Sample records for chinese continental scientific

  1. Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Logging Database System

    Sinan Fang; Heping Pan


    A lot of logging information (logging and logging interpretation results) have been acquired in borehole of Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling (CCSD). The general management method about these logging information are not satisfied with the need of CCSD logging engineering. In order to manage efficiently, insert and inquiry rapidly, and use efficiently logging information, logging database of CCSD will need be specially established and it’s management software system will need be made. We i...

  2. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    Conze, R.; Su, D.


    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  3. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming


    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  4. Scientific and Technical Chinese, Volume II. Glossary.

    Kao, Kung-yi; And Others

    A composite English-to-Chinese glossary of all terms introduced in the individual lessons of "Scientific and Technical Chinese" is presented here. The appendices include lists of weights and measures and chemical elements, and a partial list of Chinese government organizations and research institutes related to science and technology. (AMH)

  5. [Chinese Medicine in Overall Modern Scientific Technologies].

    Tan, Yuan-sheng; Zeng Yong


    Chinese medicine (CM) develops with the survival, reproduction, growth, and progressing of the Chinese nation. Scientific technologies not only promote continual progressing of human societies, but also provide new ideas and methods for the development of CM. In recent years, great changes have taken place in CM complying with developing modern scientific technologies, mainly manifested in the depth of CM theories at molecular levels, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease identification, continuous innovation and development of clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, diversified dosages of Chinese materia medica, the academic tendency of education patterns, occupational refinement, diversified medical practice modes, and so on. PMID:26677664

  6. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling


    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  7. [Scientific Positioning of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    Li, Yong-ming


    Whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be categorized as a kind of science or not has been a controversial issue over last century. Part of the confusion is caused by the indistinguishable usage of Chinese words "science" and "scientific" during discussion. According to western academic standards, TCM cannot be considered as pure or conventional science. However, in author's view, the foundation of a majority part of TCM practice is probably scientific, while many TCM theories remain unproved. In this article, medical theories and practices are classified based on scientific content into eight levels: medical science, scientific medicine, medical system, medical theory, medical opinion, medical belief, medical cultism, and medical fraud. Both Western medicine and TCM are positioned in this system accordingly. Currently, the scientific level of TCM is much lower than that of Western medicine, and more research is needed for its improvement. PMID:27236880

  8. On Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Scientific Socialism



    Scientific socialism provides proletarian with ideological weapon, which is used to lead and organize the masses to pursue socialism. The formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of scientific socialism in China, which is the latest achievement combining scientific socialism and Chinese national conditions.

  9. Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978


    The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)

  10. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.


    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  11. Chinese duo fired for scientific fraud

    Jiao, Li


    A major case of academic fraud in China has led to calls for the country to adopt a new system of academic evaluation that steers away from heavily supporting scientists who publish the most papers. The calls have been made after some 70 papers published by Chinese scientists in Acta Crystallographica Section E were retracted from the journal late last year. The authors acknowledged that their analysis had been fabricated.

  12. Chinese graduate students and U.S. scientific productivity

    Gaulé, Patrick; Piacentini, M.


    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2013), s. 698-701. ISSN 0034-6535 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : graduate students * Chinese immigrants * scientific output Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2013

  13. A new model for the dynamic evolution of Chinese lithosphere: 'continental roots-plume tectonics'

    Deng, J. F.; Mo, X. X.; Zhao, H. L.; Wu, Z. X.; Luo, Z. H.; Su, S. G.


