Third, the point is made that the individual discourse is rooted in the theoretical context of special education--with unhelpful consequences for the way that difficulty continues to be construed as rooted in individuals, whether those individuals be children or schools. PMID:15813598

Thomas, Gary; Loxley, Andrew

187

ICT and participation in school and outside school activities for children and youths with physical disabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The general aim was to investigate the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and participation in computer activities in school and outside school among children and youth with physical disabilities (age 8-19 years), in comparison to children and youth in general. In particular the a...

Lidström, Helene

188

School administrators' perceptions of factors that influence children's active travel to school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. METHODS: Frequency distributions and chi-square tests were used to analyze the survey responses; open-ended questions were reviewed qualitatively for recurring topics and themes. RESULTS: School and district leaders (N = 314) most often reported street crossing safety (54.0%) and number of sidewalks (54.0%) as priority factors that should be addressed to increase students' active travel to school, followed by distance to school (46.0%), traffic volume (42.4%), parental attitudes (27.0%), traffic speed (26.7%), neighborhood condition (24.4%), and student attitudes (10.0%). Several respondents expressed concerns about liability issues related to students' active travel to school while others reported that schools are not responsible for students' safety once students leave school grounds. Independent of their comments about liability, respondents were concerned about the safety of students while walking to school. CONCLUSIONS: Those promoting active travel to school may benefit from addressing those factors perceived as most important by school and district leaders, including street crossing safety, number of sidewalks, and by educating school and district leaders about liability and safety issues related to students walking to school.

Price AE; Pluto DM; Ogoussan O; Banda JA

2011-12-01

189

Aphasia of Chinese Culture in Senior High School English Teaching—Taken a Key Middle School in Kunming as the Example  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on aphasia of Chinese culture in college English teaching have been focused for a long time. Yet little attention has been paid to the senior high school English teaching concerning this problem. As a matter of fact, senior high school English teaching plays an essential role in English lear...

Dimin Luo

190

Method for preparing Chinese medicine for treating children's wind-heat cold  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for preparing a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of wind-heat cold of children, belonging to the technical field of traditional Chinese medicine preparation methods. At present, such a cold is treated mostly by taking western medicines, however, such treatment has a defect of certain side effect. The inventive technical proposal comprises: putting 20 drugs of honeysuckle, fructus forsythiae, folium isatidis, radix isatidis, herba patriniae, herba houttuyniae, caulis sargentodoxae, Chinese white olive, mint, herba schizonepetae, radix sileris, black bean, burdock, Vietnamese sophora root, blackberry lily, calyx seu fructus physalis, folium phyllostachytis, reed rhizome, balloon flower and licorice into 1100 milliliters of water for being immersed for 30 minutes followed by decocting with soft fire, filtering and deslagging the decocted liquid medicine to 260 milliliters of liquid medicine which is the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of wind-heat cold of children. The invention has the advantages that: the liquid medicine is simple to prepare and the prepared traditional Chinese medicine has less toxic side effects, is easy in absorption, short in course of the treatment and high in cure rate.

CUIJU JIA; HAIXIA LI; ZUOHUI FU

191

Availability of school health services for young children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey to assess availability of school health services was distributed to 221 directors of Schools of the 21st Century, an educational model that provides integrated services to children and families. Of this distribution, 126 (57%) surveys were returned; 88% of respondents reported they provided some type of school health services for their students; 75% of schools had access to school nursing services, yet only 33% had a school nurse on-site; 50% had less than daily access to a school nurse. Despite a high reported prevalence of physical and mental health problems, other services such as acute care, nutrition counseling, dental screenings, or mental health services were provided less frequently. Barriers perceived as problematic for schools providing health services included inadequate funding, limited parental awareness, and opposition by school or community members. Respondents believed transportation, limited financial resources, and inadequate health insurance were barriers to care for children and families. Among this sample of schools, school health services varied in availability and comprehensiveness. Educators, health providers, and parents must work together to provide improved school health services for children.

Heneghan AM; Malakoff ME

1997-10-01

192

Pattern of Ocular Morbidity in School Children in Central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School eye health services is one of the important aspect of school health services in which children can be screened for various systemic and eye diseases such as refractive error, squint, amblyopia, cataract ,vitamin deficiency etc . The basic aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of visual impairment amongst school children of central India and to recognize avoidable causes of ocular morbidity. School surveys were conducted in various government schools of rural, urban and semi urban areas of Bhopal between Nov-2004 to Dec-07. A total of 20,800 school children between age group 5 to 16 years had under gone the complete ocular examination. Prevalence of Ocular morbidity was found in 14.5%. Refractive error was found to be the most common cause of ocular morbidity (47.91%) followed by vitamin A deficiency (13.66%) and strabismus (2.08%).

Harpal Singh

2011-01-01

193

Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. SETTING: Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. RESULTS: The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (P<0.001). In all, 68% of children had fruit in their lunchboxes, however, over 90% of children had energy-dense, micronutrient-poor snacks ('junk food'). CONCLUSIONS: Fruit intake in primary schools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

Sanigorski AM; Bell AC; Kremer PJ; Swinburn BA

2005-11-01

194

Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests.

Ozer S

2011-02-01

195

Blood lead levels in Jamaican school children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blood lead levels are reported for a total of 421 schoolchildren in 13 schools in rural and urban environments in Jamaica, including one highly contaminated community. In the rural areas blood lead levels ranged from 3 to 28.5 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, with a median of 9.2 {mu}g dl{sup -1}; the range and median in the urban schools were 4-34.7 and 16.6 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, respectively. Forty-two percent of the rural and 71% of the urban blood lead levels exceeded the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intervention level of 10 {mu}g dl{sup -1}. Except in the contaminated area, the relationship between soil lead levels, which in Jamaica are in general typical of tropical lateritic soils, and blood lead levels is not clear-cut. Very high blood lead levels of 18 to >60 {mu}g dl{sup -1} with a median of 35 {mu}g dl{sup -1} were observed among children in the contaminated area, the site of a former lead ore processing plant. These high blood lead levels were significantly reduced, by the implementation of relatively simple mitigation strategies which involved isolation of the lead, education, and a food supplementation programme, to levels similar to those observed in the urban schools. These values, however, remain higher than are desirable and unfortunately, all the sources of lead are not yet identified. The recent discontinuation of the use of leaded petrol is expected to result in significant reductions in exposure to lead.

Lalor, G.; Rattray, R.; Vutchkov, M. [International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, 7 Kingston (Jamaica); Campbell, B.; Lewis-Bell, K. [Epidemiology Unit, Ministry of Health, Kingston (Jamaica)

2001-03-26

196

Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

2013-04-01

197

American and Chinese Children's Evaluations of Personal Domain Events and Resistance to Parental Authority.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 267 five-, seven-, and ten-year-olds (M = 7.62), 147 in Hong Kong and 120 in the United States, evaluated hypothetical personal (and moral) events described as either essential or peripheral to actors' identity. Except for young Chinese in the peripheral condition, straightforward personal events were overwhelmingly evaluated as acceptable based on personal justifications. Children primarily endorsed compliance, but attributed negative emotions to actors when mothers forbade personal choices, especially when described as essential to identity. Conventional justifications declined among Chinese children and pragmatic justifications for these judgments increased with age for all children, as did judgments that personal events were up to the child. Rules were seen as more legitimate and events were seen as more up to mothers to decide for moral than personal events.

Smetana JG; Wong M; Ball C; Yau J

2013-07-01

198

[School medical findings in children of foreign workers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A report on three investigations of the medical school-service on children from foreign countries is given. The foreign children are normally smaller than German children, but in relation to their stature more heavily built. Vaccination status and documentation are insufficient. Nevertheless, disturbances in organic functioning considered to be attributed to damages caused by our "society of civilization" are less prominent in foreign children. The necessary actions of improving the above mentioned situation are pointed out.

Hartung K

1979-10-01

199

Intestinal lymphangiectasia--a report of three Chinese children in Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a report of 3 Chinese children with intestinal lymphangiectasia in Malaysia. Two children responded to a low fat diet and medium-chain triglyceride supplement. The third child has recurrent chylous ascites. None of the children has recurrent infections despite low CD4+ cells and low levels of IgG and IgA. Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare congenital disorder of the mesenteric lymphatic that leads to the obstruction of the lymphatics of the intestine and protein losing enteropathy. Restriction of dietary fat intake will usually result in remission. Recurrent chylous ascites is a problem and management can be difficult.

Lee WS; Boey CC; Goh AY; Chang KW; Iyngkaran N

1998-09-01

200

Chinese medicinal composition for treating eczema and cutitis of children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a Chinese medicinal composition for treating infantile eczema and dermatitis, and belongs to the field of external Chinese medicinal preparations. The technical proposal is that the composition comprises radix bupleuri 30-40 g, cortex dictamni 30-40 g, Sophora flavescens 20-30 g, safflower 10-20 g, gallnut 20-30 g, radix sileris 10-20 g, radix clematidis 20-30 g, schizonepeta spike 20-30 g, indigo 3 g, egg oil 50 mL, and vegetable oil 100 mL. The composition has effects of dispelling wind, arresting itching, moistening skin and promoting tissue regeneration, and is mainly used for treating infantile eczema and dermatitis. Proven by 246 cases of clinic tests, the composition has high cure rate (89%), high effective rate (96.5%), no toxic or side effects, and no drug dependence.

ZHIXIN LIU; YUXIU DU; SUYU LIU

 
 
 
 
201

Correlation of C-reactive protein level and obesity in Chinese adults and children: a meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This meta-analysis evaluated the correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in Chinese adults and children. We searched three Chinese databases (Wanfang, WEIPU and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) in addition to PubMed. The articles were restricted to only Chinese studies published online before January 9, 2013. Data from 28 articles were independently abstracted by two reviewers. The articles' characteristics were abstracted as follows: 1) first author name; 2) year of publication; 3) study population; 4) sample size; 5) sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and CRP level of the study population; 6) Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, or odds ratios (ORs) between CRP level and obesity. The meta-analysis was conducted to pool the Pearson correlation coefficients using a random-effects model. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and BMI was 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33-0.56) in Chinese adults and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.62) in Chinese children, and the pooled Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.24-0.40) in the general Chinese population and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) in the obese Chinese population. Significant correlation was thus found between CRP and obesity in Chinese adults and children.

Zhao Y; Lv G

2013-06-01

202

Traditional Chinese medicine for treating children's urorrhea from mental load  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A traditional Chinese medicine for curing the mental burden bed-wetting belongs to a traditional Chinese medicine for curing bed-wetting. The components include: 9g of common yam rhizome, 9g of ootheca mantidis, 6g of cassia bark, 6g of combined spicebush root, 6g of sharpleaf galangal fruit, 3g of medulla tetrapanacis and 6g of dodder seed the auxiliary prescription includes: for the patients with much sweat, 8g of fuxiaomai and 8g of largehead atractylodes rhizome are added for the patients with loose stool, 6g of rhizoma zingberis for the patients with red eyes, 10g of chrysanthemum and 10g of spicaprunellae are added for the patients with sleepiness, 9g of thinleaf milkwort root and 9g of bhizoma acori calami are added. The substances in the prescription are made from natural traditional Chinese medicine plus traditional preparing methods. The materials are easy to collect, the prescription and the preparation methods are simple, and the cost of medicine preparation is low. The compatibility of the traditional Chinese medicine is simple the medicine used in the prescription is fully natural herbal medicine, which is easy to collect and use the preparation method is simple the effects for taking and curing are good the cost of the medicine is low, and the medicine is in particular suitable for the people living in remote villages far from towns the cost is low for curing the people suffering from the mental burden bed-wetting, which solves the problem that the local area lacks medical conditions to cure the disease because of low household income and poor living condition.

YUTANG FAN

203

The relationship of placement experience to school absenteeism and changing schools in young, school-aged children in foster care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chronic school absenteeism and frequent school changes, particularly among younger children, may be antecedents for the high rates of school failure and subsequent dropout among youth in foster care. However, the relationship of foster care experience to absenteeism and school change has not been well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association of placement experience with absenteeism and changing schools among 209 urban children in foster care enrolled in public elementary schools. METHODS: A cohort of children aged 5 to 8 years who entered non-relative or kinship foster care from 2006-2008 were followed longitudinally for 2 years from entry into foster care. Children residing in foster care were categorized at the end of the study as early stable, late stable, or unstable, if they achieved a permanent placement prior to 45 days, between 45 days and 9 months, or failed to do so within 9 months, respectively. Children who reunified home were classified as a fourth category. Poisson regression, controlling for baseline factors, was used to compare days absent and number of schools attended across categories of placement experience. RESULTS: Among the 209 children, 51% were male, 79% were African American, and 55% were initially placed with kin. One third of children reunified home; among children who did not reunify, one half was early stable, and a third was unstable. Adjusted rates of school absenteeism increased in stepwise fashion as children's placements became more unstable; children with unstable placements were 37% more likely to be absent than those with early placement stability (p=0.029). Children who reunified during the study demonstrated the highest rates of absenteeism; however, there was no significant difference in absenteeism before or after reunification. Number of schools attended increased as stability worsened, with the standardized rate of schools attended reaching 3.6 schools (95% CI 3.1-4.1) over a two year period among children in unstable placements. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between placement experience and school absenteeism and school change illustrates the need to better coordinate the educational experience of high-risk children in foster care. The secondary finding of high absenteeism among children in the process of returning home illustrates that educational challenges for youth may be equally if not more concerning among the greater majority of youth in child welfare who remain home with birth parents.

Zorc CS; O'Reilly AL; Matone M; Long J; Watts CL; Rubin D

2013-05-01

204

Asthma medication use in school-aged children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using data from the 1996, 1998, and 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this study assessed controller medication use in a national representative sample of school-aged children with persistent asthma. Children 5 to 17 years of age with persistent asthma were identified in accordance with the Health Employer Data and Information Set specifications. Nonuse of controllers and excess use of relievers were common. In addition, controller medications were significantly less likely to be purchased for younger children, black and Hispanic children, and white children whose mothers had at least a college education. Efforts to improve childhood asthma management are needed, especially for those children.

Wang LY; Zhong Y; Wheeler L

2006-09-01

205

Validation of a questionnaire to measure mastery motivation among Chinese preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Further, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed the task and effort motivation scales, as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Their teachers also completed the task and effort motivation scales. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales. The parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales correlated positively with the PDAS cognitive sub-test and the SDQ prosocial scale scores, and negatively with the SDQ total problem behavior scores. Children with developmental disabilities were assigned lower scores by their teachers and parents on the two motivation scales, compared with children with typical development. Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of the two motivation scales were above .70. The results suggested that the task and effort motivation scales were promising instruments for the assessment of motivation among Chinese preschool children.

Leung C; Lo SK

2013-01-01

206

The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

Kopas-Vukašinovi? Emina

2006-01-01

207

Adapting and designing spaces: children and their schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In schools, children experience their environment on three different levels: firstly, they constantly make spatial decisions by positioning themselves in relation to others and organising their immediate environment; secondly, they can potentially contribute to shaping the classroom spaces; and, thi...

Kenkmann, Andrea

208

Physical activity for children in special school environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. We assessed children's physical activity (PA) in structured (physical education) and unstructured (recess, lunch, before and after school) periods in special schools and examined its association with modifiable area contextual characteristics. 2. Children with disabilities were not highly active, but were more active during recess and lunch periods than at other times including physical education classes. 3. Areas were often not accessible during unstructured settings. Children were more active in areas when supervision and organised activities were provided. 4. Providing an interactive game during free play did not significantly increase group's PA. 5. Children's PA accrual is influenced by contextual characteristics of the school environment. There is a need to make areas more accessible and to use social marketing and programming to attract more users. School and health professionals should modify contextual characteristics by providing more direct supervision and organised activities during free play.

Sit CH; McKenzie TL; Cerin E; McManus A; Lian J

2013-06-01

209

Nasal nitric oxide levels in healthy pre-school children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) has been proposed as a screening tool in children with clinically suspectable primary ciliary dyskinesia. Nevertheless, normal values have been reported for school-aged children. This study was designed to identify normal nNO levels in pre-school children. nNO was assessed in 300 healthy children aged between 1.5 and 7.2. Two hundred and fifty of them were unable to fulfill the guideline requirements for nNO measurement and were assessed by sampling the nasal air continuously with a constant trans-nasal aspiration flow for 30 s during tidal breathing. For those children who were able to cooperate, the average nNO concentration was calculated according to guidelines. A statistically significant relationship between nNO level and age was demonstrated in this study group of pre-school children (p < 0.001). An increase in nNO of about 100 ppb was observed in children older than 6 yr vs. those aged < 3. This study presents a description of normal nNO values in pre-school children. The effect of the age and the eventual presence of rhinitis and snoring need to be considered whenever nNO is evaluated in the clinical practice, in particular in non-cooperative children. PMID:21073540

Piacentini, G L; Bodini, A; Peroni, D G; Sandri, M; Brunelli, M; Pigozzi, R; Boner, A L

2010-12-01

210

Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children.

2004-01-01

211

Health and school outcomes during children's transition into adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. RESULTS: Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success.

Forrest CB; Bevans KB; Riley AW; Crespo R; Louis TA

2013-02-01

212

Work at school: teacher and parent perceptions about children's participation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Little research has been carried out on the behaviours that lead to children's successful participation in work roles at school. The objective of this study was to identify some of the elements critical to participation of students by listening to the perspectives of teachers and parents of children who have difficulties with school work. The study is part of a larger research project aimed at developing an assessment tool to describe the participation of children at school with particular reference to students who experience a difficulty with learning. PARTICIPANTS: 50 teachers and 44 parents of children referred to occupational therapy for problems with school work. METHODS: A survey approach using an open ended written response questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings indicated that there are core elements of participation in work that are commonly perceived as crucial by teachers and parents. These included common definitions of work participation with the emergence of several themes relative to work roles and meaning, opportunity for inclusion in school work, risk taking and enjoyment as part of work, and thinking processes. Differences between teacher and parent responses related to perceived reasons for a difficulty with participation, activities which require high levels of participation and aspects of participation that are most difficult to change. CONCLUSION: This study provided descriptive data on which to build further research into children's experiences of work, and highlights the need for occupational therapists to consider perceptions of key stakeholders when assessing children's work ability at school.

Lowe S; Chapparo C

2010-01-01

213

Stakeholder Views on the Roles, Challenges, and Future Prospects of Korean and Chinese Heritage Language-Community Language Schools in Phoenix: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examines stakeholders' perspectives on Korean and Chinese heritage language and community language (HL-CL) schools and education in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area, Arizona. It investigates and compares the roles, major challenges, and future prospects of Korean and Chinese HL-CL schools as viewed by principals, teachers, and parents. To…

You, Byeong-keun; Liu, Na

2011-01-01

214

Sleep Disorders in Children: Collaboration for School-Based Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

|The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…

Everhart, D. Erik

2011-01-01

215

Making Children's Voices Visible: The School Setting Interview (SSI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Children and young people with disabilities educated in their local school may need services to get equal access to the curriculum. To ensure that any educationally-relevant services achieve the best outcomes, the students' own voices and perspectives should also be included. This paper introduces the School Setting Interview (SSI), an…

Hemmingsson, Helena; Penman, Merrolee

2010-01-01

216

Promoting Smooth School Transitions for Children in Foster Care  

Science.gov (United States)

|Children in foster care move two times per year on average. School records are not always transferred in a timely manner, which leads to a lack of services. Schools often are not aware of the legal issues surrounding foster care, such as who has legal rights to sign field trip permission slips or consent for educational evaluations. This study…

Laviolette, Ghyslyn T.

2011-01-01

217

Blood lead levels of primary school children in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dhaka, Bangladesh, has one of the highest air lead levels in the world. In February 2000, we evaluated children at five primary schools in Dhaka to determine blood lead (BPb) levels, sources of environmental exposure, and potential risk factors for lead poisoning. Selected schools represented a rang...

