Retrospective analysis of 119 Chinese noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer cases treated with intravenous combination of vinorelbine and epirubicin as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a median follow-up of 63.4 months
This study is a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) with a vinorelbine (V) and epirubicin (E) intravenous combination regimen and is aimed at identification of predictive markers for the long-term outcome in noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (NLABC). One-hundred-and-nineteen patients with NLABC were identified from September 2001 to May 2006. Analysis was performed in March 2008, with a median follow-up of 63.4 months (range, 9-76 months). All patients were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using 14 G core needle biopsy and treated with three cycles of VE before surgery. Local-regional radiotherapy was offered to all patients after the completion of chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy according to hormone receptor status. Tissue sections cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from biopsy specimens and postoperative tumor tissues were stained for the presence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2), and MIB-1(Ki-67). Patients characteristics were median age 52 years (range: 25-70 years); clinical TNM stage, stage IIB (n = 32), stage IIIA (n = 56), stage IIIB (n = 22) and stage IIIC (n = 9). All patients were evaluable for response: clinically complete response was documented in 27 patients (22.7%); 78 (65.6%) obtained partial response; stable disease was observed in 13 (10.9%); 1 patient (0.8%) had progressive disease. Pathological complete response was found in 22 cases (18.5%). Seventy-five patients were alive with no recurrence after a median follow-up of 63.4 months, the 5-year rates for disease-free survival and overall survival were 58.7% and 71.3%, respectively, after the start of NC. On multivariate analysis, the independent variables associated with increased risk of relapse and death were high pre-Ki-67(p = 0.012, p = 0.017, respectively), high post-Ki-67 expression (p = 0.045, p = 0.001, respectively), and non-pCR (p = 0
Purpose: The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the outcome and the possibility of breast conservation therapy for patients with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer after primary chemotherapy followed by external preoperative irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between April 1982 and June 1990, 97 patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic and noninflammatory breast cancer were treated. The median follow-up was 93 months from the beginning of treatment. The induction treatment consisted of four courses of chemotherapy (doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil) followed by preoperative irradiation (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas). A fifth course of chemotherapy was given after radiation therapy. Three different loco-regional approaches were proposed, depending on the tumoral response. In 37 patients (38%) with residual tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumors, mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed. Sixty other patients (62%) benefited from conservative treatment: 33 patients (34%) achieved complete remission and no surgery was done but additional radiation boost was given to the initial tumor bed; 27 patients (28%) who had a residual mass less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site. After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of chemotherapy. A maintenance adjuvant chemotherapy regimen without anthracycline was prescribed (12 monthly cycles). Results: The 5-year actuarial loco-regional relapse rate was 16% after radiotherapy alone, 16% following wide excision and radiotherapy, and 5.4% following mastectomy. The 5-year loco-regional relapse rate was significantly higher after conservative local treatment (wide excision and radiotherapy, and radiotherapy alone) than after mastectomy (p = 0.04). After conservative local treatment, the 5-year breast
Purpose: This was a retrospective observational study to elicit the outcome of the therapeutic strategy of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy protocol for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A large series of 1,117 consecutive cases of locally advanced breast cancer treated at the Cancer Institute (WIA), in Chennai, South India, between 1990 and 1999 and followed through 2004 formed the basis for this study. Disease-free survival was the main outcome, and nodal and tumor downstaging were the intermediate outcome measures studied. Results: Primary tumor downstaging was observed in 45% and nodal downstaging in 57.5%. The disease-free survival rate of nodal downstaged patients at 5, 10, and 15 years was 75%, 65%, and 58%, respectively. The corresponding rates for pre- and postoperative node-negative patients were 70%, 60%, and 59%. The best survival was seen among those who were tumor and node negative postoperatively. Nodal downstaging halved the risk of disease recurrence and death compared with node positivity, irrespective of tumor sterility. Conclusions: A randomized trial using cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil vs. an anthracycline-based regimen in the setting of concurrent chemoradiotherapy appears indicated. Additional preoperative chemotherapy to maximize nodal and tumor downstaging should be investigated. A change in postoperative chemotherapy according to nodal status could also be explored
Wang, Chengjun; Ma, Junhong
In their article "Localization, Globalization, and Traveling Chinese Culture" Chengjun Wang and Junhong Ma discuss three main channels of the "traveling" of Chinese culture to the outside world. Focusing on the situation of bilingualism (i.e., Chinese and English) and the need of spreading Chinese literature and culture especially in the English-speaking world, Wang and Ma argue for "localization and globalization." Further, Wang and Ma argue that in order to narrow the gap of the cultural di...
José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica
Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968
Batisse, Cecile; Poncet, Sandra
This paper investigates the determinants of regional specialization between 1992 and 1997 using a panel covering 33 industries across 25 Chinese regions, paying particular attention to the role of regional protectionism. This study is motivated by a double paradox concerning the Chinese economy over the reforms. First some authors evidence reduced regional specialization despite the promotion of liberalization away from the introverted development strategy of the pre-reform period. Moreover, ...
Margreat Aloysious Anthony; Sree Nithya Ganesen
According to Horwitz (1987) learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to und...
Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova
Full Text Available The paper presents data on different approaches to analgesia in relation to the mechanism of pain. Pregabalin (lyrica has demonstrated a rapid development of an analgesic effect in different types of non-inflammatory pain: neuropathic pain, pain in fibromyalgia syndrome. The dose-dependent effect of pregabalin and its satisfactory tolerance are noted.
Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova
Full Text Available The paper presents data on different approaches to analgesia in relation to the mechanism of pain. Pregabalin (lyrica has demonstrated a rapid development of an analgesic effect in different types of non-inflammatory pain: neuropathic pain, pain in fibromyalgia syndrome. The dose-dependent effect of pregabalin and its satisfactory tolerance are noted.
Margreat Aloysious Anthony
Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.
Research into language and identity is gaining momentum in China .The conception of identity has been integrated into the field of second language acquisition ( SLA) , and further explored with refer-ence to language learning context and the relations of power .In addition to the large number of studies of learners’ identity, there is a growing interest in teachers ’ identity recently.This paper examines EFL teachers’ identity construction and negotiation and explores the issue in Chinese local context .
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this research is to study how Chinese teenagers behave on the local SNSs and the factors influencing Chinese teenagers on choosing SNSs. The research also describes the current situation of Chinese Internet economy and SNSs development as well as the characters of Chinese teenagers affected by the local policies, culture and educational system. Methodology A research model is developed based on six degree separation theory, Technology Acceptance...
Granot, D.; Hamers, H.J.M.
A connected graph G=(V,E), a vertex in V and a non-negative weight function defined on Ecan be used to induce Chinese postman and traveling salesman (cooperative) games. A graph G=(V,E) is said to be locally (respectively, globally) Chinese postman balanced (respectively, totally balanced, submodula
Gibb, Natalie Ruth
This thesis explores how food system localisation efforts in Metro Vancouver, Canada intersect with one of the tensions in the global agri-food system: racial inequalities. Drawing on archival research, participant observation of local food marketing and policy-making, and interviews with local food movement participants, policy-makers, and Chinese-Canadian farmers, I argue that the history of anti-Chinese racism in Canada is linked to the emergence of a food system comprised of parallel net...
Zhao, Haining; Liu, Ruoyi
The research explores the marketing strategies for Chinese local hotels after doing the comparative study and analyzing the operations of Accor and Jin Jiang based on the Marketing Mix theory. The improving strategies are varied, which includes the product, promotion, etc. Offering guidance for the whole Chinese local hotels are the ultimate objective of the research.
Liu; Qian; Tang; Ruimin
<正>A Chinese local government delegation headed by CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin paid a friendly visit to Kenya and Senegal from November 29 to December 7,2012,at the invitation of the Kenya Local Government Association and the President of the Republic of Senegal.The
Chinese business attire market has provides an ideal platform for investigating the brand loyalty: fast economic growth, mature business attire market and distribution channel. However, this market differs widely from other countries with specific culture and development context. Factors influence consumers attitude toward brand loyalty would be different from prior studies. This study investigates brand loyalty toward local brands from a strategic and holistic view of Chinese business attire...
<正>On May 15,the Seminar on Cooperation Between the Chinese and African Local Governments,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China International Friendship Cities Association (CIFCA),was held in Beijing. Representatives of the CPAFFC,the CIFCA,25 provinces and cities that had formed friendship-city ties with African countries,member units of the Council of the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association,the United Cities and
We propose a method to simulate vehicle emissions in Chinese cities of different sizes and development stages. Twenty two cities are examined in this study. The target year is 2007. Among the cities, the vehicle emission factors were remarkably different (the highest is 50-90% higher than the lowest) owing to their distinct local features and vehicle technology levels, and the major contributors to total vehicle emissions were also different. A substantial increase in vehicle emissions is foreseeable unless stronger measures are implemented because the benefit of current policies can be quickly offset by the vehicle growth. Major efforts should be focused on all cities, especially developing cities where the requirements are lenient. This work aims a better understanding of vehicle emissions in all types of Chinese cities. The proposed method could benefit national emission inventory studies in improving accuracy and help in designing national and local policies for vehicle emission control. - Highlights: → We examine vehicle emissions in 22 Chinese cities of different types and locations. → Vehicle emission factors of the cities differ by 50-90% due to distinct local features. → Each vehicle type contributes differently to total emissions among the cities. → A substantial increase in vehicle emissions in most Chinese cities is foreseeable. → City-specific fleet and local features are important in research and policy making. - Vehicle emission characteristics of Chinese cities are remarkably different, and local features need to be taken into account in vehicle emission studies and control strategy.
To facilitate the wider use of computers all over the world,it is necessary to provide National Language Support in the computer systems.This paper introduces some aspects of design and implementation of the UNIX-based Chinese Information Processing Systems (CIPS). Due to the special nature of the Oriental languages,and in order to be able to share resources and exchange in formation between different countries,it is necessary to create a standard of multilingual information exchange code.The unified Chinese/Japanese/Korean character code,Han Character Collection(HCC),was proposed to ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 by China Computer and Information Processing Standardization Technical Committee.Based on this character set and the corresponding coding system,it is possible to create a true Internationalized UNIX System.
As a major international sport brand, New Balance Athletic Shoes Company was standstill after accessing to Chinese markets. The deviation in brand positioning and range selection has resulted in low sell-thru rate; the neglect on channel building and store image investment has resulted in a slow expansion. This thesis researched how New Balance Company can get success and how they find adopted strategy for the development of New Balance in China. This thesis described the current situatio...
Zhang; Jigang; Li; Yanwen; Zhang; Peng
<正>A Chinese Local Government Delegation headed by Xia Geng,Deputy Governor of Shandong Province,was sent by the CPAFFC to attend the China-East African Community Local Governors and Mayors Dialogue in Kampala,Uganda and the ChinaTanzania Local Governors and Mayors Dialogue in Dar es Salaam,Tanzania.It consisted of more than 80 members from six cities of four provinces—Shandong,Liaoning,Shaanxi and Ji-
Guo, Jinqiu; Takada, Akira; Niu, Tie; He, Miao; Tanaka, Koji; Sato, Junzo; Suzuki, Muneou; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Yusei; Araki, Kenji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki
Medical Markup Language (MML) is a standard for the exchange of medical data among different medical institutions. It was developed in Japan in 1995. Since version 2.21, MML has used eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as a meta-language. The latest version, 3.0, conforms to HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and contains 14 modules and 36 data definition tables. In China, a standard which structures entire medical records in XML does not yet exist. Taking advantage of MML's flexibility, we created a localized Chinese version based on MML 3.0. Parts of the original specifications have been enhanced; these include a newly developed health insurance information module and 12 additional or redefined data definition tables. The Chinese version takes local needs into account and now makes it possible to exchange medical data among Chinese medical institutions. PMID:16180490
Oliveira, Larissa Resende; de Melo, Vitor Ulisses; Macedo, Fabricio Nunes; Barreto, Andre Sales; Badaue-Passos, Daniel; Viana dos Santos, Marcio Roberto; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Sluka, Kathleen A.; DeSantana, Josimari M.; Valter J. Santana-Filho
Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic non-inflammatory widespread pain (CWP) and changes in sympathetic function. In attempt to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of FM we used a well-established CWP animal model. We aimed to evaluate changes in cardiac autonomic balance and baroreflex function in response to CWP induction in rats. CWP was induced by two injections of acidic saline (pH 4.0, n=8) five days apart into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Control animals were injected...
Full Text Available This article examines the relationships between the changes and continuities of Indonesian local politics and Chinese Indonesian business practices in the post-Suharto era, focusing on Chinese Indonesian businesses in two of the largest Indonesian cities, Medan and Surabaya. The fall of Suharto in May 1998 led to the opening up of a democratic and liberal space as well as the removal of many discriminatory measures against the Chinese minority. However, due to the absence of an effective, genuinely reformist party or political coalition, predatory political-business interests nurtured under Suharto’s New Order managed to capture the new political and economic regimes. As a result, corruption and internal mismanagement continue to plague the bureaucracy in the country and devolve from the central to the local governments. This article argues that this is due partially to the role some Chinese businesspeople have played in perpetuating corrupt business practices. As targets of extortion and corruption by bureaucratic officials and youth/crime organizations, Chinese businesspeople are not merely passive and powerless victims of corrupt practices. This article argues, through a combination of Anthony Giddens’s structure-agency theory as well as Pierre Bourdieu’s notion of habitus and field, that although Chinese businesspeople are constrained by the muddy and corrupt business environment, they have also played an active role in shaping such a business environment. They have thus played an active role in shaping local politics, which is infused with corruption and institutionalized gangsterism, as well as perpetuating their increasingly ambivalent position.
Pope, Janet E.; Goodwin, Jodi L; Ouimet, Janine M; Krizova, Adriana; Laskin, Matthew
The etiology of scleroderma (SSc) is unknown; immunogenic stimuli such as infections and vaccinations could theoretically be risk factors for scleroderma. Our objective was to assess the relationship between viral and bacterial infec-tions, and vaccinations, prior to diagnosis of SSc compared to non-inflammatory controls. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to individuals with SSc (n =83) and controls (n=351) with non-inflammatory musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders (os-teoarthritis, n = 204; tendo...