    Chinese continental lithosphere comprises three tectonic domains: (1) eastern China, a region characterized by rifting, extensional basins, and voluminous basaltic volcanism; (2) central China, a plexus of cratonic terrains with low-heat flow (40-50 mw/m 2), including the Tarim, Erdos, and Yangtze blocks welded by pre-Cenozoic orogenic belts; and (3) western China, a region comprising the Qinghai-Tibet-Himalaya orogen. The relatively thin crust (˜35 km) and lithosphere (˜70 km) of eastern China is believed to reflect mantle upwelling, while near-normal crust (˜45 km) and thickened lithosphere (>200 km) in central China suggest a mantle lithosphere root resembling those inferred for the Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons. Thickened crust (˜70 km) and lithosphere (>150 km) in western China reflect the advanced development of an orogen root. The lower density and relative buoyancy of central cratonic mantle roots appear to have contributed to the long-term tectonic stability of the central Chinese lithospheric blocks. In contrast, gravitational instability produced by thickening of the denser western Chinese lithosphere and the resulting subsidence and eventual delamination of orogenic roots are believed to have led to postorogenic extensional collapse. Although the geological relationships suggest compressional forces caused both mountain building and orogen root development, extensional stress resulting from gravitational collapse is believed to have induced lithospheric and crustal thinning with concomitant reduction of topography. The term 'continental roots-plume tectonics' has been adopted to describe the configuration and dynamic condition of subcontinental lithosphere and upper mantle beneath China. Accordingly, it is proposed that supracrustal tectonic forms represent the surface expressions of, and responses to, deep 'continental roots-plume tectonics'. While the prevailing view is that the western orogenic belt is not genetically related to eastern

  14. Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Earthquakes in Continental China: Its Scientific and Practical Merits

    Wu Zhongliang; Liu Jie; Zhu Chuanzhen; Jiang Changsheng; Huang Fuqiong


    Since the 1970s, Chinese seismologists have started to conduct the Annual Consultation on the Likelihood of Coming Earthquakes in the Next Year. This approach has unique scientific and practical merits either as an active response to the social needs in the situation that earthquake prediction research meets many difficulties, or as a real forward prediction test persistently conducted for 1/3 century. It is a pity that such an approach has not been well-known by international seismological community, and the scientific merits of such an endeavor is sometimes regrettably underestimated.

  15. Geothermal measurements in the pilot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling


    The geothermal measurements in the piIot-boreholes of the China Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) indicate that the temperature gradients in the target area of the deep drilling range from 19 to 26℃/km, which is lower than that (25-30℃/km) for the global continental area and similar to that for the KTB (21-28℃/km). Thermal conductivity measurements for 44 core samples show that the ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks have 50% higher thermal conductivity (with a mean of 3.94±1.26 W/mK) than that for the average value of the upper crust.The measured heat flow values vary between 76 and 80 mW/m2, higher than that for the global continental area (65±1.6 mW/m2) and the continental China (61±15.5 mW/m2)as well as the adjacent North Jiangsu Basin (68 mW/m2), but lower than that below 1000 m in the KTB (85 mW/m2). The elevated heat flow in the pilot-boreholes can be attributed to the lateral heat concentration due to higher rock thermal conductivity of the UHP belt than that of the adjacent rocks. Lower deep temperature in the target area of the deep drilling can be expected due to the lower measured temperature gradient, which means that the Sulu area is geothermally suitable for continental deep drilling.

  16. Policy and Profit Allocation for the Cooperative Development of Natural Gas Resource on Chinese Offshore Continental Shelf

    Zhou Qingsong; Zhang Mingzhi


    @@ Rich natural gas resources on Chinese offshore continental shelf China has a wide sea waters with their offshore continental shelf covering over 1 million km2. Rich oil-gas resources are lying under the sea waters. In accordance with the conventional international assessment method for oil and gas resources, it is expected that the gas reserve volume in China is approximately 14 000 billion cu.m.

  17. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop


    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  18. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang


    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  19. Red Science: China's Scientific Capital and the Future of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Arturo Salazar


    Full Text Available The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS produces the scientific and technological breakthroughs that place China among the major players in scientific innovation. However, the control that the Chinese government exerts over the Academy and the tradition of guanxi among its members prevent the CAS from take-off and securing a free environment to conduct original research. The article assesses the economic logic of scientific control and its effects within the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The paper’s aim is to derive to what extent the CAS will remain as China’s main provider of scientific innovation. The “national innovation systems” approach and the cultural traditions rooted in Confucianism are revised in detail to provide an accurate perspective. The paper concludes that the CAS’ international reputation as a center of scientific and technological innovation might be at stake unless the Chinese government makes some critical reforms.

