Tao Li; Shuaixing Zhuang; Yiwei Wang; Yanli Wang; Weihao Wang; Huihui Zhang; Li Chen; Dunfang Wang; Zhongming Zhou; Weipeng Yang
The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula). In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC), quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC...
Rui Cao; Hong Zhang; Jie Guo; Xiao-hui Liu; Chang Liu; Cui-hong Zhu; Xiong-zhi Wu
Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principl...
Ying Gao; Li-Fu Yao; Yang Zhao; Li-Man Wei; Peng Guo; Meng Yu; Bo Cao; Tan Li; Hong Chen; Zhong-Mei Zou
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG), derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantl...
Liu, Xin-jun; Su, Shi-Bing
Chinese prescription is composed of Chinese herbal medicines according to “seven compatible” and “sovereign, minister, assistant and courier” principles. There are many methods in the research on combination and composition of Chinese herbal medicines. These methods are classified into traditional model and modern model. For the time being, compatibility study of traditional Chinese herbal medicines has developed from traditional model to modern model. The traditional model mainly studies the...
Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG, derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-17 (IL-17, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and hydroxyproline (HYP levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.
Li, Tao; Zhuang, Shuaixing; Wang, Yiwei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Weihao; Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Li; Wang, Dunfang; Zhou, Zhongming; Yang, Weipeng
The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula). In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC), quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC fingerprinting method and 26 common peaks were detected, of which 23 peaks corresponded with the chemical profile of HQT. In addition, 11 major compounds were identified by LC-MS analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer; LC-MS (n) ) and quantified by the HPLC quantitative method approach. The studied 10 batches of HQT were found to be homogeneous in their composition with a similarity between 0.990 and 1.000. The distribution of the 11 identified compounds was found to be very similar among the batches. Only slight pharmacodynamic differences were detected between the different batches, confirming the homogeneity of HQT. The results of this study prove that the combination of chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitative analysis can be readily used for comprehensive quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:27006899
Full Text Available The quality control processes for herbal medicines have been problematic. Flavonoids are the major active components of Huangqin Tang (HQT, a traditional Chinese medicine formula. In this study, we used a combinative method approach consisting of chromatographic fingerprinting (high performance liquid chromatography; HPLC, quantitative methods and a pharmacodynamic evaluation model to analyze the flavonoids of HQT obtained from different sources. Ten batches of HQT were analyzed by the HPLC fingerprinting method and 26 common peaks were detected, of which 23 peaks corresponded with the chemical profile of HQT. In addition, 11 major compounds were identified by LC–MS analysis (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer; LC–MSn and quantified by the HPLC quantitative method approach. The studied 10 batches of HQT were found to be homogeneous in their composition with a similarity between 0.990 and 1.000. The distribution of the 11 identified compounds was found to be very similar among the batches. Only slight pharmacodynamic differences were detected between the different batches, confirming the homogeneity of HQT. The results of this study prove that the combination of chromatographic fingerprinting and quantitative analysis can be readily used for comprehensive quality control of herbal medicines.
Chan, Rose YP; Chien, Wai Tong
Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when comp...
Lu, Caixia; Zhao, Xinjie; Li, Yan; Li, Yanjie; Yuan, Chengkun; Xu, Fang; Meng, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lihui; Xu, Guowang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a most common, heterogeneous, complex endocrinopathy disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of PCOS for many years. However, the mechanism underlying TCM remains obscure and challenging. In this study, 30 PCOS subjects were separated into normoinsulinemic group (NI=13) and hyperinsulinemic group (HI=17), and treated for three menstrual cycles with TCM Formula, Bushen Huatan Formula (BHF). A metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with linear ion trap Orbi-trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbi-trap MS) is used to investigate serum metabolic changes of TCM intervention to PCOS. After BHF intervention for three menstrual cycles, the serum levels of glycerophosphorylethanolamine (GPEA), creatine, creatinine decreased in both NI and HI groups. Furthermore, in NI group, the main manifestation was the changes of phospholipid metabolism. While in HI group, lysine, phenol sulfate, phe-phe etc. decreased, and ornithine, proline, betaine, acetylcholine etc. increased. Combined with clinical biochemical data, BHF was proved effective to PCOS by reducing the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. This study also illustrates that the LC-MS based metabolomic approach is a helpful tool to evaluate curative effect and to understand the mechanisms of TCM. PMID:26730509
Full Text Available Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP, Caesalpinia sappan (CS, Evodia rutaecarpa (ER, Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA, Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH, Tumeric (Tu, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, and Trogopterus Dung (TD effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv. (AS, Tabanus (Ta, and Pollen Typhae (PT, which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle
Sheng, Shujing; Wang, Yonggang; Long, Chaofeng; Su, Weiwei; Rong, Xia
Fufang Xueshuantong (FXST) capsule, a Chinese medicinal formula composed of four herbals – Panax notoginseng, Radix Astragali, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhizae and Radix Scrophulariaceae, has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases for many years, but the pharmacological mechanisms underlying its effects has not been clarified. This study investigates if a connection between FXST and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) might be an explanation for its pharmacological effects. ACE inhibition assay was performed on FXST capsule, 50% ethanol extracts from the four herbals and three selected saponins most abundant in P. notoginseng (Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rb1 and Notoginsenoside R1) using a biochemical test. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of liberated hippuric acid from the ACE assay was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect. As a result, FXST and extracts from P. notoginseng showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibition on ACE activity with the IC50 values of 115 μg/ml and 179 μg/ml, respectively. But extracts from the other three herbals and the three selected saponins had no significant effect on ACE inhibition. Compared to other reported plant extracts, FXST could be considered as an effective ACE inhibitor. The inhibition of ACE activity supports the traditional use of FXST on blood circulation and the inhibitory property of FXST is mainly caused by P. notoginseng. PMID:26019516
He, Yu-su; Sun, Zhi-yi; Zhang, Yan-ling
By using the pharmacophore model of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists as a starting point, the experiment stud- ies the method of traditional Chinese medicine formula design for anti-hypertensive. Pharmacophore models were generated by 3D-QSAR pharmacophore (Hypogen) program of the DS3.5, based on the training set composed of 33 mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The best pharmacophore model consisted of two Hydrogen-bond acceptors, three Hydrophobic and four excluded volumes. Its correlation coefficient of training set and test set, N, and CAI value were 0.9534, 0.6748, 2.878, and 1.119. According to the database screening, 1700 active compounds from 86 source plant were obtained. Because of lacking of available anti-hypertensive medi cation strategy in traditional theory, this article takes advantage of patent retrieval in world traditional medicine patent database, in order to design drug formula. Finally, two formulae was obtained for antihypertensive. PMID:25850277
Jing Li; Xin-lin Wu; Yuling Chen; Zhi Tang; Yue-hong Xu; Jian-min Jiang; Yue-yu Gu
OBJECTIVE:Bao-Xie-Ning (BXN),a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formula composed of Fructus Evodiae,Flos Caryophylli and Cortex Cinnamomi,and used for the treatment of infant diarrheal illness,was subject to systematic assessment for its putative multiple pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacological antidiarrheal mechanisms.METHODS:High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionizationmass spectrometric/mass spectrometry was developed and validated for identification and quantification of the main constituents in different extracts of BXN.Male Kunming mice weighing 20 to 25 g were used for detecting the antidiarrheal activity of the extracts.Ethanolic extract (EE),volatile oil extract (VOE),and aqueous extract (AE) of BXN were respectively subjected to pharmacodynamic and pharmacological comparison in assessing antidiarrheal effects with senna-induced diarrhea,castor oil-induced diarrhea,acetic acid-induced writhing assay,and isolated duodenum test.RESULTS:The highest yields of three detected components of BXN,rutaecarpine,eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were observed in EE.EE showed the most remarkable antidiarrheal activity in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners in both senna-and castor oil-induced diarrhea models,and presented dose-dependent analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced algesthesia model.In addition,EE extract of BXN also exhibited strong antimobility action on the intestine and strongest depression on spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum.CONCLUSION:Ethanol extraction is an efficient method to extract the active constituents of BXN.BXN extract demonstrated multiple pharmacological activities affecting the main mechanisms of diarrhea,which validated BXN's usage in the comprehensive clinical treatment of diarrhea.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicines largely lack adequate and scientifically rigorous evidence regarding efficacy and functional mechanisms. The present study was aimed to confirm the hypoglycemic effect of Tangningtongluo (TNTL formula, a traditional Chinese Miao medicine, in two animal models: high-fat diet and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats and C57BL/KsJ-db/db diabetic mice. After 4 weeks, TNTL intervention in STZ-induced diabetic rats yielded in significant improvement on the glucose tolerance test. Moreover, the islet histopathology showed that oral TNTL reduced the severity of islet necrosis in pancreases tissue. Compared with diabetic controls, a 12-week TNTL treatment regimen (dosages = 0.9, 1.8, and 3.6 g/kg in db/db mice significantly decreased fasting glucose and HbA1c. Additionally, oral glucose tolerance in TNTL-treated mice improved significantly, compared with diabetic mice receiving metformin. Finally, tissue histopathology and biochemical index evaluations revealed significant improvement in TNTL-treated mice. Taken together, our results show that TNTL exerted a strong hypoglycemic effect in two diabetic rodent animal models, preserving β-cells in the pancreas islet and reducing the risk of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy.
Yi Chen; De-yu Fu; Yu Chen; Yan-ming He; Xiao-dong Fu; Yan-qiu Xu; Yi Liu
BACKGROUND:Patients with hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are among the high risk population in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.To reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,it is essential to appropriately control blood pressure together with other cardiovascular risk factors.OBJECTIVE:The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects on blood pressure,blood pressure variability and other cardiovascular risk factors by giving Yiqi Huaju Formula,a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine,in addition to routine treatment to hypertensive patients coupled with MetS.DESIGN,SETTING,PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:A total of 43 patients with hypertension coupled with MetS were recruited into this study.The enrolled patients were randomly divided into the Chinese herbal formula group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus Yiqi Huaju Formula,CHF) and the control group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus placebo).The CHF group enrolled 22 patients while the control group received 21 cases.Treatments were given for 12 weeks in both groups.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Parameters examined include 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring,body mass index,waist circumference,waist-to-hip ratio,homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),fasting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c),fasting plasma glucose,2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG),fasting plasma insulin,serum lipid,etc.RESULTS:Compared with the control group,the CHF group had significant improvement (P＜0.01) in anthropometric parameters,FPG,HOMA-IR,blood pressure amplitude,blood pressure variability and blood pressure load.CONCLUSION:This study showed that integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment can achieve better results in controlling blood pressure as well as other cardiovascular risk factors.The mechanism of controlling of blood pressure may be associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity due to the Yiqi
Full Text Available Abstract Background We demonstrated that a Chinese herbal formula, which we refer to as RCM-101, developed from a traditional Chinese medicine formula, reduced nasal and non-nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR. The present study in primary and cultured cells was undertaken to investigate the effects of RCM-101 on the production/release of inflammatory mediators known to be involved in SAR. Methods Compound 48/80-induced histamine release was studied in rat peritoneal mast cells. Production of leukotriene B4 induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 was studied in porcine neutrophils using an HPLC assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production was studied in murine macrophage (Raw 264.7 cells by immune-enzyme assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was determined in Raw 264.7 cells, using western blotting techniques. Results RCM-101 (1–100 μg/mL produced concentration-dependent inhibition of compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from Raw 264.7 cells. Over the range 1 – 10 μg/mL, it inhibited A23187-induced leukotriene B4 production in porcine neutrophils. In addition, RCM-101 (100 μg/mL inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein but did not affect that of COX-1. Conclusion The findings indicate that RCM-101 inhibits the release and/or synthesis of histamine, leukotriene B4 and prostaglandin E2 in cultured cells. These interactions of RCM-101 with multiple inflammatory mediators are likely to be related to its ability to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as "the world's first killer" of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a "CVDs pathway" consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334
Full Text Available Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ, which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G, berberine (B and jasminoidin (J was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G: 2(B: 0.5(J, and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could
Full Text Available To pursue a systematic approach to discovery of mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, we used microarrays, bioinformatics and the "Connectivity Map" (CMAP to examine TCM-induced changes in gene expression. We demonstrated that this approach can be used to elucidate new molecular targets using a model TCM herbal formula Si-Wu-Tang (SWT which is widely used for women's health. The human breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with 0.1 µM estradiol or 2.56 mg/ml of SWT showed dramatic gene expression changes, while no significant change was detected for ferulic acid, a known bioactive compound of SWT. Pathway analysis using differentially expressed genes related to the treatment effect identified that expression of genes in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 cytoprotective pathway was most significantly affected by SWT, but not by estradiol or ferulic acid. The Nrf2-regulated genes HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, SLC7A11 and NQO1 were upregulated by SWT in a dose-dependent manner, which was validated by real-time RT-PCR. Consistently, treatment with SWT and its four herbal ingredients resulted in an increased antioxidant response element (ARE-luciferase reporter activity in MCF-7 and HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the gene expression profile of differentially expressed genes related to SWT treatment was used to compare with those of 1,309 compounds in the CMAP database. The CMAP profiles of estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells showed an excellent match with SWT treatment, consistent with SWT's widely claimed use for women's diseases and indicating a phytoestrogenic effect. The CMAP profiles of chemopreventive agents withaferin A and resveratrol also showed high similarity to the profiles of SWT. This study identified SWT as an Nrf2 activator and phytoestrogen, suggesting its use as a nontoxic chemopreventive agent, and demonstrated the feasibility of combining microarray gene expression profiling with CMAP mining to discover mechanisms
Full Text Available This study proposed a new strategy for uncovering the active chemical constituents of a traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS. Metabonomics and chemical profile were integrated in combination with the multivariate statistical analysis (MVA to discover the chemical constituents which contribute to the antidepressant effect of CSGS. Based upon the difference between CSGS and QZ (CSGS without Zhi-Qiao extracts in the chemical profiles and the regulations of metabolic disturbances induced by CUMS, synephrine, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were recognized as the active constituents of CSGS from Zhi-qiao responsible for those missing regulations of CSGS when Zhi-Qiao was subtracted from the whole formula. They participated in the regulations of the deviated metabolites 2–4, 10–14, and 22–25, involved in metabolic pathways of ketone bodies synthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, valine, aspartate, glutamate metabolism, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, the assay of MAO-A activity confirmed the potential antidepressant effect of naringin and its active sites on the MAO-A was inferred by molecular docking study. The integration of metabonomics and chemical profile was proved to be a useful strategy for uncovering what the active chemical constituents in TCM formula are and how they make contributions for the efficacy of the formula.