Kaiser, R; Henderson, A K; Daley, W R; Naughton, M; Khan, M H; Rahman, M; Kieszak, S; Rubin, C H

218

Developing School Provision for Children with Dyspraxia. A Practical Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

With a much greater awareness in schools of conditions like dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism, and the effects they have in the context of the educational curriculum, schools are becoming better placed to help children access a curriculum that takes account of the diverse needs of its learners. It has been predicted that as people move through the…

Jones, Nichola, Ed.

2005-01-01

219

Weight status, self-competence, and coping strategies in Chinese children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate Chinese children's perceptions of self-competence and the coping strategies based on gender and weight status using the Terror Management Theory. A total of 331 Chinese children completed body mass index (BMI), Self-Perception Profile for Children, and Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Mothers completed demographic information and the Family Assessment Device. Results indicated that better behavioral conduct competence contributed to better global self-worth in boys; in girls, better behavioral conduct competence and physical appearance competence contributed to better global self-worth. Higher BMI was related to lower athletic competency in boys and lower social competence in girls. Eating and drinking were reported as one of the most frequently used coping strategies by children, but the children felt that this strategy was not effective. Results of this study suggest that culture plays an important role in children's perceived self-competence and coping strategies. Health care providers and educators should incorporate assessment of self-competence and coping strategies into patient care and education. PMID:17524962

Chen, Jyu-Lin; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kennedy, Christine

2007-06-01

220

EXAMINATION OF TELEVISION VIEWING HABITS OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Television has powerful effects on children. Howewer TV gives positive messages to children it also can cause children to be inactive and prevent their creative play activities. In this study, it was aimed at to determine the television viewing habits of school age children between 6?12 years old. That Cross-sectional type study has been conducted on 100 students who were selected with stratified randomised sampling method according to sex, age and class among 492 students who were taken education from first step of the Ankara-Cigiltepe Primary Education School. Mean age of school age children who were involved in study was 9.1±1.5. It was detemined that 43% of children (n=43) were watching TV more than 3 hours a day, 54% of them were watching TV to relieve their boredom and 48% of them were watching TV because they like watching. When the spare time activities of children were examined it was determined that they were spending their time by playing and making sportive activities with the highest rate (n=95, 26.1%), and television viewing was in the third order (n=61, 17.3%). In this study, it was determined that most of the children were watching TV under the offered time, children whose mother were not working were watching TV for longer time, and TV watching time of the children were increasing with increasing age. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000): 391-401

Filiz ARSLAN; Ayse Sevim UNAL; Hamide GULER; Kadriye KARDAS

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A near-infrared brain function study of Chinese dyslexic children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, two findings using functional magnetic resonance imaging of dyslexic in Chinese show the left middle frontal gyrus is a crucial area associated with reading disability. The purpose of present study was to replicate the previous findings using near-infrared spectroscopy and a consonant-vowel task which engaged finer-grained phonological processing. Compared to the control group, our study showed the dyslexic children had decreased amounts of oxy-hemoglobin and total-hemoglobin in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results supported the previous findings and indicated that phonological deficit was also the cause of dyslexia in Chinese and it might be explained by decreased activity in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our study suggests that dyslexic children have an abnormal hemodynamic pattern in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus, which can provide a new target for diagnosing or treating the condition with the near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22788694

Song, Ranran; Zhang, Jiajia; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Hanrong

2012-07-12

222

Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined whether very preterm (?30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys ...

Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

223

Education, Schooling, and Children's Rights: The Complexity of Homeschooling  

Science.gov (United States)

By blurring the distinction between formal school and education writ large, homeschooling both highlights and complicates the tensions among the interests of parents, children, and the state. In this essay, Robert Kunzman argues for a modest version of children's educational rights, at least in a legal sense that the state has the duty and…

Kunzman, Robert

2012-01-01

224

Too Cool for School?: Gifted Children and Homeschooling  

Science.gov (United States)

Homeschooling can be a last resort for frustrated families where gifted children are not having their complex needs met through mainstream schooling. Unlike many other groups of homeschoolers, parents of highly able children take this option for pragmatic reasons rather than as a kind of moral stance. This article explores some of the ways that…

Winstanley, Carrie

2009-01-01

225

Household Determinants of Schooling Progression among Rural Children in Cambodia  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined the individual and household determinants that affected the chances of Cambodian rural children being enrolled in or dropping out of school before completing grade four. Data were obtained from interviews with 159 children aged between 12 to 18 years and their families from two rural villages in Pursat province of Cambodia.…

Keng, Chansopheak

2004-01-01

226

Life style and behavior of school children without parental care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indroduction Life style (behavior) is one of the most significant factors affecting health. Although a number of factors participate in creating behavior, family is one the most important. The goal was to analyze the life style of children without parental care. Material and methods The research was done using cross-sectional data from "Children village" in Sremska Kamenica (N=127), and a questionnaire was especially created for this purpose. Results and discussion It was established that 75% of elementary school children and 43% of high school children are physically active. The greatest health risk is smoking (only 50% of students reported never to smoke cigarettes, while 17.5% were daily smokers). The problem is greatest in high school children (43% polled are daily smokers). Alcohol consumption is less common than in the general population of the same age (10% polled drink beer and wine several times a month, while 5% drink spirits - brandy, whisky etc.). Attitudes to sports, smoking and alcohol are mainly positive, but at older age there is an increased number of children with negative attitudes. Knowledge regarding healthy diet is on a lower level comparing with general population, meals are more regular, but with less desirable food. Conclusion From the aspect of health, life style of children without parental care is characterized by risky behavior, particularly in high school children.

Kvrgi? Svetlana T.; Gruji? Vera V.; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana M.

2004-01-01

227

Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age  

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We examined whether very preterm (?30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys ...

Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Smidts, D.P.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

228

Right aortic arch with coarctation in Chinese children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the rarity of right aortic arch coarctation there are few reports of large groups of patients. To characterize the frequency and type of right aortic arch coarctation in a large group of pediatric patients. From June 1997 through May 2007, 11,276 consecutive children with congenital heart disease underwent multidetector CT (MDCT), MRI or angiocardiography examination. All children with a right aortic arch or coarctation were reviewed. Right aortic arch coarctation was found in 11 children representing 0.1% of the total group of 11,276 children, 1.7% of 658 children with native coarctations and 2.3% of 473 children with a right aortic arch. Among the 11 patients, 6 had long-segment narrowing and 7 had an aberrant left subclavian artery. MDCT, MRI and angiocardiography are reliable imaging techniques for the diagnosis of right aortic arch and coarctation. Our findings showed that the pattern of right aortic arch coarctation was different from that of left aortic arch coarctation, suggesting that they are different etiological entities. The pivotal role possibly played by flow dynamics in the development of right aortic arch coarctation is discussed. (orig.)

2008-01-01

229

Right aortic arch with coarctation in Chinese children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the rarity of right aortic arch coarctation there are few reports of large groups of patients. To characterize the frequency and type of right aortic arch coarctation in a large group of pediatric patients. From June 1997 through May 2007, 11,276 consecutive children with congenital heart disease underwent multidetector CT (MDCT), MRI or angiocardiography examination. All children with a right aortic arch or coarctation were reviewed. Right aortic arch coarctation was found in 11 children representing 0.1% of the total group of 11,276 children, 1.7% of 658 children with native coarctations and 2.3% of 473 children with a right aortic arch. Among the 11 patients, 6 had long-segment narrowing and 7 had an aberrant left subclavian artery. MDCT, MRI and angiocardiography are reliable imaging techniques for the diagnosis of right aortic arch and coarctation. Our findings showed that the pattern of right aortic arch coarctation was different from that of left aortic arch coarctation, suggesting that they are different etiological entities. The pivotal role possibly played by flow dynamics in the development of right aortic arch coarctation is discussed. (orig.)

Ming, Zhu; Aimin, Sun [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

2008-05-15

230

[Prevalence of exercise-induced asthma in school children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although asthma is the most common pulmonary condition in pediatrics, the incidence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in school children is not well documented and few studies have been devoted to the condition. There are considerable variations in morbidity and mortality between countries. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of EIA in children in the 6th grade (11-14 year-olds) in one French department (Haute-Vienne) and to identify undiagnosed cases. METHODS: The representative sample was obtained over a period of 28 days (February 2(nd) to April 10(th) 1998) by cluster sampling method, stratified by size of the schools. The number of subjects planned was 891. The selected children filled in a questionnaire on their asthma history and were subjected to an outdoor exercise test (6 minute run). Respiratory function was measured with a peak flow-meter. RESULTS: Seven hundred and eighty two school children were included in this survey. Participation rate was 87.8%. The prevalence of asthma from the questionnaire was 10.7% (CI 95%: 8.7 - 12.8). After exercise, 68 school children presented exercise-induced bronchospasm: the prevalence of the EIA was 8.7% (CI 95%: 6.9 - 10.5). Among these 68 school children, 27 were known asthmatics and 41 were not. With the 10 treated asthmatics, the overall prevalence of EIA was therefore estimated at 9.9% (CI 95%: 8.2 - 11.7). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma and EIA was close to that found in other studies using a similar methodology. EIA remains under-diagnosed since 41 undeclared asthmatic school children were identified in our population. Nurses'information is necessary to initiate the use of systematically testing respiratory function (with a peak flow meter) at least once a year. Efficient management of the asthmatic child requires cooperation between the various professionals dealing with school children.

Debrock C; Menetrey C; Bonavent M; Antonini MT; Preux PM; Bonnaud F; Vergnenegre A

2002-12-01

231

School lunch caters to nutritional needs of special children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: A survey conducted in the U.S. Southwest examined the types of nutritional needs and problems associated with providing school lunches to children with developmental disabilities or chronic illnesses. Survey participants included 143 food service directors and 144 special education coordinators. Participants were asked about 1) district size, 2) types of special nutritional needs (diabetes, food allergies), 3) practices used to meet special needs (portion control, food substitutions), 4) operations problems (facility constraints, funding needs), and 5) training needs. Results of the survey may help school food service personnel better comply with the 1982 federal statute requiring that children with developmental disabilities receive a school lunch.

Gould RA

1987-12-01

232

Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI) with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls) was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls) was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day), average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese) using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for children with breakfast in the classroom than in the cafeteria. Significantly more kilocalories were observed eaten at breakfast in the classroom than in the cafeteria. Conclusions For fourth-grade children, results provide evidence of a positive relationship between BMI and observed energy intake at school meals, and between BMI and school breakfast in the classroom; however, BMI and participation in school meals were not significantly associated.

Baxter Suzanne; Hardin James W; Guinn Caroline H; Royer Julie A; Mackelprang Alyssa J; Devlin Christina M

2010-01-01

233

Secular trends of obesity prevalence in urban Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: gender disparity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the data from six Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) from 1985 to 2010, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity in urban Chinese children over a period of 25 years. The aim of this study was to examine the gender disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity over time. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly during the past 25 years from 0.2% in 1985 to 8.1% in 2010. The increasing trend was significant in all age subgroups (p<0.01). Although the prevalence of obesity continuously increased in both boys and girls, the changing pace in boys was faster than that in girls. Age-specific prevalence odds ratios (PORs) of boys versus girls for obesity increased over time during the 25 year period. The prevalence of obesity in boys was significantly higher than in girls in all age-specific subgroups from 1991 and after. The gradually expanding gender disparity suggests the prevalence of obesity in boys contribute to a large and growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, it is critical for developing and implementing gender-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies in China.

Song Y; Wang HJ; Ma J; Wang Z

2013-01-01

234

Age trends of bone mineral density and percentile curves in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical utility of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurement requires appropriate normative values, designed to be diverse with respect to age, gender and ethnic background. The purpose of this study was to generate age-related trends for bone density in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish a gender-specific reference database. A total of 1,541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19-years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured for the total body (TB) and total body less head (TBLH). The height-for-age, height-for-BA, and BMC-for-BA percentile curves were developed using the least mean square method. TB BMD and TBLH BMD were highly correlated. After 18 years, TB BMD was significantly higher in boys than girls. For TB BMC and TBLH BMC, gender differences were found in age groups 12 years and 16-19 years; however, the TBLH BMD was significantly different between genders >16 years. The head region accounted for 13-52 and 16-49 % of the TB BMC in boys and girls, respectively. Furthermore, the percentages were negatively correlated with age and height. This study describes a gender-specific reference database for Chinese children and adolescents aged 5-19 years. These normative values could be used for clinical assessment in this population. PMID:23361952

Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Xu, Hao

2013-01-30

235

Microbial diversity in the oral cavity of healthy Chinese Han children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the oral microbial diversity of healthy Chinese Han children. METHODS: Dental plaques were sampled from the oral cavity of ten healthy Chinese Han children. The oral microbiome was examined using the 16S rRNA-based Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray. The microbial diversity and similarity were analyzed using the Chao-Jaccard similarity index. RESULTS: A total of 112 species, which belonged to nine bacterial phyla and 41 genera, were detected. Each individual harbored an average of 54.1 microbial species (ranging from 37 to 69) and 26.2 genera (ranging from 21 to 31), with interindividual variations both at the species and genus level. Thirteen genera were conserved among all individuals. The Chao-Jaccard similarity index averages, at the genus and species level, were 0.642 (ranging from 0.485 to 0.871) and 0.506 (ranging from 0.338 to 0.676), respectively, suggesting that the healthy oral community was more conserved at the genus level than at the species level. CONCLUSION: Although there was interindividual variation in the oral microflora, some bacterial genera were conserved among individuals, supporting the existence of a core microbiome in the oral cavity of healthy Chinese Han children.

Xin BC; Luo AH; Qin J; Paster BJ; Xu YL; Li YL; Yang DQ

2013-05-01

236

Genetic and biochemical findings in Chinese children with Leigh syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the genetic and enzymological features of Leigh syndrome due to respiratory chain complex deficiency in Chinese patients. The clinical features of 75 patients were recorded. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities were determined via spectrophotometry. Mitochondrial gene sequence analysis was performed in 23 patients. Five core pedigrees were investigated via restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing. Psychomotor retardation (55%), motor regression (20%), weakness (29%), and epilepsy (25%) were the most frequent manifestations. Sixty-four patients (85.3%) had isolated respiratory complex deficiencies: complex I was seen in 28 patients (37.3%); complex II, seven (9.3%); complex III, six (8%); complex IV, ten (13.3%); and complex V, 13 patients (17.3%). Eleven patients (14.7%) had combined complex deficiencies. Mitochondrial DNA mutations were detected in 10 patients. Eight point mutations were found in mitochondrial structural genes: m.4833A>G in ND2, m.10191T>C in ND3, m.12338T>C and m.13513G>A in ND5, m.14502T>C and m.14487T>C in ND6, m.8108A>G in COXII, and m.8993T>G in ATPase6. Three mutations were found in tRNA genes: m.4395A>G in tRNA-Gln, m.10454T>C in tRNA-Arg, and m.5587T>C in tRNA-Ala. One patient and their mother both had the m.12338T>C and m.8993T>C mutations. In conclusion, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency and structural gene mutations frequently occur in Chinese Leigh syndrome patients.

Ma YY; Wu TF; Liu YP; Wang Q; Song JQ; Li XY; Shi XY; Zhang WN; Zhao M; Hu LY; Yang YL; Zou LP

2013-08-01

237

Content Analysis of People with Disabilities in Chinese-Language Elementary School Textbooks  

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Full Text Available Textbooks are able to shape the attitude of students. The descriptions of people with disabilities in textbooks would influence students’ attitude to people with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to analyze people with disabilities described in Chinese-language elementary school textbooks, including the prevalence of categories of disabilities, the development of their character, significant others and inclusive education. The results of study include: (1) People with disabilities are significantly underrepresented in Chinese-language elementary school textbooks. The most prevalent disabilities found in textbooks focused on physical disabilities in nature. Four categories of disabilities neglected in textbooks including hearing impairment, autism, emotional disabilities, and developmental retardation. (2) Textbooks tended to emphasize the character development of well-known people with disabilities. (3) Significant others for people with disabilities including parents, teachers, and their peers. (4) Only two compositions regarding to inclusive education in textbooks. The themes focused on the participation of physically and mentally disabled students in class activities and experiencing disabilities.

Tsuey-Ling Lee

2011-01-01

238

Validation of the Pascual Graphomotor Test in Cuban school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The ability to draw is a complex perception and cognition function, which is acquired in infancy and is not usually investigated in the neuropaediatric clinic. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Pascual graphomotor test (PGT) in 5 to 11 year-old Cuban school children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PGT was performed on a total of 172 children from the city of Havana Círculo Infantil del Municipio Plaza nursery school and from the 1st to 5th year of a primary school in the same area. The sample was systematic. The test was repeated the following day. All the drawings were scored blind by a neurologist and neurology resident. RESULTS: For the validation of the test the differentiation with age and school year was taken as a validation criterion. A high correlation was obtained between the ages of the children and the scores obtained. The Spearman coefficient was -0.78 (P=0.01), and a there was a similar inverse correlation between the school year and the test scores (Spearman coefficient=-0.79, P=0.01). The test was very reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99 for inter-observer agreement and 0.97 for the test-retest. CONCLUSIONS: The test was valid according to the criterion employed, differentiation with age and school year. The PGT demonstrated good temporal and inter-observer stability. We believe that it is a very useful tool in the neurological examination of Cuban school children.

Garófalo Gómez N; Goicoechea Astencio A; Gómez García AM; Pascual Pascual SI

2011-05-01

239

A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity): rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group). Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a) classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education), b) school environment support, c) family involvement, and d) fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819

Xu Fei; Ware Robert S; Tse Lap; Wang Zhiyong; Hong Xin; Song Aiju; Li Jiequan; Wang Youfa

2012-01-01

240

The validation of a scale to measure cognitive development in Chinese preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the cognitive sub-test of the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) for Hong Kong Chinese children. Participants included 378 children (189 boys and 189 girls) aged 3-6 years old, with 324 children with typical development and 54 children with developmental disabilities. They were administered the cognitive sub-test of the PDAS and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). The PDAS cognitive sub-test total scores correlated positively with the WPPSI-R scores. It could differentiate children from different age groups, with younger children attaining significantly lower scores than older children. The sub-test could also differentiate children with typical development from those with developmental disabilities, with the latter attaining significantly lower scores. The sensitivity and specificity were around 80%. Internal consistency (KR-20) was .93 and test-retest reliability was .81. The cognitive sub-test of the PDAS was found to be a promising screening tool for the identification of preschool children with developmental disabilities.

Leung C; Mak R; Lau V; Cheung J; Lam C

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Emotional intelligence and academic achievement of school children.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research paper researcher tried to find out whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement of school children who have not yet reached the adolescent age. The sample for the study consisted of 240 children (120 boys and 120 girls) of class 5th having age range 10-11 years from various schools of Jammu city (East). High and low achiever (60 boys and 60 girls in each) were differentiated based on their percentage in the last two consecutive examination results. In this study it is found that positive correlation between emotional intelligence & academic achievement of school children in all the four areas. It also seems that those children who have high emotional intelligence will also be high academic achievers. Girls are emotionally intelligent than boys. It may help them in perceiving assimilating, understanding and managing of emotions than boys

Satish Kumar Kalhotra

2012-01-01

242

Parenting stress in Chinese mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Elevated parenting stress has been observed among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in western countries, but little is known about mothers of Han Chinese children. The aim of the current study was to further the knowledge about stress experienced by Chinese mothers of children with ASD by examining maternal parenting stress in Heilongjiang province of China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data about participants' demographic characteristics, parenting stress, anxiety, depression, child's behavioral problems, coping strategies, and social support were collected though a questionnaire survey. The participants included 150 families with ASD children, who were consecutively admitted to the clinics of the Children Development and Behavior Research Center in Harbin Medical University, Heilongjiang Disabled Persons Federation, and Mudanjiang Child Welfare Home. RESULTS: The participants reported elevated parenting stress. Mothers' parenting stress was associated with levels of depression and anxiety, and child's behavioral symptoms. Child's behavioral symptoms, maternal anxiety, maternal depressive symptoms, and lack of governmental financial support were associated with overall parenting stress. CONCLUSIONS: Government support may play an important role in reducing parenting stress in this population.