  20. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    William CS CHO


    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  1. The Lake El’gygytgyn Scientific Drilling Project – Conquering Arctic Challenges through Continental Drilling

    Georg Schwamborn


    Full Text Available Between October 2008 and May 2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDPco-sponsored a campaign at Lake El´gygytgyn, located in a 3.6-Ma-old meteorite impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Drilling targets included three holes in the center of the 170-m-deep lake, utilizing the lake ice cover as a drilling platform, plus one hole close to the shore in the western lake catchment. At the lake’s center. the entire 315-m-thick lakesediment succession was penetrated. The sediments lack any hiatuses (i.e., no evidence of basin glaciation or desiccation, and their composition reflects the regional climatic and environmental history with great sensitivity. Hence, the record provides the first comprehensive and widely timecontinuous insights into the evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since mid-Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 meters and uppermost 150 meters of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100% recovery and likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ~2.9 Ma, respectively. Nearly 200 meters of underlying rock were also recovered; these cores consist of an almost complete section of the various types of impact breccias including broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks and associated melt clasts. The investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the El´gygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Complementary information on the regional environmental history, including the permafrost history and lake-level fluctuations, is being developed from a 142-m-long drill core recovered from the permafrost deposits in the lake catchment. This core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits in ice-rich permafrost, presumably comprising a discontinuous recordof both Quaternary and Pliocene deposits.

  2. [Treatment of senile diseases should prescribe Chinese patent medicine scientifically].

    Zhao, Xin-Xiang


    Treatment of senile diseases by Chinese patent medicine should prescribe according to physiological and pathological specialty of the aged. It's necessary for treatment according to syndrome differentiation associating with the disease,reasonable combination of drugs avoiding adverse reactions,gentle medicine character but not fierce,small medicine quantity but not great, the use of Chinese patent medicine mild and tonic used properly but not excessively. PMID:24812911

  3. Chinese Scientific and Technical Information Institutions: Development and Perspective

    Yanning, Zheng


    The collection, storage, processing, and dissemination of scientific and technical information make an important basis for economic and social development as well as for scientific development. A nation has to develop the right mechanisms and modalities to collect, store, process, and disseminate scientific and technical information tailored to…

  4. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    Wang, Xianwen; Xu, Shenmeng; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia


    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness ...

  5. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia


    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  6. Cardiac protection of new compounds from scientific Chinese medicine (SCM)

    ZHU Yi-zhun


    Objective Purification and Standardization of Chinese herbal extracts became a hot topic since last decade. Though traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used as a mixture from several herbs for centuries, it has been drawn much attention for studying the standardized Chinese herbs using modern technology. Methods Recently, we compared purified Salvia miltiorrhiza extract (PSME) with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, Rarnipril, in in vitro experiments and also in vivo using animal model of myocardial infarction. Results PSME was found to have a significantly higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity which indicated a great capacity for scavenging free radicals. PSME could also prevent pyrogalto red bleaching and DNA damage. After 2 weeks treatment with PSME or Ramipril, survival rates of rats with experimental myocardial infarction were marginally increased (68.2% and 71.4%) compared with saline (61.5%). In another recent study, we evaluated the cardioprotective effects of PSME on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts and in hypoxic vascular smooth muscle calls. We found that PSME treated hearts showed significant postischemic contractile function recovery (develop pressure recovered to 44.2±4.9 % versus 17.1±5.7 %, P<0.05; maximum contraction recovered to 57.2±5.9 % versus 15.1±6.3%, P<0. 001; maximum relaxation restored to 69.3±7.3% versus 15.4±6.3%, P<0.001 in PSME and control group respectively). Conclusions Significant elevated in end-diastolic pressure, which indicated LV stiffening in PSME hearts might be resulted by exceed dose of PSME used. Purified and standardized Chinese herb could provide an alternative regimen for the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  7. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.


    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.