This research was to comb ancient Chinese medicine formulae on diabetic nephropathy by using Chinese Medical Tantras, and analyzing ancient literature. 87 ancient formulae were retrieved, which were recorded begin from the tang dynasty to the republic of China. Pill of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia, Shenqi-pill, Poria Alba Pill and Decoction of Four Drugs were recorded more frequency. However, only a handful of prescription has set up a file in the modern clinical application. It was discovered that two principles could help modem physicians using ancient formulae, that was syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation. But how to guide the clinical application of ancient formulae in modern clinic is still worth further explored.%本研究采用《中华医典》第四版为检索工具,通过检索糖尿病肾病相关古代文献,对其治疗方药进行梳理.共检索到方药87首,方药记载古籍年限起自唐朝止于民国.其中六味地黄丸、加减肾气丸、白茯苓丸、加减四物汤被记载引用较多.然而仅少数方药目前在临床推广应用.初步研究认为,现代医家可根据辨证论治和辨病论治两大原则应用古籍方药,但是如何让古籍方药更好的在现代临床应用仍值得进一步探究.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-Fei-Yu-Chuan-Tang (SFYCT, consisting of 13 medicinal plants, was used to treat patients with lung diseases. This study investigated the immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT on intratracheal lipopolysaccharides- (LPS- challenged acute lung injury (ALI mice. SFYCT attenuated pulmonary edema, macrophages, and neutrophils infiltration in the airways. SFYCT decreased inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 and inhibited nitric oxide (NO production but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of LPS-challenged mice. TNFα and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LPS-challenged mice as well as LPS-stimulated lung epithelial cell and macrophage were decreased by SFYCT treatment. SFYCT treatment also decreased the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB in the lung of mice and macrophage with LPS stimulation. SFYCT treatment dose dependently decreased the LPS-induced NO and reactive oxygen species generation in LPS-stimulated macrophage. In conclusion, SFYCT attenuated lung inflammation during LPS-induced ALI through decreasing inflammatory cytokines production while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines production. The immunoregulatory effect of SFYCT is related to inhibiting NF-κB phosphorylation.
Full Text Available PSORI-CM01 is a Chinese medicine formula prepared from medicinal herbs and used in China for the treatment of psoriasis. However, the chemical constituents in PSORI-CM01 have not been clarified yet. In order to quickly define the chemical profiles and control the quality of PSORI-CM01 preparations, ultra-high liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-LTQ/Orbitrap-MS was applied for simultaneous identification and quantification of multiple constituents. A total of 108 compounds, including organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, MS and MSn data, or by comparing with reference substances and literature data. In addition, an optimized UHPLC-ESI-MS method was established for the quantitative determination of 14 marker compounds in different dosage forms of PSORI-CM01 preparations. The validation of the method, including spike recoveries, linearity, sensitivity (LOQ, precision, and repeatability, was carried out and demonstrated to be satisfied the requirements of quantitative analysis. This is the first report on the comprehensive determination of chemical constituents in PSORI-CM01 preparations by UHPLC-ESI-LTQ/Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The results suggested that the established methods would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituents in complex chemical system and quality control of TCM preparations.
Simultaneous quantification of 50 bioactive compounds of the traditional Chinese medicine formula Gegen-Qinlian decoction using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
Wang, Qi; Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Ji, Shuai; Kuang, Yi; Zhang, Zheng-Xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min
The quality evaluation of patent drugs derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound formulas has been challenging due to their complex chemical composition. In this study, we developed a solution to evaluate the quality of Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD), an ancient four-herb TCM formula for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes, together with its derived patent drugs by simultaneously quantifying 50 bioactive compounds. The samples were extracted by 100% methanol (for hydrophobic compounds) and 50% methanol in water (for hydrophilic compounds), respectively, and were separated on a Waters Acquity charged surface hybrid C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.7μm) eluted with gradients of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 400μL/min. The analytes were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The 50 compounds (including acidic and alkaline, hydrophilic and hydrophobic) were well resolved within 14min, and were determined using an internal standard method. The method was fully validated for precision, repeatability, and recovery. The limits of detection were 0.3-10.0ng/mL. Finally, this method was used to analyze 24 batches of GQD samples, including water decoction, pills, tablets, and oral solutions. Principal component analysis indicated significantly varied chemical compositions among these formulations. The tablets and pills contained higher concentrations of Scutellaria and Coptis compounds than the oral solutions, and the water decoction contained abundant glycosides and saponins. Moreover, the contents of flavanones and flavone O-glucuronides varied remarkably. This study provides a feasible solution for the comprehensive quality control of TCM patent drugs. PMID:27262372
Liu, Jun-Shan; Wei, Xi-Duan; Lu, Zi-Bin; Xie, Pei; Zhou, Hong-Ling; Chen, Yu-Yao; Ma, Jia-Mei; Yu, Lin-Zhong
Liang-Ge-San (LGS) is a classic formula in traditional Chinese medicine, which is widely used to treat acute lung injury (ALI), pharyngitis and amygdalitis in clinic. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered that LGS exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. We found that LGS significantly depressed the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 were also inhibited. Moreover, LGS activated α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor (α7nAchR). The blockage of α7nAchR by selective inhibitor methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α7nAchR siRNA attenuated the inhibitory effects of LGS on IκBα, NF-κB p65, IL-6 and TNF-α. Critically, LGS significantly inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced ALI rats through the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. However, these protective effects could be counteracted by the treatment of MLA. Taken together, we first demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of LGS both in vitro and in vivo through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The study provides a rationale for the clinical application of LGS as an anti-inflammatory agent and supports the critical role of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in inflammation. PMID:27034013
Global identification and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Qi-Fu-Yin by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Li, Meng-Ning; Dong, Xin; Gao, Wen; Liu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Rui; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua
Qi-Fu-Yin (QFY), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is proven to have significant neuroprotective effects by modern pharmacological studies. However, the chemical constituents of QFY have not been fully explored. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) was developed for comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in QFY. By using characteristic ions and fragmentation rules, a reliable identification of 156 compounds was described here, including 69 triterpene saponins, 23 oligosaccharide esters, 22 flavanoids, 9 alkaloids, 9 phenolic acids, 8 phthalides, 7 phenylethanoid glycosides, 3 xanthones, 3 sesquiterpene lactones, 2 ionones and 1 iridoid glycoside. Twenty-six major compounds were then determined in a single run by UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (QQQ MS) with fast positive/negative polarity switching. It allows for the acquisition of MS data in both ionization modes from a single run. The proposed method was then validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The overall recoveries for 26 analytes ranged from 91.35% to 109.58%, with RSDs ranging from 0.82% to 4.83%. In addition, the content of 26 analytes in QFY prepared by five batches of herbal materials was also analyzed. These results demonstrated that our present method was effective and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of QFY. Meanwhile, the study might provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of its therapeutic effects. PMID:26112926
Yuanyuan Hou; Yan Nie; Binfeng Cheng; Jin Tao; Xiaoyao Ma; Min Jiang; Jie Gao; Gang Bai
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ...
Xiao-na Zhang; Ze-jun Ma; Ying Wang; Yu-zhu Li; Bei Sun; Xin Guo; Cong-qing Pan; Li-ming Chen
Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is a serious complication that often leads to amputation or even death with limited effective treatments. Tuo-Li-Xiao-Du-San (TLXDS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula for refractory wounds, has been prescribed for nearly 400 years in China and shows good efficacy in promoting healing. In this study, we explored the effect of TLXDS on healing of diabetic wounds and investigated underlying mechanisms. Four weeks after intravenous injection of st...
2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Identification of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula using HPLC coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap MS from high doses of medicinal materials to equivalent doses of formula: Study on Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules.
Wang, Fengyun; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Xudong
High-resolution mass spectrometry has been a powerful tool for the research of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas. However, the chromatographic peaks were difficult to discriminate clearly in data collection or analysis because of the complexity and the greatly different content of the constituents in TCM formula, which increased the difficulty of identification. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry based strategy focused on the comprehensive identification of TCM formula constituents was developed. Identification was carried out from a high dose of medicinal materials to equivalent dose of formula. Meanwhile, combined with mass spectrometry data, chromatographic behaviors, reference standards and previous reports, the identification of constituents in Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules was described. 169 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, mainly including flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenic acids, triterpene saponins, lactones, sesquiterpenoids and some other compounds. Among them, 11 compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing with reference standards. These results demonstrated that the method was effective and reliable for comprehensive identification of constituents of Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Jia-Jian granules extracts and reveal the material basis of its therapeutic effects. This strategy might propose a research idea for the characterization of multi-constituents in TCM formula. PMID:26935761
Full Text Available Er-Xian decoction (EXD, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have a protective effect against bone loss in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, and the inclusion of icariin (I, curculigoside (C, and berberine (B in EXD displays inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present paper, we investigated the interaction and effects of I, C, B, and their combination on bone resorption activity in vitro on osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells. ICB synergistically decreased the formation of bone resorption pits, the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, and the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and showed antagonistic or additive effects on cathepsin K activity in the coculture system of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells in the presence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone. The combination of ICB also enhanced the inhibitory effects on the formation of F-actin ring, a cytoskeleton structure of osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with macrophage colony stimulation factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. In addition, ICB synergistically improved the ratio of protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts and interfered with the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs pathway in osteoclast. These results clearly show that I, C, B, and their combination in EXD exert effects of mutual reinforcement. However, IBC does not show an intensified adverse effect in the ovariectomized murine model, as revealed by change in body and uterine weight, confirming the safety of EXD. These observations are in agreement with the rationality of the formula used in this paper.
Historians of Chinese medicine acknowledge the plurality of Chinese medicine along both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. Yet, there remains a tendency to think of tradition as being defined by some unchanging features. The Chinese medical body is a case in point. This is assumed to have been formalised by the late Han dynasty around a system of internal organs, conduits, collaterals, and associated body structures. Although criticism was voiced from time to time, this body and the micro/macrocosmic cosmological resonances that underpin it are seen to persist until the present day. I challenge this view by attending to attempts by physicians in China and Japan in the period from the mid 16th to the late 18th century to reimagine this body. Working within the domain of cold damage therapeutics and combining philological scholarship, empirical observations, and new hermeneutic strategies these physicians worked their way towards a new territorial understanding of the body and of medicine as warfare that required an intimate familiarity with the body’s topography. In late imperial China this new view of the body and medicine was gradually re-absorbed into the mainstream. In Japan, however, it led to a break with this orthodoxy that in the Republican era became influential in China once more. I argue that attending further to the innovations of this period from a transnational perspective - commonly portrayed as one of decline - may help to go beyond the modern insistence to frame East Asian medicines as traditional. PMID:26869864
Chen, Yifu; 陈一孚
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a medical system with a unique medical philosophy that continues to guide the contemporary turning out of new pharmaceutical formulae. The clinically-proved effective components of these formulae are being extracted by means of modern technology. Natural Chinese medicines account for approximately 30% of the global sales volume of all medicines, and the international market-size of the TCM industry is increasing rapidly. The TCM industry depends on the p...
Chen, Feng; LI, Hai-Long; Li, Yong-Hui; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Qing
Background The SuoQuan formulae containing Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae has been used to combat the urinary incontinence symptoms including frequency, urgency and nocturia for hundreds of years in China. However, the chemical information was not well characterized. The quality control marker constituent only focused on one single compound in the current Chinese Pharmacopeia. Hence it is prudent to identify and quantify the main constituents in this herbal product. This study aimed to analyze t...
Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae
Full Text Available Abstract This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.
Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349
Linlin Gao; Xiongzhi Wu
The interactions among drugs, tumor and host are critical for a response to therapy and for outcome. Anticancer herbs used in Chinese medicine are classified into 4 groups based on their target (tumor, patient and drug) as follows: eliminating pathogenic factors, strengthening the body resistance, enhancing effects of chemotherapy and detoxication of chemotherapy. Correspondingly, anticancer drugs used in Western medicine can be classified into 4 groups as follows: cytotoxic drugs, biological response modifiers, chemosensitizers and chemoprotectants.Based on the theory 0f Chinese medicinal formulas, prescriptions are composed of four constituents,namely,primary constituent(main component of the formula prescription),minister constituent(second component of formula prescription),adjuvant constituent(adjuvant component of the formula prescription)and messenger constituent(component making the formula prescription targeting pathological tissues).To control the interaction among drugs and to modulate the interaction among the tumor,patient and drugs,we suggest that combined therapy for Western medicine might include 4 constituent,i.e.,primary,cooperative,adjuvant and modulatory constituent.Cytotoxic dru gs frequently are used as primary and cooperative constituents.Whereas biological response modifiers and biochemical modu lators are usu ally regarded respectively as adjuvant drugs and modulatory constituents.We believe these new concepts may be helpful for the aim of appropriately designing.evaluating or providing combination therapy.
Haiyun Wu; Jianwei Bei; Jiao Guo
Prevalence of dislipidemia is increasing rapidly in China and there has been a growing interest in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia both inside and outside China. In this article, lipids regulating effects of 9 herbs or their extracts and 5 herbal formulae which have been published in English-language literature are reviewed. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of these Chinese herbal medicines, few multi-center large-scale clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the efficacy and evaluate their safety.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Yixin Jiedu Formula (YXJDF, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic (BNP in a rat model of heart failure with qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome. Moreover, its therapeutic effects in improving the symptoms were also studied.METHODS: The model of heart failure was established by ligation of left coronary artery in rats. Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, model group, YXJDF group and positive control (sodium fosinopril tablet group. On the second day after the operation, rats in different groups received different treatments. Rats in the YXJDF group were treated with YXJDF (9.33 g/kg; rats in the positive control group received solution of sodium fosinopril tablet (1.2 mg/kg and rats in the model and the control groups were given an equal volume of saline, respectively. Drugs were delivered by intragastric administration for 28 d. Symptoms such as respiratory rate and red-green-blue value of color of the plantar skin were also collected. Then hemodynamic indexes were evaluated and the levels of plasma BNP were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in all groups.RESULTS: After 28 d, rats in the YXJDF group and the positive control group were more active than rats in the model group. Both YXJDF and sodium fosinopril tablet significantly improved the purple degree of the plantar skin and the respiratory rate. Compared with rats in the sham-operated group, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP of the model group decreased significantly (P＜0.05; rats in the YXJDF group and the positive control group showed significant improvement on SBP, DBP and MAP (P＜0.05. In ventricular hemodynamic, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP, maximal rate of left ventricular systolic pressure (LV＋dP/dtmax and maximal rate of left ventricular diastolic blood pressure (LV－dP/dtmax of the model group
Li, Xue-mei; Peng, Jing-hua; Sun, Zhao-lin; Tian, Hua-jie; Duan, Xiao-hua; Liu, Lin; Ma, Xin; Feng, Qin; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang
Aim: Chinese medicine CGA formula consists of polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS), gypenosides and amygdalin, which is derived from Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) capsule for treating liver fibrosis. In this study we attempted to confirm the therapeutic effects of CGA formula in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and to identify the mechanisms of anti-fibrotic actions. Methods: Rats were injected with DMN (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 3 consecutive days per week over a 4-week period. The rats then were orally administered with CGA formula (CS-PS 60 mg·kg−1·d−1, gypenosides 50 mg·kg−1·d−1 and amygdalin 80 mg·kg−1·d−1) daily in the next 2 weeks. CS-PS, gypenosides or amygdalin alone were administered as individual component controls, whereas colchicine and FZHY were used as positive controls. Serum biomarkers were measured. Hepatic injury, collagen deposition and stellate cell activation were examined. The MMP activities, expression of TIMP protein and proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways in liver tissues were assayed. Results: In DMN-treated rats, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and total bilirubin and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, increased serum albumin level, and attenuated liver fibrosis as shown by histological examination. Furthermore, these effects were comparable to those caused by administration of FZHY, and superior to those caused by administration of colchicine or the individual components of CGA formula. Moreover, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased the protein levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR-I), p-TβR-I, p-TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, TIMP1 and TIMP2, as well as MMP2 and MMP9 activities in liver tissues of DMN-treated rats. Conclusion: Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and this effect was likely associated with the down-regulation of MMP2/9 activities, TIMP1/2 protein
930433 A study on relationship between hy-pothyroidism and deficiency of kidney YANG.ZHA Lianglun(查良伦),et al.lnstit Integr TCM& West Med,Shanghai Med Univ,Shanghai,200040.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 1993;13(4):202—204.Thirty—two cases of hypothyroidism causedby various factors were treated for one year withChinese medicinal herbs preparation“Shen Lutablet”(SLT)to warm and reinforce the KidneyYang.34 normal persons were studied as a con-trol group.After treatment with SLT,the clini-cal symptoms of hypothyroidism were markedlyimproved.Average serum concentration of totalT3,T4 increased significantly from 67.06±4.81
George Binh Lenon
Full Text Available Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101, which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations or serotonin (rat preparations. Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells.The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis.