Wang J; Hu Y; Wang Y; Qin X; Xia W; Sun C; Wu L; Wang J

2013-04-01

243

Seasonal iodine deficiency in Latvian school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Previous nation-wide survey on iodine deficiency in Latvia was conducted 10 years ago. The aim of the follow-up study was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among schoolchildren and to analyze the neonatal thyrotropin (TSH) screening data. Methods: A cross-sectional interseasonal school-based cluster survey of 915 children aged 9-12 from 46 randomly selected schools in all regions of Latvia. The urine samples were collected in October 2010 (n = 504) and April 2011 (n = 411). The prevalence of TSH > 5 mIU/L from the Latvian Neonatal TSH screening (n = 31,274) was also investigated as a recognized secondary indicator of iodine status in the population. Results: The median creatinine-standardized urinary iodine (UIC) concentration was 107.3 (IQR 69.1 - 161.7) ?g/g. Lower median UIC was detected during the spring sampling (78.3 ?g/g Cr) in comparison to the autumn sampling (129.7 ?g/g Cr). UIC measurements indicative of mild iodine deficiency were present in 31.6% (n = 289), moderate deficiency in 11.9% (n = 109) and severe deficiency in 2.8% (n = 26) of participants. Based on the result averages, a significant difference in comparison to autumn data was established in the spring data, for which an IUC below 100 ?g/g was present in 63% (n = 259) of schoolchildren and an IUC below 50 ?g/g in 28.2% (n = 116) of schoolchildren. The prevalence of TSH > 5 mIU/L was 8.2% (95% CI: 7.8 - 8.7) in 2009 (n = 1343) and 9.3% (95% CI: 8.8 - 9.7) in 2010 (n = 1390), which indicates a mild iodine deficiency. The frequency of elevated neonatal TSH in April was markedly higher than in September (8.3% vs. 4.1%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the absence of a mandatory salt iodization program, there is a persisting iodine deficiency among Latvian schoolchildren during the spring season. The data from the National Neonatal TSH Registry confirm seasonal differences in iodine levels and iodine deficiency in Latvia.

Konrade I; Dambrova M; Makrecka M; Neimane L; Strele I; Liepinsh E; Lejnieks A; Vevere P; Gruntmanis U; P?r?gs V

2012-07-01

244

Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact.

Zhang Y; Tardif T; Shu H; Li H; Liu H; McBride-Chang C; Liang W; Zhang Z

2013-04-01

245

A school-based education programme to reduce salt intake in children and their families (School-EduSalt): protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The current salt intake is very high for children as well as adults in China. A reduction in salt intake is one of the most cost-effective measures to curb the rapidly growing disease burden attributed to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in the Chinese population. A lower salt diet starting from childhood has the potential to prevent the development of such conditions. The School-EduSalt (School-based Education Programme to Reduce Salt) study aims to determine whether an education programme targeted at school children can lower salt intake in children and their families. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is designed as a cluster randomised controlled trial. The location is Changzhi, Shanxi province in northern China. The study population will consist of 28 primary schools with 280 children aged ?11 years and 560 adult family members. Children in the intervention group will be educated on how to reduce salt intake. They will then be empowered to deliver the salt reduction message home to their families. In particular, children need to persuade the person who does the cooking to reduce the amount of salt used during food preparations. The duration of the intervention is one school term (?4.5 months). The primary outcome is the difference between the intervention and the control group in the change in 24 h urinary sodium and the secondary outcome is the difference between the intervention and control group in the change of blood pressure. An economic evaluation will be undertaken to assess cost-effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by The Queen Mary Research Ethics Committee (QMREC2012/81) and Peking University Health Science Centre IRB (IRB00001052-12072). Study findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: Protocol Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821144.

He FJ; Wu Y; Ma J; Feng X; Wang H; Zhang J; Lin CP; Yuan J; Ma Y; Yang Y; Yan LL; Jan S; Nowson C; Macgregor GA

2013-01-01

246

Sexual violence against women and children in Chinese societies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides a comprehensive overview of the reported patterns of sexual violence against women and children in China. It reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for various types of sexual violence and discusses community knowledge and perceptions of these violent acts. It also critical...

Chan, KL

247

[Prospective multicenter clinical study on the causes constituents ratio of chronic cough in Chinese children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the causes of chronic cough in children in China and the composition ratio of the distribution and to promote the standardization and normalization of its treatment. METHOD: According to the 2008 Guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in children that were formulated by The Subspecialty Group of Respiratory Diseases, The Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association and the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Pediatrics we designed the questionnaire of the causes of chronic cough in children and organized 29 hospitals in 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions to enroll cases with chronic cough and completed 3-month follow-up. The data were statistically analyzed and the causes constituents ratio of chronic cough was obtained. RESULT: Of 4582 cases, 4529 were eligible (the passing rate of 98.8%). The leading 3 causes were cough variant asthma (CVA) in 1900 cases (41.95%), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) in 1119 cases (24.71%), respiratory infections and post-infectious cough (PIC) in 984 cases (21.73%). Gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC) found in 28 cases (accounting for 0.62%); other causes were 498 cases (11%), in which 387 cases (8.54%) had multiple etiologies. The leading cause in UACS associated with CVA, which accounted for 50.13%, followed by PIC with UACS accounting for 26.10%. The total correct diagnosis rate was 18.83%. Among different causes in different gender and age distribution were significantly different. CONCLUSION: The main causes of chronic cough in Chinese children are CVA, UACS, PIC and other causes. We should pay attention to the causes and cases of unknown etiology. Children in different age and gender groups have different constitute ratio of cause of chronic cough.

2012-02-01

248

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI %) and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children  

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Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI %) which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100) school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100) school children (aged between 12-16 years) of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms), Weight (Kg), Body Surface Area (BSA) in sq.mts), Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2), Mid Arm Circumference (cms), Chest Circumference (cms) and Abdominal Circumference (cms) were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%), Height(cms), Weight(Kg), BSA(sq.mts), BMI(Kg/m2), Mid Arm Circumference(cms), Chest Circumference (cms) and Abdominal Circumference (cms) were significantly higher (p=0.000) in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

Jyoti P Khodnapur; Gopal B Dhanakshirur; Shrilaxmi Bagali; Lata M Mullur; Manjunath Aithala

2012-01-01

249

Children of Alcoholics in Schools: A Call to Compassion. CRIS Perspectives on the School.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of children of alcoholics (COAs) is discussed in this document, focusing on COAs in school. The topics of authority in the family and family relationships are discussed. The roles (hero, lost child, mascot) COAs adopt and how these roles are manifested in school are discussed. It is noted that COAs are seeking to have fundamental needs…

Pitman, Ralph

250

[Children with learning disabilities and handicaps in inclusive schools or in special schools? The view of parents and professionals].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To investigate the view of parents and professionals on sending children with special educational needs to inclusive schools. PROBANDS: 54 preschool children in the year before school entry and 155 school children attending a Social Pediatric Center. They displayed motor-, mental-, speech- or sensory handicaps, learning or behavioral disabilities. METHODS: Questionnaires for parents of preschool- and of school children and questionnaires for the professional caring for the child were evaluated and compared. Parental expectations, experiences concerning school and the severity of disability were determined. RESULTS: 135 pupils attended special schools and 20 integrative schools. The parents were generally very content with both types of schools despite the fact that 33% of parents had not have a free choice of the school. They had a positive attitude to inclusive education. Preference for inclusive schooling decreased with increasing severity of the child's disability. The severity of disability was rated similar by parents and by professionals. Parents of preschool children tended more often and parents of school children less often than professionals towards sending the individual child to an inclusive school. CONCLUSIONS: Some parents of children with special educational needs would like to send their child to a special school, others prefer inclusive schools. It is paramount to improve the professional advice and guidance to parents since parental options to choose the school for their child are increasing in Germany.

Bode H; Hirner V

2013-03-01

251

Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament  

Science.gov (United States)

The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting, and the interactions of authoritarian parenting × effortful control and authoritative parenting × anger/frustration (parents’ reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that: a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting, and b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.

Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

2012-01-01

252

Fruit and vegetable intake of primary school children: a study of school meals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing focus on the nutritional content of school meals and initiatives such as the School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme, children are not meeting the recommended levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study aimed to examine children's fruit and vegetable consumption in 15 primary schools across the West Midlands region. METHODS: A total of 1296 children, aged 4-11 years, were observed for five consecutive days and the consumption of all food items was measured using the weighed intake method. Differences in the mean intake of fruit, vegetables and foods high in fat and sugar between Key Stages 1 and 2 were determined. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the children in the present study did not consume any fruit at lunchtime and only 3% of children consumed at least one portion as part of their school meal. The proportion of children consuming some quantity of vegetable at lunchtime was more than double that consuming fruit. Children in Key Stage 1 consumed significantly more vegetables on average than children in Key Stage 2 (P ? 0.05); however, no significant differences were found for the consumption of fruit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the introduction of food-based standards for school meal provision; children are not consuming adequate portions of fruit and vegetables at lunchtime. The importance of strategies used by catering staff to promote the consumption of fruit and vegetables should be harnessed to encourage children to taste fruit and vegetables provided. Further research is recommended to increase the evidence base on strategies aiming to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

Upton D; Upton P; Taylor C

2012-12-01

253

Can Future Uncertainty Keep Children Out of School?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is little doubt in the literature, that poverty and liquidity constraints can drive children out of school and into child labour in developing countries. But are there other important explanations for low primary school enrolment rates? The child labour and schooling literature often ignores that uncertainty about future returns results in a need for risk diversification, that children function as old-age security providers when there are no available pension systems, that the human capital investment decision of one child is likely to be influenced by that of his/her siblings, and that rural parents face a choice of investing in either specific or general human capital of their children. In this paper, I investigate the effects of future income uncertainty on the joint human capital investment decision of children in a household. I develop and calibrate a simple illustrative human capital portfolio model and show that existing levels of uncertainty can indeed result in less than full school enrolment within a household, even in a world of perfect credit markets. The paper thus offers an alternative explanation for why it might be optimal for rural parents not to send all of their children to school.

LilleØr, Helene Bie

2008-01-01

254

Quality Education through Child-Friendly Schools: Resource Allocation for the Protection of Children’s Rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the idea and purpose of Child-Friendly Schools (CFSs) initiated by the UNICEF. It analyses the implications of CFSs in terms of improving children’s health and nutrition, promoting gender equality, protecting children’s rights, re-defining education quality and creating positive psycho-emotional environment at schools.

Mariam ORKODASHVILI

2013-01-01

255

Oral Health Attitude And Awareness Among School Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim:  The aim is to  assess  the  attitude  and  awareness  regarding  oral  health  among  school  children  in  Belgaum   of  age  9  to  14  years . Objectives : The  objectives  of  this  study  are  to  find  out  the  oral  health  attitude  and  awareness  among  school  children , collect  the  data  regarding  the  same  and  analyzing   the  findings  based   on   the   data. Methodology : This  cross  sectional  study   comprises  of  randomly  selected  three  schools  namely  Maheshwari  blind  school  government  deaf  and  dumb  school  and  Phoenix  English  medium ,Belgaum.  Study  sample  size  is  of  400  subjects  of  age  group  9-14 years. Data collected was by means of a questionnaire having 13 questions. Result : 77%  of  the  normal  school  children  brushed  once  a  day   in  the  morning  and  only  23%  of  them   brushed  twice  a  day  in  the  morning  and  before  going  to  the  bed , whereas  72%  of  the  physically  challenged   children  brushed  once daily  in  the   morning  and   28%   of  them  brushed  twice  daily  in  the  morning  and  before  going  to  bed. Conclusion :  The    results   obtained  here  indicated  that  parent  education  must  be  included  in  any  national  program  that  promotes   premature  oral  health .   

Mahantesh B Siddibhavi; Anil A Ankola; Dhanvi Arora; Diksha Singhal; Divya Singh; Kishan Naik

2011-01-01

256

Play as main road in children’s transition to school  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter deals with children’s transition to school and play. First part focuses on transition and shows a number of problem, which in short can be described as lack of continuity between preschool and school. The answer to this problem is to create transition strategies and activities. Besides a number of transition activities the author argues for play as pivot for successful transition and more specific dialogical reading followed by play. Thus play is not seen as children’s own free-flow play, but as an educational activity in which the preschool teacher has an active role.

Broström, Stig

2013-01-01

257

Effect of recombinant alpha 2 interferon with or without prednisone in Chinese HBsAg carrier children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ninety Chinese hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier children, aged 2-17 years, positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus DNA on at least three occasions in 6 months, were randomized into 3 groups. Thirty children received syrup vitamin B complex as control, 29 received ...

Lai, CL; Lin, HJ; Lau, JYN; Lok Wu, ASFPC; Chung, HT; Wong, LSK; Leung, MP; Yeung, CY

258

Physical activity pattern of prepubescent Filipino school children during school days.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about pre-pubescent Filipino children's involvement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). There are international guidelines regarding required levels of MVPA for healthy children. METHODS: This study describes participation of 11- to 12-year-olds in randomly selected public and private schools in San Juan, Metromanila, in MVPA and sports during a school day. The Filipino-modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (F_PAQ_C) was administered in English and Filipino. Additional data was collected on sex, age, type of school, and amount of time spent using television and computers. Children's self-assessment of physical activities (1 question in the F_PAQ_C) was correlated with their cumulative F_PAQ_C score. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty subjects (167 boys, 213 girls) participated. Participation in MVPA varied between sex and age groups, from 56.1% to 65.0%. Fewer than 10% of participants were very active. The children were more active during physical education classes than at recess or lunch, after class, or in the evening. Walking for exercise, jumping, jogging and running, free play, and dance were most common. Boys, younger children, and private school students most commonly engaged in MVPA. Self-assessed physical activity had modest correlation (r(2)= 0.21) with cumulative F_PAQ_C score, after adjusting for sex, age, and school type. CONCLUSION: Most children were not physically active during the school day, except in physical education classes. To reduce the gap between recommended and current activity levels, more opportunities should be provided for preteen Filipino children to engage in MVPA during and after school.

Gonzalez-Suarez CB; Grimmer-Somers K

2009-07-01

259

Adapting and Designing Spaces: Children and their Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In schools, children experience their environment on three different levels: firstly, they constantly make spatial decisions by positioning themselves in relation to others and organising their immediate environment; secondly, they can potentially contribute to shaping the classroom spaces; and, thirdly, they are confronted with the designed school as a whole.It is argued here that our experiences of spaces are related to our memories, which provide us with a framework of references that allows us to ‘read’ and construct spaces. Whereas on the lowest level of spatial involvement children are natural decision makers, the higher levels require access to, and an understanding of, shared practices and discourses. Although existing data on children’s perceptions of their schools suggest that children’s participation in the school design process is laudable for all sorts of reasons, such participation means overcoming considerable barriers for omparatively little gain in terms of the design quality. It is the level of the classroom where a more genuine shared organisation and (re)creation of space can take place on an everyday basis.

Andrea Kenkmann

2011-01-01

260

Respiratory health of children at schools near a fertilizer plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an investigation carried out over a six-month period in 1990 and 1991 the effect of exposure to possible air pollutants from a fertilizer plant on the respiratory health of preadolescent children was estimated. Data about children and their home environment were collected from physical measurements at school and from a questionnaire which was administered to the parents. Simultaneously, air pollution measurements were undertaken. The school children were placed into two groups according to the distance of the school from the plant. The incidence of acute respiratory disorders was 24%. The mean values of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were slightly and insignificantly lower in exposed children. When the confounding factors were taken into account, the prevalence of symptoms at schools within 1-3 km from the fertilizer production was marginally higher. These findings give no support to the hypothesis that fertilizer emissions cause respiratory disease in children although an adverse effect in a few sensitive children cannot be ruled out. PMID:8905933

Gomzi, M

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Respiratory health of children at schools near a fertilizer plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an investigation carried out over a six-month period in 1990 and 1991 the effect of exposure to possible air pollutants from a fertilizer plant on the respiratory health of preadolescent children was estimated. Data about children and their home environment were collected from physical measurements at school and from a questionnaire which was administered to the parents. Simultaneously, air pollution measurements were undertaken. The school children were placed into two groups according to the distance of the school from the plant. The incidence of acute respiratory disorders was 24%. The mean values of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were slightly and insignificantly lower in exposed children. When the confounding factors were taken into account, the prevalence of symptoms at schools within 1-3 km from the fertilizer production was marginally higher. These findings give no support to the hypothesis that fertilizer emissions cause respiratory disease in children although an adverse effect in a few sensitive children cannot be ruled out.

Gomzi M

1996-06-01

262

Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

Naidu BM; Mahmud SZ; Ambak R; Sallehuddin SM; Mutalip HA; Saari R; Sahril N; Hamid HA

2013-01-01

263

Association of environment and place of birth with asthma in Chinese immigrant children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about why some children develop asthma and others do not. We have previously reported strong associations between being born in the US and prevalence of asthma. Our findings led us to consider the hygiene hypothesis as a possible explanation. Here we report results from a survey of 212 Chinese children attending two clinics in Boston. We sought information on prior unsanitary living conditions, diagnosed asthma, socioeconomic status and other relevant variables. Few children were reported to have lived in unsanitary conditions, which is inconsistent with the hygiene hypothesis. However, we did replicate an earlier finding that SES was an effect modifier for the association between asthma and place of birth.

Doug Brugge; Madhuri Indaram; Dora Hui; Michelle Pallela; Mark Woodin

2011-01-01

264

Guillain-Barre syndrome in Chinese children: a retrospective analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reviewed the clinical and electrophysiologic features of 293 children with Guillain-Barré syndrome admitted to the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2000 and 2009. The male/female ratio was 2.02, and the syndrome occurred most frequently in those between 1 and 4 years of age. There was no seasonal variation. A total of 46.1% patients had experienced an infection 1 to 4 weeks before the onset of the syndrome. The main subtype was acute motor axonal neuropathy (50.0%), with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (38.1%) ranked as second in frequency. The mean motor disability score at nadir was 3.36 ± 1.00 for all patients, with mild variations among the different subgroups. No significant difference was found in age, seasonal occurrence, cerebrospinal fluid abnormality, and functional status at nadir between the acute motor axonal neuropathy and the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy groups. A total of 36.5% patients had sensory symptoms at admission. Approximately 9.5% of patients required mechanical ventilation. Typical cytoalbuminologic dissociation at cerebrospinal fluid examination was demonstrated in 88.0% of those who underwent lumbar puncture.

Tang J; Dai Y; Li M; Cheng M; Hong S; Jiang L; Cai F; Zhong M

2011-10-01

265

School nurses and children with diabetes: a descriptive study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Managing diabetes in children is complex. The aims of this descriptive study were to describe the care provided to children with diabetes by school nurses using case management, to identify differences in care on the basis of the workload of the nurse and the age of the child, to explore the role of the nurse in responding to emergencies, and to describe the relationship between case management and quality of life. METHODS: School nurses completed an expanded health assessment. Individualized goals were established and interventions were provided on the basis of a protocol. Quantitative and qualitative data for children enrolled during the 2009-2010 academic year were analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty-six children were enrolled. The most common goals were related to establishing a safe school environment. Interventions varied depending on the workload of the nurse and the age of the child. Nurses assigned to 1-2 schools provided more intervention days (mean, 40.3 days) than did nurses assigned to 3-4 schools (mean, 24.4 days) (P < .05), particularly in the area of direct care. A total of 25 students experienced an emergency at school that initiated a cascade of events involving the parent (in 100% of cases), the teacher (in 96%), management of hyperglycemia (in 100%), and/or management of hypoglycemia (in 96%). For teens, case management improved quality of life, particularly the ability to communicate with health professionals. LIMITATIONS: The sample was small, and there was no comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: School nurses are effective in using case management to enhance the health and well-being of children with diabetes. This study should be replicated with a larger sample, a comparison group, and the inclusion of clinical outcomes.