    Sergey V. Rasskazov


    Full Text Available N.A. Florensov and N.A. Logatchev pioneered development of fundamental concepts of the structure and evolution of the Baikal system of rift basins. At the turn to the 21st century, in view of the wide availability of scientific research data on the Cenozoic continental rift zones located in Eurasia, Africa and North America, and taking into account the application of new research methods and options to process and analyze huge amounts of geological and geophysical data, a priority was comprehensive modeling of rifting from its origin to the current period of time. This scientific challenge was addressed by the research team under the leadership of N.A. Logachev.

  9. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)


    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  10. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Mak Tippi K


    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  11. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Horsfield, Brian


    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  12. What is the Role of Chinese Medical Theory in Modern Scientific Research

    Henry Johannes GRETEN


    经典中医诊断,例如根据中医的海德堡模型进行诊断,研究结果很大程度依赖于经典的诊断标准.未来中医的研究质量会受到很多因素的影响,如将经典的中医诊断作为纳入标准;用客观指标作为衡量研究结果的标准;采用双盲对照研究.因此,有必要对传统中医学诊断和功能性标准可测参数达成一致,同时也需要对其功能性术语及基本理论达成共识.本文指出经典中医学理论对现代研究具有重要指导意义,在现代研究中应正确理解并恰当应用.%Defining the classical Chinese diagnosis such as by the Heidelberg model of TCM has shown that outcome of studies is largely dependent on classical diagnostic criteria.The quality of future studies in TCM will largely depend on a variety of factors,such as(1)the classical Chinese diagnosis as an inclusion criterion,(2) objectively measurable parameters as the main criterion of outcome,(3)double blinding of controls.A common understanding of the diagnosis and functional criteria of TCM is therefore necessary,as well as a common understanding of the functional terminology and rationally accessible theory. This undedines the necessity of classical Chinese medical theory for modern scientific research,its proper definition and application in studies.

  13. Continental drilling

    Shoemaker, E.M. (ed.)


    The Workshop on Continental Drilling was convened to prepare a report for submission to the US Geodynamics Committee with respect to the contribution that could be made by land drilling to resolve major problems of geodynamics and consider the mechanisms by which the responsibility for scientific planning, establishment of priorities, administration, and budgeting for a land-drilling program within the framework of the aims of the Geodynamics Project would best be established. A new and extensive program to study the continental crust is outlined in this report. The Workshop focused on the following topics: processes in the continental crust (mechanism of faulting and earthquakes, hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers); state and structure of the continental crust (heat flow and thermal structure of the crust; state of ambient stress in the North American plate; extent, regional structure, and evolution of crystalline continental crust); short hole investigations; present state and needs of drilling technology; drill hole experimentation and instrumentation; suggestions for organization and operation of drilling project; and suggested level of effort and funding. Four recommendations are set down. 8 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  14. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    Zhang, Yuejiao


    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  15. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation in Learning Science, and Their Relationships: A Comparative Study within the Chinese Culture

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    This study explored the differences in high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs (SEBs), motivation in learning science (MLS), and the different relationships between them in Taiwan and China. 310 Taiwanese and 302 Chinese high school students' SEBs and MLS were assessed quantitatively. Taiwanese students generally were more prone…

  16. Learning Common Chinese Chemical Terms and Characters: A Resource for Scientific Research and Collaboration

    Chao, Hsiu-Yi; Churchill, David G.


    This article serves as a primer to Mandarin Chinese mainly for chemical practitioners who have no familiarity with the Mandarin Chinese language and who may travel to East Asia during their career or work in collaboration with Chinese-speaking people. Eight vocabulary lists (given in English, written Chinese, and Pinyin romanization) feature…

  17. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.


    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  18. A didactic sequence on inquiry, modelling and creation of scientific knowledge on Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift

    Domènech Casal, Jordi


    Se describe una actividad de indagación sobre la Tectónica de placas. En ella, el alumnado debe reconstruir la historia geológica de un planeta imaginario integrando distintos tipos de datos (distribución geográfica de fósiles, antigüedad de orógenos, regiones sísmicas) para construir un modelo de la ubicación de los límites de placa tectónica y los cambios que han sufrido los distintos continentes. A lo largo de la actividad se suceden distintas organizaciones de aula y andamios ...