Youxiong Que; Yongbao Pan; Yunhai Lu; Cui Yang; Yuting Yang; Ning Huang; Liping Xu
In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information conten...
Women are emerging as significant actors in international financial industries concentrated in metropolitan cities which function as national and international business hubs. Based on 17 in-depth interviews with Chinese women bankers in Hong Kong, where one finds the highest concentration of banking institutions in the world, this paper examines the interplay between locality, gender performance and the career mobility of women bankers. The author argues that branch location is embedded withi...
The German electrical manufacturer Siemens has been active in the Chinese market since the 1870s and established its first office in Shanghai in 1904. Focusing on marketing, the paper analyzes Siemens' business activities in China in the period from 1904 to 1937, and argues that the company exemplified a strategy of "glocalization," i.e. combining global business objectives and local adjustments. At the same time, the growing importance of international markets affected the development of the...
Masuda, Hiroko; Keith A. Baggerly; Ying WANG; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Brewer, Takae; Pusztai, Lajos; Kai, Kazuharu; Kogawa, Takahiro; Finetti, Pascal; Birnbaum, Daniel; Dirix, Luc; Wendy A Woodward; Reuben, James M.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Symmans, W Fraser
Introduction Because of its high rate of metastasis, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) has a poor prognosis compared with non-inflammatory types of breast cancer (non-IBC). In a recent study, Lehmann and colleagues identified seven subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We hypothesized that the distribution of TNBC subtypes differs between TN-IBC and TN-non-IBC. We determined the subtypes and compared clinical outcomes by subtype in TN-IBC and TN-non-IBC patients. Methods We determi...
Full Text Available The German electrical manufacturer Siemens has been active in the Chinese market since the 1870s and established its first office in Shanghai in 1904. Focusing on marketing, the paper analyzes Siemens' business activities in China in the period from 1904 to 1937, and argues that the company exemplified a strategy of "glocalization," i.e. combining global business objectives and local adjustments. At the same time, the growing importance of international markets affected the development of the company as a whole. Referring to the contributions of "product," "price, "place" and "promotion" to the enterprise's development, this paper emphasizes the close connection between marketing and internationalization.
Full Text Available For the structural characteristics of Chinese NvShu character, by combining the basic idea in LLT local threshold algorithm and introducing the maximal between-class variance algorithm into local windows, an improved character segmentation algorithm based on local adaptive thresholding technique for Chinese NvShu documents was presented in this paper. Because of designing the corresponding correction parameters for the threshold and using secondary search mechanism, our proposed method could not only automatically obtain local threshold, but also avoid the loss of the character image information and improve the accuracy of the character image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrated its capability to reduce the effect of background noise, especially for Chinese NvShu character images with uneven illumination and low contrast
Catherine Anne Edmonson
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. The etiology of ASD is still largely unclear, but immune dysfunction and abnormalities in synaptogenesis have repeatedly been implicated as contributing to the disease phenotype. However, an understanding of how and if these two processes are related has not firmly been established. As non-inflammatory roles of microglia become increasingly recognized as critical to normal neurodevelopment, it is important to consider how dysfunction in these process might explain the seemingly disparate findings of immune dysfunction and aberrant synaptogenesis seen in ASD. In this review, we highlight research demonstrating the importance of microglia to development of normal neural networks, review recent studies demonstrating abnormal microglia in autism, and discuss how the relationship between these processes may contribute to the development of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders at the cellular level.
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.
Smith, Sarah M.
In recent years, the concept of local food has attracted a great amount of attention. Little is known, however, about the organization and particular characteristics of local agrifood systems in different regions. This research paper examines the extent to which Chinese and fine dining restaurants in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), purchase products from the local BC food system. The study also explores what factors affect the food purchasing practices, marketing strategies and supply chain...
Full Text Available Women are emerging as significant actors in international financial industries concentrated in metropolitan cities which function as national and international business hubs. Based on 17 in-depth interviews with Chinese women bankers in Hong Kong, where one finds the highest concentration of banking institutions in the world, this paper examines the interplay between locality, gender performance and the career mobility of women bankers. The author argues that branch location is embedded within hierarchical fields of power and leads to different client groups, and ultimately, to different opportunities for upward mobility. Women bankers in Hong Kong are skilled in displaying multiple identities by using differentiated styles of language and different tongues, or languages, when interacting with different client groups in different branches. This strategy involves evaluative interpretation of perception because clients themselves make class distinctions according to different service settings. Although mid-level management teams in the banking industry have recently been rapidly feminised, this paper demonstrates that the glass ceiling is still real and continues to exert its invisible, negative impact. The upward mobility of Chinese women bankers is often blocked by informal barriers deeply embedded in the social structure and culture of both local society and international companies. These structural barriers and their resultant structured disadvantages for women are the consequence of the intersection, and sometimes the collusion, of ethnic politics, business or capitalist interests and social norms. Factors and structural forces such as race, ethnicity and gender are intertwined with and compounded to produce deep and far-reaching effects that are often beyond the control of the individual actor.
Abouziena, H F; El-Saeid, Hamed M
Balady cultivar and six Chinese lines were planted to study their developmental growth, yield and essential oil variations. Bulb of Balady cultivar had more two folds of cloves number per bulb than the Chinese lines. On the contrary Balady cv had the lowest clove weight compared to all Chinese lines. Chinese lines significantly surppassed the Balady cultivar in the bulb yield ha(-1). The bulb yield ha(-1) could be arrangement in descending order as follow Line B > Line F > Line D > Line C > Line A > Line E > Balady cv. Line B significantly surpassed the other tested lines in oil yield and had 7 folds oil yield plant(-1) than the local cultivar. The main compound in the bulb was found to be methylallay disulfide in both Chinese lines and Balady cultivar. Some components which found in the garlic bulbs at the age 150 days disappeared at the maturity time. Chinese Line B recorded the highest bulb yield and volatile oil content comparing with other lines. PMID:24506013
Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Minghao; Zhong, Ling; Jiang, Jun
Although the gene expression in breast tumor stroma, playing a critical role in determining inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype, has been proved to be significantly different between IBC and non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC), more effort needs to systematically investigate the gene expression profiles between tumor epithelium and stroma and to efficiently uncover the potential molecular networks and critical genes for IBC and non-IBC. Here, we comprehensively analyzed and compared the transcriptional profiles from IBC and non-IBC patients using hierarchical clustering, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses, and identified PDGFRβ, SUMO1, COL1A1, FYN, CAV1, COL5A1 and MMP2 to be the key genes for breast cancer. Interestingly, PDGFRβ was found to be the hub gene in both IBC and non-IBC; SUMO1 and COL1A1 were respectively the key genes for IBC and non-IBC. These analysis results indicated that those key genes might play important role in IBC and non-IBC and provided some clues for future studies. PMID:26403314
Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; P. K. Bøcher; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Z. Q. Hao; H. D. Gong; Zhang, Y.T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; J.-C. Svenning
The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to dat...
Feng, G.; Mi, X. C.; P. K. Bøcher; Mao, L. F.; Sandel, B.; Cao, M.; Ye, W. H.; Z. Q. Hao; H. D. Gong; Zhang, Y.T.; Zhao, X. H.; Jin, G. Z.; Ma, K. P.; J.-C. Svenning
The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as paleoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese fo...
Jans, L., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Praet, L.; Elewaut, D.; Van den Bosch, F.; Carron, P. [Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jaremko, J.L. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440-112 Street, Edmonton T6G 2B7, Alberta (Canada); Behaeghe, M.; Denis, A.; Huysse, W.; Lambrecht, V.; Verstraete, K. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium)
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of clinically relevant non-inflammatory disease on MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients suspected of sacroiliitis. To assess the added value of axial imaging of the pelvis in these patients. Methods: In a retrospective study of 691 patients undergoing MRI of the SI joints from January 2006 to December 2012 for inflammatory back pain the prevalence of sacroiliitis and non-inflammatory disease was recorded. Results: In 285 (41%) patients MRI did not show any abnormal findings. In 36% of patients MRI features of sacroiliitis were present. Spinal degenerative changes were the most common non-inflammatory finding in 305 patients (44.1%) and consisted of disc degeneration in 222 (32%) patients, facet joint arthrosis in 58 (8.4%) patients and disc herniation in 25 (3.6%) patients. Hip joint disease in 44 (6.4%) patients, lumbosacral transitional anomaly in 41 (5.9%) patients, SI joint degenerative changes in 25 (3.6%) patients and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in 24 (3.5%) patients were also common. Osteitis condensans ilii in 17 (2.5%) patients, tumour in 11 (1.6%) patients, fracture in 8 (1.2%) patients, infection in 4 (0.6%) patients and acute spondylolysis in 2 patients (0.3%) were less frequently seen. Conclusion: Our study shows that non-inflammatory disease is more common than true sacroiliitis on MRI of the SI joints in patients with inflammatory type back pain. Axial pulse sequences may demonstrate unexpected findings that remain undetected if only coronal images are obtained. Clinical relevance statement:, MRI of the SI joints may demonstrate conditions that clinically mimic sacroiliitis. Axial imaging of the pelvis may help detect these unexpected findings.
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of clinically relevant non-inflammatory disease on MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints in patients suspected of sacroiliitis. To assess the added value of axial imaging of the pelvis in these patients. Methods: In a retrospective study of 691 patients undergoing MRI of the SI joints from January 2006 to December 2012 for inflammatory back pain the prevalence of sacroiliitis and non-inflammatory disease was recorded. Results: In 285 (41%) patients MRI did not show any abnormal findings. In 36% of patients MRI features of sacroiliitis were present. Spinal degenerative changes were the most common non-inflammatory finding in 305 patients (44.1%) and consisted of disc degeneration in 222 (32%) patients, facet joint arthrosis in 58 (8.4%) patients and disc herniation in 25 (3.6%) patients. Hip joint disease in 44 (6.4%) patients, lumbosacral transitional anomaly in 41 (5.9%) patients, SI joint degenerative changes in 25 (3.6%) patients and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in 24 (3.5%) patients were also common. Osteitis condensans ilii in 17 (2.5%) patients, tumour in 11 (1.6%) patients, fracture in 8 (1.2%) patients, infection in 4 (0.6%) patients and acute spondylolysis in 2 patients (0.3%) were less frequently seen. Conclusion: Our study shows that non-inflammatory disease is more common than true sacroiliitis on MRI of the SI joints in patients with inflammatory type back pain. Axial pulse sequences may demonstrate unexpected findings that remain undetected if only coronal images are obtained. Clinical relevance statement:, MRI of the SI joints may demonstrate conditions that clinically mimic sacroiliitis. Axial imaging of the pelvis may help detect these unexpected findings
Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong
Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulated epidemiological associations are subject to several biases. We evaluated whether the Chinese literature on human genome epidemiology may offer insights on the operation of selective reporting and language biases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We targeted 13 gene-disease associations, each already assessed by meta-analyses, including at least 15 non-Chinese studies. We searched the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database for additional Chinese studies on the same topics. We identified 161 Chinese studies on 12 of these gene-disease associations; only 20 were PubMed-indexed (seven English full-text. Many studies (14-35 per topic were available for six topics, covering diseases common in China. With one exception, the first Chinese study appeared with a time lag (2-21 y after the first non-Chinese study on the topic. Chinese studies showed significantly more prominent genetic effects than non-Chinese studies, and 48% were statistically significant per se, despite their smaller sample size (median sample size 146 versus 268, p < 0.001. The largest genetic effects were often seen in PubMed-indexed Chinese studies (65% statistically significant per se. Non-Chinese studies of Asian-descent populations (27% significant per se also tended to show somewhat more prominent genetic effects than studies of non-Asian descent (17% significant per se. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for the interplay of selective reporting and language biases in human genome epidemiology. These biases may not be limited to the Chinese literature and point to the need for a global, transparent, comprehensive outlook in molecular population genetics and epidemiologic studies in general.
Using local bake-room to sun paper is a significant part of traditional manufacture craftsmanship of Chinese Xuan paper.Researchers went deep into country of origin of Xuan paper,conducted detailed field trip,studied the problems such as production materials,instruments,process,as well as working hours and payment,format,baking and sunning of local bake-room of Xuan paper.We made comparative analysis of local bake-room and iron bake-room being used at present,then come to conclude,Xuan paper sunned by local bake-room as "longevous paper for millennium" still has some drawbacks,iron bake-room being used under modern conditions has advantages such as convenient built,flat surface smooth and neat,higher efficiency of labor,as well as certain drawbacks exist.Today we initiate inherit and protect of human non-material cultural heritage vigorously from the aspects of historical examine and keeping culture diversity and richness,and suggest local bake-room and irony bake-room to be applied at the same time in Xuan paper manufacture.%土焙晒纸是宣纸传统制作技艺中的重要组成部分。研究者深入宣纸原产地,对宣纸土焙制作材料、制作工具、制作过程、工时与工价、土焙规格、烧焙与晒纸等进行了较为详细的实地考察研究,对宣纸土焙与当下主要采用的铁焙进行了对比分析,最后得出结论：宣纸土焙晒出的宣纸,经过千百年的历史检验,被誉为＂千年寿纸＂,但也有某些缺陷;现代条件下采用的铁焙具有建造便捷、平面光滑匀整、劳动效率提高的优势,但也有某些缺陷。在大力倡导非物质文化遗产传承、保护的今天,从宣纸纸张历史检验对比和保持文化多样性、丰富性角度出发,建议宣纸产地应土焙和铁焙同时使用。
Carlos Eduardo Repeke
Full Text Available Periodontitis comprises a group of multifactorial diseases in which periodontopathogens accumulate in dental plaque and trigger host chronic inflammatory and immune responses against periodontal structures, which are determinant to the disease outcome. Although unusual cases of non-inflammatory destructive periodontal disease (NIDPD are described, their pathogenesis remains unknown. A unique NIDPD case was investigated by clinical, microbiological, immunological and genetic tools. The patient, a non-smoking dental surgeon with excessive oral hygiene practice, presented a generalized bone resorption and tooth mobility, but not gingival inflammation or occlusion problems. No hematological, immunological or endocrine alterations were found. No periodontopathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum and T. denticola or viruses (HCMV, EBV-1 and HSV-1 were detected, along with levels of IL-1β and TNF-a in GCF compatible with healthy tissues. Conversely ALP, ACP and RANKL GCF levels were similar to diseased periodontal sites. Genetic investigation demonstrated that the patient carried some SNPs, as well HLA-DR4 (*0404 and HLA-B27 alleles, considered risk factors for bone loss. Then, a less vigorous and diminished frequency of toothbrushing was recommended to the patient, resulting in the arrest of alveolar bone loss, associated with the return of ALP, ACP and RANKL in GCF to normality levels. In conclusion, the unusual case presented here is compatible with the previous description of NIDPD, and the results that a possible combination of excessive force and frequency of mechanical stimulation with a potentially bone loss prone genotype could result in the alveolar bone loss seen in NIDPD.
Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.
Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao’s story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao’s 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.
Wang, G D; Zhang, Y M; Xiong, X Y
According to the multiple pharmacological functions of Chinese herbs for treating burns, the authors selected some traditional herbs to cure the burning wound, which had not only the function of improving the local microcirculation of the burned surface and their bactericidal action, but also the function of changing the bacterial growth milieu action. Coptis chinensis 40%, Herba Taraxaci 40%, Fructus Mume 10% and Salvia miltiorrhizae 10% were boiled, infiltrated and disinfected. The mixture thus made was called as Burn II, which were applied on the burned surface daily, 97.1% of 103 patients were cured. Through the experiment of 60 rabbits burned by irons, which were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 in each group) and each 2 groups infected respectively with Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bacillus Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus, took one of each infected group as control group. After 14 days, the infected burned surfaces which were applied with Burn II daily. The results showed that the effect of Burn II was not only significant, but also its usage was not highly restricted by the medical condition. PMID:1821339
Hamdi, Khouloud; Goerlitz, David; Stambouli, Neila; Islam, Mohammed; Baroudi, Olfa; Neili, Bilel; Benayed, Farhat; Chivi, Simon; Loffredo, Christopher; Jillson, Irene A.; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Jan K Blancato; Marrakchi, Raja
In recent years, circulating miRNAs have attracted interest as stable, non-invasive biomarkers for various pathological conditions. Here, we investigated their potential to serve as minimally invasive, early detection markers for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC) in serum. miRNA profiling was performed on serum from 20 patients with non-IBC, 20 with IBC, and 20 normal control subjects. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-P...
Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Bøcher, Peder Klith;
studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study...... for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM–present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting...
Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.
Yan, Zheng; Mingzhong, Tian; Hengli, Wang
Chinese hand-written local records were originated from the first century. Generally, these local records include geography, evolution, customs, education, products, people, historical sites, as well as writings of an area. Through such endeavors, the information of the natural materials of China nearly has had no "dark ages" in the evolution of its 5000-year old civilization. A compilation of all meaningful historical data of natural-disasters taken place in Alxa of inner-Mongolia, the second largest desert in China, is used here for the construction of a 500-year high resolution database. The database is divided into subsets according to the types of natural-disasters like sand-dust storm, drought events, cold wave, etc. Through applying trend, correlation, wavelet, and spectral analysis on these data, we can estimate the statistically periodicity of different natural-disasters, detect and quantify similarities and patterns of the periodicities of these records, and finally take these results in aggregate to find a strong and coherent cyclicity through the last 500 years which serves as the driving mechanism of these geological hazards. Based on the periodicity obtained from the above analysis, the paper discusses the probability of forecasting natural-disasters and the suitable measures to reduce disaster losses through history records. Keyword: Chinese local records; Alxa; natural disasters; database; periodicity analysis
Shah, Ami M.; Guo, Lucy; Magee, Matthew; Cheung, William; Simon, Melissa; LaBreche, Amanda; Liu, Hong
We describe how local community organizations partnered to conduct a survey in the Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese populations of Chicago to compare health outcomes and assess progress toward Healthy People 2010 goals. Interviews were conducted with 380 randomly selected Chinese adults through door-to-door sampling, and with 250 Cambodian adults and 150 Vietnamese adults through respondent-driven sampling. Data on 14 key health outcomes are described for this analysis. The three surveyed c...
宋成义; 高波; 经荣斌; 陶勇; 毛九德
Chinese Meishan and Jiangquhai pigs are two of the most prolific pigs in the world, but their growth rate is lower than that of Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain pigs. It is suggested that growth rate is regulated by growth hormone. The objective of the current study was to analyze the porcine growth hormone (pGH) gene polymorphisms based on the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) for three western meat-type breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain) and two local Chinese pigs (Meishan and Jiangquhai). Five polymorphic restriction sites were detected with the ApaI, MspI, BspI and HhaI restriction enzymes in two amplified fragments (605 bp, -119 to +486; 506 bp, +206 to +711). Breed difference was found only in the 506 bp fragment. There was no difference in allelic frequencies of BspI and HhaI restriction sites among the five breeds (P>0.05). Landrace and Meishan pigs lacked allele G3 of MspI site. The allele G3 frequency of restriction MspI site of the 506 bp fragment in Pietrain pigs was higher than that in Duroc and Jianquhai pigs (P0.05). This new and rapid PCR-RFLP typing method is an attractive tool for analysis of porcine growth hormone gene restriction sites. The differences in MspI and ApaI restriction sites may explain the growth difference between the foreign meat-type breeds above mentioned and local Chinese pigs.
宋成义; 高波; 经荣斌; 陶勇; 毛九德
Chinese Meishan and Jiangquhai pigs are two of the most prolific pigs in the world, but their growth rate is lower than that of Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain pigs. It is suggested that growth rate is regulated by growth hormone. The objective of the current study was to analyze the porcine growth hormone (p GH) gene polymorphisms based on the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) for three western meat-type breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Pietrain) and two local Chinese pigs (Meishan and Jiangquhai) . Five polymorphic restriction sites were detected with the ApaI, MspI, BspI and HhaI restriction enzymes in two amplified fragments (605 bp, - 119 to + 486; 506 bp, + 206 to + 711).Breed difference was found only in the 506 bp fragment. There was no difference in allelic frequencies of BspIand HhaI restriction sites among the five breeds ( P > 0.05) . Landrace and Meishan pigs lacked allele G3 of Msp I site. The allele G3 frequency of restriction Msp I site of the 506 bp fragment in Pietrain pigs was higher than that in Duroc and Jianquhai pigs (P 0.05) . This new and rapid PCR-RFLP typing method is an attractive tool for analysis of porcine growth hormone gene restriction sites. The differences in MspI and ApaI restriction sites may explain the growth difference between the foreign meat-type breeds above mentioned and local Chinese pigs.
Jin-You Wang; Yao Zhu; Chao-Fu Wang; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye
Although several models have been developed to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, most of these models are restricted to prostate-specific antigen screening-detected prostate cancer. This study aimed to build a nomogram for the prediction of Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer. The study cohort comprised 269 Chinese prostate cancer patients who underwent prostate biopsy with a minimum of 10 cores and w...
We investigated the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) over radiotherapy (RT) in Chinese patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between January 2005 and January 2008, 192 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were included in the study: 96 in arm A (CCRT with 20 mg/m2 cisplatin for 5 days) and 96 in arm B (RT). The overall response rate was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, and toxicity. The 5-year overall response rate was 67% and 53% for the CCRT and RT arms, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant, while the median overall survival was 68 months (range 3-85 months) and 61 months (range 4-83 months), respectively (P = 0.009). In addition, the median progression-free survival for CCRT was 62 months (range 3-83 months), whereas it was 51 months (range 4-81 months) for the RT arm (P = 0.025). The toxicity profile, both acute and late, was comparable in both arms. In summary, we demonstrate that CCRT was effective and better tolerated than RT alone in Chinese patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma.
Yu, LiAnne Sandra
This dissertation is an examination of how the ethnic Chinese community in Vietnam, the Hoa, re-built their economic and social structures after the persecution they faced post-1975. In the decade after the fall of Saigon to Communist forces, the wealthiest and most powerful Hoa were forced out of their positions, and over half a million people from that community left Vietnam as refugees. By the mid-1980's, it seemed that Cholon, once the thriving center of Vietnam's Hoa entrepreneurial acti...
Ivan Fai-man Lo; Kent Keung-san Lai; Tony Ming-for Tong; Stephen Tak-sum Lam
Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are X-linked recessive, allelic disorders. This study was conducted to look into the spectrum of DMD gene mutations in Hong Kong Chinese patients with Duchenne or Becket muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD), and to study genotype-phenotype correlation.Methods A retrospective review of 67 patients.Results Twenty-three (34.3%) patients had exon deletions; whereas 5 (7.5%) patients had exon duplications.Twenty-three (34.3%) patients had small mutations, including 17-point mutations and 6 small insertions or deletions. No correlation was found between the type of mutation and the muscle phenotype or mental retardation.Significantly fewer maternal carriers were found in patients with exon deletions, and a positive family history was more common in those with small mutations. DMD phenotype was significantly less common in patients with exon deletions/duplications at the 5' hotspot, whereas all 4 small mutations associated with mental retardation were located in the 3' end of the gene.Conclusions The percentage of DMD exon deletions in local Chinese patients was significantly lower than the commonly quoted 60%. This indicated an ethnic or regional difference in predisposition to DMD exon deletions.
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel A...
This study examines the Chinese consumers perceptions on local and global brands in the Household white goods sector. The brand perceptions of consumers are essential for marketers and able to provide the managerial implications in the area of branding and marketing overall. This dissertation also has two substantial objectives: firstly to compare the different factors that affecting the decisions on local and global HWG brands and in addition to highlight the purchasing behaviour of the Chin...
Jin-You Wang; Yao Zhu; Chao-Fu Wang; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye
Although several models have been developed to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, most of these models are restricted to prostate-specific antigen screening-detected prostate cancer. This study aimed to build a nomogram for the prediction of Gleason sum upgrading in clinical y diagnosed prostate cancer. The study cohort comprised 269 Chinese prostate cancer patients who underwent prostate biopsy with a minimum of 10 cores and were subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. Of al included patients, 220 (81.8%) were referred with clinical symptoms. The prostate-specific antigen level, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T category were used in a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading. The developed nomogram was validated internally. Gleason sum upgrading was observed in 90 (33.5%) patients. Our nomogram showed a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.789 and good calibration using 4 readily available variables. The nomogram also demonstrated satisfactory statistical performance for predicting significant upgrading. External validation of the nomogram published by Chun et al. in our cohort showed a marked discordance between the observed and predicted probabilities of Gleason sum upgrading. In summary, a new nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer was developed, and it demonstrated good statistical performance upon internal validation.
Full Text Available Although several models have been developed to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, most of these models are restricted to prostate-specific antigen screening-detected prostate cancer. This study aimed to build a nomogram for the prediction of Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer. The study cohort comprised 269 Chinese prostate cancer patients who underwent prostate biopsy with a minimum of 10 cores and were subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. Of all included patients, 220 (81.8% were referred with clinical symptoms. The prostate-specific antigen level, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T category were used in a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading. The developed nomogram was validated internally. Gleason sum upgrading was observed in 90 (33.5% patients. Our nomogram showed a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.789 and good calibration using 4 readily available variables. The nomogram also demonstrated satisfactory statistical performance for predicting significant upgrading. External validation of the nomogram published by Chun et al. in our cohort showed a marked discordance between the observed and predicted probabilities of Gleason sum upgrading. In summary, a new nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer was developed, and it demonstrated good statistical performance upon internal validation.
Full Text Available Wei-Wei Xie,1,2* Lin Zhang,1* Ren-Rong Wu,1 Yan Yu,3 Jing-Ping Zhao,1 Le-Hua Li1 1Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Ningbo, 3People’s Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Human P-glycoprotein encoded by the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1 gene is expressed in the blood–brain barrier. ABCB1 protects the brain from many drugs and toxins such as glucocorticoids through the efflux pump. Recent evidence suggests that a specific allele of the ABCB1 gene confers susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD in the Japanese population. The aim of this study was to explore the association of ABCB1 gene polymorphisms with MDD in a local Chinese Han population.Methods: Two hundred and ninety-two MDD patients and 208 unrelated individuals were matched by age and sex and examined using a case-control design. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ABCB1 gene, including rs1045642, rs2032583, rs2032582, rs2235040, rs1128503, and rs2235015, were genotyped by ligase detection reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis were investigated in the two study groups. Results: Significant protection for MDD individuals carrying the TG haplotype of rs1045642–rs2032582 was observed (odds ratio 0.470, 95% confidence interval 0.251–0.897, P=0.01.The rs2032582 (G2677T and rs1128503 (C1236T SNPs of ABCB1 showed nominal associations with MDD; the other four SNPs of the ABCB1 gene were not associated with MDD.Conclusion: Chinese individuals carrying the TG haplotype of rs1045642–rs2032582 had a nearly 53% lower risk of developing MDD. To the best of our
LI Jiang; LI Min; LI Cui; GAO Yang; LI DaWei; HAN ChengGui; YU JiaLin
Based on a full-length infectious cDNA clone, gene modifications of Tobacco necrosis virus A Chinese isolate (TNV-Ac) were made by site-directed mutagenesis or nucleotide deletions for in vitro transcription of mutant viral RNAs. Mechanical inoculations of Chenopodium amaranticolor with in vitro transcripts, containing a single nucleic acid substitution at the presumed transcriptional start sites for the two subgenomic (sg) RNAs, showed that the sgRNA1 and sgRNA2 of TNV-Ac were initiated at G2184 or G2460, respectively. Mutagenesis of the translational initiation-codons for the open-reading frame (ORF) P8 or P6 encoded by sgRNA1 indicated that each of the two genes was essential for formation of local lesions on C. amaranticolor leaves, perhaps by blocking virus cell-to-cell movement, but were not necessary for viral RNA replication in the protoplast of tobacco cell BY-2. Results of prokaryotic expression showed that the ORF coding for coat protein on TNV-Ac sgRNA2 was initiatively translated by the first AUG codon at nucleotides 2612-2614. Site-directed mutation of translational start codons, and deletion of the entire coding region, showed that the intact TNV-Ac coat protein was dispensable for establishment of TNV-Ac infection in C. amaranticolor, otherwise the numbers of local lesions and the viral RNA accumulation level were reduced, or the time to symptom appearance significantly delayed. These results suggested that the nucleotide sequence around the translational start codon coding for TNV-Ac coat protein gene may play an important role in the local symptoms. Aspects of the involvement of the coat protein in the TNV-Ac life cycle were discussed.