Engelke MK; Swanson M; Guttu M; Warren MB; Lovern S

2011-09-01

266

Teachers’ Perceptions of Sex Education of Primary School Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sex education of children, a complex issue in any culture, has always been a controversial subject. Schools can play a vital role in imparting sex education to children, particularly in more conservative communities. The objective of this study was to find out primary school teachers beliefs, attitudes, values, and understandings regarding sex education of school pupils. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study we employed a community-based approach to design the project. Purposeful, voluntary and maximum variation sampling was used to recruit 22 teachers from selected schools in Western Tehran (21 female and 1 male teacher). Information was collected in 4 focus-group discussion sessions. Grounded theory and thematic analysis were used.Results: Findings revealed three major themes: 1) organizational role, 2) institution construction, and 3) individual characteristics. These themes were described by subthemes as follows: 1. for organizational role: organizational culture and policies; 2. for institution construction: family and educational institutions; 3. for individual characteristics: biology, gender, instincts, curiosity, knowledge, and behaviors.Conclusion: From the participants point of views, the school and the family are two important institutions in children sex education. However, teachers are not sufficiently competent in sex behavior education. Inappropriate policies, resource limitations, and the family cultural structure are obstacles in sex education of children in schools. The participants believe the following are priorities in childrens sex education: changing cultural attitudes in organizations and institutions, such as cultural diffusion; sound training approaches in sex-related topics; providing sufficient resources; improving knowledge and skills of teachers in the area of sex education of pupils; and effective interaction between families and school authorities.

N Abolghasemi; E MerghatiKhoei; H Taghdissi

2010-01-01

267

Optical coherence tomography measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in chinese children and teenagers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To establish a reference range of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Chinese children and teenagers, and to investigate its relationship with sex, age, eye side, and refractive error. METHODS: A total of 398 eyes from 199 normal Chinese aged 5 to 18 years (a mean of 10.4 ± 2.7 y), who were undergoing physical examination in the Department of Ophthalmology, were recruited for this study. Their RNFL thicknesses were measured by OCT [OCT, Stratus OCT (OCT3); Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, Calif], and 7 parameters associated with the RNFL thickness were analyzed by the RNFL thickness average analysis program. The influences of several factors (such as sex, age, eye side, and refractive error) on RNFL thickness were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that the global average RNFL thickness (±SD) was 112.36 ± 9.21 ?m in the present cohort. The thickest RNFL was located at the superior (148.73 ± 17.06 ?m) and inferior (142.08 ± 16.03 ?m) quadrants of the retina, followed by the temporal (83.82 ± 13.53 ?m) quadrant and the nasal (74.84 ± 15.03 ?m) quadrant. There was no significant difference in the measurements between boys and girls, however, the eye side had significant influence on RNFL thickness (P<0.01). We also found that the average RNFL thickness was positively correlated with the age and refractive error (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study has established a standard reference of RNFL thickness measurements in Chinese aged 5 to 18 years by OCT, which may help to identify the changes of RNFL thickness in children and teenagers in Chinese and other parts of East Asia countries.

Qian J; Wang W; Zhang X; Wang F; Jiang Y; Wang W; Xu S; Wu Y; Su Y; Xu X; Sun X

2011-10-01

268

Action Schools! BC: A Socioecological Approach to Modifying Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Elementary School Children  

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Full Text Available Background Childhood physical inactivity and obesity are serious public health threats. Socioecological approaches to addressing these threats have been proposed. The school is a critical environment for promoting children’s health and provides the opportunity to explore the impact of a socioecological approach. Context Thirty percent of children in British Columbia, Canada, are overweight or obese, and 50% of youths are not physically active enough to yield health benefits. Methods Action Schools! BC, a socioecological model, was developed to create 1) an elementary school environment where students are provided with more opportunities to make healthy choices and 2) a supportive community and provincial environment to facilitate change at the school and individual levels. Consequences The environment in British Columbia for school- and provincial-level action on health behaviors improved. Focus group and project tracking results indicated that the Action Schools! BC model enhanced the conceptual use of knowledge and was an influencing factor. Political will and public interest were also cited as influential factors. Interpretation The Action Schools! BC model required substantial and demanding changes in the approach of the researchers, policy makers, and support team toward health promotion. Despite challenges, Action Schools! BC provides a good example of how to enhance knowledge exchange and multilevel intersectoral action in chronic disease prevention.

Patti-Jean Naylor, PhD; Heather M. Macdonald; Katharine E. Reed, MSc; Heather A. McKay, PhD

2006-01-01

269

Racial identity of children in integrated, predominantly white, and black schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fourth-grade children in three school settings (integrated, Black, and White) were assessed by 3 methods: the Draw-A-Person test, the spontaneous self-concept test, and the picture test. The effect of school's population on a child's racial identity was studied. The children in the integrated school setting mentioned race and ethnicity significantly more often than did children in either of the other two settings. The children from both the integrated and the predominantly White schools also chose more friends from the outgroup than did the children in the predominantly Black school. The children in the non-integrated schools disliked other races more. All groups chose their own race when asked to indicate which child looked most like them. Contrary to the research hypothesis, the children in the predominantly White school produced drawings that depicted their race more obviously than did children from either of the other schools.

Dutton SE; Singer JA; Devlin AS

1998-02-01

270

A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. Methods Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. Results Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p Conclusion Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.

Addo Kennedy; van den Hof Susan; Mensah Gloria; Hesse Adukwei; Bonsu Christian; Koram Kwadwo; Afutu Felix; Bonsu Frank

2010-01-01

271

[State school children's opinions regarding violence in the media].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. RESULTS: There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. CONCLUSIONS: Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.

Piedrahita S LE

2009-05-01

272

VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

Vesna KOSTIC

2000-01-01

273

Self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become an important public health problem in Thailand. This study aimed to determine the relationship between self discipline and obesity in Bangkok school children. Methods A case control study was conducted. 140 cases (obese children) and 140 controls (normal weight children) were randomly chosen from grades 4-6 students in 4 Bangkok public schools. Questionnaire responses regarding general characteristics and child self-discipline were obtained from children and their parents. Results Self discipline in eating habits, money management and time management were reported at significantly lower levels among the obese group (p Conclusions It was recommended that parents and teachers participate in child self-discipline guidance, particularly with regard to eating habits, money management and time management in a supportive environment that both facilitates prevention of obesity and simultaneously develops a child's personal control.

Sirikulchayanonta Chutima; Ratanopas Wasoontara; Temcharoen Paradee; Srisorrachatr Suwat

2011-01-01

274

Iodine deficiency disorders among primary school children in eastern Nepal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the iodine status among primary school children of Dhankuta and Dharan in eastern Nepal. METHODS: A population based cross sectional study was conducted on schools of Dhankuta and Dharan from January-March 2008. 385 samples of both urine and salt were collected from school children aged 6-11 yrs. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was measured in casual urine samples by the ammonium-persulphate digestion microplate (APDM) method and salt iodine content by using a semi quantitative rapid test kit. RESULTS: The median UIEs of school children of Dhankuta and Dharan were 157.1 ?g/L and 180.3 ?g/L respectively. The percentage of iodine deficient (UIE <100 ?g/L) children were 26.6% in Dhankuta and 15.6% in Dharan. The majority of children consumed packet salt. The percentages of salt samples with adequately iodized salt (? 15 ppm) were 81.3% in Dhankuta and 89.6% in Dharan. CONCLUSIONS: Eastern Nepal is continuously progressing towards the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disease as illustrated by a normal median UIE and the majority of households consuming adequately iodized packet salt. It is necessary to maintain the program continuously to ensure adequate iodine nutrition of the population.

Gelal B; Chaudhari RK; Nepal AK; Sah GS; Lamsal M; Brodie DA; Baral N

2011-01-01

275

A Survey of Attitudes toward Mediation among Chinese High School EFL Teachers and Their Classroom Constraints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper raises concerns about Chinese high school EFL teachers’ attitudes toward mediation and their classroom constraints. From the data gathered in the survey of 152 EFL teachers, the findings indicate that most teachers fail to mediate students’ learning due to situational constraints that they encounter though they hold positive attitudes toward mediation. Statistically, teachers with higher educational qualifications have more positive attitudes toward the mediator role than those with lower qualifications. Most of them view the lack of advice from relevant experts and of training on the implementation of mediation as the most influential of all the constraints. It is thus proposed that EFL teachers re-orient their roles from traditional instructor to mediator with the help of re-education programs.

Xiongyong Cheng

2012-01-01

276

Observations on early school failure in Zulu children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of the screening of 2,190 children who had to repeat the school entry grades (Substandard A) in 25 junior primary schools in two KwaZulu townships is reported and the implications are discussed. The high number of repeaters did not appear to be due to an excess of mentally retarded children, the percentage being similar to that which could be expected in such a community world-wide. Difficulty in intelligence testing was experienced, but we describe how this was overcome by testing speed of learning. Visual defects, hearing defects and having no food before school accounted for the failure of many repeaters. Lack of preschool teaching by parents and schools and very strict discipline necessitated by large classes and a wide range in ages, which both led to anxiety on the part of the pupils, and sending children to school at too young an age were regarded as additional factors. Simple interventions were suggested to the school teachers; more than 1,000 pupils were followed up, with encouraging results. PMID:2305325

Frets-Van Buuren, J J; Letuma, E; Daynes, G

1990-02-01

277

The education of physically handicapped children in normal schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is based on our experience in the Central Remedial Clinic over a number of years that physically handicapped children do not in general do well in ordinary schools. An attempt is made to delineate some of the problems that may confront a handicapped child of generally average intelligence who attends a normal school. These problems are associated with the following conditions: specific learning difficulties, emotional problems, poor school attendance, large classes, limitations in ordinary teacher training and lack of remedial teachers and other special staff. The need for early and continued psychological and educational assessments is emphasized, and it is suggested that most young physically handicapped children of average intelligence would benefit from starting in a special assessment unit, to ensure as far as possible, correct school placement. This view is not currently held by a number of educational authorities who generally advise that physically handicapped children should go to ordinary schools if possible. We feel that this advice is not always in the best interests of the child. There is need for continuing friendly and informal communications between parents and members of the special school team.

Barry C; Garvey C; Byrne MM

1975-05-01

278

Allergens in urban schools and homes of children with asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. METHODS: Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students' bedrooms were analyzed similarly. RESULTS: From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 ?g/g, p < 0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 ?g/g, p = 0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 ?g/g, p = 0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. CONCLUSION: Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma.

Permaul P; Hoffman E; Fu C; Sheehan W; Baxi S; Gaffin J; Lane J; Bailey A; King E; Chapman M; Gold D; Phipatanakul W

2012-09-01

279

Children's Progress through School: A Research Note.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Socioeconomic characteristics exert much stronger effects on grade retention among Hispanic, Black, and White children than do family compositional factors. One important exception is that the probability of enrollment below modal grade is much higher for Hispanic children living in single-parent households than for those in two-parent…

Bianchi, Suzanne M.

1984-01-01

280

Memory performance in Brazilian school-age children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to investigate different memory systems among children of different school ages. Ninety children who attend schools within the Rio de Janeiro municipality school system, ages 6 to 10 years, were studied. The study excluded children with learning disabilities. All children underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. A two-way analysis of variance revealed significant gender differences in the free delay episodic memory. Age differences w (more) ere found for the free delay episodic memory and recognition on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) as well as the recall of the Rey Figure. Semantic memory correlated with Semantic Verbal Fluency. Working Memory as measured by Digit Span subtest of the WISC correlated with the first list learning of the RAVLT. Overall, study results indicated a lower performance among 6-year-old children and gender differences in children 8 and 10 years of age. Data are consistent with the literature and show a distinction in the evolution of different memory systems throughout life.

Brooking, Luciana; Uehara, Emmy; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors influencing the academic performance of school children with epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The academic performance and intelligence quotient (IQ) of 50 children with epilepsy aged between 5 and 14 years, attending normal primary schools in Enugu, were compared with those of their non-epileptic classmates. The academic performance was assessed using the overall scores achieved in terminal examinations in the 2001-2002 academic year. IQ was assessed using the Draw-A-person Test. The influences of school absence rate, Rutter behavioural scores, socio-economic status and seizure-related variables on academic performance were then determined. Twenty-six percent of the children with epilepsy had a low overall score, and therefore poor academic performance, compared with 16% of the controls (p = 0.35). The mean IQ of the children with epilepsy was significantly lower than that of the controls (p = 0.02). The mean school absence rate for the children with epilepsy was significantly higher than that of the controls (p = 0.001). The mean Rutter score of the children with epilepsy was significantly higher than that for the controls (p < 0.001). On multiple linear regression analysis, only IQ (p = 0.01) and seizure type (p = 0.03) had significant predictive effects as risk factors for low overall scores and poor academic performance. It is concluded that the academic performance of epileptic children is influenced by their IQ and type of seizures rather than by other seizure variables or socio-demographic characteristics.

Ibekwe RC; Ojinnaka NC; Iloeje SO

2007-10-01

282

Causal relationships among academic delay of gratification, motivation, and self-regulated learning in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Academic delay of gratification refers to the postponement of immediate rewards by students and the pursuit of more important, temporally remote academic goals. A path model was designed to identify the causal relationships among academic delay of gratification and motivation, self-regulated learning strategies (as specified in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire), and grades among 386 Chinese elementary school children. Academic delay of gratification was found to be positively related to motivation and metacognition. Cognitive strategy, resource management, and grades mediated these two factors and were indirectly related to academic delay of gratification.

Zhang L; Maruno S

2010-10-01

283

Predicting internalizing problems in Chinese children: The unique and interactive effects of parenting and child temperament.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children's internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (aged 6-9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that the main effect of authoritative parenting and the interactions of Authoritarian Parenting × Effortful Control and Authoritative Parenting × Anger/Frustration (parents' reports only) prospectively and uniquely predicted internalizing problems. The above results did not vary by child sex and remained significant after controlling for co-occurring externalizing problems. These findings suggest that (a) children with low effortful control may be particularly susceptible to the adverse effect of authoritarian parenting and (b) the benefit of authoritative parenting may be especially important for children with high anger/frustration.

Muhtadie L; Zhou Q; Eisenberg N; Wang Y

2013-08-01

284

[Diet and lifesyle of a cohort of primary school children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. Obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type II, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. AIMS: The objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight/obesity in order to primary prevention. We have organized meetings with children, families and school's members where we discussed the results of our investigation about the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle. PATIENTS-METHODS: The study was carried out on 545 children (282F, 263M), age 6.-10 years, of two primary schools in Catanzaro, from 2008 to 2010. The valuation parameters were: gender, age, weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference. To children were also administered a questionnaire about dietary habits and lifestyle. Statistical analysis: Fisher's test. RESULTS: We had that 62% of children was normal weight, 27% overweight, 11% obese. A particularly relevant datum is that the percentage of overweight-obese boys of 8 and 9 years old was higher (56%) than that of normal weight. We found cases of hypertension only in obese children. 98% of obese, 80% of overweight and 24% of normal weight children had a high waist circumference. We did not find differences in food quality among normal weight and overweight/obese children. Instead, we found significant differences in behavior between children: 90% of obese, 64% of overweight and 53% of normal weight children passed more than 2 hours in the afternoon watching television, playing computer and video games. 70% of normal weight, 82% of overweight and 95% of obese children practiced physical activity. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our study shows a alarming fact about the increase of the obesity in children. In particular the most important problem is that this condition could predispose to cardio-metabolic, endocrine, respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological consequence. So it is important that everybody who lives with children, especially parents and school's members, educates children to have healthy lifestyles. These attentions may slow the worryng epidemic of obesity.

Caputo E; Talarico V; Mattace F; Giancotti L; Anastasio E; Baserga M

2012-03-01

285

Clinical characteristics and molecular analysis of three Chinese children with Omenn syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Omenn syndrome (OS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder and presents symptoms of severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by erythrodermia, eosinophilia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and elevated serum IgE levels. OS has been found to be caused by mutations in RAG1 or RAG2 gene that result in partial V(D)J recombination activity. No study on OS has been reported in Chinese children so far. In this study, the genotype and phenotypes of three infants with OS from three unrelated Chinese families were investigated. All the three children had most of the characteristics of OS except normal serum IgE level. Compound heterozygosity mutations in RAG1 gene (1983 G>A; 2444 C>T and 2219 C>T; 3127 C>G) were identified in two cases, and a homozygous deletion mutation with a premature stop codon was found at residue 2302 of RAG1 gene (2302delT, I729X) in the remaining case, including three novel mutations (2302delT, I729X; 2219 C>T, R699W; and 3127 C>G, Y1001X). Spectratyping analysis of T-cell receptor ?-chain variable region (TCRV?) gene rearrangement was performed in case 1 and case 2. All the 25 TCRV? subfamilies presented monoclonal or oligoclonal peaks in case 1 and 11 TCRV? subfamilies were very weak or even absent in case 2. This was the first report about OS in Chinese children. Molecular genetic testing represents an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis and may allow accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

Zhang ZY; Zhao XD; Jiang LP; Liu EM; Cui YX; Wang M; Wei H; Yu J; An YF; Yang XQ

2011-08-01

286

Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (television, video and computer) are related to health outcomes independent of physical activity. Few studies have examined trends and correlates of sedentary behaviours among youth in developing nations. The current study is to examine temporal trends in sedentary behaviours and recent correlates of screen use in Chinese children during a period of economic transition. Methods Secondary analysis of China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Cross-sectional data on sedentary behaviours including screen use among children aged 6-18 years from four surveys in 1997 (n = 2,469), 2000 (n = 1,838), 2004 (n = 1,382) and 2006 (n = 1,128). Temporal trends in screen use by socio-demographic characteristics were examined. The correlates of spending more than 2 hours per day on screen time in the most recent survey data (2006, n = 986) were analysed using survey logistic regression analysis. Results Daily screen time significantly increased in each subgroup by age, sex and urban/rural residence, with the largest increase for urban boys aged 13-18 years from 0.5 hours to 1.7 hours, and for rural boys aged 6-12 years from 0.7 hours to 1.7 hours (p Conclusion This study confirms sedentary behaviour has increased over the last decade in Chinese children. Efforts to ensure Chinese youth meet screen time guidelines include limiting access to screen technologies and encouraging parents to monitor their own screen time and to set limits on their child's screen time.

Cui Zhaohui; Hardy Louise L; Dibley Michael J; Bauman Adrian

2011-01-01

287

Protecting the rights of school children with diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

School children with diabetes are facing increasing difficulties in receiving care during the school day. Despite theexistence of federal statutes ensuring their rights to a free, appropriate public education, many school districts throughout the country do little, if anything, to ensure that their condition is treated throughout the school day. The chronic shortage of school nurses has resulted in hardships on families, relatives, and friends to ensure that care, including insulin, is timely and appropriately provided. While many states have taken measures to provide care by unlicensed trained volunteers, efforts to accomplish this in California have resulted in prolonged litigation. A variety of nursing organizations oppose all efforts to train unlicensed volunteers, arguing that such is not permitted by California law. The issue is unresolved and currently pending in the California Supreme Court.

Wood JM

2013-01-01

288

The association between socioeconomic status and traditional chinese medicine use among children in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilization is common in Asian countries. Limited studies are available on the socioeconomic status (SES) associated with TCM use among the pediatric population. We report on the association between SES and TCM use among children and adolescents in Taiwan. Methods A National Health Interview Survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2001 that included 5,971 children and adolescents. We assessed the children's SES using the head of household's education, occupation and income. This information was used to calculate pediatric SES scores, which in turn were divided into quartiles. Children and adolescents who visited TCM in the past month were defined as TCM users. Results Compared to children in the second SES quartile, children in the fourth SES quartile had a higher average number of TCM visits (0.12 vs. 0.06 visits, p = 0.027) and higher TCM use prevalence (5.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024) within the past month. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TCM use was higher for children in the fourth SES quartile than for those in the first SES quartile (OR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17). The corresponding OR was 2.17 for girls (95% CI 1.24-3.78). The highest-SES girls (aged 10-18 years) were most likely to visit TCM practices (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.25-4.90). Conclusions Children and adolescents with high SES were more likely to use TCM and especially girls aged 10-18 years. Our findings point to the high use of complementary and alternative medicine among children and adolescents.