Full Text Available Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD is dedicated to the treatment for Tourette syndrome (TS with the guidance of the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. This study aims to investigate the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT in the striatum and stereotyped behavior of TS mice model by intervention of JPZDD. Mice were induced by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN, 350 mg kg−1 day−1, i.p. for 7 days and divided into 4 groups (n=20, each: control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups with Tiapride (Tia, 50 mg kg−1 day−1 and JPZDD (20 g kg−1 day−1, respectively. The results showed that the scores of stereotyped behavior in IDPN+JPZDD group were significantly reduced. A noticeably increased 11C-β-CFT binding at bilateral striatum was observed after administration of JPZDD versus that of IDPN or Tia. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies manifested higher levels of DAT protein and mRNA in IDPN+JPZDD group. These findings not only demonstrated that JPZDD could effectively inhibit the abnormal behaviors of TS mice model, but also increase the level of DAT in striatum. Therefore, JPZDD could be one of potential treatments of patients with TS.
@@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.
@@ The clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) faces three major challenges:(1)How to enhance its contribution on overall medical service quality? (2) How to best address the unmet medical needs in the contemporary society? (3)How to guarantee that the traditional perspective for disease diagnosis and treatment not be neglected in clinical practice?
@@ Chinese Herbal Medicines, an international journal sponsored by the Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Develop-ment. The Journal s purpose is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, traditional medicines, and natural products.
Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen-induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Shi, Ren-bing; Wang, Yong-yan; Lv, Song-tao
According to the correlative analyses on Chinese medicine essence, dosage forms and quality control level, it expounds the precise concept of Chinese medicine, and its quality advantages and characteristics in this paper, furthermore discusses how to achieve the ideal drugs and Chinese medicine quality precision in expectation. Base on the Chinese medicine essence, using the concept of nature medicine and its drug system to construct Chinese medicine effective material basis and its drugs, with the correlative analyses of whole view and reductionism, the problems of uncertainty quality of original natural medicinal resources and preparations may well be solved, and further with the macroscopic to microcosmic construction of drug system, the precision in expectations of Chinese medicine quality and higher production lever may well be achieved. PMID:26978969
Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu
The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui
Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat or prevent disease. The health care paradigm has shifted from a focus on disease to TCM therapy with a holistic approach. However, the actual value of TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide due to a lack of scientific approaches to its study. Today omics has become practically available, and resembles TCM in many aspects, and can serve as a key driving force for the translation of the traditional Chinese medical formulae (chinmediformulae) into practice, and will develop and advance the concept of the metabolomics of chinmediformulae (chinmedomics). Chinmedomics seeks to elucidate the therapeutic and synergistic properties and metabolism of chinmediformulae and the involved metabolic pathways using modern analytical techniques. It is an integral part of top-down systems biology, which aims to improve understanding of chinmediformulae. This approach of combining chinmedomics with chinmediformulae with modern health care systems may lead to a revolution in TCM therapy. Although the scientific study of chinmedomics is at an early stage and requires further scrutiny and validation, the approach has major implications to improve the efficacy of chinmediformulae. This article introduces and reviews the concept of chinmedomics, and highlights recent examples of the approach, which are presented for description and discussion. PMID:22734809
Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the component parts of the international health care system. It has been an inevitable trend to merge traditional Chinese medicine into systemic medicine. Along with the emergence of the concept of systemic disease, the wide dissemination of evidence-based medicine and the establishment of thought pattern of systemic medicine, the exploration emphasis of modern medical science has been transferred from microcosmic or solid structure to macrocosmic unit a...
2007134 Clinical study on "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. LUO Wenzheng(罗文政), et al. Coll Acupunct & Massage, Guangzhou TCM Univ, Guangzhou 510405. Chin J Integr Trad & West Med 2007;27(3):201-203. Objective To study the clinical effect of "Jin′s three-needling" in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with generalized anxiety were randomly assigned to two groups equally. the medication group treated with anti-anxiety drugs and the acupuncture group with "Jin′s three-needling". The treatment course was 6 weeks. The clinical effects were evaluated with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), clinical global impression (CGI), and treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before treatment and at the end of 2nd, 4th, 6th week of the treatment course. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in platelet, and plasma levels of corticosterone (CS) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) method before and after treatment. Results The clinical effects in the two groups were equivalent, while the adverse reaction found in the acupuncture group was less than that in the medication group (P<0.05). The platelet concentration of 5-HT and plasma ACTH level decreased significantly in both groups after treatment with insignificant difference between the group (P<0.05). The plasma CS level had no obvious change in the two groups after treatment as compared with that before treatment.Conclusion "Jin′s three-needling" shows similar curative effect on generalized anxiety to routine Western medicine but with less adverse reaction, which may be realized through regulating the platelet 5-HT concentration and plasma ACTH level.
Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Tian-Fu Wen
AIM:To evaluate different standard liver volume (SLV) formula and verify the applicability of the formulae for Chinese adults.METHODS:Data from 70 cases of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) performed at our transplantation centers between January 2008 and April 2009 were analyzed.SLV was estimated using our recently reported formula [the Chengdu formula:SLV (mL) = 11.5×body weight (kg) + 334] and other reported formulae used for Chinese adults.Actual intraoperative liver volumes were obtained from a review of the patients' medical records.RESULTS:The actual right liver volume was not signifi-cantly different from the estimated right liver volume determined by the Chengdu formula,but was significantly smaller than estimates using the Heinemann,Urata,Vauthey,and Lee formulae (P<0.01),and significantly larger than estimates using the Fan formula (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:The Chengdu formula was demonstrated to be reliable by its application in LDLT.
Raquel de Luna Antonio
Full Text Available Introduction: Men-Tsee-Khang in Dharamsala, India, formally known as the Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute (TMAI, is dedicated to the teachings and practice of Tibetan medicine, which uses therapeutic agents in multi-ingredient formulas. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to identify formulas used at Men-Tsee-Khang for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and to compare the Tibetan usage of particular ingredients with pharmacological data from the scientific database. Methods: Using ethnographic techniques and methods, five physicians were selected, and the interviews were conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. Results: A correlation was observed between central nervous system disorders and rLung, one of the three humors in Tibetan medicine, and 10 formulas used to treat the imbalance of this particular humor were identified. These formulas utilize 61 ingredients, including salts, animal products and plants. The 48 plant species identified in these formulas are traditionally used in Tibetan medicine and are deposited at the Men-Tsee-Khang Herbarium. Each formula treats several symptoms related to rLung imbalance, so the plants may have therapeutic uses distinct from those of the formulas in which they are included. Data from the scientific literature indicate that all of the formulas include ingredients with neuropsychiatric action and corroborate the therapeutic use of 75,6% of the plants. Conclusion: These findings indicate a level of congruence between the therapeutic uses of particular plant species in Tibetan and Western medicines.
杨柳萌; 王睿睿; 张高红; 张兴杰; 陈纪军; 郑永唐
目的 评价有效部位复方奇士乐(QSL)的体外抗HIV-1药效学.方法 通过合胞体抑制、HIV-1感染细胞保护、HIV-1 p24抗原测定等方法检测急性感染中QSL对HIV-1实验株、临床分离株、耐药株的抑制作用和对慢性感染细胞中病毒复制的影响;通过ELISA方法和荧光法分别检测了QSL体外抑制HIV-1逆转录酶和蛋白酶活性作用.结果 有效部位复方制剂QSL能有效地抑制HIV-1ⅢB诱导淋巴细胞病变、保护HIV-1ⅢB感染MT-4细胞死亡、阻断HIV-1ⅢB慢性感染H9细胞与C8166细胞间融合的作用.QSL对HIV-1实验株HIV-1ⅢB、临床分离株HIV-1KM018、耐药株HIV-174V的病毒复制也有较好的抑制作用.QSL抑制HIV活性的作用机制可能为多靶点,主要是抑制HIV逆转录酶、蛋白酶和病毒进入细胞.结论 QSL是具有较好体外抗HIV-1活性的中药有效部位复方.%Aim To evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activities of Qishile ( QSL) in vitro , a Chinese medicine effective fraction formula. Methods The inhibition of syncytia formation induced by HIV -1 was determined under microscopy. The protection of HIV-1 induced MT-4 cell lytic effects was measured by MTT assay . The level of HIV-1 p24 antigen in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection was assayed by ELISA. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease activites in vitro were tested by ELISA and FRET, respectively. Results QSL markedly inhibited syncytium formation induced by HIV-1 ⅢB , protected HIV-1 ⅢB induced MT-4 cell lytic effects and blocked cell-to-cell fusion. It also showed obviously inhibitory effect on the clinical strain HIV-1KM018 ancl drug resistant strain HIV-174V replication.QSL maybe inhibited HIV-I replication through multiple targets, including reverse transcriptase , protease and virus entry. Conclusion QSL is a Chinese medicine effective fraction formula with potent anti-HIV-1 activities.
The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further eva...
The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries
Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili
Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...
@@ Editorial: AIDS is the archenemy of mankind, it also threatened Chinese people seriously. Although anti-retroviral drugs are effective, yet too expensive, the majority of 600 000 Chinese patients can't afford to purchase and use them. Decades ago, some scientists were trying to use Chinese Medicine in treating AIDS, experienc e gained but problems also exposed concerning strategy of research, methodol ogy, racial difference, Chinese drugs screening, integrative Chinese and western medicine, HIV and immunity, etc., sustained and integrative effort would bring safe, effective, and affordable drugs for the fatal pandemic all over the world
Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang
The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products. PMID:26561737
蔡璐; 蒋秀全; 杨何; 蔡一鸣
[目的]研制出具有止痢，止泻功效的兽用中草药配方制剂。[方法]使用该中草药制剂配方对患畜进行临床疗效试验和药理试验。[结果]疗效试验表明，该配方对家畜腹痛、腹泻及粪便变化有较好疗效，治愈率达92%。药理试验表明，该配方对受试动物的胃肠运动有显著的抑制作用，其药物的止痢，止泻的功效极为显著，且对受试动物是安全的，可靠的。[结论]该配方对治疗仔猪白痢，仔猪黄痢，家畜肠胃炎及消化不良性腹泻有独特的疗效，可用于兽医临床、也可作为饲料添加剂。%This study was aimed to develop the Chinese herbal formula with dysentery arresting and antidiarrheal effect. [Method] The Chinese herbal for-mulation was used to carry out the clinical curative effect test and pharmacological test for il livestock. [Results] Curative effect test showed that the formula had good effect on abdominal pain, diarrhea and fecal changes of livestock, and the cure rate reached up to 92%. Pharmacological experiments showed that the formula had sig-nificant inhibitory effect on the gastrointestinal motility of the tested animals, and the diarrhea arresting and dysentery treating effect of the formula was also extremely significant. In addition, the formula was safe for tested animals, proving to be reli-able. [Conclusion] The formula has distinct curative effect on treating white scour of piglets, yel ow scour of piglets, livestock gastroenteritis and lienteric diarrhea, and it can also be used in veterinary clinic, as wel as be used as feed additive.
Rong Chen; Juan Dong; Xin Cui; Wei Wang; Afshan Yasmeen; Yun Deng; Xiaomao Zeng; Zhuo Tang
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well re...
The 2006 reception conference of the International Education College of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was held April 28 in Beijing, unveiling its overseas students recruitment program this year.
Kumar, D. Suresh; Prasad, P.R. Krishna
Description of a meridian-like channel is available in the Tamil medical text, Akattiyar Nayanaviti – 500, attributed to Akattiyar. Therefore, further studies are essential to trace the interaction between Chinese medicine and the medical practices of southern India.
Jia, Wei; Gao, Wen-yuan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yun-bin; Xue, Jing; Xiao, Pei-gen
The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) transdermal plaster (also known as "cataplasma") are flexible adhesive patches used for treatment of pain, resulted from arthritis, sprain and bruise, tendovaginitis, lumbar spine protrude, neuralgia, hyperosteogeny ache, abdominal discomfort and metastatic cancer, etc. Since the 1980's, investigators in China have used this modern patch delivery system for herbal drugs and obtained satisfactory results especially from the treatment of various types of pain associated with bone diseases, abdominal discomfort, and tumors, etc. The production of TCM cataplasma was successfully scaled up in early 90's and the commercial product line for an antirheumatic agent was first established in Shanghai by Leiyunshang Group. Thus far, a number of products in the form of TCM cataplasma became commercially available in the market, and clinical investigations with these products indicated that topically applicable herbal preparations, especially in the form of cataplasma, are preferred formulations with respect to the treatment comfort of the patient. Compared to the traditional preparations which utilize rubber and rosin as adhesives, cataplasma is advantageous in that the lipophilic and hydrophilic ingredients of the herbal extracts are solubilized and then "gellified" with the organic polymers, and that the drug matrix containing up to 40%-70% of water serves as a "drug reservoir" that will sustain the quick and continuous release of herbal ingredients over several days across the skin. While there are conventional remedies for palliation of pain and discomfort associated with bone diseases or cancers, administration of oral medicinal herbs combined with topical agents such as TCM cataplasma may significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve their quality of life. This article provides a review on three aspects, which include the process development, characteristics and developmental status of TCM cataplasma, and future development of
In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies.
Shiouh-Lirng Chao; Lee-Wen Huang; Hung-Rong Yen
We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF) and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the p...
Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat or prevent disease. The health care paradigm has shifted from a focus on disease to TCM therapy with a holistic approach. However, the actual value of TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide due to a lack of scientific approaches to its study. Today omics has become practically available, and resembles TCM in many aspects, and can serve as a key driving force for the translation of the traditional Chinese med...