F. S. Zhang
Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is a long-lived greenhouse gas with a large radiation intensity and it is emitted mainly from agricultural land. Accurate estimates of total direct N2O emissions from croplands on a country scale are important for global budgets of anthropogenic sources of N2O emissions and for the development of effective mitigation strategies. The objectives of this study were to re-estimate direct N2O emissions using localized emission factors and a database of measurements from Chinese croplands. We obtained N2O emission factors for paddy fields (0.41 % and uplands (1.05 % from a normalization process through cube root transformation of the original data after comparing the results of normalization from the original values, logarithmic and cube root transformations because the frequency of the original data was not normally distributed. Direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands from 1980 to 2007 were estimated using IPCC (2006 guidelines combined with separate localized emission factors for paddy fields and upland areas. Direct N2O emissions from paddy fields showed little change, increasing by 11 % with an annual rate of increase of 0.4 % from 29.8 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 33.1 Gg N2O-N in 2007. In contrast, emissions from uplands changed dramatically, increasing by 296 % with an annual rate of 10.9 % from 64.4 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 255.3 Gg N2O-N in 2007. Total direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands increased by 206 % with an annual rate of 7.6 % from 94.2 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 288.4 Gg N2O-N in 2007, and were determined mainly by upland emissions (accounting for 68.4–88.5 % of total emissions from 1980 to 2007. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers played a major role in N2O emissions from agricultural land, and the magnitude of the contributions to total direct N2O emissions made by different amendments was synthetic N fertilizer > manure > straw, representing about 77, 16, and 6.5 % of total direct N2O emissions, respectively, between 2000
F. S. Zhang
Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is a long-lived greenhouse gas with a large radiation intensity and it is emitted mainly from agricultural land. Accurate estimates of total direct N2O emissions from croplands on a country scale are important for global budgets of anthropogenic sources of N2O emissions and for the development of effective mitigation strategies. The objectives of this study were to re-estimate direct N2O emissions using localized emission factors and a database of measurements from Chinese croplands. We obtained N2O emission factors for paddy fields (0.41 ± 0.04% and uplands (1.05 ± 0.02% from a normalization process through cube root transformation of the original data. After comparing the results of normalization from the original values, Logarithmic and cube root transformations were used because the frequency of the original data was not normally distributed. Direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands from 1980 to 2007 were estimated using IPCC (2006 guidelines combined with separate localized emission factors for paddy fields and upland areas. Direct N2O emissions from paddy fields showed little change, increasing by 10.5% with an annual rate of increase of 0.4% from 32.3 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 35.7 Gg N2O-N in 2007. In contrast, emissions from uplands changed dramatically, increasing by 308% with an annual rate of 11% from 68.0 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 278 Gg N2O-N in 2007. Total direct N2O emissions from Chinese croplands increased by 213% with an annual rate of 7.6% from 100 Gg N2O-N in 1980 to 313 Gg N2O-N in 2007, and were determined mainly by upland emissions (accounting for 67.8–88.6% of total emissions from 1980 to 2007. Synthetic N fertilizers played a major role in N2O emissions from agricultural land, and the magnitude of the contributions to total direct N2O emissions made by different amendments was synthetic N fertilizer > manure > straw, representing about 78, 15, and 6% of total direct N2O emissions, respectively, between
Wang, H; Wang, J; Li, G
Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Owing to its increasing demand in the world market, cultivated ginseng has become the main source of medicinal material. Among the Chinese ginseng cultivars, Damaya commands higher prices and is grown in significant proportions among the local ginseng population. Due to the lack of rapid and accurate authentication methods, Damaya is distributed among different cultivars in the local ginseng population in China. Here, we identified a unique, Damaya-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site present in the second intron of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2). Based on this SNP, a Damaya cultivar-specific primer was designed and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was optimized for the effective molecular authentication of Damaya. We designed a method by combining a simple DNA isolation method with real-time allele-specific PCR using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye, and proved its efficacy in clearly discriminated Damaya cultivar from other Chinese ginseng cultivars according to the allelic discrimination analysis. Hence, this study provides a simple and rapid assay for the differentiation and conservation of Damaya from the local Chinese ginseng population. PMID:27420983
LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang
Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.
泰国是世界上首个将汉语列入国民教育体系的国家，也是一个典型的“汉语热”国家，汉语学习人数为东南亚地区之首，汉语教学覆盖了中小学教育、职业教育、高等教育、非正规教育以及中泰华文教育合作领域，但汉语教材适用性不强，尤其是中小学的汉语教材已经成为制约泰国中小学汉语教学的瓶颈。汉语教材的本土化编写是一种必然的趋势。%Thailand, the first country in the world which brings Chinese language education into its national education system, is a typical country with "Chinese Fever" and the biggest number of Chinese learners. Its Chinese education covers from primary, secondary, higher education to vocational, informal and Chinese-Thailand cooperation areas. However, Chinese textbooks, especially Chinese teaching materials for primary and secondary education, are not applicable, which becomes the bottleneck for Chinese education in Thailand. Localized compilation of Chinese textbooks is a necessary trend.
Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article
Jou, Diana T.
How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...
Patterson, Andrew T; Tian, Frances T; Elston, Dirk M; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H
Many environmental acne disorders, including chloracne and oil acne, were previously thought to occur predominantly in occupational settings following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Cigarette smoke has also been shown to contain a large number of these toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components and strictly correlates with noninflammatory acneiform lesion development in postadolescent patients. We report a case of localized open comedones associated with occluded cigarette smoke exposure near the nasal cavity due to infrequently changed gauze following rhinectomy. The dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components in cigarette smoke has the potential to function as a contributing factor in chloracne development. Several of these environmental and noninflammatory acne subtypes may share a common molecular propensity for enhanced comedogenesis originating from aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway effects in the skin. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the exact mechanistic pathways through which tobacco smoke impacts the integumentary system. PMID:26360246
Xiongyuan; Wang; Shan; Wang
Local state-owned enterprises(SOEs) in China continue to face government interference in their operations. They are influenced both by the government’s"grabbing hand" and by its "helping hand." Our study examines how SOE chairmen with connections to government influence their firm’s employment policies and the economic consequences of overstaffing. Using a sample of China’s listed local state-owned enterprises, we find that the scale of overstaffing in these SOEs is negatively related to the firms’ political connections to government. However,this relationship turns positive when the firm’s chairman has a government background. Appointing chairmen who have government backgrounds is a mechanism through which the government can intervene in local SOEs and influence firms’ staffing decisions. We also find that in compensation for the expenses of overstaffing, local SOEs receive more government subsidies and bank loans.However, the chairmen themselves do not get increased pay or promotion opportunities for supporting overstaffing. Further analysis indicates that whereas the "grabbing hand" of government does harm to a firm’s economic performance, the "helping hand" provides only weak positive effects, and such government intervention actually reduces the efficiency of social resource allocation.
This paper introduces a new approach called grey incidence analysis(GIA), by which high accuracy prediction model can be established combined with partial least squares regression(PLSR) to deal with Chinese soil vis-NIR spectral library and estimate soil total nitrogen content in local area. Using spectral matching algorithm such as Mahalanobis distance, spectral angle model (SAM) and spectral correlation fitting(SCF), fuzzy k-means clustering method only based on the spectral data without considering soil total nitrogen content in the library. Soil total nitrogen content have grey uncertainty relationship with each vis-NIR spectral band(400-2500nm). This method combine the soil total nitrogen value with spectrum data when performing spectral matching. In this study, 1661 soil samples in the library were collected from 13 provinces in China, which include Tibet, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, and Hainan. The samples represent 17 soil groups of the Chinese Soil (Genetic) Classification System. After air-drying and sieving, the diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were measured under laboratory conditions in the range between 400 and 2500 nm using a portable vis-NIR spectrometer. Hyperspectral inversion model was built based on 104 paddy soil samples in Zhejiang province to predict the soil total nitrogen content. The results show that the GIA-PLSR method presents great potential for predicting soil total nitrogen content in large soil vis-NIR library. The prediction accuracy: R2 = 0.897, RMSEP = 0.028, RPDP = 3.151. This study also show that soil vis-NIR spectroscopy combined with TN value can be used to further improve the prediction performance of spectral models.
Local culture refers to the experience of everyday life as lived by ordinary people in specific localities. Distance, borders and time are the three characteristics of local culture. The development of local culture was the main concern in globalization era. Local culture shares crucial position in Chinese teaching as well. This thesis discusses the importance of local culture in Chinese teaching and with the instance of Nantong, a medium-size city in Jiangsu, it aims at using Nantong local cultural resources in Chinese teaching in order to help foreign students to adapt to Nantong cuhural context. The corresponding strategies are as follows： reasonable curriculum; suitable text books; flexible teaching model. Thus, on the one hand it improves students＇ comprehensive Chinese learning ability and on the other hand it protects and promotes Nantong culture. Furthermore, it helps to attract more students, forming sustained development circle.%文章探讨了在对外汉语教学中有效利用地方文化资源的重要性和必要性,并以江苏省中等城市南通为例,探寻如何帮助留学生尽快适应南通地方文化语境,具体策略有：合理的课程设置、配套文化教材的编写以及灵活的课堂教学模式。在对外汉语教学中融入地方文化,一方面更好的服务于语言学习,提高留学生综合汉语能力;另一方面保护、推进地方文化、提升城市形象,进而吸引更多的留学生,形成可持续发展的良性循环。
The union catalog of Chinese chorography was issued under Beijing Observatory of Chinese Academy of Science and published by Zhonghua Book Company in 1985. The collected local records are complete. There are 141 items of Guizhou’s local histories in the chorography. However, there are some scarcities in details. Therefore, the Guizhou’s local histories is required some modifications and replacements.%《中国地方志联合目录》由中国科学院北京天文台编，中华书局1985年出版，所收地方志比较完备，其中贵州方志共141种。该书在著录方面存在一些疏误和遗漏，现就其中的贵州方志部分进行订误补遗。
China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...
Zheng, F.; Chen, Y.; Li, F.; Ma, C.; Zhu, Y.; Zhang, C. L.
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are unique bacterial lipids that commonly occur in soil and peat bog. The methylation and cyclization degrees of brGDGTs, expressed as MBT and CBT, respectively, are mainly controlled by mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the brGDGT-derived temperatures scatter widely compared to actual MAATs in both regional and global calibrations. In this study, we collected 297 soil samples from diverse regions of China (Lanzhou, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Yunnan, Dongying and Tibetan Plateau) in order to identify environmental variables that control the distribution of brGDGTs locally. The results show that MBT correlated positively with MAAT under the global calibration framework; however, large variation in MBT occurred for a given MAAT for individual regions. When confined within a specific region, MBT index positively correlated with conductivity in Dongying soils and negatively with pH in Yunnan and Guangzhou soils. Removing GDGT-II from CBT calculation resulted in a revised CBT index that provides more accurate estimation of pH (R2=0.79 vs 0.67), especially in alkaline soils. In addition, the combination of MBT and revised CBT also improves the estimation of soil pH (R2 =0.79) than the original CBT index alone (R2=0.67). Our results demonstrate that brGDGTs-derived proxies may be more reliable for estimating paleo-soil pH than paleo-continental temperature.
Full Text Available Welfare enterprises, which are intended to create jobs for disabled people, are the core component of China's welfare system. As the economic environment and regulations change, China's welfare enterprises, which cannot take effective measures from within and emerge strong in market competition, are stuck in a bottleneck where further development is difficult. Welfare enterprises have hit the ceiling in their development for lacking sustainable sources of capital and capabilities of capital operation, inefficient management model and uncompetitive products and services. To reverse the trend of decline and grow into strong market players, the transformation from welfare enterprise to social enterprise, embracing the features of enterprise and social objectives, as an alternative is of crucial importance. As a new hybrid economic form, social enterprise combines the efficiency of businesses and the public-good nature of welfare enterprises, representing win-win cooperation among the government, society, and business sector. Such development is an institutional transformation which boosts competitiveness and tackles tough issues welfare enterprises are facing. Shifting from welfare enterprises to social enterprises means an institutional transition, during the process of which international experience in legislation shall be learned and localized. This paper analyzes the development history of welfare enterprises by taking a comprehensive look at the salient points of existing laws, policies promulgated throughout history, implementation and performance, major problems etc. so as to explore the institutional transition from welfare enterprises to social enterprises, revealing possible legal and policy problems and making suggestions.