Shih Chun-Chuan; Liao Chien-Chang; Su Yi-Chang; Yeh Tsu F; Lin Jaung-Geng

2012-01-01

289

Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children regarding gender.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Postural control of mouth breathing school aged children. AIM: To compare the posture and body balance of school aged children groups, with and without oral breathing considering the variable gender. METHOD: The study was developed at a municipal school in the city of Santa Maria (Brazil) and received prior approval of the ethics committee of the University of Santa Maria. The study group (with oral breathing) and the control group (without oral breathing) were selected based on an anamnesis, age (between 8 and 12 years), assessment of the stomatognathic system and auditory evaluation. The final sample was composed by 51 children in the study group (20 female and 31 male) and 58 in the control group (34 female and 24 male). Both groups were submitted to a dynamic posturography (sensory organization test--SOT) and to a postural assessment in right and left lateral view. RESULTS: Regarding the female gender, a statistically significant difference was observed for the angle that evaluates head horizontal alignment; for the SOT III value and for all SOT mean values. As for the male gender, a significant numerical difference was observed for the knee angle, for the ankle angle, for the SOT III value, for the SOT IV value and for all SOT mean values. CONCLUSION: School aged children with oral breathing present postural alterations; females present head positing alterations and males present alterations in the position of the inferior limbs. The body balance of school aged children with oral breathing, of both genders, demonstrated to be altered when compared to children without oral breathing, especially in the presence of sensorial conflict.

Roggia B; Correa B; Pranke GI; Facco R; Rossi AG

2010-10-01

290

Poly-helminth infection in east guatemalan school children  

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Full Text Available Background: Soil transmitted helminths (STH) remain a global public health concern in spite of occasional dosing campaigns. Aims: To determine baseline prevalence and intensity of STH infection in east Guatemalan school children, and describe the associated epidemiology of anemia, stunting, and wasting in this population. Setting and design: Ten schools in Izabal province (eastern Guatemala) were identified, and 1,001 school children were selected for this study. Half of the schools were used as clinical testing sites (blood and stool). Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measures were collected from all children. Over 300 children were tested for anemia and 229 for helminth infection. Ova and parasite specimens were examined via Direct, Kato Katz, and McMaster techniques. Hemoglobin was measured from venipuncture following the hemacue system. Statistical analysis: Correlation between infection intensities and growth indicators were examined. Chi Square or t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was performed on significant variables from bivariate techniques. Results: Over two-thirds of school children were positive for infection by any STH. Prevalence of Hookworm was 30%; Ascaris, 52%; and Trichuris, 39%, most as low-intensity infection. Over half of the children were co-infected. In bivariate analysis, anemia was significantly associated with polyparasitism. Conclusions: For a Guatemalan child who experiences a unit decrease in hemoglobin, one expects to see a 24% increase in the odds of being infected with STH, controlling for age, sex, lake proximity, and growth characteristics. Infection with more than one STH, despite low intensity, led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin.

Sorensen William; Cappello Michael; Bell Deborah; DiFedele Lisa; Brown Mary

2011-01-01

291

Allergic disease and sensitization in Steiner school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The anthroposophic lifestyle has several features of interest in relation to allergy: for example, a restrictive use of antibiotics and certain vaccinations. In a previous Swedish study, Steiner school children (who often have an anthroposophic lifestyle) showed a reduced risk of atopy, but specific protective factors could not be identified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that may contribute to the lower risk of allergy among Steiner school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter study including 6630 children age 5 to 13 years (4606 from Steiner schools and 2024 from reference schools) in 5 European countries. RESULTS: The prevalence of several studied outcomes was lower in Steiner school children than in the reference group. Overall, there were statistically significant reduced risks for rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema, and atopic sensitization (allergen-specific IgE > or =0.35 kU/L), with some heterogeneity between the countries. Focusing on doctor-diagnosed disease, use of antibiotics during first year of life was associated with increased risks of rhinoconjunctivitis (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.08), asthma (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.03-3.83), and atopic eczema (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.22-2.17). Early use of antipyretics was related to an increased risk of asthma (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.11-2.13) and atopic eczema (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02-1.71). Children having received measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination showed an increased risk of rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas measles infection was associated with a lower risk of IgE-mediated eczema. CONCLUSION: Certain features of the anthroposophic lifestyle, such as restrictive use of antibiotics and antipyretics, are associated with a reduced risk of allergic disease in children.

Flöistrup H; Swartz J; Bergström A; Alm JS; Scheynius A; van Hage M; Waser M; Braun-Fahrländer C; Schram-Bijkerk D; Huber M; Zutavern A; von Mutius E; Ublagger E; Riedler J; Michaels KB; Pershagen G

2006-01-01

292

Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2%) of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02) less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03) less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001) less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National Community on Water and Sanitation Programme, health workers, and the Parents Teacher Associations (PTAs).This union will foster stronger linkages that will pave the way for educating and monitoring the school children for effective hand washing practices.

M. Steiner-Asiedu; S.E. Van-Ess; M. Papoe; J. Setorglo; D.K. Asiedu; A.K. Anderson

2011-01-01

293

Longitudinal, cross-cohort comparison of physical activity patterns in Chinese mothers and children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA) trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n?=?353) followed over a 2–4?year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006). Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk) from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P?P? Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.

Dearth-Wesley Tracy; Gordon-Larsen Penny; Adair Linda S; Zhang Bing; Popkin Barry M

2012-01-01

294

Diabetes Risk Factors in Middle Income Pakistani School Children  

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Full Text Available To assess the risk factors for diabetes such as dietary habits, physical fitness score, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and family history of diabetes amongst school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 103 children (ages 8-12 years), from middle-income families from two schools of Karachi. Data of physical fitness score was taken by a physical fitness test and BMI was calculated by measuring weight and height. Dietary records were taken by 24 hours self reported diet recall charts of two weekdays. Health knowledge was obtained by a questionnaire given to children and a separate questionnaire was given to mothers to get this information. Majority of the children took less healthy food from the choice given to them; according to the self reported dietary intakes, 88% had poor intake of vegetables, 84% had poor intake of milk while 80% had poor intake of fruits. More than 40% of the children consumed soft drinks and fast foods daily. A child on the average watched 2.9 hours of TV/per day on weekdays and 3.5 hours of TV of weekends. Physical fitness score of 45% of the children was unsatisfactory while 29% of children had BMI > 20 Kg/m2. Eighty four percent of the children had first or second degree relative with diabetes. Majority of the children had high risk factors for diabetes with unhealthy diet and low physical activity patterns augmented by strong family history of diabetes. This shows that these children are at increased risk of developing diabetes in later years and preventive measures are required early in life, including lifestyle and behavioral changes to save our future generations from developing diabetes. This information will help in designing interventions for better lifestyle and eating habits which may reduce the later incidence of diabetes in children at adulthood.

M. Zafar Iqbal Hydrie; Abdul Basit; Naeema Badruddin; M. Yakoob Ahmedani

2004-01-01

295

Turkish children's Bender-Gestalt test performance: differences in public and private school children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to provide data on the Bender-Gestalt test for children aged 5 to 11 in Turkey. Although it is well documented that sociocultural factors are important in cognitive evaluations, the effects of type of school and differing educational opportunities provided by these schools on the Bender-Gestalt test have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of age, sex, and school type on Bender-Gestalt performance. The test was individually administered to 484 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years. The children were enrolled in either public or private schools. Koppitz's Developmental Scoring System was utilized. The results indicated that older children performed with fewer errors. Girls performed with fewer errors than boys. Finally, as expected, private school children outperformed their public school peers. The results are discussed with respect to the importance of taking into account various educational factors in utilizing commonly used tests. PMID:21526603

Ozer, Serap

2011-02-01

296

Prevalence of goitre in school-going children in Jabalpur.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the prevalence of goitre in school going children in Jabalpur city and critically evaluate clinical, biochemical and hormonal profile of goitrous children, 1205 children (800 boys and 405 girls) between 6 to 15 years of age were enrolled from 6 different schools located within the Jabalpur city limits. Conducting a Cross-sectional survey relevant family variables, eating habits (including type of salt used), anthropometry and general physical details were recorded in a pre-designed proforma. Thyroid gland was examined and graded as per standard technique. Spot urinary iodine excretion (UIE) of all goitrous children (n = 26) and randomly selected age and sex matched normal non-goitrous children (n = 63) was determined by dry-ashing method. Thyroid hormone profile of goitrous children was assessed by radio-immuno-assay. Student's t-test, z-test and proportionate test were employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the observations. It has been drawn a result that there was low prevalence of goitre in school going children of Jabalpur city. (2.4%, 26/1205). Girls had a higher prevalence (3.2%) than boys (1.6%), however the difference was statistically not insignificant. All goitrous children had small goitre (Grade I) 88.76% children had spot UIE > 100 mcg/l with as many as 13.4% having spot UIE > 150 mcg/l. No child had spot UIE < mcg/l. 11.23% of children had spot UIE of < 100 mcg/l with higher proportion of goitrous children (7/26, 26.92%) than the age matched, non-goitrous controls (3/63, 4.76%). The mean UIE of goitrous children was 109.6 +/- 22.1 mcg/l (range 80-150 mcg/l) and that of control children was 122.9 +/- 17.0 mcg/l (range 90-150 mcg/l). Thyroid hormone profile of goitrous children was in euthyroid range. Salt iodine content could not be done due to non-availability of kit. Jabalpur city is not endemic for iodine deficiency both by clinical as well biochemical criteria. The observed goitre cases are of sporadic variety.

Gakkhar RK; Bhardwaj VK; Chansoria M; Jain S; Visnoi R

2001-03-01

297

Logical reasoning and fantasy contexts: eliminating differences between children with and without experience in school  

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Full Text Available An experiment investigated the effect of a make-believe fantasy mode of problem presentation on reasoning about valid conditional syllogisms in three groups of 5-year-old children: a) school children from middle-class families in England; b) school children from middle-class families in Brazil; and, c) children from low SES families in Brazil who had never gone to school. Previous investigations had reported that the use of a fantasy context elicited significantly more logically appropriate responses from school children than did other contexts, and that children with school experiences made significantly more logically appropriate responses than did children without school experience. The present investigation extended these findings to show that the beneficial effects of a fantasy context extended to lower-class illiterate children who never had been exposed to schooling

Maria da Graça B. B. Dias; Antonio Roazzi; David P. O`Brien; Paul L. Harris

2005-01-01

298

Opera as an Intervention for Rural Public School Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Southwest Missouri State University's efforts to transform opera from an event that the audience simply watches to an event that stimulates life-long learning and interest in the arts for rural public school children. The project incorporates elements of experiential and interactive learning to benefit both the student performers and the…

McGinnis, Pearl Yeadon

2003-01-01

299

Use of Multiplicative Commutativity by School Children and Street Sellers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the use of the commutative property for solving multiplication problems by children who learn about multiplication in schools and by street vendors who solve multiplication problem through repeated addition. Concludes that the use of commutativity to solve multiplication problems is closely related to the use of multiplication. Contains…

Schliemann, Analucia D.; Araujo, Claudia; Cassunde, Maria Angela; Macedo, Suzana; Niceas, Lenice

1998-01-01

300

School children's backpacks, back pain and back pathologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether backpack weight is associated with back pain and back pathology in school children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Schools in Northern Galicia, Spain. PATIENTS: All children aged 12-17. INTERVENTIONS: Backpack weight along with body mass index, age and gender. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Back pain and back pathology. RESULTS: 1403 school children were analysed. Of these, 61.4% had backpacks exceeding 10% of their body weight. Those carrying the heaviest backpacks had a 50% higher risk of back pain (OR 1.50 CI 95% 1.06 to 2.12) and a 42% higher risk of back pathology, although this last result was not statistically significant (OR 1.42 CI 95% 0.86 to 2.32). Girls presented a higher risk of back pain compared with boys. CONCLUSIONS: Carrying backpacks increases the risk of back pain and possibly the risk of back pathology. The prevalence of school children carrying heavy backpacks is extremely high. Preventive and educational activities should be implemented in this age group.

Rodríguez-Oviedo P; Ruano-Ravina A; Pérez-Ríos M; García FB; Gómez-Fernández D; Fernández-Alonso A; Carreira-Núñez I; García-Pacios P; Turiso J

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in response to complaints of increased respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry in Walsall, West Midlands. Air monitoring around the factory had shown concentrations of formaldehyde most of which were orders of magnitude below the current occupational expos...

Symington, P; Coggon, D; Holgate, S

302

GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Examination of faecal samples of 6,430 school children aged between 2 and 20 years, for gastrointestinal parasites using sedimentation and Kato smear techniques was carried out in Benin City, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 1998. Four thousand two hundred and thirty six (65.8%) were infect...

CE Okaka; AO Awharitoma; JN Okonji

303

Prevalence of skin diseases in Varanasi school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a school survey in Varanasi city, 12481 children were examined. More than half (54%) had one or more skin diseases. The commonest ones were peduculosis capitis (35%), pityriasis alba (12%) acne vulgaris (8%), miliaria (4%) and pyodermas (3%)

Valia A; Pandey S; Kaur Paramjeet; Singh Gurmohan

1991-01-01

304

Hyperopia in preschool and school children  

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Full Text Available Hypermetropia (hyperopia) is a refractive error of the eye in which parallel light rays focus behind the macula luthea without accommodation giving an unclear retinal image. The involvement of accommodation in correction of far-sightedness leads to the following three clinical types of hyperopia: total, latent and manifest. Minor hyperopias can be successfully corrected by accommodation higher than +3.0D. If not corrected timely, they may cause amblyopia and esotropia, while high hyperopic anisometropia of a hyperopic eye, usually results in an amblyopic eye. The study included 200 children (400 eyes) within the age range of 3 to 18 years, and it was done following the assigned protocol in the course of clinical ophthalmologic check-ups. The most frequent refractive error in the examined children was hyperopia with hyperopic astigmatism, while anisometropia was found in 22% of children but the frequency was reduced in older children. Refractive family history was found in 60.50% of children. Hyperopia can result in poor visual development, occurrence of amblyopia and strabismus and therefore it represents a significant public health problem. As one of the most frequent amblyogenic factors in children, it can be eliminated/prevented by a screening program and adequate treatment providing prevention of amblyopia, which is a form of blindness. .

Bolinovska Sofija

2007-01-01

305

Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. METHODS: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. RESULTS: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

Ghalebandi M; Salehi M; Rasoulain M; Shooshtari MH; Naserbakht M; Salarifar MH

2011-01-01

306

Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran  

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Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Salehi; Maryam Rasoulain; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Morteza Naserbakht; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar

2011-01-01

307

Association between PM?? exposure and sleep of Egyptian school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the potential association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10) and sleep disturbances among Egyptian school children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, parents of school children from four elementary schools in areas with different PM10 exposures filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children questionnaire in Arabic. Air pollution data were obtained from the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 276 children, 121 (44 %) of them were boys with a mean age of 9.26?±?1.96 years. Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), disorders of excessive somnolence, and the total score were reported in the clinical range (T score?>?70) in 19.9, 24.3, and 24.3 % of the sample, respectively. A generalized additive model with adjustment for potential confounding factors was used to examine the association between PM10 exposure and sleep disturbances. There were statistically significant associations between PM10 exposure and DIMS and sleep hyperhidrosis (P?children's sleep with significant association between exposure to PM10 and sleep disturbances.

Abou-Khadra MK

2013-05-01

308

Sexual activity and adolescent health risk behaviours amongst high school students in three ethnic Chinese urban populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare sexually active Chinese high school students in three major Asian cities with their non-sexually active counterparts in order to determine prevalence and associations with selected health outcomes. BACKGROUND: There have been limited studies to date on the association between sexual activity and substance use in Chinese high schools. While the role of the school nurse in the development of sexual health and harm reduction education in secondary schools has been well documented in international studies, this has received little attention in Asia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: This study was administered in 2003/2004 to 13,895 Grades 6 to 12 high school students in Hong Kong (3498), Macau (6286) and Taipei (4111). Descriptive analysis was conducted followed by univariate analysis comparing sexual behaviour with (1) substance use including alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs; (2) feeling depressed for greater than or equal to two weeks in last 12 months; contemplating suicide during the last 12 months; and (3) perception of poor health/academic performance. RESULTS: The students (8%) reported being sexually active had marked differences in selected health outcomes when compared with the non-sexually experienced students. More than 90% of the sexually active students had tried alcohol, with more than 50% being regular drinkers, more than 30% testifying to binge drinking and nearly 50% reported depression in the past 12 months. Substance use, poorer perception of health and academic performance were also significantly higher in the sexually experienced students relative to their non-experienced counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Sexually experienced Chinese high school students surveyed were at higher risk of substance abuse, poorer psychological health and academic performance. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Community and public health nursing needs to address Asian adolescent sexual health education needs, in particular provide culturally targeted interventions for associated substance abuse and psychological health within the context of high school sex education.

Ong J; Wong W; Lee A; Holroyd E; Huang SY

2013-07-01

309

[Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

Zaczyk-Martin C; Nuttens MC; Hautekeete M; Salomez JL; Lequien P

1990-01-01

310

Characterization of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in Chinese children remain uncharacterized. This study aims to identify the resistance genes associated with erythromycin resistance and to determine the genetic relationships of IPD isolates in Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 171 S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from 11 medical centers in China from 2006 to 2008. All the isolates were characterized via serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility determination. The erythromycin-resistant isolates were further characterized via ermB and mefA gene detection, multi-locus sequence typing analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: A total of 164 (95.9%) isolates showed resistance to erythromycin, of which 162 strains with high high-level resistance (MIC ? 256 µg/ml). A total of 104 (63.4%) isolates carry the ermB gene alone, whereas 59 (36.0%) harbor both ermB and mefA genes. Of the 59 strains, 54 were of serotypes 19A and 19F and were identified as highly clonal and related to the Taiwan(19F)-14 clone. CONCLUSIONS: The erythromycin resistance rate in IPD isolates is significantly high and is predominantly mediated by the ermB gene. Isolates that carry both ermB and mefA genes are predominantly of serotypes 19A and 19F.

Ma X; Yao KH; Xie GL; Zheng YJ; Wang CQ; Shang YX; Wang HY; Wan LY; Liu L; Li CC; Ji W; Xu XW; Wang YT; Xu PR; Yu SJ; Yang YH

2013-04-01

311

Snoring in primary school children and domestic environment: A Perth school based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The home is the predominant environment for exposure to many environmental irritants such as air pollutants and allergens. Exposure to common indoor irritants including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide, may increase the risk of snoring for children. The aim of this study was to investigate domestic environmental factors associated with snoring in children. Methods A school-based respiratory survey was administered during March and April of 2002. Nine hundred and ninety six children from four primary schools within the Perth metropolitan area were recruited for the study. A sub-group of 88 children aged 4–6 years were further selected from this sample for domestic air pollutant assessment. Results The prevalences of infrequent snoring and habitual snoring in primary school children were 24.9% and 15.2% respectively. Passive smoking was found to be a significant risk factor for habitual snoring (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–2.61), while having pets at home appeared to be protective against habitual snoring (OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37–0.92). Domestic pollutant assessments showed that the prevalence of snoring was significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide during winter. Relative to the low exposure category (3), the adjusted ORs of snoring by children with medium (30 – 60 ?g/m3) and high exposures (> 60 ?g/m3) to NO2 were 2.5 (95% CI: 0.7–8.7) and 4.5 (95% CI: 1.4–14.3) respectively. The corresponding linear dose-response trend was also significant (P = 0.011). Conclusion Snoring is common in primary school children. Domestic environments may play a significant role in the increased prevalence of snoring. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide in domestic environment is associated with snoring in children.