  19. Promoting integrative medicine by computerization of traditional Chinese medicine for scientific research and clinical practice: The SuiteTCM Project

    Arthur de Sá Ferreira


    BACKGROUND:Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and,therefore,their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence.Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage,process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy,physiology,semiology,pathophysiology,and therapy.METHODS:We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software,a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention.The software includes components for data management (DataTCM),simulation of cases (SimTCM),analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM),clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM,Tongue TCM,and Pulse TCM),intervention selection (AcuTCM,HerbsTCM,and DietTCM),management of medical records (ProntTCM),epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM),and medical education,training,and assessment (StudentTCM).DISCUSSION:The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care.The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.

  20. Evaluation of forestry strategies for climate change mitigation in continental France. Scientific literature and main actors' positioning review

    This work contributes to the current scientific debate regarding the optimization of the forest sector's contribution to mitigating climate change. A scientific literature review has pointed out some uncertainties on the contribution to emission reduction objectives in the short to medium-term of an increasing harvest of forest resources for wood construction and energy generation. Timing of mitigation benefits for a managed forest depends on forestry upstream characteristics(forest and soil type and silviculture method) and downstream characteristics (transport distance, use of wood, efficiency of wood based energy production, fossil-fuel based reference system that is substituted,etc). A survey conducted among national forest experts points out debates concerning optimal silviculture practices to mitigating climate change. These discussions are due to the trades-off between sequestering carbon in forest ecosystems and climatic benefits obtained by sustainable forest harvesting and use of wood products to displace fossil emissions. (author)

  1. Li and B Isotope Systematics of Ultrahigh-pressure Metamorphic Rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    Yilin Xiao; Rolf L. Romer; Jochen Hoefs; Anette Meixner; Zeming Zhang


    @@ 1 Introduction Recent improvements in the precision of Li and B isotope measurements have demonstrated the potential of these elements in tracing a wide range of geological processes. The Li and B isotope systematics of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks provides a unique opportunity to investigate the behaviour of Li and B during fluid-rock interaction at high temperatures and very high pressures and to constrain the fluid budget and the recycling of subducted crustal materials into the mantle during UHP metamorphism.

  2. Microfacies of Deep-water Deposits and Forming Models of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling-SKII


    Extensive transgression of lake water occurred during the Cretaceous Qingshankou Stage and the Nengjiang Stage in the Songliao basin, forming widespread deep-water deposits. Eleven types of microfacies of deep-water deposits have been recognized in the continuous core rocks from the SKII,including mudstone of still water, marlite, dolostone, oil shale, volcanic ashes, turbidite, slump sediment, tempestite, seismite, ostracoda limestone and sparry carbonate, which are divided into two types: microfacies generated due to gradually changing environments (Ⅰ) and microfacies generated due to geological events (Ⅱ). Type Ⅰ is composed of some special fine grain sediments such as marlite,dolomite stone and oil shale as well as mudstone and Type Ⅱ is composed of some sediments related to geological events, such as volcanic ashes, turbiditie, slump sediment, tempestite, seismite, ostracoda limestone. The formation of sparry carbonate may be controlled by factors related to both environments and events. Generally, mudstone sediments of still water can be regarded as background sediments, and the rest sediments are all event sediments, which have unique forming models, which may reflect controlling effects of climatics and tectonics.

  3. Flux and budget of BC in the continental shelf seas adjacent to Chinese high BC emission source regions

    Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Huang, Guopei; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan


    This study conducted the first comprehensive investigation of sedimentary black carbon (BC) concentration, flux, and budget in the continental shelves of "Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS)," based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported data set of the atmospheric samples from seven coastal cities in the Bohai Rim. BC concentrations in these matrices were measured using the method of thermal/optical reflectance. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas where fine-grained particles (median diameters > 6 Φ (i.e., area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr, and the BS alone contributed ~50% (~157 Gg/yr). The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition, riverine discharge, and import from the Northern Yellow Sea (NYS) each contributed ~51%, ~47%, and ~2%. Therefore, atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge dominated the total BC influx (~98%). Sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the input BC. Water exchange between the BS and the NYS was also an important BC transport route, with net BC transport from the BS to the NYS.