Jian Qiang Huang, Jing Kai Xin, Cui Mao, Feng Zhong and Jia Qian Chai*
Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the infection status and to finish the preliminary eradication of avian leukosis virus (ALV and Salmonella pullorum (SP in breeders of Chinese local “ShouGuang” chickens. ALV antigen and antibody was tested via ELISA, and SP antibody was detected by serum plate agglutination test (SPAT. The etiology and pathology was also studied. The ALV-P27 antigen, ALV-A/B and SP antibody positive chickens were eliminated in turn, and then the negative were retained as the breeder flocks. The results showed that the positive rate of antigen to ALV-P27, antibody to ALV-A/B, ALV-J and SP was 57.8, 6.7, 0 and 17.8% in this breeder farm, respectively. The co-infection of ALV and SP was confirmed and the positive rate of both SP and ALV-P27 or ALV-A/B was 10 and 1%, respectively. There were obvious tumor nodules and lymphoid tumor cells in the comb, liver and spleen of the co-infected chickens. The degenerative and atrophic ovarian follicles, inflammatory cell infiltration in muscle biopsies were also found. The elimination rate of ALV-p27, ALV-A/B and SP positive chickens was 55.4, 13 and 6.1%, respectively. The final amount of the breeder conservation was 309 chickens. In conclusion, the co-infection of ALV-B and SP was found and more emphasis should be given on its prevention; the preliminary eradication of “ShouGuang” breeder chickens was finished.
The debts of Chinese local governments increased rapidly in recent years. Debt financing has become an irresistible trend. It is particularly significant to strengthen the supervision of local government debt financing. Based on a definition of local government financing, this paper summarizes the legislative defects in China’s local government debt financing supervision, and proposes some advice on the legislation perfection of Chinese local government debt financing supervision.%我国地方政府债务近几年急剧膨胀，负债融资发展已经形成不可阻挡之势。加强对地方政府债务融资监管显得意义特别重大。本文在界定地方政府融资内含的基础上，概括了我国地方政府债务融资监管立法缺陷，并对完善我国地方政府债务融资监管立法提出了若干建议，以求同仁赐教。
我国地方政府债务近几年急剧膨胀，负债融资发展已经形成不可阻挡之势。加强对地方政府债务融资监管显得意义特别重大。本文在界定地方政府融资内含的基础上，概括了我国地方政府债务融资监管立法缺陷，并对完善我国地方政府债务融资监管立法提出了若干建议，以求同仁赐教。%The debts of Chinese local governments increased rapidly in recent years. Debt financing has become an irresistible trend. It is particularly significant to strengthen the supervision of local government debt financing. Based on a definition of local government financing, this paper summarizes the legislative defects in China’s local government debt financing supervision, and proposes some advice on the legislation perfection of Chinese local government debt financing supervision.
社区是进行一定的社会活动、具有某种互动关系和共同文化维系力的固定活动区域或社会团体.对于固定区域或群体体育的研究,对于开展落实现阶段群众体育工作就显得尤为重要.本文以武术段位制进入社区为切入点,主要运用文献法、逻辑分析法等,对武术段位制进社区的5大意义、5大优势进行分析和总结并提出一些策略即通过全民健身服务体系、政府支持、建立社区武术段位制推广机构开展社区武术段位制考试和培训工作、完善社区体育竞赛体系、充分利用社会上体育人力资源等更好的促进段位制在社区的开展提供可行性的依据.%Community is defined a stationary activity area or a social organization, holding some social activities, having some kind of interactive relations and sustaining force to common culture. Currently, the study of stationary area and group sports is very important for the development and implement of mass sport. Through Chinese Wushu Duan Wei System''s entry to community, this paper mainly used documentation and logical analysis to analyze and summarize five major significance and advantages of it. Meanwhile, this paper further proposed some strategies, like building national fitness service system、getting government support and setting up promotion institutions of Wushu Duan Wei System in local community to develop Community Wushu Duan Wei System test and training, completing community sports competition system and making good use of sports human resources in society and so on, to better promote and practice the spread of Wushu Duan Wei system in local community.
袁文娟; 熊剑琴; 毕志伟
This paper conducted a research on examining the code-mixing phenomenon in Chinese local newspapers. This paper will find out the top ten frequently used code-mixing between Chinese and English in local newspapers. After analysing the data, this paper will study the purpose of using code-mixing in Chinese local newspapers .The findings indicate that the codemixing is a trend in Chinese internet discourse, but there is not a sign of cultural invasion by those words, because those words are purely having the linguistic function other than other features.
从某地方高校少数民族学生与汉族学生英语写作对比分析显示,少数民族学生主要受第二语言汉语的负迁移影响,因此同汉族学生一样,写作中出现了发展性偏误、汉语负迁移偏误。另外,少数民族学生和以汉语为母语学生英语基本都不扎实,作文中本体层次的偏误较多,而且少数民族语熟练学生在英语学习中,同时受母语和汉语的干扰,但汉语干扰多于母语干扰。%An analysis of English writing of both ethnic minority students and Han students in a local university showsthat ethnic minority students were mainly influenced by Chinese as the second language,so developmental errors and Chinesenegative transfer errors appeared frequently in their English writing.On the other hand,ethnic minority students and students with Chinese as native language were weakin the basic English knowledge,and there are many grammar errors intheir compositions.Furthermore,ethnic minority students who are fluent in their mother language are affected by both mother language and Chinese in their English study,and Chinese transfer is more than that of mother language.
从20世纪初期开始,西方心理测评方面的著作和测评手段由我国的心理学学者引入并在一定领域内进行应用探索,取得了一些学术和应用成果。但是随着研究的深入,我国学者发现单纯地引入西方的测量体系并不能完全适应中国人的心理特点和文化特点。与此同时,一些学者也在探索将中国的传统文化中蕴含的心理测评思想和文化精髓融入到现代的心理测评中去。基于对这两方面问题的认识,将中国传统文化同西方的心理测评技术相结合的本土化的概念逐渐受到学界重视。%From the beginning of the 20th century,western books and methods of psychological evaluation was introduced to China by our scholars and was applied in some areas.There were a lot of results in academic and application.But Chinese scholars also find that it is not adapted to Chinese character and culture by simply using western psychological evaluation system.At the same time,some scholars are studying Chinese traditional culture in order to combine modern psychological evaluation with traditional culture.Depending on the two parts,the concept of localization trying to combine Chinese traditional culture with western psychological evaluation is attended by academia.
From the beginning of 20th centry, the western books and method of psychological evaluation was introduced to China by our scholars and was applied in some areas. There were a lot of results in academic and application. But Chinese scholars also find that it is not adapted to Chinese character and culture by just using western psychological evaluation system. At the same time, some scholars are studying Chinese tradi- tional culture in order to mix modern psychological evaluation with traditional culture. Depending on the two parts, the concept of localization for combining Chinese traditional culture with western psychological evaluation is attended by academia.%20世纪初期开始，西方心理测评方面的著作和测评手段由我国的心理学学者引入并在一定领域内进行应用探索，取得了一些学术和应用成果。但是随着研究的深入，我国学者发现单纯地引入西方的测量体系并不能完全适应中国人的心理特点和文化特点。与此同时，一些学者也在探索将中国的传统文化中蕴含的心理测评思想和文化精髓融人到现代的心理测评中去。基于对这两方面问题的认识，将中国传统文化同西方的心理测评技术相结合的本土化的概念逐渐受到学界重视。
Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.
In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...
This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…
近年来，由于我国地方政府治理创新行为的自利性以及创新缺乏长远性、系统性等对公共性侵蚀问题的日益突出，使得我国地方政府治理创新过程中的困难重重。由此提出了解决这些问题除了要转变政府治理创新理念和政府职能外，还必须加强政府创新人才队伍建设，重塑政府内部治理机制，培育和发展强大的公民社会，构建出政府、市场、社会三维框架下的多中心合作治理模式，从而进一步促进我国地方政府治理创新工作的开展。%In recent years, the problems of public erosion, caused by the self - interest of governance innovation behavior of Chinese local governments and the lacks of the long - range nature and systematicness in innovation, are becoming increasingly prominent, which makes local governments face many difficulties at the aspects of governance and innovation. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, it is necessary not only to transform the concept about governance innovation of local governments and the function of governments, but also to strengthen the construction of government innovation staff team,remold the internal governance mechanism of governments, foster and develop the strong civil society, build up the multi - center cooperative governance mode under the three - dimension frame of government, market and civil society, and thus promote the effective development of governance innovation of Chinese local governments.
the modern architecture to the spread of Chinese localization were style of architecture, this article is based on the research on localization urban landscape to explore traditional Chinese landscape painting aesthetics and the cognitive way of Chinese garden aesthetics art, through the Chinese traditional aesthetics to explore the modern people and the nature harmonious living environment, the traditional aesthetic concept of “landscape” for the development of Chinese modern city landscape, qian xuesen proposed the concept of “landscape city” and the development, purpose is to find the environment concept of Chinese national culture characteristics.
Green Energy Solutions in Chinese Rural Areas - A Pilot Study on Promoting the Utilization of Local Renewable Energy Sources and Increased Energy Efficiency For Improved Living Conditions and Environment on The Chinese Countryside
Soerensen, Bjoern R.; Solvang, Wei Deng; Riise, Raymond; Roman, Elisabeth (Narvik Univ. College, N-8505 Narvik (Norway)). e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lysfjord, Torfinn (Reinertsen AS (Norway))
The project Green energy solutions in Chinese rural areas was initiated in the beginning of 2007, and started with the organizing of an international forum for 'Comprehensive utilization of Energy Resources in China'. The first conference of the forum was held in Beijing in April 2007. In parallel to there were practical surveys and registrations in various sites in the country side around Beijing, as well as visits to energy related facilities in the area. The 4 year spanned project is carried out in collaboration with Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology (BIPT) and Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, School of Economics and Management (IMUST) together with professionals from business life from both Norway and China. It is financed by Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). This paper gives a detailed introduction to status, further plans and expectations, together with a preliminary evaluation of the impacts from the various measures. The main part of Chinas population (around 80%) lives in rural areas. Living conditions are quite different form those in the cities, and the potential for and needs for improvements are huge. One of the most indigent Chinese provinces (Inner Mongolia) has been selected as a pilot for capacity building, know-how transfer and implementation of various low cost, yet high impact measures (by using mostly well known technology) to improve on energy conditions and lowering emissions to the environment. The autonomous region of Inner Mongolia is the third largest province in China. Some of the measures that are being assessed are increased use of bio fuels and solar energy, improved energy efficiency, giving lowered coal consumption
The 5′-terminal (RTn) and 3′-terminal (RTc) halves of the coat protein readthrough domain and the 19 ku cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) were amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Antisera and monoclonal antibodies against these proteins were prepared by immunising these purified proteins to mice. Detection of RTn, RTc and 19 ku proteins in CWMV infected wheat sap and leaf tissue indicated that the RTn and RTc proteins were distributed on the surface of virus particles whereas the 19 ku protein was in the cytoplasm of the infected wheat cells.
Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher
Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.
Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher
Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.
Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...
Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...
Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.
Vũ Đường Luân
Full Text Available This article, part of a longer study of the history of mining in Vietnam, argues that the Nông Văn Vân uprising (1833–1835 in the northern uplands of Vietnam brings into relief the importance of mining in the Vietnamese economy of the nineteenth century. It also highlights the consequences of Emperor Minh Mệnh’s dual agenda of extracting more tax revenues from mining operations and expanding the reach of the state by replacing hereditary tribal chieftains with imperial bureaucrats. While the uprising was quelled, the imperial agenda could not be fully realized in the face of local opposition and declining revenue from mining. The uprising reflected the multiethnic nature of border society, composed as it was of Vietnamese, local minority populations, and a significant number of Chinese mine owners, workers, and providers of goods and services to the mining towns. In ordinary times, the border was regularly flouted as kinship relations, trading networks, and ethnic affinity transcended allegiance to either the Qing or the Nguyễn in this borderland. Although the uprising was formally contained within the Vietnamese territory, rebels were able to seek refuge and recruit new adherents in China. And while the Nguyễn court was eventually able to subdue the rebels, its centralizing policies and attempts at extracting more revenues from mining were ultimately unsuccessful in the face of reemerging local and transborder forces.
On April 13,the judiciary of Brazil St.Paul under the help of the local police suddenly confiscated the wholesales market of Chinese clothing,located at Street 25 of the shopping center. In all,48 Chinese dealers were seized under allegation of
黄晓; 陈金丹; 于斌斌
为了消除信息不对称及代理成本增加所带来的环境不确定性，风险投资机构往往倾向于进行地理邻近的本地投资。通过Thomson Venture Xporter数据库搜集到1993—2012年间587家中国本土风险投资企业投资于2207家本土创新企业的共计3558个投资交易样本，以此为实证对象，运用二元Logistic回归方法，从微观企业层面和宏观市场层面研究了环境不确定性对风险投资本地偏好的影响。研究表明，在中国现有的资本市场分割情境下，当控制了风险投资的战略选择及风险投资机构的特征等变量后，随着环境不确定性水平的降低，风险投资机构对本地偏好的依赖也会随之减弱。因此，对于后发地区而言，可以通过降低投资环境的不确定性，来吸引更多的外地风险资本而实现本地的创新发展。%Venture capital usually prefers to invest in the target venture geographically closer with itself in order to mitigate environment uncertainty derived from information asymmetries and agency cost. By collecting the infor-mation of 3558 investment deals in 2207 Chinese portfolio firms invested by 587 Chinese venture capital firms be-tween 1993 and 2012 from Thomson Venture Xpert database, this paper examines the influence of uncertainty on local bias of Chinese venture capital using Binary Logistic Regression method from two levels: venture-specific un-certainty and market-specific uncertainty. The result indicates that the reduced environment uncertainty will miti-gate the local bias of Chinese venture capital controlling the variables of strategy option and the characteristics of venture capital firms in the context of capital market segmentation in China. Therefore, for those undeveloped re-gions, to reduce the environment uncertainty is needed to absorb more outside venture capital and promote the lo-cal innovation.
WANG Wen-ling; SU You-ming; YANG Rong-ya; ZHANG Jie; XU Yang
Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effects of vitamine B6 (Vit B6) and Xuefu Zhuyu Deoderma(LSD). Methods: Thirty-three patients were treated with XFZY and Vit B6, with 15 cases taking orally prednisone acetate and 20 healthy volunteers as the control. Their level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients with LSD before and after treatment were observed. Results: The level of sIL-2R and TNF-α in the serum from the patients with LSD were higher than those of healthy volunteers (P＜0. 01). After treatment with Vit B6 and XFZY, the level of sIL-2R and TNF-αfrom the patients with LSD decreased significantly (P＜0.01), but there were no difference between the group taking Vit B6 plus XFZY and the group given prednisone. Conclusion: The activating blood circulation to remove stasis approach in treating LSD with integrative Chinese and Western drugs got better results, and metabolic disorder of tryptophan might be correlated with the etiology of LSD.