Zhang Guicheng; Spickett Jeffery; Rumchev Krassi; Lee Andy H; Stick Stephen

2004-01-01

312

Determinants of school activity performance in children with cerebral palsy: A multidimensional approach using the ICF-CY as a framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to identify the determinants of activity performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in school by considering factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Child and Youth (ICF-CY). A sample of 167 school-aged children with CP and their caregivers were recruited in the study. Activity performance in school settings was assessed with part 3 of the School Functional Assessment - Chinese version, which divides activity performance into performance of physical activities and cognitive/behavioral activities. Possible determinants were collected according to all dimensions of the ICF-CY. Multiple regression analyses showed that the determinants of performance of physical activities were receiving speech therapy in school, diplegia, having a domestic helper, and severity of gross and fine motor impairments, explaining 83% of the total variance; the determinants of performance of cognitive/behavioral activities were intellectual impairment, prosocial behavior, having an assistant in school, educational placement, severity of fine motor impairment, accounting for 73% of the total variance. Results of the study provide clinicians a holistic understanding of factors influencing school activity performance, and enable clinicians to make appropriate evaluations and interventions targeted at the determinants to enhance children's activity performance in school.

Huang CY; Tseng MH; Chen KL; Shieh JY; Lu L

2013-09-01

313

The establishing of Chinese medical concepts in Norwegian acupuncture schools: the cultural translation of jingluo ('circulation tracts').  

Science.gov (United States)

Acupuncture and other forms of so-called alternative treatments, originating outside the West, have increasingly become an integrated part of the repertoire of medical practices widely used in health care remote from their places of origin. The main aim of this paper is to elucidate the cultural translation of Chinese medical concepts in a Western, acupuncture setting located far from China. Drawing on material from ethnographic fieldwork in acupuncture schools in Norway, this study discusses how concepts used in Chinese acupuncture are taught and interpreted for biomedically oriented students. The paper concentrates on the concept of jingluo ('circulation tracts', 'meridians') which the schools considered to be vital in order to conduct acupuncture. Similar to several other Chinese medical concepts, jingluo presents claims about the body that significantly differ from biomedical assumptions. The paper adds novel resources and insights to the research concerning medical conceptions, in that it applies the perspective of 'finitism' as developed in the field of sociology of knowledge by Barnes, Bloor and Henry (1996) in its analysis. It presents an analysis of five empirical examples demonstrating how a variety of interpretations of jingluo--many of them from different fields and some of them contradictory--were involved in establishing jingluo. Finally, by examining examples of Chinese concepts of the body, the paper seeks to contribute to the wider field of the anthropology of the body as well as to add to our understanding of the ways in which medical pluralism and globalisation of acupuncture unfolds. PMID:21153965

Sagli, Gry

2010-12-01

314

Effects of indoor air pollution on lung function of primary school children in Kuala Lumpur  

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In a cross-sectional study of 7-12 year-old primary school children in Kuala Lumpur city, lung function was assessed by spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements. Spirometric and peak expiratory flow measurements were successfully performed in 1,214 and 1,414 children, respectively. As expected, the main predictors of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were standing height, weight, age, and sex. In addition, lung function values of Chinese and Malays were generally higher than those of Indians. In multiple regression models which included host and environmental factors, asthma was associated with significant decreases in FEV1, FEF25-75, and PEFR. However, family history of chest illness, history of allergies, low paternal education, and hospitalization during the neonatal period were not independent predictors of lung function. Children sharing rooms with adult smokers had significantly lower levels of FEF25-75. Exposures to wood or kerosene stoves were, but to mosquito repellents were not, associated with decreased lung function.

Azizi, B.H.; Henry, R.L. (National Univ. of Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

1990-01-01

315

Effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese obese children  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of lifestyle intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese obese children.METHODS: Seventy-six obese children aged from 10 to 17 years with NAFLD were enrolled for a one-month intervention and divided randomly into three groups. Group1, consisting of 38 obese children, was an untreated control group without any intervention. Group 2, consisting of 19 obese children in summer camp, was strictly controlled only by life style intervention. Group 3, consisting of 19 obese children, received oral vitamin E therapy at a dose of 100 mg/d. The height, weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO) and homeostasis model assent-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline and after one month. All patients were underwent to an ultrasonographic study of the liver performed by one operator who was blinded to the groups.RESULTS: The monitor indices of BMI, ALT, AST, TG, TCHO and HOMA-IR were successfully improved except in group 1. BMI and ALT in group 2 were reduced more significantly than in group 3 (2.44 ± 0.82 vs 1.45 ± 0.80, P = 0.001; 88.58 ± 39.99 vs 63.69 ± 27.05, P = 0.040, respectively).CONCLUSION: Both a short-term lifestyle intervention and vitamin E therapy have an effect on NAFLD in obese children. Compared with vitamin E, lifestyle intervention is more effective. Therefore, lifestyle intervention should represent the first step in the management of children with NAFLD.

Chun-Lin Wang, Li Liang, Jun-Fen Fu, Chao-Chun Zou, Fang Hong, Jin-Zheng Xue, Jin-Rui Lu, Xiang-Min Wu

2008-01-01

316

Gypsy Children, Space, and the School Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws on data generated from a 3-1/2-year ethnographic study of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in England. The evidence suggests that Gypsy children have distinctive spatial orientations that are embedded in their own culture and life experience. These relate to issues revolving around degrees of…

Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

2005-01-01

317

Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

2005-01-01

318

Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

2005-01-01

319

Pneumonia in pre-school children : Terveysnetti  

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Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by bacterial, viral or more rarely fungal organisms. Common symptoms in children and infants include difficult breathing, cough, and wheezing. Diagnosis involves confirmatory chest radiography and laboratory tests. Antibiotics are the preferred choice for trea...

Mbugua, Samuel

320

The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sleep problems, strengths and difficulties in elementary school children  

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Full Text Available Aim: To assess behavioral and sleep disturbances in childhood, it is necessary to implement standardized brief questionnaires for children and their parents. Especially complaints of insomnia often are underdiagnosed in pediatric medicine. Methods: We developed a sleep questionnaire (K?SI-KJ) and used it together with German versions of the SDQ (parent and child reports) for epidemiologic studies in Cologne. The sleep questionnaire obtains 33 items for parents and 28 items for children. Ratings were dichotomized for this analysis in “sometimes/ often present” versus “not present”. The German versions of SDQ contain 5 subscales each with 5 items. Data from a sample of 1490 children of fourth grade in elementary schools inCologne(age ranged from 8 to 11 years) are shown. Results: Children indicate signs of sleep disturbances in higher frequency than their parents do. Concerning gender and ethnical group, there no significant differences can be shown. Children with signs of insomnia, dyssomnia, daytime sleepiness or restless sleep showed significantly higher scores for all relevant SDQ subscales in parental and children's reports. Children with signs of parasomnia showed higher scores concerning emotional problems and the SDQ total score. Children with enuresis showed higher scores for all SDQ subscales and the total score.

Jamal Driouch; Dirk Alfer; Leonie Fricke-Oerkermann; Gerd Lehmkuhl

2013-01-01

322

Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures of EF than non-clinical children; at the individual level, there appeared to be heterogeneity in EF impairment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; XX(X) 1-XX).

Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary

2011-01-01

323

Executive dysfunction in school-age children with ADHD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. METHOD: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. RESULTS: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. CONCLUSION: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures of EF than non-clinical children; at the individual level, there appeared to be heterogeneity in EF impairment.

Lambek R; Tannock R; Dalsgaard S; Trillingsgaard A; Damm D; Thomsen PH

2011-11-01

324

Cadmium and lead in Hong Kong school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic elements in our environment. This study is to determine the reference intervals of Cd and Pb in blood and urine from Hong Kong school children and to identify their determinants. METHODS: A total of 2209 secondary school children and 893 preschool children were recruited. Cd and Pb in blood and urine were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Blood Cd was affected by age, smoking and residential district, while urine Cd was influenced by age and blood Cd. Blood Cd was positively correlated with smoking as confirmed by urinary cotinine (rho? = 0.183, p ?schools of lower academic grading had higher blood Cd and Pb than those from higher academic grading schools (p < 0.001, respectively). Urinary albumin was positively associated with urinary Cd and Pb. CONCLUSIONS: Using a non-occupationally exposed population, the reference ranges are: blood Cd < 21.9 ?nmol/L for smokers and < 8.8 ?nmol/L for non-smokers, and blood Pb < 203.8 ?nmol/L. Reference intervals for urinary Cd and Pb are also reported.

Chan IH; Kong AP; Leung TF; Tsui TK; Cheung RC; Osaki R; Ho CS; Wong GW; Wong CK; Lam CW; Chan JC; Chan MH

2012-12-01

325

Clustering of food and activity preferences in primary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined clustering of food and activity preferences in Dutch primary school children. It also explored whether the preference clusters are associated with child and parental background characteristics and with parenting practices. Data were used from 1480 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohort (INPACT). Children aged 8-11years reported their preferences for food (e.g. fruit and sweet snacks) and activities (e.g. biking and watching television) at school with a newly-developed, visual instrument designed for primary school children. Parents completed a questionnaire at home. Principal component analysis was used to identify preference clusters. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between child and parental characteristics with cluster scores. We found (1) a clustering of preferences for unhealthy foods and unhealthy drinks, (2) a clustering of preferences for various physical activity behaviours, and (3) a clustering of preferences for unhealthy drinks and sedentary behaviour. Boys had a higher cluster score than girls on all three preference clusters. In addition, physical activity-related parenting practices were negatively related to unhealthy preference clusters and positively to the physical-activity-preference cluster. The next step is to relate our preference clusters to child dietary and activity behaviours, with special attention to gender differences. This may help in the development of interventions aimed at improving children's food and activity preferences.

Rodenburg G; Oenema A; Pasma M; Kremers SP; van de Mheen D

2013-01-01

326

ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE  

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Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

Ruzica KERAMICIEVA; Tatjana TAKASMANOVA-SOKOLOVSKA

1997-01-01

327

Nutritional anaemia and malaria in pre-school and school age children  

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Full Text Available Background : The most common cause of anemia is a deficiency of iron; but it may also be caused by deficiencies of folates, vitamin B12 and protein. Some anemias are not caused by nutritional factors, but by congenital factors and parasitic diseases such as malaria. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among pre-school and school- aged children in two rural areas of Odogbolu Local government area, and to determine whether its cause was nutritional or could be attributed to malaria. Methods : A total of 177 children between the ages of 2 and 11 years were included in the study. Children were examined for malaria parasites by microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) age-adjusted cut-off for hemoglobin and hematocrit were used to classify anemia. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for serum ferritin was compared with standard methods of determining iron deficiency. Under- nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) was classified according to the National Centre for Health Statistics standards. Values below - 2SD were defined as mild-moderate under-nutrition, and those below -3SD as severe malnutrition. Results : Most of the children were anemic, 87.1%, having PCV values below the 32% cut-off and 95% with hemoglobin levels lower than the 11g/dl, although parasite prevalence and density were low. Malnutrition was patent; 36% of the children were stunted, 18.3% wasted and 44.2% underweight. Serum ferritin was more sensitive than PCV in detecting anemic children. Although anemia was higher in boys and preschoolers compared to girls and school aged children, the difference was significant only in preschoolers (P = .004). Anaemia was also significantly higher in Irawo village school than in Iloti (P = .0001) Conclusion : The anemia detected in this population may be due more to under-nutrition than to malaria.

Anumudu C; Afolami M; Igwe C; Nwagwu M; Keshinro O

2008-01-01

328

How do children at special schools and their parents perceive their HRQoL compared to children at open schools?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been some debate in the past as to who should determine values for different health states for economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children attending open schools (OS) and children with disabilities attending a special school (SS) and their parents in Cape Town South Africa. Methods The EQ-5D-Y and a proxy version were administered to the children and their parents were requested to fill in the EQ-5D-Y proxy version without consultation with their children on the same day. Results A response rate of over 20% resulted in 567 sets of child/adult responses from OS children and 61 responses from SS children. Children with special needs reported more problems in the "Mobility" and "Looking after myself" domains but their scores with regard to "Doing usual activities", "Pain or discomfort" and "Worried, sad or unhappy" were similar to their typically developing counterparts. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of SS children was (88.4, SD18.3, range 40-100) which was not different to the mean score of the OS respondents (87.9, SD16.5, range 5-100). The association between adult and child scores was fair to moderate in the domains. The correlations in VAS scores between Open Schools children and female care-givers' scores significant but low (r = .33, p Discussion It would appear that children with disabilities do not perceive their HRQoL to be worse than their able bodied counterparts, although they do recognise their limitations in the domains of "Mobility" and "Doing usual activities". Conclusions This finding lends weight to the argument that valuation of health states by children affected by these health states should not be included for the purpose of economic analysis as the child's resilience might result in better values for health states and possibly a correspondingly smaller resource allocation. Conversely, if HRQoL is to be used as a clinical outcome, then it is preferable to include the children's values as proxy report does not appear to be highly correlated with the child's own perceptions.

Jelsma Jennifer; Ramma Lebogang

2010-01-01

329

Surveying ergonomic factors of backpack in tehranian primary school children  

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Full Text Available   Background : Children are in their developing years and their bones and physical structure has not yet fully developed to a point of resiliency that can withstand stress, pressure, and a modicum of physical abuse and about 90% of students are carrying backpacks. Unsuitable backpacks cause shoulder pain, back pain, low back pain and skeletal malformation. Carrying backpacks heavier than 10% of body weight is not recommended. Thus, the objective of this study was to survey adaption between student backpacks and their anthropometric dimension.   Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study, 50 primary school children (10 females and 40 males) cooperated in anthropometric measurement and its comparison with their backpack dimension. 212 female school children were contributed in comparison between their backpack weight and 10% body weight. Body dimensions were measured with VICON Analyze motion system (460V, oxford, UK) and ergonomics factors for their backpacks were recorded by a checklist. Weight measured with a digital scale and BMI was calculated based on WHO software.   Results: Significant difference was shown between shoulder breath-backpack width up, waist breath -backpack width down, shoulder width-shoulder strap width and back height-backpack height.   8% backpack handles, 44%shoulder straps and 34% backpack behinds had good padding. Two percent of backpacks had waist strap and no backpacks had chest strap.8% of shoulder straps were S shaped and 4% of backpacks were rolling. Just 28.3% backpack weights have been under 10% of body weight.   Conclusion: Ergonomics knowledge regarding backpacks is very important for selecting and buying the right product. However, the backpack producers should also be` informed to produce ergonomics backpack. The reduction of extra items in children backpacks by parents is beneficial, but effective management programs by ministry of education is also needed for informing school administrative persons and school children about the health problem of carring un ergonomic backpacks.

Somayeh Mohammadi; Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia; Farhad Tabatabaee; Reza Nejatbakhsh

2012-01-01

330

Staging an educated self : Linguistic displays of schooling among rural Zambian children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article explores local meanings of schooling as displayed by 7-12 year old children in a rural Zambian community. Applying linguisticanthropological analyses of their peer interactions, the author discusses symbolic reworkings of schooling and ‘educatedness’ among children frequently labeled as ‘slow’ or ‘backwards’ in the classroom setting. The discussion includes the apparent disparities between the tangible and symbolic roles of school in the context of these children’s lifeworlds and future horizons.

Clemensen, Nana

2013-01-01

331

Development of the language subtest in a developmental assessment scale to identify Chinese preschool children with special needs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study reports on the development of the language subtest in the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) for Cantonese-Chinese speaking children. A pilot pool of 158 items covering the two language modalities and the three language domains was developed. This initial item set was subsequ...

Wong, AMY; Leung, C; Siu, EKL; Lam, CCC; Chan, GPS

332

Neurophysiological Correlates of Executive Function: A Comparison of European-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian 5-Year-Old Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored the neurophysiological correlates of executive function (EF) in young children from two different cultural backgrounds. Twenty European-Canadian and 17 Chinese-Canadian 5-year-olds participated in a go/no-go task, during which high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) data were ...

Lahat, Ayelet; Todd, Rebecca M.; Mahy, Caitlin Emma Victoria; Lau, Karen; Zelazo, Philip David

333

Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung function among Chinese schoolchildren in Southern China (Hong Kong). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 3168 schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in 3 districts in Hong Kong. Annual means of ambient PM10 (particulate matter <10 µm), SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate the individual exposure of the subjects. Children's lung function was measured for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF(25-75)) and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF75). Analysis of covariance was performed separately by gender to estimate the impact of air pollution on lung function, with adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics, respiratory morbidities, height and weight, physical activity level, indoor air contaminants and short-term exposure to the air pollutants. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, FEV1, FEF(25-75) and FEF75 for boys in a high-pollution district (HPD) were significantly lower than those in a low-pollution district (LPD) by 3.0%, 7.6% and 8.4%, respectively. No significant differences were found for girls. Results from the comparison between a moderate-pollution district (MPD) and the HPD were similar. There were no differences between children in the LPD and MPD, except that a higher FEF75 was found in boys in the MPD. PM10 is the primary pollutant responsible for the lung function deficit. Asthmatic children were more vulnerable to exposure to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to higher ambient air pollution levels was associated with lower lung function in Chinese schoolchildren, especially among boys. Adverse effects were observed on large and small airways, with a stronger effect on the latter.

Gao Y; Chan EY; Li LP; He QQ; Wong TW

2013-02-01

334

Interleukin-13 and RANTES polymorphisms in relation to asthma in children of Chinese Han nationality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: IL-13 (interleukin-13) and RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cells Expressed and Secreted) are the important asthma inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the single and combined associations between the polymorphism (SNP) loci in IL-13 and RANTES genes with the development of asthma in children of Chinese Han nationality. METHODS: The risk associated with genotypes of three IL-13 SNPs and two RANTES SNPs was determined by the ?2 test in 384 children with asthma and an equal number of healthy controls matched by sex. RESULTS: Between the experimental and control groups, no statistically significant differences (P >0.05) were found in genotype distribution and allele frequency among three loci (IL-13 C-1112T, IL-13 C1923T, and RANTES A-403G). However, significant diversity was observed among IL-13 A2044G (P =0.0001) and RANTES G-28C (P =0.0001). Moreover, the frequency of IL-13 A2044G A/A and RANTES G-28C G/G in the asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group (odds ratio [OR] =2.59, P =0.0001; OR =3.00, P =0.0001, respectively). Carriers of both IL-13 A2044G A/A and RANTES G-28C G/G have a more significant risk for developing asthma than those with only a single polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: The three loci (IL-13 C-1112T, IL-13 C1923T, and RANTES A-403G) make little contribution to the development of asthma in children of Chinese Han nationality. IL-13 A2044G and RANTES G-28C are significantly associated with childhood asthma. IL-13 A2044G A/A and RANTES G-28C G/G have a significant and combined effect on the development of asthma.

Liu Q; Hua L; Fang D; Lin Q; Zhu Y; Gan X; Bao Y

2013-09-01

335

Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 ?g m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

2013-01-01

336

Trends in general and abdominal obesity among Chinese children and adolescents 1993-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the secular trends in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese children and adolescents from 1993 to 2009. METHODS: Data were obtained from the China health and nutrition survey conducted from 1993 to 2009. 9693 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were included in this study, with their height, weight and WC measured. General obesity was defined using the BMI cut-offs for overweight recommended by the International Obesity Task Force, and abdominal obesity was assessed when a WC is above the 90th percentile for gender and age. RESULTS: Among the total participants, mean BMI and WC increased significantly over the period 1993-2009: BMI increased from 17.6 to 17.8?kg?m(-2) , and WC increased from 61.4 to 63.1?cm (both increases P?Chinese children.