  4. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.


    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  5. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    Qian-fen Gong


    Full Text Available Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers.

  6. Scientific Investigation of the Materials in a Chinese Ming Dynasty Wall Painting

    Shuya Wei


    Full Text Available In the frame of the cooperation project Rescue and Conserve the Endangered Wall Paintings in the Museums of China, systematic investigations concerning the materials and techniques used in the wall paintings detached from a Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 temple, Dazhao Temple in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia of China, as well as the previous conservation intervention materials have been carried out. X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX were used for the identification of inorganic materials in the wall paintings, while Pyrolysis in combination of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS was applied for the characterization of organic materials. Pigments including cinnabar, lead white, atacamite/para-atacamite, orpiment, ochre, minium, carbon black and smalt were identified. The binding medium in the painting was determined as animal glue. Alkyd is an uncommon consolidant in the conservation of Chinese wall paintings, but it could be determined in this object, where conservation treatments were performed in the 1950s.

  7. Outreach, Diversity, and Education Supported by NSF Facilities LacCore and the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), University of Minnesota

    Myrbo, A.


    Climatic and environmental change are a powerful hook to engage students and the public with geoscience. Recent lake sediments often feature visual and compositional evidence of anthropogenic changes, which can pique curiosity and serve as a gateway for interest in more remote past changes. Cores provide an integrative, place-based geoscience education/outreach platform: lake dynamics incorporate principles of chemistry, physics, and biology; lake basin formation and sedimentary signals trace back to numerous geoscience subdisciplines. Lakes reflect local changes, and so are inherently place-based and relevant to both rural and urban populations. The esthetics of lakes in the landscape and sediments under the microscope spark the artistic sensibilities of those who do not consider themselves scientists: lakes are readymade for STEAM education. LacCore has exploited the magic of lake sediment cores in its 15 years as an NSF Facility, and now expands to additional environments as the NSF Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office. Part of scaling up is the formalization of major support for the Broader Impacts (BI) activities of Facility users. LacCore/CSDCO now musters its collaborative experiences in site REUs and other undergrad research projects, in-depth training of students, teachers, and faculty, a long list of informal education experiences, and common-good software development, to provide assistance to researchers seeking meaningful broader impacts and educators seeking extra- or co-curricular field and laboratory research experiences for their students. Outreach, diversity, and education support includes dissemination of best practices, as well as coordination, administration, and basic capacity for such activities in collaboration with project PIs and students, through no-cost support, or collaborative proposals or supplements from NSF where necessary for project scale. Community-driven research and broadening participation are central to the

  8. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Gang; Wu, Qing


    Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research. PMID:24872929

  9. Current Situations of Competitive Scientific Research Projects for Agri-scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO; Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG


    This paper collected and arranged competitive scientific research projects undertaken by Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences in 2003-2014. Through statistical analysis on quantity of projects,funded amount,age of person responsible,professional title of person responsible,academic degree of person responsible,research object,it discussed relevant characteristics and rules. Finally,it came up with pertinent measures and recommendations,in the hope of providing services for decision-making and scientific and technological management.

  10. Unpacking the Paradox of Chinese Science Learners: Insights from Research into Asian Chinese School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Science, Science Learning Strategies, and Scientific Epistemological Views

    Cheng, May Hung May; Wan, Zhi Hong


    Chinese students' excellent science performance in large-scale international comparisons contradicts the stereotype of the Chinese non-productive classroom learning environment and learners. Most of the existing explanations of this paradox are provided from the perspective of teaching and learning in a general sense, but little work can be found…

  11. 1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

    Maximilien Brice


    1st October 2010 - Chinese Vice President of the Academy of Sciences signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci, witnessed by Adviser R. Voss

  12. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  13. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part I: Introducing Seismic Interpretation and Isostasy Principles Using Gulf of California Examples

    Lamb, M. A.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Loveless, J. P.; Goodliffe, A. M.