The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group
Full Text Available At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.
Full Text Available
At least until the 1960s, chop suey was synonymous with Chinese food in the United States, where most Chinese restaurants were called chop suey houses. By uncovering the history of chop suey, this article analyzes the development of Chinese cuisine in the U.S. as an example of transnational cultural exchange. The authenticity and culinary identity of Chinese food in America often rested on its real or imagined Chinese roots while its popularity depended on how well Chinese restaurant proprietors adapted the flavors, ingredients, and cooking methods of Chinese cuisine to the tastes and markets of local American communities. The dynamic interaction between Chinese food and American customers functioned as a complex cultural negotiation. While Chinese restaurants helped shape the American diet, Chinese food was at the same time being shaped and transformed by American popular taste. By appealing to a wide range of American diners, chop suey eventually evolved into a popular American ethnic food and a central component in the culinary identity of Chinese restaurants. Chop suey generated numerous jobs for Chinese immigrants and established a culinary bond between Chinese food and American customers. Also, as an imagined authentic Chinese dish, it represented a type of affordable exoticism in the eyes of American consumers, meeting not only American tastes but also their social expectations of Chinese culture.
Consensus statement on surgical pathology of the aorta from the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association For European Cardiovascular Pathology: II. Noninflammatory degenerative diseases - nomenclature and diagnostic criteria.
Halushka, Marc K; Angelini, Annalisa; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Basso, Cristina; Batoroeva, Lubov; Bruneval, Patrick; Buja, L Maximilian; Butany, Jagdish; d'Amati, Giulia; Fallon, John T; Gallagher, Patrick J; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Gouveia, Rosa H; Kholova, Ivana; Kelly, Karen L; Leone, Ornella; Litovsky, Silvio H; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Miller, Dylan V; Mitchell, Richard N; Preston, Stephen D; Pucci, Angela; Radio, Stanley J; Rodriguez, E Rene; Sheppard, Mary N; Stone, James R; Suvarna, S Kim; Tan, Carmela D; Thiene, Gaetano; Veinot, John P; van der Wal, Allard C
Surgical aortic specimens are usually examined in Pathology Departments as a result of treatment of aneurysms or dissections. A number of diseases, genetic syndromes (Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, etc.), and vasculopathic aging processes involved in vascular injury can cause both distinct and nonspecific histopathologic changes with degeneration of the media as a common denominator. Terminology for these changes has varied over time leading to confusion and inconsistencies. This consensus document has established a revised, unified nomenclature for the variety of noninflammatory degenerative aortic histopathologies seen in such specimens. Older terms such as cystic medial necrosis and medionecrosis are replaced by more technically accurate terms such as mucoid extracellular matrix accumulation (MEMA), elastic fiber fragmentation and/or loss, and smooth muscle cell nuclei loss. A straightforward system of grading is presented to gauge the extent of medial degeneration and synoptic reporting tables are provided. Herein we present a standardized nomenclature that is accessible to general pathologists and useful for future publications describing these entities. PMID:27031798
Purpose: Learning Chinese is unquestionably very important and popular worldwide with the fast economic growth of China. To most foreigners and also local students, one of the major challenges in learning Chinese is to write Chinese characters in correct stroke sequences that are considered as significant in the Chinese culture. However, due to…
This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...
Guiping Zhao; Maiqing Zheng; Jilan Chen; Jie Wen; Chunmei Wu; Wenjuan Li; Libo Liu; Yuan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML-) by specific ALV-J detection methods, involvi...
Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...
@@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…
Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian
The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...
@@ In the past three decades,the Chinese hotel industry has developed at a rapid pace,with the number of hotels-especially high star hotelsgrowing fast.In Beijing alone,there arc nearly 60 five-star hotels.With the development of the hotel industry.China has also begun to see the number of local hotel professionals,including senior managers,increase.Wen Xiaojie,Deputy General Manager and Owner's Representative of Sofitel Wanda Beijing,is among the most outstanding senior hotel managers.
IT is almost impossible to find a bottle of men's deodorant in most Chinese cities. Chinese men are not renowned as Metrosexuals. But several publishing houses are banking on their ability to turn local men into shopping and sex sophisticates. Publishers of men's magazines have identified Asia as the biggest market of the future, banking on the change in lifestyle and habits of local men.
Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML- by specific ALV-J detection methods, involving serological tests for antigens and antibodies, and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. A total of 59 partial gene sequences were revealed by differential screening of 496 forward and 384 reverse subtracted cDNA clones. Of these, 22 identified genes, including 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated, were related to immune functions, these genes being, MHC B-G antigen, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TPTC, transferrin and ferritin, hemoglobin and Carbonic anhydrase. Four of the down-regulated genes were selected for further analysis, in view of their predicted roles in infection and immunity by real-time qRT-PCR, using RNA collected from the same birds as those used for SSH. The four genes were expressed at significantly lower levels (p < 0.001 in ALV-J infected birds than in non-infected ones.
Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.
This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)
Cui , Longbo
With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...
@@ Although China is better known as the world's manufacturing base,branding and innovation have started to appear more frequently in the ambitious blueprints of an increasing number of Chinese companies.
The Chinese cosmetic industry is presenting an increasing trend recently. However, the local Chinese cosmetic brands are facing tough competition with the foreign brands. Majority of the market share has been dominated by the foreign brands. Faced with this situation, it is extremely necessary for Chinese companies to study the reason behind this phenomenon. This study aims to investigate how female customers in a fast growing market of cosmetic in mainland China perceive and behavior dif...
Yip Pui; Chau Chi; Mak Chun; Kwan Hoi
Abstract As adulterated and substituted Chinese medicinal materials are common in the market, therapeutic effectiveness of such materials cannot be guaranteed. Identification at species-, strain- and locality-levels, therefore, is required for quality assurance/control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to DNA methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. Technical features and examples of the methods based on sequencing, hybridization and polym...
Johnson, Georgia G.
Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)
In the renewable energy (RE) sectors, foreign direct investments are becoming an important mean of regional integration between China and Europe, as a result of the combined effect of Europe–China dialog on energy issues; Chinese energy policy; and Chinese Go Global policy. Using a firm level data set from the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, we perform an analysis on location choice by Chinese RE firms from 2004 to 2013, within Europe. We depict a map of “where to where” (home province vs. host country) and “who to where” (firm level characteristics vs. host country), to find out how characteristics of home and host regions affecting the integration of Chinese and European RE markets. Main results are the following. Investment pairs in RE sectors reflect a duality: firms tend to seek countries with similar institutional environment, compared with their origin regions. Countries with weak and immature institutions are attractive for immature and inexperienced Chinese firms. Main features of Chinese investors are the following: private, non-listed firms, entering through greenfield, focusing on sales. Market-seeking investors tend to enter countries with both well-developed institutional environment and industry development base. R&D-oriented investments are more likely to flow to countries with well-developed institutional environment. -- Highlights: •A map of Where to Where of Chinese investments in Europe is depicted. •Characteristics of home and host regions affect Chinese integration in Europe. •Investment pairs in renewable energy sectors reflect a duality. •Chinese firms localize in EU countries with similar institutional environment. •Through a Who to Where analysis, key features of Chinese investors are outlined
Olsen, Douglas P; Honghong Wang; Pang, Samantha
Nursing research in China is at an early stage of development and little is known about the practices of Chinese nurse researchers. This interview study carried out at a university in central China explores the informed consent practices of Chinese nurse researchers and the cultural considerations of using a western technique. Nine semistructured interviews were conducted in English with assistance and simultaneous translation from a Chinese nurse with research experience. The interviews were analyzed by one western and two Chinese researchers and major themes were identified. All participants endorsed informed consent as ethically required. Differences were noted between some of the informed consent practices typically recommended in the USA and those identified in this study, such as: recruitment using local and government officials, recruiting directly from medical records without special permission, family consultation in consent and consent control, and not revealing randomization to intervention groups receiving different treatments. PMID:20185442
Andres, Hayward P.; Akan, Obasi H.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if "fit" and "non-fit" between authoritarian versus demonstrator teaching and visual versus verbal learning preferences differ in impact on Chinese MBA student academic performance in a large local urban Chinese university setting. In addition, the role of Chinese cultural…
Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.
Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.
In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens
Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun
In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...
Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States and common in southern China. Evaluating American patients treated using a uniform technique and staged with CT scanning, we determined whether Chinese and non-Chinese patients differ in presentation and outcome. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1996, 172 patients treated at Massachusetts General Hospital received primary radiotherapy with curative intent for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-one patients (24%) were of Chinese descent, and 41% of cancers were classified as having lymphoepithelioma histologic features. Most patients received twice-daily radiotherapy and a brachytherapy boost, receiving a median dose of 72 Gy to the nasopharynx. Results: At the initial presentation, the Chinese patients were significantly younger, less likely to smoke, more likely to have Stage IV disease, and more likely to have cancer with lymphoepithelioma histologic features. After controlling for stage, age, histologic type, and treatment variables, Chinese patients were significantly more likely to develop distant metastases (p<0.05). Although Chinese race does not predict for local control or overall survival, a younger age, continued tobacco use, total radiation dose, and lymphoepithelioma histologic features do. Conclusion: In a large retrospective analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Chinese and non-Chinese patients differed significantly in presentation--age, stage, and histologic features--and outcome. We suggest as an explanation differences in intrinsic tumor biology rather than differences in treatment techniques or staging systems. Additional trials in endemic countries are needed to confirm the optimal treatment of Chinese and Chinese-American patients
中国本土五星级酒店是国外游客落宿点之一，其名称英译质量优劣自然影响到英语受众对酒店文化的认知度与可受度。以福建五星级酒店为例，从营销视角下对比分析中、英美酒店命名特点，从而提出本土五星级酒店名称的英译原则与翻译策略。%As the popular lodging place for the foreign guests,the English names of the local ho-tels become the special marketing signs.Taking the five-star hotels in Fujian as the examples,based on the comparison and analysis of the structure of the Chinese,British and American famous chain ho-tels,this article puts forward the translation principle and strategies on the name of Chinese local ho-tel.
A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school
In the contemporary society, localization and globalization are inseparable. For multinational corporations, enhancing the relationship between multinational corporations and host countries can achieve a win-win situation. Through analyze the lo-calization management strategies in the field of menu, slogan,ingredient and public relationship of of KFC and conclude that Chinese culture, the needs, preference of Chinese people, good government relationship is more important to multinational cor-porations.
Agustinus Sufianto; Fillysca; Shally Joncicilia
Since some centuries ago, Indonesia has been one of the destinations for immigrating Chinese. When the Chinese came to Indonesia, they also brought their cultures and customs. Some of them have a cultural cross marriage with local Indonesian and brought their cultures to be introduced to local Indonesian. When the relationship between Chinese and Indonesian became stronger in some fields such as trade, education and politic, some of Chinese cultures has been adapted by local Indonesian or has...
Huang, Joe, Ed.
Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…
@@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.
Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social
Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi
Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…
A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…
Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;
Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...
This article investigates the needs and challenges of a group of Chinese secondary school teachers in their transition to postgraduate studies in the UK in the context of a British-Chinese partnership. The strategies and efforts of the host institution, local community and the Chinese students themselves to help ease the transition and promote a…
Famous Foreign Scholars＇ Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled ＂Orient Culture Faction,＂ thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.
Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.
Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.
The local history resources are important supplements and expansions in history teaching resources. This thesis takes Fuzhou region as an example, which discusses the usage of local history resources to carry out the practice of teaching methods in the Course of Modem and Contemporary Chinese History teaching. First ,blend the local history contents into the classroom teaching; Second, develop monngraphie study of local history learning; Third, make full use of practical activities which involve social surveys and visits to enhance awareness of local history; Fourth, have a good command of modem information technology to enrich the knowledge of local history. At the same time, this essay also explores that some relations between local history of resource development and utilization should be well dealt with.%本文以福州地区为例,论述了在教学中运用地方史资源开展实践教学的方法,一是在课堂教学中融入地方史内容;二是开展研究性的地方史专题学习;三是利用社会调查、参观访问等实践活动加深对地方史的认知;四是运用现代信息技术手段丰富地方史知识.同时探讨了地方史资源开发与利用中应处理好的几个关系.
Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.
LI YuGuo; ZHUANG Zhi; LIU JiaPing
Chinese kangs are an integrated system for cooking, sleeping and heating in rural Northern China with more than 2000 years history. In 2004 there were 67 million Chinese kangs used by 44 million rural families or 174 million people. Chinese kangs store surplus heat from stove during cooking and releases it later for both home heating and localized bed heating. Such a widely used heating system has been rarely studied. Understanding kangs is important for developing new effective home heating systems for better energy efficiency and improving indoor air quality in Northern China. In this paper,we review and present some preliminary results from our field measurement and mathematical modeling, and discuss the development of Chinese kangs as related to future energy consumption in rural homes, and building energy consumption in China in general. We suggest that transition and new technologies for rural home heating in Northern China, i.e. the future of Chinese kangs, should be considered as the top priority in managing future building energy consumption in China.
JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract： Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words： Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet
The demise of collective units that attach citizens to the state in China has been overstated; the hegemonic form of Chinese citizenship today links participation and welfare entitlement to membership in a collective unit in a specific locality. This article presents an ethnographic account of the operation of this “normal” form of local citizenship in resident and villager committees in Tianjin. These committees combine participatory and welfare dimensions of citizenship in one institutional...
Aakala, Liwen Heli
The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...
@@ With the pursuit of enterprise's healthy and rapid development,Hu Huafeng has set a clear strategic goal for his company,making Hengsheng one of the well-known Italian local enterprises and creating a Made-in-Italy Chinese clothing brand.He is now aiming at digging the business value more deeply to achieve full breakthrough as a Chinese in this field.