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves both biomedical and traditional medical training, which makes well-trained TCM doctors inexpensive health care providers for primary health care. The Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Ministry of Commerce recognised this potential, and in the mid-1990s issued short-term licences for private TCM enterprises. In Dar es Salaam, some of these practices experienced a period of considerable growth, but by the year 2000 a degree of ambivalence if not resentment existed against Chinese medical doctors who were accused of unlawfully using biomedical medication, and the government refused to issue further licences. In addition, some 'doctors' had insufficient training or minimal clinical experience (though I also met some notable exceptions). This article asks why Tanzanian patients turn to the Chinese for medical treatment, and what patients know about Chinese medicine and medication. One of the chief findings is that the Swahili term dawa ya Kichina is vague, which allows patients to transfer their positive experiences with Chinese biomedical doctors during the period of socialist orientation onto the current, entrepreneurial TCM doctors. Dawa ya Kichina is often considered a rapidly effective 'advanced' 'traditional' medicine; its ready-made patent formulas, which make it look 'scientific' and 'modern', are easy to consume; and its entrepreneurial set-up has several advantages over the bureaucratic structures of 'hospital medicine'. Chinese anti-malarials, artesiminin derivatives, reduce malarial fevers within hours, and though, strictly speaking, they are biomedical drugs, they are indeed dawa ya Kichina . Moreover, patients of TCM doctors sometimes experience rapid recovery, mostly due to skilled integration of biomedical and Chinese medical treatment. Further research is recommended to investigate the primary health care potential of such integrated Chinese and biomedical treatment. PMID:26869121
Tang, Yu-Ping; Shu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Wei-Xia; Zhu, Min; Su, Shu-Lan; Qian, Da-Wei; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao
Chinese medicine pair (CMP) was frequently applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinic, and its significance was shown in long-term clinical practices and many accumulated experiences. It is the unique combination of two relatively fixed Chinese medicines in TCM clinic with the basic feature and principle of TCM compatibility, is the most fundamental and the simplest form of TCM formulae with certain theory basis and combinatory reason, which is proven effective. And the unique combination is frequently used for achieving mutual reinforcement or detoxication. CMP is an intermediate point between single herb and many TCM formulae, reflecting the regularity of TCM formulae compatibility and connotation of differential treatment. This paper analyzed and summarized the basic characteristics, development process and research significance of CMP, which aims to lead the modern basic and applied research on compatibility theory of CMP. PMID:24791514
Xutian, Stevenson; Zhang, Jun; Louise, Wozniak
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), originating from oriental philosophy and culture, has been developing through a series of special research and experiments with meditation, accumulation of experiences, and a complete comprehension of ancient theories and methods. However, compared with Conventional Western Medicine (CWM), the theory of TCM is complicated and not easily accepted by Westerners. It is important to explore TCM by using modern scientific techniques and theories. Utilizing his frontier experience and up-to-date scientific knowledge, Dr. Qian Xuesen has been trying to incorporate some key principles with the comprehensive understanding of TCM and clarify difficult but important concepts and principles. Some examples are the existence of invisible matter; 'Qi' and 'Qi monism'; the Heart representing the 'whole will' of human beings; the water environment functioning as a fundamental condition of life; the human body being united with nature and universe as one; the spirit and physical body always being considered unified and connected with the five viscera, especially with the Heart; and the Chinese herbal formula working with different principles than CWM drugs. These works are important for understanding the essence of TCM, the promoting of the modernization of TCM theories by means of the latest of achievements in scientific developments, establishing the direction for future medicines with TCM characteristics, uniting Chinese and Western medicines, and exploiting a bright future for the health of mankind. PMID:19606504
Full Text Available We present ovulation that occurred after the administration of traditional Chinese herbalmedicine for 3 months in a woman with premature ovarian failure (POF and secondaryamenorrhea for 8 years. Traditional Chinese medicine concentrated herbal extracts ofcooked rehmannia, Chinese yam, wolfberry fruit, dogwood fruit, cyathula root, dodder seed,antler glue, tortoise-plastron glue, epimedium and morinda root were prescribed, which werea modification of the herbal formula Zuo-gui-wan. When the patient discontinued theChinese herbal medicine treatment and tried therapy with clomiphene citrate, neither ovulationnor conception occurred. Eight months after beginning clomiphene citrate therapy, theconcentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were still in thepostmenopausal range. The modified formula of Zuo-gui-wan was prescribed again and thepatient conceived 1 month after taking Zuo-gui-wan. Thus, we suggested that Chinese herbalmedicine restored ovarian function effectively and promptly, and offers another option fortreating infertility in patients with POF.
Full Text Available The paper explores some of the issues concerning the transmission of Chinese medicine in Australia, its practitioner training and the future of Chinese medicine as a distinct medical discipline in the Australian context. In China over the last century Chinese medicine was overhauled in order to align it with the biomedical perspective prevalent in the West. These changes, in turn, had important consequences for the transmission of CM in Australia and the West. But while the biomedicalisation of CM has offered the path of least resistance, it has also lead to unworkable simplifications and methodological failures. The paper thus argues for a renewed access to the tradition’s primary sources in order to ally the distinctive features and methods of traditional practice with biomedicine, as an alternative to an outright integration into biomedical practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted.
Complex diseases always involve some strait episode, such as myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis caused by hypertension, microcirculation dysfunction and injury in heart, brain, lever, and intestine following ischemia and reperfusion, endotoxin induced multiorgan injury, and recovery after intestinal mucosa damage, for which intervention by a single medicine remains unsatisfied in clinic.Chinese medicine has been applied in clinic for more than two thousand years, which presents as a healthcare system using compound formula preparation, treatment based on syndrome differentiation and individualization thus has advantage in dealing with strait episode of complex diseases. However, the mechanism underlying Chinese medicine is not fully understood up till now.This report will explain the mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of Chinese medicine in therapy of strait episode of complex diseases based on the resent outcomes in study of aforementioned complex diseases. The speaker, using the theory of blood stasis and activating blood to remove stasis in Chinese medicine, classified microcirculation dysfunction induced by different causes, such as ischemia and reperfusion, stress, LPS, common cold, investigated the pathogenesis and progressing of each of which. Furthermore, the report explored the material basis and mechanism for compound formula of Chinese medicine with potential of tonifying Qi and activating blood, removing heat to cool blood, identified the ingredient in the compound formula responsible for respective effect.(Presented at the 1920th Meeting, June 3, 2016). PMID:27349663
解毒化瘀方对肝硬化轻微型肝性脑病患者生存质量及中医证候的影响%Effect of the Detoxification and Dissipation Blood Stasis Formula on Quality of Life and Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Hepatic Cirrhosis With Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy
姚春; 王萌; 黄国初; 张玉娥; 姚凡; 牛登峰
目的：观察解毒化瘀方对肝硬化轻微型肝性脑病（ MHE）患者生存质量及中医证候的影响。方法80例肝硬化MHE患者，随机分为对照组、解毒化瘀方组，每组40例，2组均给予低蛋白饮食及复合维生素B治疗，其中解毒化瘀方组加用解毒化瘀颗粒，10g／包，冲服，2次／日，7天为1个疗程。分别观察治疗前、后数字连接试验-A（ NCT-A）、脑电图、WHO生存质量评定量表简表（ WHO QOL-BREF）及中医证候积分的变化。结果解毒化瘀方能显著缩短肝硬化MHE病患者NCT-A完成时间，提高患者生存质量，改善其脑电图及中医证候，且疗效优于对照组（P＜0.05）。结论解毒化瘀方具有改善肝硬化MHE患者生存质量及中医证候的作用。%Objective To observe the curative effect of the detoxification and dissipation blood stasis formula on quality of life and syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine in hepatic cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy ( MHE).Methods 80 cases hepatic cirrhosis MHE patients were randomly divided into controlled group , detoxification and dissipation blood stasis formula group .Each group had 40 cases.All groups were given low protein diet and the Vitamin B treatment , which detoxification and dissipation blood stasis formula group were treated with detoxification and dissipation blood stasis particles , 10g/package, p.o, bid.7 days were a course of treatment .At the beginning and the ending the number connection test-A ( NCT-A ) , electroencephalogram , WHO QOL-BREF and syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine were respectively examined and difference were found .Results Detoxification and dissipation blood stasis formula could significantly reduce the time of hepatic cirrhosis with MHE completing NCT-A, improve the quality of life , electroencephalogram and syndrome of Traditional Chinese medicine in cirrhosis patients with MHE .The curative effect rate was higher than the
Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong
Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664
Jong Yeol Kim
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880
Wan, Xia; Liu, Jian-ping
Abstract: Biological, psychological and sociological model of medicine substantializes the old model lacking the social humane attributes. The new medical model makes people take medical anthropology into research and highly evaluate traditional medical system. Cultural anthropology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is part of medical anthropology with three major characteristics: wide research scope, specificity, and integration. It has developed its own research methods, such as field i...
Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines
@@ Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) has been recently included in the Wanfang Database-Digital Periodical Group, China Academic Journals Integrated Online Database, Index of Copernicus (IC) in Poland, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) in USA, and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory domestically and abroad.
Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo
Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of more than 5,000 years and it has the earliest medicine book in the world: Yellow Emperor's Canon: Internal Medicine (Huang Ti Nei Jing), by the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC) (Lin , 1988; Shampo and Kyle, 1989; Wang, 1999). However the combinational and systemic recipes that bring TCM high efficiency also block the promotion of TCM treatment to various diseases, including depression. In this short comment we firstly give some theoretical basis for TCM treatment to depression, then some clinical reports on efficiency; we also present some possible explanations on TCM treatments to depression. PMID:19300379
Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data. PMID:20205772
Current development of rapid high-throughout determination technology for total components of traditional Chinese medicines and formula and synthetic immunity chip method%中药及复方全成分群快速高通量测定技术的现状及免疫芯片综合法
贺福元; 邓凯文; 曾姣丽; 戴儒文; 夏赞韶; 刘文龙; 石继连
中药及复方成分的定性定量分析可分为化学与仪器分析法,其中仪器分析法占主流,主要有HPLC,HPLC-MS,HPLC-NMR,GC,GC-MS,生化及生物效应等方法.因中药及复方成分复杂,化学方法专属性不强,少用或慎用；而仪器分析因其专属性强,适用于复杂体单成分的分析,对于中药及复方多成分,目前已兴起了以指纹图谱为主要手段的分析技术,但这些分析方法均受到“需先分离才能分析”、“缺乏通用的检测器”的限制,难以实现中药及复方全成分的测定.自然界的生物对“异、己”成分是通过“抗原与抗体”决定簇的特异与非特异性进行识别,如将中药成分直接或化学合成抗原,注入到动物体内,产生特异性抗体,先获取诸成分对特异抗体的交叉反应信息,对于没有交叉反应者,依标记抗体抗原特异性竞争反应抑制率曲线直接读出该成分的含量；对于有交叉反应者需建立交叉抑制率矩阵,再进行抗体与中药及复方成分半抗原标记免疫竞争反应,建立成交叉成分浓度或浓度对数与抑制率的多元线性方程,求解获得各成分的浓度,两者结合就能建立起中药及复方成分群免疫芯片综合法.%The qualitative and quantitative analysis on traditional Chinese medicine and formula components can be made by chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Of both,the instrumental analysis methods play a dominant role,including HPLC,HPLC-MS,HPLC-NMR,GC,GC-MS,biochemical and biological effect. But because traditional Chinese medicines and formula have complicated components,chemical methods are so unspecific that they shall be used less or with caution. While instrumental analysis methods are so specific that they are appropriate for analyzing complicated single component. The analysis techniques for multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines and formula focus on fingerprints,but all of these analysis techniques are
1 Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is "the traditional medicine that originated in China,and is characterized by holism and treatment based on pattern identification/syndrome differentiation" (WHO,2007).In China,traditional medicine accounts for around 40％ of all healthcare delivered;in the West,TCM is increasingly adopted by medical practitioners as a form of complementary and altemative medicine (CAM) (WHO,2002).Both in China and in the West,scientists are attempting to bring the ancient heritage of TCM into line with modem standards,through the scientific development of TCM in the direction of evidence-based medicine (Qiu,2007).There is a pressing need for the digital preservation and global access of TCM knowledge assets.
Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Wei
Five flavors are basic nature of Chinese medicine. But the labeling of Chinese medicine flavors was in a chaos. Song Jin and Yuan dynasty is a transconformation stage of labeling Chinese medicine flavors. In this article the author put forward that the determination of Chinese medicine flavor shifted from tasting of early and middle age of Northern Song dynasty to categorical analogizing and functional analogizing in the late age of Northern Song dynasty. The latter method had a flourished development in Southern Song, Jin and Yuan dynasty. This regularity conclusion has provided a reference for the standardizing Chinese medicine flavors. PMID:24946566
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.
Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing
Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977
William CS CHO
Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.
Yuanyuan Hou; Binfeng Cheng; Mengge Zhou; Runping Fang; Min Jiang; Wenbin Hou; Gang Bai
Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ult...
Liu, Rui; Hua, Bao-Jin; Li, Jie
As a characteristic tumor therapy in China, Chinese medicine (CM) plays an important position in comprehensive treatment of tumor. It's a critical issue of objective realization, analysis and evaluation of CM safety for scientific decision-making in tumor safe medication and it also is a pivotal issue which affects the international communication. The safety evaluation of CM includes three phases: pre-clinical safety evaluation, clinical trials (micro-dose studies and traditional clinical trials) and post-marketing CM safety assessment. The key point of evaluation should be distinguished among different stages and various types of CM (such as classic formulas, Chinese herbal extracts, etc). Emphasis should be given to chronic toxicity when evaluating oral Chinese herbal , microdose studies and quality control must be underlined while injection is evaluated and more attention should be pay to the dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship when turned to toxic Chinese medicine , and so as for the toxicity grading study. Moreover, we should constantly improve CM safety assessment method in various stages of tumor treatment, such as introducing the concept of syndrome classification theory, bringing in metabonomics and real-world research method which are similar to the CM therapeutic concept. Most importantly, we must keep its own feature of CM theory when we learn the concept of safety evaluation from abroad. Actively exploring the anti-tumor medicine safety evaluation methods and strategies is of great significance for clinical and experimental research, and it can provide supportability platform to CM's international communication. PMID:24791513
Ai-Ping Lu; Hong-Wei Jia; Cheng Xiao; Qing-Ping Lu
Traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal medicine and acupuncture, as one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), plays the key role in the formation of integrative medicine. Why do not the modern drugs targeting the specificity of diseases produce theoretical effects in clinical observation? Why does not the traditional Chinese medicine targeting the Zheng (syndrome) produce theoretical effects in clinic?There should have some reasons to combine Western medicine with Chinese herbal medicine so as to form the integrative medicine. During the integration, how to clarify the impact of CAM theory on Western medicine has become an emergent topic. This paper focuses on the exploration of the impact of theory of traditional Chinese medicine on the therapy of diseases in Western medicine.
Sven Schröder; Matthias Rostock; Henry Johannes Greten; Thomas Efferth; Janine Radtke; Gesa Meyer-Hamme; Kathrin Beckmann
Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by co...
Full Text Available "nThere are two mutually supportive systems in medical profession: modern medicines and traditional medicine. The current status is that although the modern medicine occupies the major position in healthcare system, the therapeutic effect of traditional medicines should not be omitted. If all of them merged and unified as one, it will be beneficial to the development of human medicine. In this paper, the integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and modern medicine was exemplified to elucidate the mutual complements, mutual benefits of traditional medicines and modern medicine to maintain the unification of human medicine via the development of molecular biology, cytology etc. We believed that TCM theory may share the same mechanism with western medicine at some extent which need to be explored in the future research. In our point of view, although the road may twist and turn, the results are promising.