    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum designed for an upper-division structural geology, tectonics or geophysics course. The curriculum includes lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. The first set of materials introduces the RCL initiative to students and has them analyze the bathymetry and oblique-rifting geometry of the GOC in an exercise using GeoMapApp. The second set of materials has two goals: (1) introduce students to fundamental concepts of interpreting seismic reflection data via lectures and in-class interpretation of strata, basement, and faults from recent GOC seismic data, and (2) encourage students to discover the structural geometry and rift evolution, including the east-to-west progression of faulting and transition from detachment to high-angle faulting in the northern GOC, and changes in deformation style from north to south. In the third set of materials, students investigate isostatic affects of sediment fill in GOC oblique rift basins. This activity consists of a problem set, introduced in a lecture, where students integrate their findings from the previous bathymetry- and seismic-interpretation exercises.

  14. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.


    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  15. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    Li, Yongyan


    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism. PMID:22212356

  16. Malmquist Index Analysis of the Dynamic Changes in Scientific Research Productivity of Some Chinese Universities before and after Merger

    Hu, Yongmei; Liang, Wenyan


    This paper describes the dynamic changes in research productivity of Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs) before and after merger with Malmquist index, and decomposes the total factor productivity change index into catching-up effect, scale effect and frontier-shift effect. The main finding is that technological improvement and innovation…

  17. Continental dynamics and continental earthquakes

    张东宁; 张国民; 张培震


    Two key research projects in geoscience field in China since the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in 1999, the project of "East Asian Continental Geodynamics" and the project of "Mechanism and Prediction of Strong Continental Earthquakes" are introduced in this paper. Some details of two projects, such as their sub-projects, some initial research results published are also given here. Because of the large magnitude of the November 14, 2001 Kunlun Mountain Pass MS=8.1 earthquake, in the third part of this paper, some initial research results are reviewed for the after-shock monitoring and the multi-discipline field survey, the impact and disaster of this earthquake on the construction site of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) railway and some other infrastructure.

  18. Continental Rifts

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  19. Improve the scientific and nutritional analysis of Chinese cooking%提高中国烹饪的科学营养化分析



    随着社会的不断进步和发展,中国烹饪逐渐形成、发展、成熟为具有代表性的饮食文化,在国内外久负盛名。然而在中国烹饪的发展过程中也存在很多需要完善之处。例如中国烹饪更重视对色、香、味的追求,而忽视其科学搭配、营养价值的关注。在这种新的时代背景下,政府部门首先加强对烹饪营养条例的制定和实施,烹饪教育加强对烹饪工作者培养理念及教育观念的创新与改革显得尤为重要。本文笔者将从中国烹饪的科学营养角度出发,在简要分析当前我国烹饪科学营养化存在问题的基础上,为加强中国烹饪营养化、科学化的步伐提出具体策略,旨在为促进中国烹饪的成熟健康发展提供充足的理论依据和实践借鉴。%Along with society's unceasing progress and development, Chinese cuisine has gradually formed, development, maturity for diet culture with representative, long enjoyed a good reputation both at home and abroad. But in the development of Chinese cuisine, there are also many needs to improve. For example, Chinese cooking pays more attention to the color, smell, taste, and the pursuit of the neglect of its scientific collocation, nutritional value of attention. In this new era background, the government departments to strengthen the formulation and implementation of the regulations of the cooking, cooking education to strengthen the cultivation of the concept and the concept of education and reform of the concept of education is particularly important. In this paper, the author will start from the perspective of science and technology of China, and analyze the existing problems of China's Culinary Science, and put forward specific strategies to strengthen the nutrition and scientiifc development of Chinese cooking.