Currently, the social integration of immigrants constitutes an imperative of the Spanish state as well as a demand of its civil society and of immigrant organisations. While local institutions declare that the Chinese population does not show a particular interest in integrating into this society, in the last few years the Chinese voluntary associations have developed a series of strategies that have brought them closer to the public administrations, producing, in turn, particular discursive ...
Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the process of integration of Chinese immigrants in Serbia. It is based on a pilot study conducted among Chinese traders in Belgrade, and examines the ways in which this highly mobile group of people is becoming incorporated into the Serbian society. The discussion points to a set of opportunities that Serbia as a transition society and a non-immigrant country offers to Chinese traders who have been settling in Belgrade and Serbia since 1996. It explores multiple and various types of emerging social interaction embedded in daily life of both Chinese traders and locals, all of which shape their local integration. It argues that a society such as Serbia provides a space for choice and active management of risks involved in trading migration enabling Chinese traders to create a transnational pathway to incorporation. Although their primary aim is not to ‘settle for good’, but to remain mobile for the better, Chinese traders have established a wide range of contacts with the local population and have created some important inroads into the Serbian society.
The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal
Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.
"Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng
Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.
张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃
Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561
China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...
In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.
2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.
This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...
One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.
@@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.
This study is designed to study Uighur diet culture and Chinese-English translation of its local food names. After deeply analyzing Uighur diet structure, content, pattern and nutrient functions of Uighur local foods, this study concludes several practical strategies based on Chinese-English translation of local food names, including functional equivalence and formal equivalence, domestication and foreignization, borrowing translation, transliteration, free translation and combination of tran...
May-hung CHENG; Ai-ling SOON
The purpose of this study is to find out if Chinese characters can facilitate the understanding of science among Grade Four pupils, or on the contrary, lead to alternative concepts. A questionnaire designed to probe children's understanding of selected Chinese words was sent to three local primary schools. Four hundred and ninety five pupils participated in the study. Results showed that radicals of the Chinese characters related to names of organisms did have an influence on pupils' understa...
This book proposes the catchy phrase of “Chinese ecocinema” as a new critical paradigm to investigate how Chinese films have engaged environmental and ecological issues in the active re-imagination of locale, place, and space. Whereas Socialist China began breaking with traditional Chinese beliefs in a harmonious social and natural order, it was the state-sponsored developmentalism of the post-Mao era that brought about an unprecedented scale of modernisation-cum-destruction. Hence the volume...
Saebi, Tina; Dong, Qinqin
This paper compares the key drivers of Sino-foreign alliance formation from the perspective of both Chinese and Western alliance partners. Our results indicate that Chinese companies enter into alliances with Western companies mainly to get accesses to international markets and to develop their technological and managerial competences further, while Western partners aim to gain access to the local customer and supplier bases of their Chinese counterpart as well as to the complex distribution ...
Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs
GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui
The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O＜1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.
This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...
This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…
The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."
Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349
Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas;
This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... of negative effects on the entire land use system, especially on soil fertility, rice yields and food production....... and lowland paddy rice cultivation. The changes go beyond the immediate competition for land caused by the rubber plantation: a penalty scheme introduced by the rubber company for damage to rubber trees caused by browsing animals has led the villagers to abandon livestock rearing, causing a cascade...
<正>On a sunny day in early summer,about 320 guests including 100from 19 French-speaking African countries gathered in Jinan,Shandong Province for the Second Dialogue between Chinese and African Governors and Mayors.The aim was to explore cooperation between Chinese and African local governments and consider
Bleistein, Tasha Maria
China continues to invite expatriate tertiary-level English language educators to teach. Foreign English language teachers and local Chinese English educators who wish to develop professionally have an ever-increasing body of research regarding Chinese culture, education, professional development, and intercultural communication; however, research…
The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...
Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059
Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing
Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…
In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.
New York Public Library, NY.
This is a selective annotated list of children's books about China and the Chinese. Topics range from dynasties, the era of Western influence, emigration, revolution, to present day affairs. Most of the books have a Chinese setting, but some are about the Chinese in America. Listings are made under categories such as picture books, stories for…
The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…
Ip, Po Keung
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us that......Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...
Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.
@@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.
@@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.
Green, Sandra Aili
Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…
Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the
Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;
In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...
There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.
China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.
<正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in
Various types of pirated Chinese books are given with specific examples. The basic steps followed for the proper identification of these books is described, and remedies suggested in case the original is discovered after the book has been cataloged according to the information given by the book pirate. (13 references) (Author/NH)
Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.
Cheung, WM; Chan, SWY; Wong, WY
BACKGROUND: Foreign language anxiety (FLA)(Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986) has often been reported by Chinese language teachers among ethnic minority (EM) students. Second language performance seems negatively correlated with higher levels of FLA, and FLA is typically highest for speaking. Not only do EM students need to learn Chinese as a second language to enhance Chinese competence and promote social inclusion, local students with Chinese as their native language would also add dimensions t...
Full Text Available King Vajiravudh famously published an essay titled Jews of the Orient in 1914 demonizing the Chinese in Siam as ingrates and parasites. The local Chinese became the “Other Within” in the Thai nation that the king was trying to establish. Whether his reaction to the local Chinese was fueled by ire over the recent strike by the Chinese which paralyzed Bangkok, or a reflection of his English education and exposure to European anti-Semitism, is not the focus of my concern. My interest for this exercise is to study how the Chinese in Siam/Thailand are portrayed in Thai language texts, that is, prose fiction and non-fiction produced in the twentieth century (I will not include related areas such as movies, television drama, music, and cartoons. This study does not involve an exhaustive review of all texts but will focus on a few well-known and popular ones. I would like to know whether King Vajiravudh’s portrayal of the Chinese is reflected in subsequent literary production or muted by other realities that existed in Thai society, and how the production of texts on the local Chinese changed over time. More importantly, I am very curious to know how this issue is played out in neighboring countries, especially the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia, countries where the “assimilation” of the Chinese into the majority culture happens in varying degrees.
目的 观察中药熏洗结合局部上药微波导热方法治疗外阴白色病变的临床疗效.方法 将门诊100例外阴白色病变患者按数字随机表法分为治疗组和对照组,每组50例.治疗组采用中药"去白止痒方"加减熏洗外阴,其后病灶局部涂擦鱼肝油滴剂、维生素E胶囊及氟轻松软膏,再进行微波导热照射治疗;对照组采用局部氟轻松软膏上药加微波导热治疗.两组治疗均1次/d,每10次为1个疗程,完成3个疗程后进行疗效评价.结果 治疗后治疗组总有效率96.0%,对照组总有效率72.0%,两组疗效比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 中药熏洗结合局部上药微波导热治疗外阴白色病变疗效确切、方法简便,值得在基层推广使用.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy on white lesions of the vulva treated with Chinese medicine fumigation and local medicine microwave thermal irradiation. Methods One hundred out-patients of white lesions of the vulva were randomized into a treatment group and a control group,50 cases in each one. In the treatment group,the fumigation was applied locally with qubai zhiyang fang,followed by local application of oleum morrhuae drops,vitamin E capsule and fluocinonide ointment,as well as microwave ther-mal irradiation. In the control group,the local application of fluocinonide ointment and microwave thermal ir-radiation were applied. The treatment was given once a day,10 treatments made one session. The evaluation was done after 3 sessions. Results The total effective rate was 96. 0% in the treatment group and was 72. 0% in the control group after treatment,indicating the significant difference in comparison(P < 0. 01).Conclusion The combined therapy of Chinese medicine fumigation and local medicine microwave thermal irradiation achieves the definite efficacy on white lesions of the vulva. This therapy is simple in application and deserves to be promoted.
Full Text Available Since some centuries ago, Indonesia has been one of the destinations for immigrating Chinese. When the Chinese came to Indonesia, they also brought their cultures and customs. Some of them have a cultural cross marriage with local Indonesian and brought their cultures to be introduced to local Indonesian. When the relationship between Chinese and Indonesian became stronger in some fields such as trade, education and politic, some of Chinese cultures has been adapted by local Indonesian or has been assimilated with local cultures. This adoption process was hindered when the New Order of Soeharto government had banned all Chinese culture, including anything closely related. So, the Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show that also brings Chinese culture couldn't get any supports and its development faces difficulties. The writer using a qualitative methodology interviewed some of Chinese-Javanese puppet show artist and observation of the puppet show performance to make a comparison between Chinese puppet show and Chinese-Javanese blend puppet show in Indonesia. Chinese-Javanese puppet show or usually can be determined as Indonesian potehi puppet Show has some differences from Chinese puppet show. The differences can be found in the making of puppet, puppet profiles, performance way and stories.
Homograph characters exist in every language as well as in Chinese. The Chinese homograph characters are phenomena that often make misunderstood by learners in pronunciation and meaning interpretation. In this thesis with a title “Analisis Homograf Aksara Cina pada Kamus Oxford Concise English – Chinese, Chinese – English” (“Analysis Chinese Homophones characters in Oxford Concise English - Chinese, Chinese - English Dictionary”), focus on Chinese homograph characters from i...
Rai, Laxmisha; Deng, Chunrao
With the frequent interaction between China and the world, glocalisation, the combination of globalisation and localisation, is an unavoidable trend. This paper argues that the association of local situation with global awareness is one of the ways to assimilate English for daily use in Chinese context. The fundamental idea is that the use of…
Chinese Pidgin English is a variety of the English language. It is one product of language contact. It is a blend;in vo-cabulary, pronunciation and grammar, it is simplified and localized. It is one kind of spoken language without formal rules, but it plays an important part in the evolution of language.
There is growing evidence that social interactions at work with local colleagues present a real challenge for Chinese immigrants to Australia (e.g. Tomazin, 2009; Zhou, Windsor, Coyer, & Theobald, 2010), often leaving them feeling defeated and despairing, and the Australians puzzled or affronted. Seeking to understand the nature, origin, and…
Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG
Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].
After being introduced to china, the localization of social work has always been an important issue which gets lots attention. Starting with the angle of social work ethics, together with the problems that social work ethics is facing with, this paper discusses ways by which social work could response to social needs. It puts forward that by the following four approaches, i.e., to reform the ethics of western social work on the basis of absorbing the essence of traditional culture of china, to adjust the relationship between social workers and service objects and promoting the capacity-building between the two sides, to optimize the evaluation mechanism to ensure the quality of professional service, to think highly of the education of social work ethics, etc. The specialization and localization of social work has also been considered in this paper.%社会工作本土化是社会工作引入中国以来一直备受重视的问题。文章选择了社会工作伦理的角度，结合社会工作伦理面临的现实困境，探讨社会工作对社会需求回应的路径，提出通过在吸收中国传统文化的基础上改造西方社会工作伦理、调整社会工作者与服务对象的关系并促进双方能力建设、优化评估机制以确保专业服务的质量和重视社会工作伦理教育等四个方面回应社会需求，对社会工作伦理的专业化和本土化进行了思考。
Participation is an important aspect for the success of public budgeting.At present,China＇s reform of public budgeting is still troubled by a lot of problems,which include the lack of initiatives to reform on the part of local governments,the poor communication of budgetary information,and the low degree of the validity of public participation.The increase of social capital can promote the effect and continuity of the reform.So local governments should play a leading role to realize the unification of efficiency and equity,build social partnership in government,public and social associations,form networks of civic engagement,increase the transparence of public budgeting,and enhance the propaganda and education.%公众参与是参与式预算取得成功的重要方面。目前,我国公共预算改革还存在地方政府改革内生动力不足、预算信息沟通不畅、公民参与有效性不高等问题。增加社会资本有助于增强预算改革的效果和持续性,为此,政府应坚持公共预算效率和公平相统一,积极构建政府和公众、社会组织之间的平等伙伴关系,形成公共预算的公民参与网络和社会对话机制,增加政府公共预算透明度,加大预算改革宣传和教育培训力度。
Chinese Society of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology, Immunological Journal, Current Immunology, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Chinese Journal of
Chinese Socicty of Immunology (CSI) was founded in 1984. It has had over 5000 members, among whom 1000 are members of IUIS. There are six Chinese periodicals associated with the Society: Chinese Journal of Immunology,Immunological Journal,Current Immunology,Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology,Chinese Journal of
Xie, Peiying; Guo, Xi
The prevalence of myopia in Chinese children has been rising each year. Research has shown that orthokeratology is a good method for controlling the progression of myopia. In this article, we review the current prevalence of myopia, the development and management of orthokeratology, and the myopia control methods used in China. A physical and health survey release indicated that the ratio of poor vision in every range of ages is still high in China. During the past 17 years, Chinese doctors have developed a standard fitting procedure and medical management of orthokeratology patients. This article also reviews the clinical studies in China for Ortho-K lenses, such as myopia control, effects and safety, corneal change, and lens design and fitting. Finally, we review the development of the International Academy of Orthokeratology Asia in China. PMID:26704137
China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)
At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).
Dutch-based information provider expands in China to tap new market There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them. "You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,
There are many secrets that foreign companies need to know before starting businesses in China.Wolters Kluwer knows a few of them."You can never expect business success by introducing foreign products or services on an as-is basis in China.We need to provide something special to meet the demands of Chinese customers," said Shasha Chang,Wolters Kluwer China CEO.
Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin
We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...
Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei
We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...
The essays in this volume present contemporary anthropological perspectives on Chinese kinship, its historical complexity and its modern metamorphoses. The collection draws particular attention to the reverberations of larger socio-cultural and politico-economic processes in the formation of sociality, intimate relations, family histories, reproductive strategies and gender relations – and vice-versa. Drawing on a wealth of ethnographic material from the late imperial period and from cont...
Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.
Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864
This article investigates the needs and challenges of a group of Chinese secondary school teachers in their transition to postgraduate studies in the UK in the context of a British-Chinese partnership. The strategies and efforts of the host institution, local community and the Chinese students themselves to help ease the transition and promote a positive student experience are discussed. The article highlights the sociological processes of international postgraduate student transition and con...