Liang YJ; Xi B; Song AQ; Liu JX; Mi J

2012-10-01

337

Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. ?Personal Information Form? and ?Psychological Compliance Measurement? were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5%) than girls (40.5%) and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3%) than boys (56.3%). CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000): 47-52

Selma Dogan; Meral Kelleci; Selma Sabanciogullari; Dilek Aydin

2008-01-01

338

Mental Adaptation Problems of Children in a Primary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out on explanatory purposes to determine psychological compliance state of the children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school province and how common some psychological infancy problems are. METHODS: The samples of the research consist of mothers and teachers of 255 children between age group 6-14, receiving education in a primary school in Sivas province. ?Personal Information Form? and ?Psychological Compliance Measurement? were used in the collection of data. RESULTS: According to the evaluation of teachers it was found out that while %27.5 of the children has psychological compliance problems. According to the evaluation of mothers, it was obtained that only 24.7% of the children has psychological compliance problems. The average compliance points were found higher in boys than girls, in younger age group than older age group, in group having physical disorders than not having any physical disorders. In the research a meaningful difference was not found when the average psychological compliance points and other variables were compared. When infancy psychological compliance problems evaluated, in 2.3% of the children stammer, in 3.1% habit-spasm disorder, in 7% finger sucking, in 1.9% encopresis, in 9% enuresis, and in 19.6 educational failures were determined. When the state of being problematical in behaviors and neurotic compared with the gender, it was traced that behavioral problems were higher in boys (59.5%) than girls (40.5%) and the neurotic problems were higher in girls (56. 3%) than boys (56.3%). CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was recognized that improvement of the services for the psychological care of the children in the society and primary schools is crucially needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1): 47-52

Selma Dogan; Meral Kelleci; Selma Sabanciogullari; Dilek Aydin

2008-01-01

339

Intergenerational influence and rituals - children’s behaviour with new school year  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After Christmas, back-to-school is the most important season for all retailers. Yet, consumer behavior research overlooks this ritual. This paper presents findings from observational and interview data collected at Borovo shoe stores in Croatia in 2010. It considers how research from the back-to-school context contributes to the theories of intergenerational influence for brands and children as marketplace actors.

Katharine C. Sredl; Ružica Butigan; Nataša Renko

2012-01-01

340

Children's Perception Of Parenting Styles In Relation To Schooling Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Parents create their own style from a combination of factors, and these may evolve over time as the children develop their own personalities and move through life's stages. A total sample of 210 children in the age group of 8-10 years were chosen for the study which was equally divided among 3 different schools i.e. Municipal, Private, & Aided with the help of purposive sampling. Aself- structured questionnaire was prepared on children's perception on parenting styles with 10 hypothetical statements. The tool was validated and the reliability of the tool was found Father: r = 0.979, Mother: r= 0.983. The data was quantitatively analyzed. The findings indicate that the schooling background doesn't affect the parenting styles. Most of the parents use authoritative parenting styles, want their children to be responsive and mature, they develop a sense of independence in their children, but still have limits and consequences.

Asha Menon

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

2008-01-01

342

An Explorative Analysis of Children’s Dropouts from Rural Schools of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an explorative analysis about the causes of children’s high proportion of drop-outs from rural schools of Pakistan. For this purpose, simple random sampling technique was used by taking a sample size of 120 respondents from six villages of the rural areas of district Jhang, Pakistan in 2010. The major objectives of the said research were to investigate the socio-economic hurdles of the drop-outs of children from schools, to find out the attitude of parents towards the drop-outs, and finally to suggest the measures for solving the problems regarding drop-outs of rural children from schools. Initially, the pre-testing was done on ten respondents before starting the actual research. As a result of the said research, it was found that there are certain factors, e.g. uneducated parents, teachers’ behavior, low mental ability, bad habits, bad peer group and scarcity of educated people in the community, which not only affects the performance of the children but also ends it in the form of their drop out from school.

Muhammad Mehar AKRAM

2011-01-01

343

Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. DESIGN: Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. RESULTS: All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. CONCLUSION: Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk models have potential applications for screening for communication disorders in general.

Howell P

2013-06-01

344

Local school children curious about CMS  

CERN Multimedia

Imagine the scene: about 20-30 schoolchildren aged 8-11 and about 1.25 m tall; a couple of adults, let’s say on average 1.75 m tall, and then one high-energy physics experiment 15 m tall. This is what you could have seen on 2, 6 and 9 February in the CMS cavern, as two local schools participated in the “Be a scientist!” programme.   "I think they've got it..." Two classes from the primary school in the village of Cessy, where CMS is located, took part in the visits on 2 and 9 February, and all 36 pupils from CM2 (Year 6) at the Ecole des Bois in nearby Ornex took part in the visit on 6 February. “They asked so many questions,” says Sandrine Saison Marsollier, CERN’s educational officer for the local community, who accompanied some of the classes to CMS. “Most of them had practical questions about what they saw, for example how big and how heavy the experiment is, and which bit goes where. But some ...

Joannah Caborn Wengler

2012-01-01

345

Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, 1-month test-retest reliability, and congruent validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). Study 1, in which 5751 Taiwanese adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the adequacy of the original four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach ?. Study 2, in which 108 adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the 1-month test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We examined the congruent validity of the C-SBEQ by examining the consistency between self-reported and teacher- and classmate-nominated experiences of bullying involvement in Study 2. The results of CFA supported the four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ in Taiwanese adolescents. The test-retest and internal reliability values of all subscales of the C-SBEQ were at acceptable to satisfactory levels. Nominated adolescents had significantly higher self-reported scores on three C-SBEQ subscales than non-nominated ones, and the levels of agreement between self-reported and nominated victims were moderate. The results of this study indicate that the C-SBEQ is appropriate for assessing bullying experiences in Taiwanese adolescents.

Yen CF; Kim YS; Tang TC; Wu YY; Cheng CP

2012-09-01

346

Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, 1-month test-retest reliability, and congruent validity of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). Study 1, in which 5751 Taiwanese adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the adequacy of the original four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal-consistency reliability using Cronbach ?. Study 2, in which 108 adolescents in Southern Taiwan participated, examined the 1-month test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). We examined the congruent validity of the C-SBEQ by examining the consistency between self-reported and teacher- and classmate-nominated experiences of bullying involvement in Study 2. The results of CFA supported the four-factor structure of the C-SBEQ in Taiwanese adolescents. The test-retest and internal reliability values of all subscales of the C-SBEQ were at acceptable to satisfactory levels. Nominated adolescents had significantly higher self-reported scores on three C-SBEQ subscales than non-nominated ones, and the levels of agreement between self-reported and nominated victims were moderate. The results of this study indicate that the C-SBEQ is appropriate for assessing bullying experiences in Taiwanese adolescents. PMID:22974670

Yen, Cheng-Fang; Kim, Young-Shin; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

2012-07-07

347

Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls). The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of children. The general assessment shows only 48% of children have sufficient availability for school education.

Leschinska K.O.

2010-01-01

348

Improved survival outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia with intensified chemotherapy in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the use of intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the prognosis of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) improved over the last 2 decades. Survival data of Chinese pediatric patients were seldom reported. The authors adopted modified UK Medical Research Council (MRC) AML protocols for treatment of childhood AML since 1994. From 1994 to 2008, the outcomes of Chinese AML patients were studied. Sixty-eight patients were studied. The median age at diagnosis was 9.9 years. Twenty-five patients (36.8%) had favorable cytogenetic karyotypes, including t(15;17), t(8;21) and inv(16). Complete remission (CR) rate was 91.2%. The relapse rate was 29.4%. For non-M3 patients, the 5-year overall survival (pOS) was 64% ± 7% and event-free survival (pEFS) was 53% ± 7%. For those non-good-risk patients who achieved CR, there were no significant differences in outcomes between patients who received HSCT in CR1 and those received chemotherapy alone (5-year pOS 80% ± 13% and 69% ± 9%, P = .52), 5-year pEFS 69% ± 15% and 55% ± 10%, P = .40). The pOS of the 20 relapsed patients was 29% ± 11%. Sixteen patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) had similar outcome with those without favorable cytogenetics (pOS 66% ± 12% versus 65% ± 7%, P = .39; pEFS 60% ± 11% versus 54% ± 8%, P = .45). Patients who achieved CR after 2 or more courses of chemotherapy and presenting white blood cell count (WBC) ? 100 × 10(9)/L had poorer outcome (pOS 40% versus 80%P < .01; 43% versus 70%, P = .02, respectively). Intensified chemotherapy improved outcome of Chinese AML children. CR after first course of chemotherapy and WBC at diagnosis were important prognostic factors.

Zhai XW; Cheng FW; Lee V; Leung WK; Ng MH; Tsang KS; Shing MK; Li CK

2011-05-01

349

[The fight against school failure in children of migrants].  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Mastering the language" scheme focuses on the prevention of illiteracy in children of migrants in vocation-oriented high schools. According to interviews carried out with teachers, there seems to be a transformation in their conception of teaching within the scheme, which is in line with the change encouraged by the current reform of the whole public service sector. This reform offers hope with regard to the humanisation of institutions which are currently violent. PMID:23641626

Sarot, Adeline; Chomentowski, Martine; Moro, Marie Rose

350

[The fight against school failure in children of migrants].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "Mastering the language" scheme focuses on the prevention of illiteracy in children of migrants in vocation-oriented high schools. According to interviews carried out with teachers, there seems to be a transformation in their conception of teaching within the scheme, which is in line with the change encouraged by the current reform of the whole public service sector. This reform offers hope with regard to the humanisation of institutions which are currently violent.

Sarot A; Chomentowski M; Moro MR

2013-03-01

351

Schooling and Traditional Collaborative Social Organization of Problem Solving by Mayan Mothers and Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined whether the social organization of problem solving of Guatemalan Mayan indigenous mothers and children varied with the mothers' school experience. Found that mothers with little schooling were involved more in horizontal, multiparty engagements while solving a puzzle with three children, whereas mothers with extensive schooling were…

Chavajay, Pablo; Rogoff, Barbara

2002-01-01

352

Is Children's Free School Meal "Eligibility" a Good Proxy for Family Income?  

Science.gov (United States)

Family income is an important factor associated with children's educational achievement. However, key areas of UK research (for example, on socially segregated schooling) and policy (for example, the allocation of funding to schools) rely on children's free school meal (FSM) "eligibility" to proxy family income. This article examines the…

Hobbs, Graham; Vignoles, Anna

2010-01-01

353

34 CFR 300.130 - Definition of parentally-placed private school children with disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

means children with disabilities enrolled by their parents in private, including religious, schools or facilities that meet the definition of elementary school in § 300.13 or secondary school in § 300.36, other than children with disabilities covered under §§ 300.145 through...

2009-07-01

354

After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children  

Science.gov (United States)

|This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

2006-01-01

355

Nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and the role of the school meal programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Good nutrition is essential to healthy childhood. Because the school meal programs--the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program--are so widely available, they are in a unique position to influence the nutritional quality of children's diets. OBJECTIVE: This article assesses the nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and explores the relationship between children's participation in the school meal programs and the nutritional quality of their diets. DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III), a nationally representative study fielded during school year 2004-2005. Data on children's dietary intakes were collected through in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Nutritional quality of children's diets was assessed by estimating the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of energy and nutrients. SUBJECTS/SETTING: The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of 2,314 children in grades 1 through 12 from 287 public schools. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Nutrient adequacy and excess were assessed by comparing usual nutrient intake distributions to Dietary Reference Intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Propensity score matching was used to examine the relationship between school meal program participation and the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes. RESULTS: The majority of public school children in the United States had nutritionally adequate diets, but 80% had excessive intakes of saturated fat and 92% had excessive intakes of sodium. School meal program participation was associated with reduced prevalence of nutrient inadequacy but with increased prevalence of excessive sodium intakes. CONCLUSIONS: School meal programs play an important role in the nutritional adequacy of children's diets. However, the association between program participation and excessive sodium intakes, along with the high prevalence of excessive saturated fat intakes among all students, suggest areas for improvement in the meals these programs provide.

Clark MA; Fox MK

2009-02-01

356

Risk factors of postural defects in children at school age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction and objective: Postural defects increasingly more often concern children and adolescents at school age. The lack of prophylaxis and neglecting adequate procedures may lead to limitations of physical and motor abilities, back pain, or the development of severe spinal deformities. Recognition of the risk factors conducive to the occurrence of the disorder allows the creation of adequate conditions for the psychomotor development of children, as well as the elaboration and implementation of specified educational schemes directed at schools and parents. The study concerned determination of the risk factors for the development of postural defects in school age children. Material and methods: The study was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey. The study group covered 380 children aged 14 (175 girls (46.1%) and 205 boys (53.9%)) - selected at random from schools in eastern Poland and the Czech Republic. The significance of the relationships between variables was investigated by means of chi-square test for independence. The differences between the empirical and theoretical sample distribution was examined by means of chi-square goodness-of-fit test. The significance level was set at p=0.05. Results: The BMI in the population examined was 20.2, on average (from 14-39). Respondents living in rural areas and small towns constituted 57.63% of the study group, while inhabitants of medium-size and large cities - 42.37%. The majority of children in the study had been previously examined for the occurrence of postural defects (74.2%), whereas nearly every tenth child had never undergone such an examination. As many as 16.3% of adolescents did not know whether they had ever participated in a screening test. A defect was detected in 14.7% of children, in 56.6% no asymmetry was detected, while approximately 30% were not aware if their body posture was normal or not. Conclusions: 1. There is a relationship between physical activity of the child and the occurrence of postural defects. 2. There is a relationship between the economic standard of the family and awareness of own state of health. 3. There is a need for the creation of a system of education for parents and children concerning postural defects and risks resulting from these defects. PMID:24069870

Latalski, Micha?; Bylina, Jerzy; Fatyga, Marek; Repko, Martin; Filipovic, Milan; Jarosz, Miros?aw J; Borowicz, Kinga B; Matuszewski, Lukasz; Trzpis, Tadeusz

2013-09-20

357

Risk factors of postural defects in children at school age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction and objective: Postural defects increasingly more often concern children and adolescents at school age. The lack of prophylaxis and neglecting adequate procedures may lead to limitations of physical and motor abilities, back pain, or the development of severe spinal deformities. Recognition of the risk factors conducive to the occurrence of the disorder allows the creation of adequate conditions for the psychomotor development of children, as well as the elaboration and implementation of specified educational schemes directed at schools and parents. The study concerned determination of the risk factors for the development of postural defects in school age children. Material and methods: The study was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey. The study group covered 380 children aged 14 (175 girls (46.1%) and 205 boys (53.9%)) - selected at random from schools in eastern Poland and the Czech Republic. The significance of the relationships between variables was investigated by means of chi-square test for independence. The differences between the empirical and theoretical sample distribution was examined by means of chi-square goodness-of-fit test. The significance level was set at p=0.05. Results: The BMI in the population examined was 20.2, on average (from 14-39). Respondents living in rural areas and small towns constituted 57.63% of the study group, while inhabitants of medium-size and large cities - 42.37%. The majority of children in the study had been previously examined for the occurrence of postural defects (74.2%), whereas nearly every tenth child had never undergone such an examination. As many as 16.3% of adolescents did not know whether they had ever participated in a screening test. A defect was detected in 14.7% of children, in 56.6% no asymmetry was detected, while approximately 30% were not aware if their body posture was normal or not. Conclusions: 1. There is a relationship between physical activity of the child and the occurrence of postural defects. 2. There is a relationship between the economic standard of the family and awareness of own state of health. 3. There is a need for the creation of a system of education for parents and children concerning postural defects and risks resulting from these defects.

Latalski M; Bylina J; Fatyga M; Repko M; Filipovic M; Jarosz MJ; Borowicz KB; Matuszewski L; Trzpis T

2013-09-01

358

Chronic health conditions and school performance among children and youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Chronic health conditions are common and increasing among U.S. children and youth. We examined whether chronic health conditions are associated with low school performance. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of 22,730 children and youth (grades 2-11) in San Jose, California, was conducted from 2007 through 2010. Health conditions were defined as chronic if reported in each of the first 2 years, and school performance was measured using standardized English language arts (ELA) and math assessments. RESULTS: Chronic health conditions were independently associated with low ELA and math performance, irrespective of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or grade level. Adjusted odds ratios for the association between any chronic health condition and low ("basic or below") performance were 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.36; P < .001) for ELA and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.18-1.38; P < .001) for math, relative to students without reported health conditions. Further adjustment for absenteeism had little effect on these results. The strongest associations were found for ADHD, autism, and seizure disorders, whereas a weak association was found for asthma before but not after adjusting for absenteeism, and no associations were found for cardiovascular disorders or diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic neurodevelopmental and seizure disorders, but not cardiovascular disorders or diabetes, were independently associated with low school performance among children and youth.

Crump C; Rivera D; London R; Landau M; Erlendson B; Rodriguez E

2013-04-01

359

The association between CCL2 polymorphisms and drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy remains a major challenge, affecting approximately 30% of epilepsy patients. More recently, immunity and inflammation are considered to be key elements of epilepsy. Targeting brain inflammation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy and refractory epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the association of a tag SNP of the CCL2 gene, rs1024611 (originally designated as -2578G>A or -2518G>A) with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children with epilepsy. We enrolled 484 epilepsy patients, including 98 drug-resistant patients and 386 drug-responsive patients. The rs1024611 was genotyped by PCR-RPLP. The rs1024611 AA genotype was associated with a greater susceptibility to drug-resistant epilepsy (p=0.008; OR=2.51, 95% CI: 1.33-4.72), adjusted for age, sex, and seizure type, and the association remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that the CCL2 genetic polymorphism is associated with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese paediatric patients.

He X; Li Y; Liu Z; Yue X; Zhao P; Hu J; Wu G; Mao B; Sun D; Zhang H; Song X; Wang Y; Shao J

2013-08-01

360

The association between CCL2 polymorphisms and drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy remains a major challenge, affecting approximately 30% of epilepsy patients. More recently, immunity and inflammation are considered to be key elements of epilepsy. Targeting brain inflammation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy and refractory epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the association of a tag SNP of the CCL2 gene, rs1024611 (originally designated as -2578G>A or -2518G>A) with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese children with epilepsy. We enrolled 484 epilepsy patients, including 98 drug-resistant patients and 386 drug-responsive patients. The rs1024611 was genotyped by PCR-RPLP. The rs1024611 AA genotype was associated with a greater susceptibility to drug-resistant epilepsy (p=0.008; OR=2.51, 95% CI: 1.33-4.72), adjusted for age, sex, and seizure type, and the association remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate that the CCL2 genetic polymorphism is associated with drug-resistant epilepsy in Chinese paediatric patients.

He X; Li Y; Liu Z; Yue X; Zhao P; Hu J; Wu G; Mao B; Sun D; Zhang H; Song X; Wang Y; Shao J

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pure-tone auditory threshold in school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine pure-tone auditory thresholds, 197 screened children at a typical primary school in a German town (~70,000 inhabitants) were examined. All children underwent a tympanometry and an audiometry at 17 frequencies from 125 to 16 kHz. Regarding age effects, two groups (6-8 and 9-12 years) were analyzed. The cross-sectional research was supplemented by a follow-up study with 35 children of the first graders 3 years later. School children have the poorest hearing sensitivity at low frequencies (below 1 kHz) and the best sensitivity at the extended high frequencies above 8 kHz. Hearing thresholds are rising significantly with age. Through all frequencies, averaged improvements were 3.8 dB (right ear) and 3.7 dB (left ear) at the cross-sectional study and 3.7 dB (right ear) and 5.1 dB (left ear) at the longitudinal study. The overall deviation (left and right) from the standard thresholds for adults were 7.4 and 3.6 dB for the younger and older age groups, respectively. The ear canal volume (ECV) measured by tympanometric tests was at mean with 1.06 cm(3) for the 6- to 8-year age group significantly lower (p < 0.001) in comparison with 1.18 cm(3) for the 9- to 12-year age group. Also, girls had significant (p < 0.001) smaller ECV (mean 1.07 cm(3)) than boys (1.17 cm(3)). Auditory performance improves with rising age in school children.