Bulpitt, Christopher J.; Li, Yan; Bulpitt, Pauline F; Wang, Jiguang
In this article, the therapeutic uses of five Chinese medicines that contain orchids are discussed, together with a brief report of some of the animal experimentation undertaken. The impression that these preparations have no therapeutic use may be incorrect. However, herbal preparations have not usually been subject to the rigorous characterization and standardization necessary for clinical study, and persuading practitioners that substances in use for many centuries still need to be tested ...
Lu, Chuan-li; Qv, Xiao-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Guo
Abstract Syndrome of Chinese medicine is an understanding of the regularity of disease occurrence and development and its performance of symptoms. Syndrome is the key to recognize diseases and the foundation to treat them. However, because of the complexity of the concept and the limitation of present investigations, the research of syndrome is hard to go further. Proteomics has been received extensive attention in the area of medical diagnosis and drug development. In the holistic and system...
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol...
Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan
Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...
Objective: To study Chinese herbal prescription for treatment of eczema on the basis of the suppressive effect of Chinese herbal medicine with type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Methods: Various formulae composed of Chinese herbal medicines possessing suppressive effect on murine allergic contact dermatitis were formed following the therapeutic principles of traditional Chinese medicine in treating eczema, and their effect on ear swelling, ear flake weight, dermal inflammatory infiltration cell count and plasma level of calcitonin gene related peptide ( CGRP) were examined in mice with dinitrofluorobenzene induced dermatitis. The prescription, Composite Poria Decoction was formulated and made into granule form, which was used to treat 63 cases of eczema (atopic dermatitis was excluded), and compared with 59 cases treated with antihistaminic that was aimed at the type I allergic reaction. Results: Experimental study showed that all the 4 Chinese prescriptions had the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction, among them, the formula for cooling blood and removing Heat, Wind and Dampness evil possessed the most potent effect in suppressing murine dermatitis, and it was also able to up-regulate the plasma CGRP concentration. The clinical cure rate of Composite Poria Granule treatment was 47.6%, and that of the control was 22.0%. The difference was significant between the two groups (u=2.9555, P<0.01). Conclusions: Chinese herbal medicine has the effect of anti-type Ⅳ allergic reaction. Composite Poria Granule has good effect in treating eczema.
Full Text Available Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM. Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.
Evidence-based medicine is an authoritative way of evaluating the clinical efficacy of drugs, which provides the direct evidence for clinical medication. The rise of evidence-based medical research brought about the changes in Chinese medicine from the empirical medical era into the era of evidence-based medicine. Chinese medicine, as the experience
Qi, Yao-dong; Gao, Shi-man; Liu, Hai-tao; Li, Xi-wen; Wei, Jian-he; Zhang, Ben-gang; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiao, Pei-gen
The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed. PMID:27141688
<正>Four journals including Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD), Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM), Drugs & Clinic (DC), and Drug Evaluation Research (DER) are edited and published by Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines. CTHD was first published in 1970 and has been playing a great role for Chinese materia medica (CMM), especially in its present modernization. CTHD has successively won several honors in recent years, such as the 2nd State
Yip Pui; Chau Chi; Mak Chun; Kwan Hoi
Abstract As adulterated and substituted Chinese medicinal materials are common in the market, therapeutic effectiveness of such materials cannot be guaranteed. Identification at species-, strain- and locality-levels, therefore, is required for quality assurance/control of Chinese medicine. This review provides an informative introduction to DNA methods for authentication of Chinese medicinal materials. Technical features and examples of the methods based on sequencing, hybridization and polym...
An integrated global chemomics and system biology approach to analyze the mechanisms of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Eriobotrya japonica – Fritillaria usuriensis dropping pills for pulmonary diseases
Tao, Jin; Hou, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaoyao; Dan LIU; Tong, Yongling; Zhou, Hong; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae provide valuable therapeutic strategies. However, the active ingredients and mechanisms of action remain unclear for most of these formulae. Therefore, the identification of complex mechanisms is a major challenge in TCM research. Methods This study used a network pharmacology approach to clarify the anti-inflammatory and cough suppressing mechanisms of the Chinese medicinal preparation Eriobotrya japonica – Fritillaria usuriensis ...
Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng
China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130
In this paper, the authors make an analysis of the historical literature during the Red Army period of the agrarian revolution war, dealing with the situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the Red Army. During that time the Red Army had created revolutionary medical hospitals, gathering herbal medicine, growing herbal plants and producing Chinese medicines. At the same time the Red Army paid great attention to enriching Chinese medicine, cultivating practitioners and treating and prevent...
Development of chromatographic fingerprinting and its related chemometric methods in the research of quality control of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) are discussed. The quality control methods for guarantying the authentication and stability of products and semi-products of TCMs are firstly assessed. The technique based on chromatographic fingerprinting is essentially a kind of high-through put and integral tools to explore the complexity of herbal medicines. In order to further control the comprehensive quality of TCMs,confirmation and identification of their important chemical components are necessary. Some new strategies are proposed to trace the chemical changes of chromatographic fingerprints both in product processing and/or after their administration by modern chromatographic techniques and chemometrics. Combined with systems biology and bioinformatics,it seems possible for one to reveal the working mechanism of TCMs and to further control their intrinsic quality comprehensively.
Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911
Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man
With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created. PMID:21695628
Full Text Available In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang, and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents. The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of
In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID:17965759
Bing Pang; Qiang Zhou; Tian-Yu Zhao; Li-Sha He; Jing Guo; Hong-Dong Chen; Lin-Hua Zhao; Xiao-Lin Tong
The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue. As one of the important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is promising in treating DM. In this review, we summarize new thoughts on treating DM that aim to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM from the perspectives of principle, methods, formula, herbs, and doses. Our approach is as follows: principle: we use a combination of symptoms, syndrome...
Chai, Stella; To, Kenneth KW; Lin, Ge
Multi-drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM) in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studie...
Xu, Qihe; Bauer, Rudolf; Hendry, Bruce M.; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Duez, Pierre; Simmonds, Monique SJ; Witt, Claudia M.; Lu, Aiping; Robinson, Nicola; Guo, De-an; Hylands, Peter J.
Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) ...
Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.
Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Su, Shu-Lan; Liu, Pei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao
Along with progress of modern science and technology, human is utilizing natural resources and their inherent law more effectively and more efficiently according to their own purposes. Chinese medicine pair (CMP) is relatively fixed combination of two TCMs which was proven to be effective in clinical application. CMP has its inner specification, and it is an intermediate point between single herb and many TCM formulae. With the aid of modern science and technology, and by means of choosing appropriate strategies and approaches, the compatibility rules of CMP might be revealed, which will be significant to develop the compatibility theory of TCM formulae and create modern TCM new drugs. PMID:24791518
Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P
Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865
Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun
Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316
Full Text Available More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.
Qiu-Ju Li; Ai-Hua Zhang; Hui Sun; Xi-Jun Wang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many oriental countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. It is a very complex mixture containing hundreds or thousands of different components. Pharmacokinetic study on active constituents in TCM preparations is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of TCM. In the drug discovery phases, pharmacokinetics is a key to guide medicinal chemists in the optimization process of a chemical series and to assist pharmacologists to design in vivo studies. To explore the potentially bioactive components in TCM, it is necessary to further study the in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics of multiple absorbed components and find out the optical time-course behavior to providing more substantial research for new leads in drug discovery. Pharmacokinetics screening method could provide a reliable means of prospecting natural products in the search for new leads in drug discovery. This review summarizes the research progress of PK on TCM in the search for suitable lead compounds in recent years.
Wang Wenkui; Wang Feng; Wang Ling
Although the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed a profound theory system and a fame of outstanding advantage in curative effect, it seems that the TCM is not quite adaptable to the deveiopment and requirement of the modern society. A principle of "Adopting the advanced part of Western medicine to serve the TCM" should be adhered to for the traditional Chinese medicine. First, TCM should strive for a consensus of TCM theory which focuses on the guiding principles of "diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of the illness and the patient's condition" and "the opposite principle of five internal organs". Among these principles, "keeping relative balance of three internal systems"is a valuable guidance of the diagnosis and treatment theory. Secondly, macroscopic should be integrated with microscopic, totality with parts, phenomenology with materialism. A dialectical law should be applied to guide analysis. In treatment,adjustment and balance are basic principles. It is necessary not only prepare the medicine in advance accoding to the predicted disease of the year, but also adopt methods to restrict disease in advance. Basides, TCM dose type should be ameliorated in order to meet the needs of society.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is today practiced worldwide, rivaling biomedicine in terms of its globalization. One of the most common TCM diagnoses is “Liver qi constraint,” which, in turn, is commonly treated by an herbal formula dating back to the 10th century. In everyday TCM practice, biomedical disease categories such as depression or anxiety and popular disease categories such as stress are often conflated with the Chinese medical notion of constraint. Medical anthropologists, mea...
吴大嵘; 赖世隆; 杨显荣
The 2008 Evidence-based Chinese Medicine (EBCM) Workshop,jointly organized by the International Society for Chinese Medicine/Editorial Board of Chinese Medicine(Macao) and the Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine/ Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of
Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; grc540, grc540
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...
Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance. PMID:24170633
Li, Lu; Leung, Ping Chung; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Wang, Chi Chiu
Background. Miscarriage is a very common complication during early pregnancy. So far, clinical therapies have limitation in preventing the early pregnancy loss. Chinese Medicine, regarded as gentle, effective, and safe, has become popular and common as a complementary and alternative treatment for miscarriages. However, the evidence to support its therapeutic efficacy and safety is still very limited. Objectives and Methods. To summarize the clinical application of Chinese Medicine for pregna...
Liu, Qingfei; Luyten, Walter; Pellens, Klaartje; Wang, Yiming; Thevissen, Karin; Liang, Qionglin; Cammue, Bruno; Schoofs, Liliane; Luo, Guoan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From over 100 Chinese clinical trial publications, we retrieved 22 commercial preparations and 17 clinical prescriptions used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating mycotic vaginitis, typically caused by Candida albicans. The 8 most frequently used plants as well as another 7 TCM and 18 folk medicinal plants used in the South of China for antifungal therapy were investigated for in vitro antifungal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of plants, ...
Chen, Jing; Wan, Yigang; Bian, Rongwen; Gu, Liubao; Wang, Chaojun; Zhang, Huilan; Yao, Jian
The pathomechanisms of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN) are considered to be related with glycometabolism disorder, podocyte injury, intra-renal hemodynamics abnormality, fibrogenic cytokines over-expression, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. Chinese herbal medicine could delay the progression of glomerulosclerosis in DN by ameliorating the harmful factors of these pathological changes. Therefore, it is possible to postpone the progress of DN to end-stage renal disease through the treatment with Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:20450059
Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingli; Chang, Jiu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databa...
Kwong, Henry Sim
This case study examines the challenges facing Chinese medicine in UK; the response of Middlesex University as a leader in the provision of Chinese medicine education and training in Europe when in 1997, it added a degree in Chinese medicine into its academic portfolio; and the processes of developing and implementing two substrategic projects which will lay the fOlilldation for Middlesex University to extend its professional education and practice in Chinese medicine. Chinese medicine...
Huarong Xu; Huibin Niu; Bosai He; Chang Cui; Qing Li; Kaishun Bi
The Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of headache. To reveal its material basis, a rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method was established for comprehensive profiling of the chemical ingredients in the Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction. The method was used on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer along with an advanced data processing procedure consisting of mass accuracy screening, mass defect filtering and fra...
Wang, Genfa; Liu, Baojun; Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei
Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, ps...
Hu, Jun; Zhan, Zhi-lai; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-qi; Liu, Yong
High resolution melting (HRM), an important technology for genotyping and mutation scanning, has broad prospects in the authentification of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper selected universal trnH-psbA primers and used HRM to establish a new methods for identification of Akebia herbs. PCR was conduct at the annealing temperature of 58 degrees C and 35 cycles. The range of the DNA template concentration, the primer concentration and the Mg2+ ion concentration were further analyzed. The results showed the Tm values of Caulis Akebiae was (81.84 ± 0.16), (85.28 ± 0.16) degrees C and Caulis Clematidis Armandii was (83.22 ± 0.19) degrees C and Caulis Aristolochiae manshuriensis was (81.67 ± 0.14) degrees C, (84.24 ± 0.10) degrees C with 5-125 mg - L-' DNA template, 0.4 μmol x L(-1) primer, 2.0 mmol x L(-1) Mg2+. This method can achieve the authentification of Akebia herbs and is simple, fast, high-throughput, visual. PMID:26591514
Jie SHI; Yan-li LIU; Yu-xia FANG; Guo-zhu XU; Hai-fen ZHAI; Lin LU
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), and at least 6 are in clinical trials. The general therapeutic principle of Chinese medicine developed was based on its unique theory of "reinforcing healthy Qi and resolving and removing effects of toxicity". Acupuncture, another essential part of TCM, which was developed based on the principle that "functions of the human body are controlled by the 'Jing-Luo' and 'Qi-Xue' system", has been used not only in China, but also in Europe, the USA and other countries, for controlling opiate addiction. There are some advantages in using TCM for opiate detoxification, including less harmful side effects, high safety and ideal effects in the inhibition of protracted withdrawal symptoms and relapse. Co-administration of TCM with modern medicine shows some synergistic effects in detoxification. Many TCM for detoxification also have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal body functions induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory and preventing neurological disorder. Given that TCM is effective in the prevention of relapse and causes fewer side effects, it may be used widely in the treatment of opiate addiction.
@@ dence-based medicine is an authoritative way of evaluating the clinical efficacy of drugs,which provides the direct evidence for clinical medication.The rise of evidence-based medical research brought about the changes in Chinese medicine from the empirical medical era into the era of evidence-based medicine.
Lian-Wei Xu; Man Jia; Roland Salchow; Michael Kentsch; Xue-Jun Cui; Hong-Yong Deng; Zhuo-Jun Sun; Lan Kluwe
This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse ev...
Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai
Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some
Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw he...
Yue Du; Ting-Ting Sun; Ling Hou; Jin-Jie Guo; Xiu-Li Wang; Yu-Bin Wu
Background: This study was to evaluate the relative applicability of the most commonly used estimation formulas for renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of Chinese children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: One hundred CKD patients of less than 17 years old were divided into two groups by sex which was further categorized intofi ve subgroups based on CKD staging according to the "reference" GFR (rGFR) determined by Tc-99m-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Four GFR markers including serum cystatin C (CysC),β2-microglobulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. Results: Among all four markers, CysC best refl ected the extent of glomerular damages for CKD stage 1. The value for estimation of GFR (eGFR) was derived from five different formulas either over-estimated or under-estimated GFR as referenced to rGFR, and the extent of deviations was dependent on gender, age and CKD stage. The Counahan-Barratt formula and the Schwartz formula gave the most accurate estimations of GFR for CKD stages 1 and 2-3, respectively regardless of gender and age differences. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that the Counahan-Barratt formula has the highest diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The Counahan-Barratt formula provides the best approximation to rGFR, thereby the highest applicability to Chinese children with CKD of different genders, ages and CKD stages.