Full Text Available La inmunoterapia específica, junto con la evitación del alergeno y el tratamiento sintomático, forma parte del tratamiento de la patología alérgica. La modalidad más antigua, más conocida y mejor estudiada es la inmunoterapia subcutánea (ITSC, cuya eficacia tanto a corto como a largo plazo, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en numerosos estudios. Sin embargo, a pesar de haberse demostrado segura, no está exenta de efectos adversos y precisa ser administrada bajo supervisión de personal médico. Esto ha animado a buscar nuevas vías de administración de eficacia similar, con un buen perfil de seguridad, y de buena cumplimentación por parte del paciente. De las distintas alternativas estudiadas la más relevante es la inmunoterapia sublingual (ITSL. En ésta, se administra el antígeno en forma de gotas debajo de la lengua. Existen diferentes pautas de administración en función del alergeno implicado. La dosis óptima de tratamiento está aún sin determinar, hallándose en este momento en un rango amplio de dosis respecto a la inmunoterapia subcutánea. Su mecanismo de acción es poco conocido aunque en diversos estudios se han observado cambios inmunológicos. La ITSL ha mostrado un buen perfil de seguridad con escasos efectos secundarios, habitualmente de carácter local. Asimismo se han realizado distintos ensayos clínicos en los que se ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de la alergia respiratoria tanto en niños como en adultos. Por ello, aunque aún existen datos sin resolver respecto a esta vía de administración de inmunoterapia, ha sido propuesta por la OMS como una alternativa válida a la ITSC.Specific immunotherapy, together with avoidance of the allergen and symptomatic treatment, forms part of the treatment of allergic pathology. The oldest, best known and most studied form is subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, whose efficacy, both in the short and the long term, has been widely demonstrated in numerous studies
Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin
According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...
Cox, Richard J
Now in paperback! Documenting Localities is the first effort to summarize the past decade of renewed discussion about archival appraisal theory and methodology and to provide a practical guide for the documentation of localities.This book discusses the continuing importance of the locality in American historical research and archival practice, traditional methods archivists have used to document localities, and case studies in documenting localities. These chapters draw on a wide range of writings from archivists, historians, material culture specialists, historic preservationists
马云; 于波; 徐永杰; 吴海港; 梁小娟; 付蕾; 李芬
Using PCR technology, sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis technology to amplify and analyze the mtDNA D-loop region complete sequence of four local cattle varieties,a hybrid cattle variety,five local buffalo species and two local yak breeds. The results showed that Chinese domestic buffalo,yak and cattle breeds had rich mitochondrial genetic diversity. Based on the mtDNA D-loop sequences, the phylogeny of the representative species of buffalo,cattle,yak,wild yak,Bos Taurus,Bos indicus and rivers of India-based buffalo were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships showed that cattle and yaks clustered into one,buffalo alone clustered into one. This means cattle have a close relationship with yaks with a distant relationship with buffalo. China buffalo belong to the swamp type water buffalo, but a small number of rivers type water buffalo gradually mixed into the China buffalo groups. Chinese cattle for the Bos taunts and the Bos indicus mixture of maternal origin; phylogenetic tree showed that the plateau yak has a close relationship with the wild yak,the lake yak has a close relationship with the domestic yak.%利用PCR测序及生物信息学分析技术,对我国5个地方黄牛品种、5个地方水牛品种及2个地方牦牛品种的mtDNA D-loop区全序列进行PCR扩增以及核苷酸多样度、单倍型多样度分析,发现中国地方黄牛、水牛与牦牛具有丰富的遗传多样性.对试验牛mtDNA D-loop区全序列与牛亚科代表性物种黄牛、水牛、家牦牛、野牦牛、欧洲普通牛、印度瘤牛以及摩拉水牛相应序列进行系统发育分析.结果显示:黄牛与牦牛的亲缘关系较近,它们与水牛的亲缘关系较远；中国水牛属于沼泽型水牛,也有少量江河型水牛渐渗入中国水牛群体；中国黄牛为普通牛和瘤牛的混合母系起源；进化树显示高原牦牛与野牦牛的素缘关系较近,环湖牦牛与家牦牛的亲缘关系较近.
Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Shi, Wenbin
In this paper, the long-range cross-correlation of Chinese stock indices is systematically studied. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) appears to be one of the most effective methods in detecting long-range cross-correlation of two non-stationary variables. The Legendre spectrum and the large deviations spectrum are extended to the cross-correlation case, so as to present multifractal structure of stock return and volatility series. It is characterized of the multifractality in Chinese stock markets, partly due to clusters of local detrended covariance with large and small magnitudes.
Wong, Kam-Fai; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhang, Zheng-sheng
This book introduces Chinese language-processing issues and techniques to readers who already have a basic background in natural language processing (NLP). Since the major difference between Chinese and Western languages is at the word level, the book primarily focuses on Chinese morphological analysis and introduces the concept, structure, and interword semantics of Chinese words.The following topics are covered: a general introduction to Chinese NLP; Chinese characters, morphemes, and words and the characteristics of Chinese words that have to be considered in NLP applications; Chinese word
Purpose/Objective: This course will review current indications for postoperative irradiation, present a videotape demonstration of a simulation technique for comprehensive chest wall/nodal irradiation, and discuss multimodality approaches to the difficult problem of locally advanced breast cancer. As part of an expanding role for the radiation oncologist in the treatment of all stages of breast cancer, recent data has inspired a reevaluation of chest wall and nodal irradiation following mastectomy. A decade ago, adjuvant irradiation was considered by many oncologists to be of no survival advantage or perhaps even harmful. Studies leading to this conclusion will be reviewed with special attention to the inadequacies and flawed constructs which biased these studies against adjuvant chest wall/nodal irradiation. The Fischer hypothesis or 'new paradigm' will be challenged. Can improvement in local control result in improved survival? If the goal of treatment is simply to reduce local-regional recurrence, a three-field technique covering the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes may suffice. But if the goal is an improvement in survival based on the treatment of all locoregional sites which may not be sterilized by chemotherapy and mastectomy, a more complex set of fields is required. Based on this premise, we designed a 5-field technique of comprehensive chest wall and nodal irradiation. Simulation of these fields will be demonstrated on videotape. Treatment strategies for both non-inflammatory and inflammatory non-metastatic breast cancer will be presented. Current recommendations include various combinations of chemohormonotherapy, radiation therapy, and mastectomy, but controversies abound regarding the proper sequencing of these modalities, whether breast conservation therapy can be offered to patients who have a dramatic response to systemic therapy, and whether or not any one of these treatment modalities can be dropped under specific clinical scenarios
Purpose/Objective: This course will review current indications for postoperative irradiation, present a videotape demonstration of a simulation technique for comprehensive chest wall/nodal irradiation, and discuss multimodality approaches to the difficult problem of locally advanced breast cancer. As part of an expanding role for the radiation oncologist in the treatment of all stages of breast cancer, recent data has inspired a reevaluation of chest wall and nodal irradiation following mastectomy. A decade ago, adjuvant irradiation was considered by many oncologists to be of no survival advantage or perhaps even harmful. Studies leading to this conclusion will be reviewed with special attention to the inadequacies and flawed constructs which biased these studies against adjuvant chest wall/nodal irradiation. The Fischer hypothesis or 'new paradigm' will be challenged. Can improvement in local control result in improved survival? If the goal of treatment is simply to reduce local-regional recurrence, a three-field technique covering the chest wall and supraclavicular nodes may suffice. But if the goal is an improvement in survival based on the treatment of all locoregional sites which may not be sterilized by chemotherapy and mastectomy, a more complex set of fields is required. Based on this premise, we designed a 5-field technique of comprehensive chest wall and nodal irradiation. Simulation of these fields will be demonstrated on videotape. Treatment strategies for both non-inflammatory and inflammatory non-metastatic breast cancer will be presented. Current recommendations include various combinations of chemohormonotherapy, radiation therapy, and mastectomy, but Controversies abound regarding the proper sequencing of these modalities, whether breast conservation therapy can be offered to patients who have a dramatic response to systemic therapy, and whether or not any one of these treatment modalities can be dropped under specific clinical scenarios
The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...
Li, Jian; Kunming YAO
Chinese dream is a spiritual power to achieve the Great Renaissance of the Chinese nation. In the process of Great Renaissance, we create the great spirit of Chinese nation. With the development of economy prosperity, China has become the second largest economic power in the world. The Chinese nation is undergoing the course of Great Renaissance of Chinese dream. The process of the evolution of Chinese dream is the cultivating process of Chinese spirit of the age. That is the evolution of Chi...
Crinion, Jenny T; Green, David W; Chung, Rita; Ali, Nliufa; Grogan, Alice; Price, Gavin R; Mechelli, Andrea; Price, Cathy J
The aim of this study was to identify regional structural differences in the brains of native speakers of a tonal language (Chinese) compared to nontonal (European) language speakers. Our expectation was that there would be differences in regions implicated in pitch perception and production. We therefore compared structural brain images in three groups of participants: 31 who were native Chinese speakers; 7 who were native English speakers who had learnt Chinese in adulthood; and 21 European multilinguals who did not speak Chinese. The results identified two brain regions in the vicinity of the right anterior temporal lobe and the left insula where speakers of Chinese had significantly greater gray and white matter density compared with those who did not speak Chinese. Importantly, the effects were found in both native Chinese speakers and European subjects who learnt Chinese as a non-native language, illustrating that they were language related and not ethnicity effects. On the basis of prior studies, we suggest that the locations of these gray and white matter changes in speakers of a tonal language are consistent with a role in linking the pitch of words to their meaning. PMID:19530216
Earlier this year, a crackdown on football match-fixing and gambling was launched in China, ending with the arrest of several high-ranking officials with the Chinese Football Association, referees, coaches and senior club executives. How can Chinese football come out from
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi
We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...
<正>Translator’s Note: The cross language year program-the Chinese Language Year in France and the French Language Year in China-initiated by Chinese and French leaders were held in 2011 and 2012 to promote cultural exchanges and further deepen the China-France comprehensive strategic partnership. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the CPAFFC and the
Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan
This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…
to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....
Dombernowsky, Laura Møller
As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...
MARIA JOSE CIFUENTES CERVANTES
@@ The Republic Of Ecuador is located in the west coast of South America.It has a total area of 256.370 km2 and a population of approximately 14 million.Spanish is considered as the official language.The country is subdivided into 24 provinces with the capital city being Quito and the other major city being Guayaquil.Since the year 2000 US Dollar had been the official currency.Approximately 50,000 people from China live now in Ecuador.Although the Chinese community in Ecuador is not as large as those in Brazil and Peru, it has a strong economic and social weight in the country.
In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...
@@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.
The prognosis of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) remains poor. We prospectively investigated the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT at initial staging in this clinical setting and compared PET/CT performance with that of conventional distant work-up. During 60 mo, consecutive patients with LABC (clinical T4 or N2-N3 disease) underwent 18F-FDG PET/ CT. The yield was assessed in the whole group and separately for non-inflammatory and inflammatory cancer. The performance of PET/CT was compared with that of a conventional staging approach including bone scanning, chest radiography, or dedicated CT and abdomino-pelvic sonography or contrast-enhanced CT. 117 patients with inflammatory (n = 35) or non-inflammatory (n = 82) LABC were included. 18F-FDG PET/CT confirmed N3 nodal involvement in stage IIIC patients and revealed unsuspected N3 nodes (infra-clavicular, supraclavicular, or internal mammary) in 32 additional patients. Distant metastases were visualized on PET/CT in 43 patients (46% of patients with inflammatory carcinoma and 33% of those with non-inflammatory LABC). Overall, 18F-FDG PET/CT changed the clinical stage in 61 patients (52%). Unguided conventional imaging detected metastases in only 28 of the 43 patients classified M1 with PET/CT (65%). 18F-FDG PET/CT outperformed conventional imaging for bone metastases, distant lymph nodes, and liver metastases, whereas CT was more sensitive for lung metastases. The accuracy in diagnosing bone lesions was 89.7% for planar bone scanning versus 98.3% for 18F-FDG PET/CT. The accuracy in diagnosing lung metastases was 98.3% for dedicated CT versus 97.4% for 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG PET/CT had the advantage of allowing chest, abdomen and bone to be examined in a single session. Almost all distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were depicted with PET/CT, which also showed additional lesions. (authors)
Analysis of the Cataloguing Methods of the Title Item and Author Item in Old Local Chronicles Bibliography——Taking Union Catalog of Chinese Local Chronicles as an Example%旧志书目书名项与著者项著录方法辨析——以《中国地方志联合目录》为例
Based on the reference of the existing bibliography description rules and methods,this paper discusses more suitable cataloguing methods of the title item and author item in old local chronicles bibliography.%在参考现有的书目著录规则和方法的基础上,探讨更适合旧志书目书名项与著者项的著录方法。
Teaching language is teaching culture. English is an international language with local and global significance.In“New Horizon College English”, Chinese culture elements are deficient, which is not conducive to our country ’s higher education and cross-cultural communication skills and to achieve the goal of innovation of Chinese culture. As an important part of world cul⁃ture, Chinese culture should be integrated into college English education. College English teaching materials should include not only western cultural elements but also fully present Chinese culture elements.
Wang Ge-Li; Anastasios A Tsonis
Complex networks have been studied across many fields of science in recent years. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of networks, then follow the original works by Tsonis et al (2004, 2006) starting with data of the surface temperature from 160 Chinese weather observations to investigate the topology of Chinese climate networks. Results show that the Chinese climate network exhibits a characteristic of regular, almost fully connected networks, which means that most nodes in this case have the same number of links, and so-called super nodes with a very large number of links do not exist there. In other words, though former results show that nodes in the extratropical region provide a property of scale-free networks, they still have other different local fine structures inside. We also detect the community of the Chinese climate network by using a Bayesian technique; the effective number of communities of the Chinese climate network is about four in this network. More importantly, this technique approaches results in divisions which have connections with physics and dynamics; the division into communities may highlight the aspects of the dynamics of climate variability.