Müller R; Fleischer G; Schneider J

2012-01-01

362

Effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on respiratory health of Chinese children from 50 kindergartens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Concentrations of ambient air pollution and pollutants in China have changed considerably during the last decade. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of current ambient air pollution on the health of kindergarten children. METHODS: We studied 6730 Chinese children (age, 3-7 years) from 50 kindergartens in 7 cities of Northeast China in 2009. Parents or guardians completed questionnaires that asked about the children's histories of respiratory symptoms and risk factors. Three-year concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) were calculated at monitoring stations in 25 study districts. A 2-stage regression approach was used in data analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher among children living near a busy road, those living near chimneys or a factory, those having a coal-burning device, those living with smokers, and those living in a home that had been recently renovated. Among girls, PM10 was associated with persistent cough (odds ratio [OR]PM10 = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.77), persistent phlegm (ORPM10 = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81), and wheezing (ORPM10 = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65). NO2 concentration was associated with increased prevalence of allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02) among girls. In contrast, associations of respiratory symptoms with concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 were not statistically significant among boys. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is particularly important in the development of respiratory morbidity among children. Girls may be more susceptible than boys to air pollution.

Liu MM; Wang D; Zhao Y; Liu YQ; Huang MM; Liu Y; Sun J; Ren WH; Zhao YD; He QC; Dong GH

2013-01-01

363

[Mothers under suspicion: talking about school age children's health].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has as its objective to explain the assistance to the school age child's health under the light of historic and dialectic materialism, including gender for the social approach. The results regarding the interviewees' representations (health professionals, teachers and mothers) revealed that the conceptions about the health-illness process of school pupils are highly biologicist, even though there were-- but in a much smaller scale--references to its psychic and social dimensions. The data analysis, according to the feminist theory, shows that the idea of gender inferiority is the origin of the biased conceptions regarding the mothers of the studied children. Such prejudices were observed in the three locations studied (heath service, school and family). PMID:17722386

Olivi, Maria de Lourdes; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

2007-06-01

364

The School Behaviour Game: Making "Human Sense" of the Repertory Grid in Research with Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

To offset the loss of explanatory power of Kelly's repertory grid when used with children, adapted the School Behaviour Game (SBG) to examine children's perceptions of school. Results show that the SBG enables children to articulate their tacit understanding of a concept. The SBG's potential for guidance and counseling are considered. (RJM)

Jones, Raya A.

1997-01-01

365

Us and Them--Children's Identity Work and Social Geography in a Swedish School Yard  

Science.gov (United States)

The article focusses on constructions of social identities in school and how children in their identity work (re-)construct common and segregated places in the school yard. Data were drawn from an ethnographic research in the daily lives of children aged 11-13. The fieldwork consisted of traditional ethnographic field work as well as children's…

Gustafson, Katarina

2009-01-01

366

Family and school environmental predictors of sleep bruxism in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. METHODS: A total of 65 primary school children (55.4% males, mean age 9.3 ± 1.9 years) were administered a 10-item questionnaire investigating the prevalence of self-reported SB as well as nine family and school-related potential bruxism predictors. Regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the potential predictors and SB. RESULTS: A positive answer to the self-reported SB item was endorsed by 18.8% of subjects, with no sex differences. Multiple variable regression analysis identified a final model showing that having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were the only two weak predictors of self-reported SB. The percentage of explained variance for SB by the final multiple regression model was 13.3% (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.133). While having a high specificity and a good negative predictive value, the model showed unacceptable sensitivity and positive predictive values. The resulting accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported SB was 73.8%. CONCLUSION: The present investigation suggested that, among family and school-related matters, having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were two predictors, even if weak, of a child's self-report of SB.

Rossi D; Manfredini D

2013-01-01

367

Evaluation of hepatic iron overload in Chinese children with ?-thalassemia major.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with ?-thalassemia major require long-term blood transfusions, resulting in hepatic iron overload. Thirty-five Chinese children with ?-thalassemia major were recruited in the present studies. Hepatic iron overload was evaluated by histological grading. The relationships between hepatic iron overload and both serum biochemical markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination were studied. The majority of the patients showed high degrees of hepatic iron overload by histological study. The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated with serum ferritin (r = .70, P < .01), hyaluronic acid (r = .58, P = .011), and type III precollagen (r = .55, P = .035). Moreover, hepatic iron overload showed a negative correlation with liver to muscle signal intensity ratio (r = -.44, P = .012), and a positive correlation with red marrow area percentage (r = .52, P < .01). These results indicated that hepatic iron overload might be assessed by serum biochemical markers and MRI examination.

Xu LH; Fang JP; Xu HG; Weng WJ

2011-11-01

368

Exposures to molds in school classrooms of children with asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Students spend a large portion of their day in classrooms which may be a source of mold exposure. We examined the diversity and concentrations of molds in inner-city schools and described differences between classrooms within the same school. METHODS: Classroom airborne mold spores, collected over a 2 day period, were measured twice during the school year by direct microscopy. RESULTS: There were 180 classroom air samples collected from 12 schools. Mold was present in 100% of classrooms. Classrooms within the same school had differing mold levels and mold diversity scores. The total mold per classroom was 176.6 ± 4.2 spores/m3 (geometric mean ± standard deviation) and ranged from 11.2 to 16,288.5 spores/m3. Mold diversity scores for classroom samples ranged from 1 to 19 (7.7 ± 3.5). The classroom accounted for the majority of variance (62%) in the total mold count, and for the majority of variance (56%) in the mold diversity score versus the school. The species with the highest concentrations and found most commonly included Cladosporium (29.3 ± 4.2 spores/m3), Penicillium/Aspergillus (15.0 ± 5.4 spores/m3), smut spores (12.6 ± 4.0 spores/m3), and basidiospores (6.6 ± 7.1 spores/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that the school is a source of mold exposure, but particularly the classroom microenvironment varies in quantity of spores and species among classrooms within the same school. We also verified that visible mold may be a predictor for higher mold spore counts. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of mold exposure relative to asthma morbidity in sensitized and non-sensitized asthmatic children.

Baxi SN; Muilenberg ML; Rogers CA; Sheehan WJ; Gaffin J; Permaul P; Kopel LS; Lai PS; Lane JP; Bailey A; Petty CR; Fu C; Gold DR; Phipatanakul W

2013-11-01

369

Academic Activities after School That Help Secondary School Children’s Cognitive Development through Hermeneutic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is an effort to look into academic activities after school that help secondary school students in cognition development through Hermeneutic analyse for students of Pantai Remis Secondary School, Perak. This research is also to show that Hermeneutic understanding method can be applied effectively to identify academic activities after school that help secondary school students in their cognition development. This research involved 20 secondary school students from Form 1 to Form 3. They were asked to write a reflective essay about academic activities that they did after school hours. Their reflective essays were made a research text that will be using Hermeneutic analyse to find out academic activities that help their cognition development. This research shows that if a student can do positive activities after school such as doing revision, going for tuition, attending classes, doing homework, studying at home, doing module paper, involving school work, carrying out exercises, attending extra classes, involving in ritual study, going to class and attending study with teacher, involving in preparation class, doing mathematic exercises, reading, doing notes, going to library to study, reading geography, reading notes from internet, watching Astro channel that shows education programmes and reading books, thus they can help their cognition development and become excellent students in academic.

Suppiah Nachiappan; Veeramani Marimuthu; Hari Krishnan Andi; Velayudhan P. K. Veeran

2012-01-01

370

Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four Chinese cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Ambient air pollution has been associated with decreased growth in lung function among children; but little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution. We examined relationships between indoor air pollution metrics and lung function growth, among children (n = 3273) aged 6-13 years living in four Chinese cities. Lung function parameters (FVC and FEV(1) ) were measured twice a year. Questionnaires were used to determine home coal burning and ventilation practices. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations. Use of coal as a household fuel was associated with 16.5 ml/year lower (33%, P < 0.001) and 20.5 ml/year lower (39%, P < 0.001) growth in children's FEV(1) and FVC, respectively. FEV(1) growth was 10.2 ml/year higher (20%, P = 0.009), and FVC growth was 17.0 ml/year higher (33%, P < 0.001) among children who lived in houses with the presence of a ventilation device. Among children living in houses where coal was used as a fuel and no ventilation devices were present, adjusted FVC and FEV(1) growth, respectively, were 37% and 61% that of the average growth per year in the full cohort. This suggests that household coal use may cause deficits in lung function growth, while using ventilation devices may be protective of lung development. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nearly 3.4 billion people use solid fuels in homes for cooking and/or heating. We report the following findings from a longitudinal study: (i) household coal use is significantly associated with reduction in children's lung function growth and (ii) the use of household ventilation devices is significantly associated with higher lung function growth, particularly among children living in households where coal is used as a fuel. These findings not only provide evidence that indoor coal use impairs children's lung development but also point to the importance of improving ventilation conditions in reducing harmful effects of indoor air pollution sources.

Roy A; Chapman RS; Hu W; Wei F; Liu X; Zhang J

2012-02-01

371

Elementary school children's attentional biases in physical and numerical space.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numbers are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line. This view is supported by mounting evidence from healthy adults and patients with unilateral spatial neglect. Little is known about children's representation of numbers with respect to space. This study investigated elementary school children's directional biases in physical and numerical space to better understand the relation between space and number. We also examined the nature of spatial organization in numerical space. In two separate tasks, children (n=57) were asked to bisect a physical line and verbally estimate the midpoint of number pairs. In general, results indicated leftward biases in both tasks, but the degree of deviation did not correlate between the tasks. In the number bisection task, leftward bias (underestimating the midpoint) increased as a function of numerical magnitude and interval between number pairs. In contrast, a rightward deviation was found for smaller number pairs. These findings suggest that different underlying spatial attentional mechanisms might be directed in physical and numerical space in young school children, which would be integrated in adulthood.

Göksun T; Woods AJ; Chatterjee A; Zelonis S; Glass L; Smith SE

2013-01-01

372

Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil) in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

Susy Yukie Fujibayashi; Felipe Belmonte Archetti; Simone Pizzatto; Estela Maris Losso; Eduardo Pizzatto

2011-01-01

373

Possible brain injury events and symptoms in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Primary objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential mild brain injury incidents accompanied by behavioural changes in a non-clinical population of elementary school-aged children. The researchers also examined data regarding the occurrence of possible brain injuries among regular vs special education students. Research design: Survey study. Methods and procedures: The researchers distributed questionnaires through which parents or guardians of 692 first-to-fifth grade students provided information about possible brain injury incidents and associated behavioural changes. Main outcomes and results: Findings suggest that as many as one-third of children experience one or more incidents potentially resulting in brain injury before completing elementary school. Despite this, only 7.66% of the sample received positive screen results because of behavioural changes associated with a potential incident. None of the 53 children with positive screens were receiving special education services through the traumatic brain injury category of IDEA at the time of the screening. Positive screens were more common among students verified for special education than those enrolled in regular education. Specifically, 25.40% of positive screen results were for children identified with a disability warranting special education services; in contrast, only 5.90% of regular education students received positive screen results.

Hux K; Dymacek R; Childers C

2013-08-01

374

Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School Aged Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. Methods A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Conclusion Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Mahmoodzadeh, Hashem; Amestejani, Morteza; Karamyar, Mohammad; Nikibakhsh, Ahmad-Ali

2013-01-01

375

Possible brain injury events and symptoms in elementary school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Primary objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential mild brain injury incidents accompanied by behavioural changes in a non-clinical population of elementary school-aged children. The researchers also examined data regarding the occurrence of possible brain injuries among regular vs special education students. Research design: Survey study. Methods and procedures: The researchers distributed questionnaires through which parents or guardians of 692 first-to-fifth grade students provided information about possible brain injury incidents and associated behavioural changes. Main outcomes and results: Findings suggest that as many as one-third of children experience one or more incidents potentially resulting in brain injury before completing elementary school. Despite this, only 7.66% of the sample received positive screen results because of behavioural changes associated with a potential incident. None of the 53 children with positive screens were receiving special education services through the traumatic brain injury category of IDEA at the time of the screening. Positive screens were more common among students verified for special education than those enrolled in regular education. Specifically, 25.40% of positive screen results were for children identified with a disability warranting special education services; in contrast, only 5.90% of regular education students received positive screen results.

Hux K; Dymacek R; Childers C

2013-01-01

376

Air pollution and school absenteeism among children in Mexico City  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the acute effects of ozone exposure, the authors conducted a short follow-up study of respiratory illness in a population of 111 preschool children frequently exposed to ozone levels that regularly exceed 0.120 parts per million (ppm). The children attended a private kindergarten in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Parents completed a questionnaire on demographic data, medical history, and potential sources of indoor air pollution. To determine the relation of ozone and respiratory-related school absenteeism, the authors used a logistic regression model for longitudinal data. During the 3-month follow-up, 50% of the children had at least one respiratory-related absenteeism period, and 11.7% had two or more. Children exposed for 2 consecutive days to high ozone levels (> or = 0.13 ppm) had a 20% increment in the risk of respiratory illness. For children exposed for 2 consecutive days to a high ozone level and the previous day to low temperature (< or = 5.1 degrees C), the risk reached 40% (odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval 1.37-1.52). This study suggests that ozone exposure might be positively associated with the risk of respiratory illness in children and that it may have an interactive effect with low temperature exposure.

Romieu, I.; Lugo, M.C.; Velasco, S.R.; Sanchez, S.; Meneses, F.; Hernandez, M. (Pan American Health Organization, Mexico City (Mexico))

1992-12-15

377

Parents' observations of sexual behaviour in pre-school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This commentary on the Larsson and Svedin study of sexual behaviour in pre-school children, published in the present issue of Acta Paediatrica, centres around three questions: 1. How can normal sexual behaviour in children be distinguished from problematic behaviour? 2. What characterizes the sexual development of the normal child? 3. Can knowledge about normal and problematic sexual behaviour be used to screen for sexual abuse or to confirm cases of sexual victimization? It is recommended that the inventory used by the authors be standardized on a representative sample of Swedish children, because this would enhance its usefulness in distinguishing normal from problematic behaviour. It is further recommended that research about sexual development in children be based on person-oriented rather than on variable-oriented analyses. It is finally argued that knowledge about normal and problematic sexual behaviour may not contribute to more effective screening or confirmation procedures in suspicions of sexual abuse. However, knowledge about normal sexual behaviour is valuable in studies of sexual behaviour in different categories of children, e.g. in the developmentally delayed or psychosocially deprived. Conclusion: By helping to identify problematic sexual behaviour in individual children, a standardized inventory could guide professionals in detecting possible psychological problems accompanying the behaviour.

Lagerberg D

2001-04-01

378

[Risk factors for bronchial asthma in school children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of the residential environment and eating habits in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in school children. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine children between 6-12 years who were diagnosed with asthma were enrolled. Two hundred and fifty-eight healthy age- and gender-matched children were used as the control group. A questionaire which included 23 factors related to respiratory tract anaphylactic diseases such as residential environment and eating habits were completed by the children's parents. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that 6 variances out of 16 agents of the residential environment, the experience of raising pets, the type of floor, the type of pillow, the type of quilts, the heating equipments and the house area, were entered into the regression equation; none of the 7 variances of eating inhabits was entered into it. CONCLUSIONS: The residential environment plays an impotent role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. The incidence of bronchial asthma in children can be reduced by the improvement of the residential environment.

Huang DM; Xiao XX; He XL; Cui BY; Wang YH; Li XL; Fu SM

2011-05-01

379

Identification of SCN1A and PCDH19 Mutations in Chinese Children with Dravet Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dravet syndrome is a severe form of epilepsy. Majority of patients have a mutation in SCN1A gene, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel. A recent study has demonstrated that 16% of SCN1A-negative patients have a mutation in PCDH19, the gene encoding protocadherin-19. Mutations in other genes account for only a very small proportion of families. TSPYL4 is a novel candidate gene within the locus 6q16.3-q22.31 identified by linkage study. Objective The present study examined the mutations in epileptic Chinese children with emphasis on Dravet syndrome. Methods A hundred children with severe epilepsy were divided into Dravet syndrome and non-Dravet syndrome groups and screened for SCN1A mutations by direct sequencing. SCN1A-negative Dravet syndrome patients and patients with phenotypes resembling Dravet syndrome were checked for PCDH19 and TSPYL4 mutations. Results Eighteen patients (9 males, 9 females) were diagnosed to have Dravet syndrome. Among them, 83% (15/18) had SCN1A mutations including truncating (7), splice site (2) and missense mutations (6). The truncating/splice site mutations were associated with moderate to severe degree of intellectual disability (pDravet syndrome and a known PCDH19 p.N340S mutation in a female non-Dravet syndrome patient. The former also inherited a TSPYL4 p.G60R variant. Conclusion A high percentage of SCN1A mutations was identified in our Chinese cohort of Dravet syndrome patients but none in the rest of patients. We demonstrated that truncating/splice site mutations were linked to moderate to severe intellectual disability in these patients. A de novo PCDH19 missense mutation together with an inherited TSPYL4 missense variant were identified in a patient with Dravet syndrome.

Kwong, Anna Ka-Yee; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Chan, Siu-Yuen; Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei

2012-01-01

380

Individual- and school-level sociodemographic predictors of obesity among New York City public school children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics associated with overweight and obesity, the authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of data from 624,204 public school children (kindergarten through 12th grade) who took part in the 2007-2008 New York City Fitnessgram Program. The overall prevalence of obesity was 20.3%, and the prevalence of overweight was 17.6%. In multivariate models, the odds of being obese as compared with normal weight were higher for boys versus girls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 1.42), for black (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.15) and Hispanic (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.43, 1.53) children as compared with white children, for children receiving reduced-price (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.21) or free (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.15) school lunches as compared with those paying full price, and for US-born students (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.58) as compared with foreign-born students. After adjustment for individual-level factors, obesity was associated with the percentage of students who were US-born (across interquartile range (75th percentile vs. 25th), OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14) and the percentage of students who received free or reduced-price lunches (across interquartile range, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.18). The authors conclude that individual sociodemographic characteristics and school-level sociodemographic composition are associated with obesity among New York City public school students.

Rundle A; Richards C; Bader MD; Schwartz-Soicher O; Lee KK; Quinn J; Lovasi GS; Weiss C; Neckerman K

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

Prevalence and associated factors of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. RESULTS: The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems.

Wang JN; Liu L; Wang L

2013-08-01

382

Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x1013 neutron cm-2 sec-1, (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison standard sample IAEA NN and NN-1 (hair homogenate) as well as comparative method. Accuracy of analysis results of the applied method made up from 7 to 30% depended on concentration and nuclear-physical characteristics. Results and Discussion: Obtained results showed that microelemental contents in hairs and other liquids in children of school age somehow differed from that of in adults. So, contents of iron in children's hair are significantly higher (three times - 81.38±8.55 mkg/g). In erythrocytes of 22 examined sound children the contents of the iron equaled to 2964±52 mg/l, in saliva - 584 351.7 mg/l. In the study of Zn contents in blood of healthy children it was equal to 59 mkg/g, in formed elements of blood it was equal to 32.3 mkg/g which was much less than similar index in adults [3]. According to our data the contents of Zn in blood made up 39.25±4.30 mkg/g which was significantly low compared with similar index in adults (according to V.V.Nasolodin, 1987 the contents of zinc in plasma varies from 86 to 106 mkg/g). In 20 examined children the contents of Zn in erythrocytes equaled to 32.3±1.5 mkg/g. The contents of Zn in saliva of sound children of school age was 518.0±54.17 mkg/g and in urine 386±18.24 mkg/g. In practically sound school children of Zarafshan valley the contents of Zn in hair made up 182.9±6.6 mkg/g. It was established that the contents of Zn in sound school children of Zarafshan valley is in middle position amongst similar data referred in scientific articles [2]. The contents of Cu in hairs of practically sound school children in Zarafshan valley was 9.24±0.84 mkg/g which was low (two times) compared with adults. We found out that the contents of Cu in hairs of healthy school children in Zarafshan valley was lower compared with the data presented by other authors [2] and other regions respectively. A low content of Cu in hairs probably depends on the food-stuff ingredients and peculiarities of the natural condition in biogeochemical area. The obtained results have shown that practically sound school children in Zarafshan

2006-01-01

383

How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that