Full Text Available The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM is becoming a major public health issue. As one of the important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is promising in treating DM. In this review, we summarize new thoughts on treating DM that aim to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM from the perspectives of principle, methods, formula, herbs, and doses. Our approach is as follows: principle: we use a combination of symptoms, syndromes, and diseases as a new mode for treating diabetes; methods: emphasizing heat-clearing in the early and middle stage of T2DM and invigorating blood circulation throughout the whole process of T2DM are two innovative methods to treat T2DM; formulas and herbs: choosing formulas and herbs based on the combination of TCM theory and current medicine. We will emphasize four strategies to help doctors choose formulas and herbs, including treatment based on syndrome differentiation, choosing herbs of bitter and sour flavors to counteract sweet flavor, choosing formulas and herbs aimed at main symptoms, and using modern pharmacological achievements in clinical practice; dose: reasonable drug dose plays an important role in the treatment of DM and a close relationship exists between dose and clinical efficacy.
Full Text Available Abstract New multiple categories of health disciplines have become popular in the west and integration between the medicinal approaches has become essential. The hypothesis presented here suggests a novel integrative view that combines Western biochemistry with the Chinese medicinal concept of qi. The core for this hypothesis is that transmission of qi along the meridians is based on informational molecules that travel via an intercellular communication system. Acupuncture at specific points enhances the flow of the signaling molecules through this communication system. Nitric oxide is suggested as a prime candidate for such a signaling molecule in the meridian system. The biochemistry of nitric oxide can shed light on the biology underlying Chinese medicine while Chinese medicinal data can provide a clue to the sought after framework for nitric oxide.
Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin
The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing. PMID:24126973
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. PMID:26645523
It appears that integrating traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine could be of benefit to solve medical problems or improve therapeutic effects.It is concluded that western medicine is more appropriate in treating some diseases which are acute,with a explicit cause,and single-system diseases while traditional Chinese medicine treatment can provide better results in treating some diseases especially which are chronic,without clear cause,and multi-system diseases.It seems possible that this discussion will highlight some diseases which need to be considered seriously to select more effective and reasonable treatments.
This paper discusses the present state of Traditional Chinese Medicine being divided into three leading lines of thought, namely, the Clinical line,the Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine line and the Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine line. It also describes the position of Traditional Chinese Medicine being a medical science rich in philosophy and wisdom and a culture centred upon medical science and technology. It outlines the basic characteristic of Traditional Chinese pointed out various flaws in methodology in Integration of Western and Chinese Medicine research. It also stresses that in order to make fruitful progress in the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine,multi-discipline research in Traditional Chinese Medicine should be made on a thoroughly understanding of the basic methodology of Traditional Chinese Medicine and follow its established principles.
Since the World Health Organization officially promoted traditional medicine in developing countries in 1978, there have been increasing interests among developing countries in integrating traditional medicine into a national health care system. Most of these policies, however, tend to be the policy of coexistence instead of integration. This paper focuses on the rationale, strategies, and process of integrating traditional medicine into a modern health care system by using the experience of Chinese medicine in Taiwan as an example. After briefly describing the changing roles of Chinese medicine in Taiwan, the author critically reviews the government policies and regulations on Chinese medicine. Research findings and government statistics on the demand and supply of Chinese medicine are also described to provide some insights for developing recommendations for an appropriate integration policy. To effectively integrate traditional medicine into a modern health care system, this paper suggests that such integration should begin at the grass roots level, that is with the training of physicians and practitioners. A successful, integrated health care system would facilitate more efficient use of domestic medical resources, and enhance self-sufficiency in health development for resource poor countries. Integrating traditional medicine into a modern health care system, moreover, can benefit industrialized nations as well. After recommending several strategies for integration, the author proposes a further development of a unified medical system as the final stage of full integration. This unified medical system should be an inclusive medical system, which could help countries to expand the available medical resources. PMID:7939847
Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.
Emiel Van Galen; Burt Kroes
@@ Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) , Registration, EU pharmaceutical legislation, Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products, tHMP, quality, safety, efficacy, traditional use, EMEA, European Medicines Agency, European Pharmacopoeia, Herbal Medicinal Products Committee, HMPC, Community Monographs, Commu-nity List.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL. A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p<0.05 in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views.
IT is clear that in order for TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) production to meet world standards and enter the international market, herb plantation in China must be standardized. In late September 2003, the US FDA(Food and Drug Administration)held a seminar on the standardization of TCM development and quality control. It reached the conclusion that as long as the Chinese medicine production process meets GAP (Good Agricultural Practice,meaning standardized herbal material plantation), GLP (Good Laboratory Practice, meaning standardized experimental research)and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice, meaning standardized extraction and preparation technology) standards, TCM products merit certification.
Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%. In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1. There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers. PMID:22394662
Long Cheng; Guo-feng Pan; Xiao-dong Zhang; Jian-lu Wang; Wan-dan Wang; Jian-yong Zhang; Hui Wang; Ri-xin Liang; Xiao-bo Sun
Yindanxinnaotong (YD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been introduced to clinical medicine for more than a decade, while its pharmacological properties are still not to be well addressed. This report aimed to explore the anti-atherosclerosis properties and underlying mechanisms of YD. We initially performed a computational prediction based on a network pharmacology simulation, which clued YD exerted synergistically anti-atherosclerosis properties by vascular endothelium protection, lipid...
Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming
"Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed. PMID:22741452
Sun Shuzhen; Ma Rou; Hu Xiaomei; Yang Xiao-hong; Xu Yong-gang; Wang Hongzhi; Yang Xiu-Peng
We have previously shown that arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula, Qing-Huang powder capsule (containing tetraarsenic tetrasulfide, As4S4), is effective in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); yet the underlined mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using standard cytogenetic analysis (G-banded) and global DNA methylation method (ChIP-on-chip assays), we aimed to determine the effect of arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula on karyotype status and the genomic methyla...
Pang, Jingxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482
Full Text Available Peng Zhao,1,2 Liping Yang,1,2 Jiansheng Li,1,2 Ya Li,1,2 Yange Tian,1,2 Suyun Li2,3 1Key Laboratory of Chinese Internal Medicine, Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Respiratory Disease Diagnosis and Treatment and Chinese Medicine Development of Henan Province, 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF has long been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of COPD. Systems pharmacology identified 145 active compounds and 175 potential targets of BJF in a previous study. Additionally, BJF was previously shown to effectively prevent COPD and its comorbidities, such as ventricular hypertrophy, by inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production, matrix metalloproteinases expression, and other cytokine production, in vivo. However, the system-level mechanism of BJF for the treatment of COPD is still unclear. The aim of this study was to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics together with systems pharmacology datasets. Using molecular function, pathway, and network analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD rats and BJF-treated rats could be mainly attributed to oxidoreductase activity, antioxidant activity, focal adhesion, tight junction, or adherens junction. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of systems pharmacology, transcript, protein, and metabolite datasets is performed. The results showed that a number of genes, proteins, metabolites regulated in BJF-treated rats and potential target proteins of BJF were involved in lipid metabolism, cell junction, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response, which might be the system-level therapeutic mechanism of BJF treatment. Keywords: Bufei Jianpi formula, system-level therapeutic mechanism, transcriptomic, proteomic
Li, Zhiming; Lin, Huinuan; Gu, Long; Gao, Jingwen; Tzeng, Chi-Meng
Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia, and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. There have been an increasing number of studies focusing on its bio-activities, including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and antiaging. The objective of this review is to introduce this herb to the world. Its taxonomy, distribution, and corresponding biological functions and molecular mechanisms are addressed in this review. PMID:26973528
Full Text Available Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs, iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. There have been an increasing number of studies focusing on its bio-activities, including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and antiaging. The objective of this review is to introduce this herb to the world. Its taxonomy, distribution, and corresponding biological functions and molecular mechanisms are addressed in this review.
@@While practitioners of western medicine are the main health care providers in Hong Kong, Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the health care system in Hong Kong. Its popularity of use and its strength in contributing to the health of the community provides the drive for its development. The following summarises the role played by Chinese medicine in the health care system and our strategies in developing Chinese medicine in a western medicine dominant health care system.
Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi
Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514
Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.
Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin
The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases. PMID:27043533
Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba
This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361
Glen E. Randall
Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.
Qingru ZHANG; Guojun JIANG; Shupeng LI; Xiuhui ZHONG
In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine, Zengmiansan (Astragalus immunomodulator), on immune function of chickens, three hundred 1-day-old chickens were assigned randomly into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the Chinese herbal medicine Zengmiansan (ZMS)-treated group, the cyclophosphamide group, the cyclophosphamide plus levamisole group, the cyclophosphamide plus ZMS group and the control group. All chickens were immunized with Lasota vaccine by nose-drip or eye-drop at the age of 6 days. Newcastle Disease (ND) antibody titers, growth indexes of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood, and the apoptosis of splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells were observed at the ages of 14,21, 28 and 35 days, respectively. Our results indicated that the NDV antibody titers of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS-treated group at the ages of 14 and 21 days were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.01). The growth indexes of immune organs, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS- treated group at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 d were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.01). The apoptotic splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells of chickens in the ZMS-treated group were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.01) at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 days.
Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang
Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved. PMID:22242443
Ming Hong; Ning Wang; Hor Yue Tan; Sai-Wah Tsao; Yibin Feng
In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of ne...
MOJTABAVI; Seyed; Javad; 郭长青; 陈幼楠
Pain is the most common symptom in clinics.Therefore,the quality,time course and location of pain are important for the diagnosis and treatment.However,pain is very difficult to define,and it is one of the conditions poorly understood by the medical sciences.In Western medicine pain is often described in terms of a penetrating or tissue-destructive process and/or emotional reactions,but in Chinese medicine the pathogenesis and description of pain are different.It is described based on the theories and pa...
In recent years,the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously,and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large,which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples’ demand for drug,and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries.Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present,we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as follows:the supply and demand lose balance;the production costs hike up;there are other factors responsible for soaring price.This paper further analyses the impact of sharp increase in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials on all links of industry chain as follows:the medicinal herb growers never benefit from soaring price;the counterfeiters and forgers in midstream industry increase;the gross profit rate of Chinese medicine enterprises declines.In accordance with the risk arising from abnormal fluctuation in price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials,corresponding precautionary measures are put forward as follows:promote the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of value chain;curtail the production and management cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of organization chain;stabilize price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of information chain;reduce transaction cost of traditional Chinese medicinal materials through management of logistics chain.
Dong, Han; Ren, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Li-Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Liu, Song-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min
Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese) is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research. PMID:27274755
Full Text Available Hirudo (Shuizhi in Chinese is an important Chinese medicine, which possesses many therapeutic properties for the treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage and other thrombosis-related diseases. The phytochemical investigation gave more than 51 compounds including pteridines, phosphatidylcholines, glycosphingolipids, and sterols, as well as some bioactive peptides from the Shuizhi derived from three animal species recorded in the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The pharmacological studies on the Shuizhi have revealed various activities such as anticoagulation, antithrombosis, antiatherosclerosis, antiplatelet aggregation, antitumor and anti-inflammatory as well as hemorheology improvement, and protective effects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, some important issues based on the traditional uses of Shuizhi are still not clear. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Shuizhi. It will provide a potential guidance in exploring main active compounds of Shuizhi and interpreting the action mechanism for the further research.
Zefeng Wang; Haitong Wan; Jinhui Li; Hong Zhang(Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 Korea); Mei Tian
With the speeding tendency of aging society, human neurological disorders have posed an ever increasing threat to public health care. Human neurological diseases include ischemic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury, which are induced by impairment or specific degeneration of different types of neurons in central nervous system. Currently, there are no more effective treatments against these diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is focused on, ...
Paterson, R. R. M.
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are growing in popularity. However, are they effective? Cordyceps is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as another TCM, Ganoderma. Cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on Lepidopteron insects. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a TCM for centuries. However, the natural fungus has been harvested to the extent that it is an endangered species. The effectiveness has been...
With advances in complex network theory, the thinking and methods regarding complex systems have changed revolutionarily. Network biology and network pharmacology were built by applying network-based approaches in biomedical research. The cardiovascular system may be regarded as a complex network, and cardiovascular diseases may be taken as the damage of structure and function of the cardiovascular network. Although Chinese medicine (CM) is effective in treating cardiovascular diseases, its m...
Li, Longyun; Peng, Rui; Li, Hongli; Wu, Yekuan; Cui, Guanglin
This paper analyzed the development status, industrialization system, standardization system and new variety breeding of seed and seedling of Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the development status and problems facing to the seed and seedling industry in China, some reasonable countermeasures are proposed in this article. The main measures include strengthening new variety breeding, establishing experiment site, protecting new variety and standardizing the market and quality management. PMID:20394305
One batch of Jinsuo pills, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine, treated by standardized irradiation process but failed to meet the sanitation requirement. Radiation resistant microbe was separated from the pills sample and the Gram stain showed positive, the colony of the microbe is milky white and concentric circle shape. It is observed as one of bacillus by microscope, its D10 values in physiological saline and filter paper are 6.75 and 7.18 kGy, respectively. (authors)
Xiong, Xingjiang; WANG, PENGQIAN; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke
Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge...
道教是中国的本土宗教，中医是中华民族的特色医药学。中医从起源到发展和道教一直密不可分。做一个真正的中医医生，需要了解道教对中医的影响。%Taoism was China's indigenous religion .Traditional Chinese medicine was the Chinese nation's characteristic medicine .From its origins to the development of traditional Chinese medicine and Taoism had been inseparable .Traditional Chinese physician did a real need to understand the impact of Taoism on Chinese medicine .
This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals. This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design. A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts. The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training. Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT in myocardial infarction (MI rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.
Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian
The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085
Wietmarschen, H.A. van; Greef, J.V. der; Schroën, Y.; Wang, M.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Rehmannia Six Formula (R6, Chinese name is Liu Wei Di Huang Wan) is one of the most important classic Chinese medicine formula used to treat metabolic disorders related to aging. It was first reported in the Chinese medicine book titled 'Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue by Qi
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an ancient medical system with a unique cultural background. Nowadays, more and more Western countries due to its therapeutic efficacy are accepting it. However, safety and clear pharmacological action mechanisms of TCM are still uncertain. Due to the potential application of TCM in healthcare, it is necessary to construct a scientific evaluation system with TCM characteristics and benchmark the difference from the standard of Western medicine. Model organisms have played an important role in the understanding of basic biological processes. It is easier to be studied in certain research aspects and to obtain the information of other species. Despite the controversy over suitable syndrome animal model under TCM theoretical guide, it is unquestionable that many model organisms should be used in the studies of TCM modernization, which will bring modern scientific standards into mysterious ancient Chinese medicine. In this review, we aim to summarize the utilization of model organisms in the construction of TCM syndrome model and highlight the relevance of modern medicine with TCM syndrome animal model. It will serve as the foundation for further research of model organisms and for its application in TCM syndrome model.
Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chiu, Shin-Lin; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Lan, Shou-Jen
Background In Taiwan, there is a good universal healthcare system to the patients; however, the majority of Taiwanese seek the complementary and alternative medicine when they are injured or ill. The traditional Chinese medicine, which is a branch of complementary alternative medicine, is prevalent in Taiwan. Without proper sequence of maneuvers, either traditional Chinese medicine or conventional medicine might cause unexpected complications. We report a case of 76-year-old woman who was man...
He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan
The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395
Zhou, Qiang; Chang, Bai; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Zhen, Zhong; Zhang, Lan-Lan; Sun, Xin; Zhou, Yuan; Xie, Wan-Qing; Liu, Hong-Fang; Xu, Yuan; Kong, Yi; Zhou, Li-Bo; Lian, Feng-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Lin
Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of xin-ju-xiao-gao-fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58 ± 0.48 and -1.91 ± 0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65 ± 1.04 and -1.58 ± 1.3, respectively (p < 0 .05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects. PMID:25406653
The interaction between drug molecules and target proteins is the basis of pharmacological action.The pharmacodynamic mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease(CKD) was studied by molecular docking and complex network analysis.It was found that the interaction network of components-proteins of Chinese medicinal plants is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of drugs.The action mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants is different from that of drugs.We also found the interaction network of components-proteins of tonifying herbs is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of evil expelling herbs using complex network research approach.It illuminates the ancient classification theory of Chinese medicinal plants.This computational approach could identify the pivotal components of Chinese medicinal plants and their key target proteins rapidly.The results provide data for development of multi-component Chinese medicine.
Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu
The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26281610
Yan, Guang-li; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Ai-hua; Han, Ying; Wang, Ping; Wu, Xiu-hong; Meng, Xiang-cai; Wang, Xi-jun
Serum pharmacochemistry of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is designed to screen the efficacy material base of TCMs from the constituents absorbed into the blood after oral administration. The theory and method is in accordance with the effect characteristics of TCMs, and reflects the interaction between the body and the drugs, has become an effective pathway for researching the efficacy material base of TCMs which has been recognized and used widely. In the paper, the previous research contents and methods of the serum pharmacochemistry of TCM were reviewed, and on the basis of the further validity of the special administration form of the TCM formula and the corresponding property to TCM syndrome, the new strategy of serum pharmacochemistry of TCM integrating the metabonomics technologies was put forward. According to the strategy, we take the biological characters of TCM syndrome as a research starting point, taking TCM formula as object, using the metabolic biomarkers of syndromes or disease to evaluate the therapeutic effect of formula and screen the compounds of TCMs in serum which are highly correlated with the metabolic biomarkers through the correlation analysis, and by further biological validation to finally confirm the efficacy material basis of TCMs. Integrating with the systems biology technologies, the theory and method of serum pharmacochemistry of TCM will further develop, and open a new chapter in the interpretation of the theory of TCM. PMID:26978981
Chan, Kelvin; Zhang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhi-Xiu
The safe use of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice conventionally relies on correct pharmacognostic identification, good agricultural and manufacturing practices based on pharmacopoeia standards and rational/correct CMM combinations with TCM-guided clinical prescribing. These experience-based principles may not absolutely ensure safety without careful toxicological investigations when compared with development of new pharmaceutical drugs. Clinically observed toxicity reports remain as guidance for gathering toxicological evidence, though essential as pharmacovigilance, but are considered as late events for ensuring safety. The overview focuses on the following factors: global development of TCM that has affected conventional healthcare; examples of key toxic substances in CMM; reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consequential to taking CMM and TCM products; and proposals on rational approaches to integrate the knowledge of biomedical science and the principles of TCM practice for detecting early ADRs if both TCM products and orthodox drugs are involved. It is envisaged that good control of the quality and standards of CMM and proprietary Chinese medicines can certainly reduce the incidence of ADRs in TCM practice when these medications are used. PMID:25619530
Liu, Yunfang; Yang, Zhiping; Cheng, Jing; Fan, Daiming
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the unique cultural treasures of Chinese; it represents a significant feature and prominent advantage of the healthcare cause in China. Data in this paper were fromWorld Health Organization, Chinese Bureau of Statistics, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and PubMed. In recent years, TCM has established a solid foundation in Europe, which made great strides in legislation, education, research, and international exchange, and has enjoyed a vast development space in the continent. Now, TCM is embracing unprecedented development opportunities in Europe. At the same time, the stiff international competition poses a grave threat to China's TCM industry. With multiple cultural, legal, and institutional challenges, as well as talent shortages in the way, TCM is now facing many difficulties in Europe. To fully prepare and enact active and vigorous steps to seize opportunities, we should have a clear picture about the serious challenges hampering TCM development in Europe. The TCM development at overseas markets has shifted from a spontaneous trade activity into a national strategy spearheaded by the government and participated in by multiple stakeholders. We should make a systematic, comprehensive, and sustainable push in fields such as TCM therapy, healthcare, education, research, culture, and industry development. The ultimate goal is to bring TCMs to the global market and allow them to play a role in safeguarding public health along with modern medicines. PMID:27465827
Ke-Ying Zhu; Zheng Kang; Yan Chen; Gen-Cheng Wu; Jun Wang
多发性硬化症是一种严重的神经退行性疾病，会给患者及其家属带来难以估量的痛苦及负担，且目前没有可以根治的办法。因此，有必要从不同的医学体系中寻找能够治疗多发性硬化的治疗方法。中医是最为主要的一类传统与替代医学疗法，且在世界范围内长期被广泛用于治疗包括多发性硬化在内的神经系统疾病。本文主要总结了不同中医疗法在多发性硬化动物模型——实验性变态反应性脑脊髓炎模型中的研究现状，包括中药复方，中药提取物如石杉碱甲、毛萼乙素、姜黄素等，以及针灸。这些研究为多发性硬化证的治疗提供了新的思路，同时也有利于进一步阐明中医中医治疗多发性硬化症的疗效机制。%Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease which brings overwhelming sufferings to patients and their families with no radical cure heretofore. Thus, studies of different medicine field and diverse treating methods aiming at the cure for MS should be promoted. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as one of the most important complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has long been applied to treat MS in China and other nervous system diseases worldwide. Our review aims to summarize the findings of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture in the prevention and treatment on animal model of MS, mainly based on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. In this review, experimental research advances of Traditional Chinese medicine in the studies of MS are involved, including Chinese herb decoctions, herb extracts like huperzine A, Eriocalyxin B, Curcumin and also, acupuncture. All of this researches hew out new thoughts towards the treatment of MS and concomitantly, the understanding of the effective mechanism of TCM on MS.
Zhao, Huan; Liu, Jian-qiu; Qu, Kai-yue; Feng, Li; He, Yi
In recent years, the price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials soars continuously, and the resulting price risk increasingly looms large, which has critically affected midstream and downstream industries and peoples' demand for drug, and imperiled healthy and orderly development of traditional Chinese medicinal industries. Based on the status quo of continuous skyrocketing price of traditional Chinese medicinal materials at present, we winkle out the root cause of soaring price as foll...
Wei Ming Q; Liu Gang; Parekh Harendra S
Abstract Although traditional Chinese medicine has benefitted one fifth of the world's population in treating a plethora of diseases, its acceptance as a real therapeutic option by the West is only now emerging. In light of a new wave of recognition being given to traditional Chinese medicine by health professionals and regulatory bodies in the West, an understanding of their molecular basis and highlighting potential future applications of a proven group of traditional Chinese medicine in th...
Xuanbin Wang; Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Fan Cheung; Hor Yue Tan; Sen Zhong; Charlie Li; Seiichi Kobayashi
Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and...
Feng, Zhi-pei; Tao, Qun-shan; Peng, Dai-yin; Wei, Hua
Traditional Chinese medicine industry is China's strategic emerging industry with great potential for self-innovation. Traditional Chinese medicine industry has successively experienced four stages which are the foundation (laying stage), the core status (establishing stage), the modern system (exploring stage), and the modernization system (constructing stage). Throughout the evolution of the self-innovation in traditional Chinese medicine industry, it presents distinct characteristics which we can explore the beneficial enlightenment. PMID:26552191
Full Text Available Identified as a treasure of natural herbal products, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has attracted extensive attention for their moderate treatment effect and lower side effect. Cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD are a leading cause of death. TCM is used in China to prevent and treat CCVD. However, the complexity of TCM poses challenges in understanding the mechanisms of herbs at a systems-level, thus hampering the modernization and globalization of TCM. A novel model, termed traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP analysis platform, which relies on the theory of systems pharmacology and integrates absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T evaluation, target prediction and network/pathway analysis, was proposed to address these problems. Here, we review the development of systems pharmacology, the TCMSP approach and its applications in the investigations of CCVD and compare it with other methods. TCMSP assists in uncovering the mechanisms of action of herbal formulas used in treating CCVD. It can also be applied in ascertaining the different syndrome patterns of coronary artery disease, decoding the multi-scale mechanisms of herbs, and in understanding the mechanisms of herbal synergism.
Full Text Available Oseltamivir (OA, an ethyl ester prodrug of oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, is clinically used as a potent and selective inhibitor of neuraminidase. Chinese medicines have been advocated to combine with conventional drug for avian influenza. The current study aims to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of a Chinese medicine formula, namely, Yin Qiao San and Sang Ju Yin (CMF1, commonly used for anti-influenza in combination with OA in both rat and human, and to reveal the underlined mechanisms. It was found that although Cmax, AUC and urinary recovery of OC, as well as metabolic ratio (AUCOC/AUCOA, were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner following combination use of CMF1 and OA in rat studies (P<0.01, such coadministration in 14 healthy volunteers only resulted in a trend of minor decrease in the related parameters. Further mechanistic studies found that although CMF1 could reduce absorption and metabolism of OA, it appears to enhance viral inhibition of OA (P<0.01. In summary, although there was potential interaction between OA and CMF1 found in rat studies, its clinical impact was expected to be minimal. The coadministration of OA and CMF1 at the clinical recommended dosages is, therefore, considered to be safe.
Liang, Qi; Xie, Ming
Based on traditional Chinese medicine theory and clinical experience, traditional Chinese herbal drug toxicity has its own special connotation. From the perspective of history and logic, the different comprehension of toxicity between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine was discussed after retracing the meaning of "drug toxicity" in traditional Chinese medicine. The authors suggest that it's not feasible to study the Chinese medicine coping mechanically and applying indiscriminately the concept and the research idea about modern drug toxicity since there is different understanding of "drug toxicity" between traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Many control elements are involved in the use of traditional Chinese herbal drugs, and Chinese drug components and actions are complex as compared with Western drugs. More and more drugs with toxicity will be found due to the relativity of drug toxicity. Currently, the study of Chinese drug toxicity should pay more attention to the relation between the toxicity and Chinese drug nature, compatibility and the corresponding disease or syndrome pattern after making definition of Chinese drug toxicity and its connotation. PMID:19216849
Background Recent studies have shown that effective ingredients of Chinese herbs are used more and more widely in the treatment or co-treatment of cancers,however,they are usually used separately and there has been limited research about joint application of Chinese herbs in multi-modal treatment.The aim of this study was to screen a QHF(Q:Qingrejiedu,H:Huoxuehuayu and F:Fuzhengguben)formula for effective ingredients from Chinese medicines and assess its anti-hepatic cell cancer(HCC)effect in combination with chemotherapy.Methods Six effective ingredients from Chinese medicine were selected based on the previous literature and used in the study.The QHF formula and the best ratio of ingredients were evaluated in H22 mouse(KM)models with solid tumors and ascites tumors by uniform design and monitoring inhibition of tumor growth and survival.We then observed the anti-hepatic cell cancer(HCC)effect of QHF when combined with cisplatin(DDP)in H22 mouse(Balb/c)models with solid tumors and ascites tumors.Evaluating of the therapeutic effect included the general condition of the mice,inhibition of tumor growth,survival,changes in body weight,thymus index,spleen index and WBC counts.Results The optimal QHF dose ratio for anti-hepatic cell cancer treatment was:800 mg/kg Cinobufotalin,14 mg/kg Ginsenosides Rg3,5.5 mg/kg PNS and 100 mg/kg Lentinan.Treatment was more efficient in inhibiting the growth of transplanted tumors in H22 mice when using the QHF formula(55.91%)than using Cinobufotalin(33.25%),Ginsenosides Rg3(35.11%),PNS(27.12%)or Lentinan(4.97%)separately.QHF also prolonged the life of H22 ascites hepatic cancer mice more efficiently(38.13%)than Cinobufotalin(25.00%),Ginsenosides Rg3(27.27%),PNS(23.30%) or Lentinan (24.43%).QHF combined with DDP could reduce DDP-induced leucopenia,spleen and thymus atrophy and other toxic reactions.Combining QHF with DDP the tumor growth inhibition reached 82.54% with a 66.83% increase in survival.Conclusions QHF is more efficient in
This review is briefly to recall the history of research and development (R&D) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and to discuss the challenges of Chinese traditional and herbal medicines (CTHM) facing the modern science and technology. The R&D of CTHM is thought to be an important pathway for new drug discovery. Since1949, about 140 approved new drugs have been developed, among which about 80 originated directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. CTHM has gained interest from the international medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical institutions as a valuable source of potential medicines. For the modernization of CMM and innovative research of CTHM, there are following challenges to be faced: (1) to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacological properties, action mechanism, and active chemical constituents; (2) to develop new methodologies for the quality and safety of CTHM; (3) to apply new "-omics" techniques to accelerate drug discoveries developed from CTHM; and (4) to apply international practices including good agricultural practice, good manufacturing practice, good laboratory practice, and good clinical practice in the R&D of CTHM.
Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu
The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented. PMID:26978975
Full Text Available Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR of cancer cells severely limits therapeutic outcomes. A proposed mechanism for MDR involves the efflux of anti-cancer drugs from cancer cells, primarily mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC membrane transporters including P-glycoprotein. This article reviews the recent progress of using active ingredients, extracts and formulae from Chinese medicine (CM in circumventing ABC transporters-mediated MDR. Among the ABC transporters, Pgp is the most extensively studied for its role in MDR reversal effects. While other MDR reversal mechanisms remain unclear, Pgp inhibition is a criterion for further mechanistic study. More mechanistic studies are needed to fully establish the pharmacological effects of potential MDR reversing agents.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.
Hu, Yongchuan; Tian, Xiaoxin; Liu, Lei; Hu, Shilin
This review addresses the latest situations and advances of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in which detection of counterfeits and imitations, as well as monitoring origin and quality of Chinese crude drugs and Chinese patent medicines (CCDM) through consultation and summarization of relative literatures. On the one hand, NIRS gradually reveals its advantages and discriminating ability in the ways of nondestructive, rapid, simple, easy, and handy assessment. However NIRS still has some problems in representative samples and models stability for practice of CCDM. In order to keep up with popularization of NIRS in other areas, applications in detection of precious and/or priceless herbals, on-line quality control of valuable herbs, and screening of some chemicals illegally mixed into herbal preparations may be focused preferentially. PMID:22779351
Tian, Li-li; Zhu, Guo-fu
The zebra fish model, as an integral animal model, features small volume, high throughput, low cost, short cycle and reliable experimental results, thus has been widely used in medical studies. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) constitute a complex system, their active ingredients and action mechanisms are among study hotspots in during the development of modern TCMs. Along with the constant improvement of advanced technologies and methods, zebra fishes have been increasingly applied in studies on TCMs and shown advantages in active screening, and toxicity and metabolism studies. In this paper, TCM studies by using zebra fishes in recent years are summarized to provide new ideas and methods for basic studies on TCMs. PMID:26087540
Full Text Available “Small Sample Size” (SSS problem would occur while using linear discriminant analysis (LDA algorithm with traditional Fisher criterion if the within-class scatter matrix is singular. The combination of maximum scatter difference (MSD criterion and LDA algorithm for solve SSS problem is described. It is employed to detect three kinds of Chinese herbal medicines from different growing areas by machine olfaction. Compared with PCA or PCA + LDA algorithm, the classification result was enhanced. It works out that only a few samples of Anhui Atractylodes are classified incorrectly, however, the classification rate reaches 97.8%.
Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling
The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described. PMID:25112106
Lai, Xiao-xiao; Lin, Hua; Luo, Yi-ni; Wang, Ying-yan; Duan, Xiao-hong; Wang, Lin; Luo, Rui; Chen, Yan-hong
In China, many surveys have shown that most people do not have a correct understanding about cold and administration of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations. The author conducted a systematic summary and analysis on the actual application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations as well as the warning on safe application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations in Clinical Medication Information of China Pharmacopoeia, in the expectation of reducing the blind application of anti-cold Chinese patent medicine preparations and providing traditional Chinese medicine pharmacists new ideas in monitoring the safe application of exterior syndrome-relieving Chinese patent medicine preparations. PMID:26281605
Brief Introduction to Xiyuan Hospital Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was founded in 1955.It is a large comprehensive hospital directly attached to the Chinese Ministry of Health and State Administration of TOM. This hospital governs First Clinical Medical Institute, Gerontology Institute and Clinical Pharmacological Institute of China Academy of TOM, and Clinical Pharmacological Base of the Health Ministry. It is a component of WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine. It also administers the Agency of Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, the Society of Clinical Pharmacology of Chinese Drugs of China TOM Association, the Professional Committee of Hematology and Activating Blood-circulation and Removing Blood Stasis of Chinese Society of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine.
Smith Caroline A
Full Text Available Abstract Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Seventy four (74 out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n = 17, Chinese herbal medicine (n = 11, Taichi (n = 10, acupressure (n = 6, moxibustion (n = 2, Chinese dietary therapy (n = 1, Chinese massage (n = 1, cupping (n = 1 and other Chinese medicine modalities (n = 19. This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.
Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Ma, Rong; Xian, Shao-Xiang; Liu, Jian; Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Bin
The regulations on basic clinical use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, issued jointly in 2008, by the ministry of health (MOH), China food and drug administration (SFDA) and the state administration of traditional Chinese medicine (SATCM). Integrating actual clinical practice, these presented doctors and nurses with detailed specifications for the safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine. The regulations emphasize the use of Chinese medicine pattern differentiation, use in strict accordance with instructions, and they prohibit use combined with other medicines. The emphasis of the regulations are practicality and operability, and provide meaningful guidance to doctors and nurses for the rational and safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, to reduce adverse reactions/adverse events caused by improper use. PMID:24471306
Liu, Chang-Xiao; Si, Duan-Yun; Xiao, Xue-Feng; He, Xin; Li, Ya-Zhuo
Over the past few years, nanoscale Chinese medicine has become one of focuses in modern Chinese medicine research. There is an increasing need for a more systematic study on the basic issues involved in traditional Chinese medicine and a more active participation of researchers in the application area of nanoscale traditional Chinese drugs. In this review, author analyzed the current applications of nanotechnology in research and development of drugs from natural products and herbal medicines involving traditional Chinese medicines, and also discussed the bio-medicinal evaluation issues on ADME including bio-distribution and metabolism of nanodrugs. Author noted that great challenges faced in nanodrugs from herb drugs and natural products are the follows: (1) the first challenge is to prepare nanodrug delivery system and quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety; (2) the second challenge is to clarify the concrete metabolism course; and (3) the third challenge is to study the pharmacokinetics of nanodrugs. PMID:22475334
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of great advances in target-oriented Western medicine for treating myocardial infarction (MI, it is still a leading cause of death in a worldwide epidemic. In contrast to Western medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM uses a holistic and synergistic approach to restore the balance of Yin-Yang of body energy so the body's normal function can be restored. Sini decoction (SND is a well-known formula of TCM which has been used to treat MI for many years. However, its holistic activity evaluation and mechanistic understanding are still lacking due to its complex components. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A urinary metabonomic method based on nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed to characterize MI-related metabolic profiles and delineate the effect of SND on MI. With Elastic Net for classification and selection of biomarkers, nineteen potential biomarkers in rat urine were screened out, primarily related to myocardial energy metabolism, including the glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. With the altered metabolism pathways as possible drug targets, we systematically analyze the therapeutic effect of SND, which demonstrated that SND administration could provide satisfactory effect on MI through partially regulating the perturbed myocardial energy metabolism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that metabonomic approach offers a useful tool to identify MI-related biomarkers and provides a new methodological cue for systematically dissecting the underlying efficacies and mechanisms of TCM in treating MI.
王融冰; 刘军民; 江宇泳; 吴云忠; 王晓静; 池频频; 孙凤霞; 高连印
Objective: To improve the effects of treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to explore the clinical significance of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine (ICWM) in the treatment of SARS and its influence on the chief indexes in the process of the disease. Methods: The clinical study involving observation of 135 patients of SARS was conducted in the randomized, synchronously controlled and open way. The patients were divided into two groups, 68 in the ICWM group and 67 in the control group, all of whom were treated with the same basic treatment of western medicine, but to the ICWM group, Chinese drugs for clearing Heat, detoxifying and removing Dampness were given additionally. The comprehensive effect on relieving fever, cell-mediated immunity, pulmonary inflammation and secondary infection was compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic effect in the ICWM group was better than that in the control group in such aspects as steadily lowering body temperature, alleviating general symptoms, accelerating the absorption of pulmonary infiltration and easing cellular immunity suppression. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of ICWM is better in treating SARS than that of western medicine alone.
Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli
With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training. PMID:25217972
Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.
Ka-Kit Hui; Sonya Pritzker
@@ INTRODUCTlON by Ka-kit Hui,M.D. Because we recognize the clinical,educational,and cultural importance of translation and terminology in Chinese medicine,we feel that it is imperative to understand the perspectives of all concerned parties.This article thus addresses the issue of terminology standardization in English language Chinese medical Publications from the Point of View of multiple stakeholders in this field at the UCLA Center for East-West Medicine.
Jiang, Jun-jie; Xie, Yan-ming
In order to ensure the authenticity and accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring data, Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring quality control indicators, including the monitoring center, monitoring personnel, hardware conditions, monitoring progress and the number of patients into the group, original documents and archives management, electronic data, adverse events, quality management were constructed. Its application in the creation of major new drugs technology major projects, 10 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections clinical safety monitoring quality control work, found the missing case surveillance, not reported adverse events, only reported adverse reactions, electronic data reporting lag, lack of level of efforts to control the problem, and corrected, the traditional Chinese medicine injection safety monitoring of quality control and quality assurance, and subsequent Chinese medicine safety monitoring quality control to provide the reference. PMID:27245020
Tina L. Rochelle; Shardlow, Steven M.; Sik Hung Ng
The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M = 46.55; SD = 18.53) enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gen...
Information processing for intelligent diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important part of the modernization of Chinese medicine, attracts world-wide attention from the science circle. This article presents a systematic introduction to the development of information technology, especially the processing of pulse and tongue images and systems of computer-aided Chinese medical diagnosis. Furthermore, it points out four essential areas of future research, including epistemic lo...
Baxian Yi; Guangping Wang; Xiaoming Wu
Traditional Chinese medicine is an important component of the health care system in Chinese medical treatment and public health. Rare disease drugs in difficult miscellaneous diseases in traditional Chinese medicine have similar characteristics with the rare disease drugs (orphan drugs) in European and American countries, which both are characterized by individualized medical treatment. The two are different in the development thought. Treatment of difficult miscellaneous diseases in the trad...
Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.
Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-Yao; Lin, Fei
As the actual clinical reflecting of transform Chinese medicine special curative effect, Chinese medicine preparation not only satisfies the need of hospital clinic, scientific research and teaching, but also plays an important role in deepening medical and health system reform, improving people's health level and contributing to the economic growth. However, some problems about administration and approval (tending to western medicine), contraction of the scale, lack of synchronization for clinic and scientific research, and the imbalance of regional development make Chinese medicine preparation move forwards slowly in contradiction. It has not only reduced the effectiveness of the Chinese medicine preparation in hospital clinic, but also brought bad effect on modernized development of Chinese medicine preparation. Research shows that main influencing factors of status quo of Chinese medicine preparation in medical institution include imperfect laws and regulations, high cost than income, and shortage of talents in preparation research. The analysis indicated that the necessary measures to break the contradiction, improve clinical effect of Chinese medicine, and promote the modernization development of Chinese drugs preparation were as follows: government and related departments should strengthen the supporting force in policy by adjusting the examination and approval policy, speeding up dispensing use, reforming pricing system, including into medicare reimbursement, integrating advantage resources and so on; medical institution should actively carry out research and development of traditional Chinese Medicine through drawing the traditional and modern essence, reserving professional talents, and developing characteristic preparation; companies cooperate with hospitals for complementary advantages, which can rapidly transform Chinese medicine preparation into clinical practice. PMID:27071242
Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric
On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces. PMID:27245044
Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.
ZHANG Qingru; NI Yaodi; GUO Hongbin; WANG Chunguang
In order to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula Heat-stress-releasing on the antioxidant function in dairy cows,ten dairy cows were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group,with five cows in each group.All the cows were fed with a basal diet.The animals in the experimental group were given with 220 g of herbs per day in addition to the basal diet.The trial was conducted for 14 days.Blood samples were taken from the vena cava at day 0,day 7,and day 15,respectively.The antioxidant statuses were examined.The results are as follows.(1) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can significantly increase the milk yield of dairy cows under heat stress.Compared with the control group,the milk yield of the herb-treated group increased by 14.01% (P＜0.05),14.32% (P＜0.05) and 15.01% (P＜0.05) in prophase,metaphase and anaphase of the test,respectively.(2) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can increase significantly the antioxidant status of the heat stressed dairy cows.Compared with the control group,the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased by 45.93% (P＜0.01) at day 7 and by 54.40% (P＜0.01) at day 15.The Glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity of the test group increased by 17.99% (P＜0.05) at day 7 and 25.98% (P＜0.01) at day 15.The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the test group increased by 43.64% (P＜0.01) at day 7 and 46.35% (P＜0.01)at day 15.The malondaldehyd (MDA) content of test group declined by 23.88% (P＜0.01) at day 7 and 25.32% (P＜0.01)at day 15.
Full Text Available Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and Methods. Chinese medicines (including Chinese medicinal herbs, animal parts, and minerals were used in the study. The key words including “cancer”, “cell death”, “apoptosis”, “autophagy,” “necrosis,” and “Chinese medicine” were used in retrieval of related information from PubMed and other databases. Results. The cell death induced by Chinese medicines is described as apoptotic, autophagic, or necrotic cell death and other types with an emphasis on their mechanisms of anticancer action. The relationship among different types of cell death induced by Chinese medicines is critically reviewed and discussed. Conclusions. This review summarizes that CMs treatment could induce multiple pathways leading to cancer cell death, in which apoptosis is the dominant type. To apply these preclinical researches to clinic application will be a key issue in the future.
Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.
Jing Chen; Linchun Fu; Maoqing Li; Jiantao Chen
Objective: To review the research progression of Chinese medicines for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their natural active ingredients at home and abroad so as to provide references for pharmaceutical research and clinical medication. Methods: Abundant representative literatures at home and abroad were classified to introduce the anti-HIV monomers, compounds and natural active ingredients of Chinese medicines. Results: The researches on anti-HIV natural medicines have obtained gr...
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the current clinical evidence of manufactured Chinese herbal formulae (MCHF for knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods. Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of MCHF for KOA were included. Data extraction, methodological assessment, and meta-analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. A total of 17 kinds of MCHF were identified from the twenty-six included trials. Meta-analyses showed that MCHF significantly relieved the global pain of knee joints, either used alone or combined with routine treatments. Additionally, MCHF plus routine treatments significantly decreased the scores of WOMAC and Lequesne index. However, there were no statistical differences between MCHF group and routine treatment group in walk-related pain and WOMAC scores. No significant differences were found in Lysholm scores. There were twenty-one trials that mentioned adverse events. A pooled analysis showed that adverse events occurred more frequently in control group compared with MCHF group. Conclusions. Our results indicated that MCHF showed some potential benefits for KOA. However, we still cannot draw firm conclusions due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. More high-quality RCTs would help to confirm the evidence.
ZHAO Xiao-ling; FENG Yu-xiong; PENG Yong
In this paper,laboratory reports,medication rules,formulating principles,and research methods are summarized and analyzed,including single herb,compound herbs,and the problems in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis(OP)within the past decade.With widely recognized efficacy,satisfying achievements have been achieved in preventing and treating OP with Chinese herbal medicines(CHM).However,due to the complex constituents,the pharmacological activities and mechanism of CHM are not clear yet,and there is no unified standard on the diagnosis and syndrome differentiation of OP and the efficacy evaluation of CHM in the treatment.Accordingly,the research in the future should focus on the pharmacology and standardization of CHM in treating OP.
Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields
Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))
Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.
Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.
Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Zheng-yong; Ma, Yu-ling; Ma, Shuang-cheng
Citrus aurantium is one of the most common traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, the chemical components, content determination and pharmacological actions of C. aurantium were summarized for the comprehensive utilization of its resources. Because of the complicated resources of C. aurantium, only one single component as index couldn't reflect the quality and effects and comprehensive evaluation which concluding multiple components should be established in the future quality control. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. PMID:26080542
The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) uses a combination of different natural products based on practical experiences. To better understand the therapeutic functions of TCM, large efforts have been made to identify the principle constituents of TCM and to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind the efficacy observed. This review aims to summarize research results obtained from the most intensively studied TCM phytochemical compounds namely the alkaloids Berberine, Evodiamine; anthraquinones Emodin, Aloe-emodin, Rhein; the terpenoids Artemisinin, Celastrol, Triptolide; the flavones Apigenin, Chrysin, Wogonin, Baicalein; and the cyclopenta[b]benzofuran derivatives Rocaglamide. Most of them have been originally identified as anti-inflammatory and anti-viral reagents and are now known to also possess anti-tumor activities by targeting the apoptosis pathways in cancer. This review also intends to give an overview of the mechanisms of action identified so far. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for targeted-cancer therapy and for modernization of TCM. PMID:20685036
Full Text Available Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD.
Hou, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhou, Mengge; Fang, Runping; Jiang, Min; Hou, Wenbin; Bai, Gang
Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25397687
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an almost universally fatal disease resulting from early invasion of adjacent structures and metastasis and the lack of an effective treatment modality. Our previous studies have shown that Qingyihuaji Formula (QYHJ, a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, had significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer. Here, we examined the effects of QYHJ on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis and the potential associated mechanism(s. We found that QYHJ inhibited both tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice with human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts. Further study indicated that QYHJ inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, which is characterized by increased E-cadherin expression and decreased vimentin, N-cadherin and Slug expression. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages, could promote cancer cell EMT and invasion. In contrast, treatment with QYHJ inhibited cancer-related inflammation in tumors by decreasing infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and IL-6 production, thus preventing cell invasion and metastasis. These results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine QYHJ could inhibit pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis in part by reversing tumor-supporting inflammation.
Jun Xu; Haiyun Wu
@@ Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the world's oldest healing systems. TCM includes herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, food therapy, and physical exercise, such as shadow boxing. In modern China, TCM is a fully institutionalised part of health care and widely used with Western medicine.