  20. Continental Divide Trail

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  1. 中国传统药膳文化科学发展问题的思考%Scientific Perspective on Development of Chinese Traditional Medicated Food

    夏明; 管婧婧


    [Objective] To explore the relationship between Chinese traditional medicated food science and modern nutriology, identify the developmental direction of modern medicated food culture, and propose suggestions for the scientific development of medicated food culture. [Method] Based on the previous studies, the comparative research was conducted to analyze the difference between and similarity of medicated food science and modern nutriology in terms of the theory system and research expertise. [Result] The scientific and objective recognition of the effects of medicated food could promote the development of medicated food culture. For the academic research, the advantages of traditional medicated food culture and weakness of modern nutriology need to be understood. For the practice, the experience of modern nutriology can be learned to help the innovation of medicated food science's research methods and regulation of usage. [Conclusion] The development of medicated food culture not only needs to inherit the tradition, but also needs to learn from the modern nutriology and pharmacology, and assimilates the achievements from modern western science civilization.%[目的]探究中国传统药膳学与现代食品营养学的关系,明确当代药膳文化发展的方向,提出药膳文化科学发展的对策。[方法]以相关文献为基础,采用比较研究法对药膳学与食品营养学就两者的理论体系和研究专长进行相似性和差异性分析。[结果]要实现药膳文化的科学发展,对药膳的功效要有科学、客观的认识。理论研究上要看到传统药膳学的宏观远见以及现代食品营养学的不足,积极发掘整理药膳文献;在实践上要吸收现代食品营养学研究的一些经验,创新药膳的研究方法,为药膳的使用制定规范。[结论]在继承传统的同时,借鉴现代营养学和药理学的理论,吸收现代西方科技文明的优秀成果,可以实现药膳文化的科学发展。

  2. Continental margins: linking ecosystems

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmut; Zhang, Jing


    Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17–21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceani...

  3. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Ip, Po Keung


    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  4. Scientific Growth


    As one of the world's largest grain consumers,food security has always been a major concern for the Chinese nation.China must confront the challenge of feeding a fifth of the world's population with less than 9 percent of the planet's arable land.In 2011,China's grain output recorded growth for the eighth successive year,and total production reached an all-time high of 571million tons.In terms of food security,China's goal is to maintain a self-sufficiency rate of above 95 percent.However,an annual net population growth of 7.39 million and the effective decline of the area of farmland in the country,as a result of urbanization,make achieving such selfsufficiency a serious challenge.Given the heavy burden placed on Chinese agriculture,constantly raising productivity by relying on scientific and technological progress has become a priority for China's agricultural sector.The Ministry of Agriculture,for example,has worked to raise China's annual grain yield per-unit area by 1 percent,on average,over the past decade.Last year,the contributory rate of scientific and technological development to China's agriculture reached 52 percent,surpassing the contribution made by land,labor and other production factors for the first time in history.

  5. Current Chinese bryological literature (4)

    Cao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanming; Yu, Jin


    According to our collections of literature, about 400 scientific papers dealing with Chinese bryophytes have been published in China and abroad during 1990’s. Among these, more than 50 % were published in different scientific journals in China and often written in Chinese with English abstract, which are not well known and assessable for foreign bryologists. Therefore, in addition to previous Chinese literature I-III (Cao et al. 1990, Li et Zhang 1993, 1994), we present the fourth part of Chi...

  6. A Comparative Study of Western and Chinese Precaution of Dishonesty in Scientific Research and the Enlightenment%防范科研不端行为的制度借鉴与比较

    张效英; 李强; 姚跃传; 陈卫平


    近些年来,科研不端现象呈现出新的发展趋势,科研活动中的行为规范问题日益显现出其重要性。西方发达国家在科研不端行为的界定、认定、防范与治理等方面进行了大量的研究与实践,并且从法规及制度上不断地完善对科研不端行为的约束,积累了较为丰富的经验。这些有益经验对于加强我国学术道德建设,建立适合我国国情的科研活动管理规范体系具有重要的借鉴意义。%In recent years,the increasing spread of dishonesty in scientific research has been witnessed,making the issue of setting code of conduct highly urgent.In western countries,the studies on dishonesty in scientific research have been conducted in the aspects of definition,affirmation,precaution and solution to enhance the sanctioning effect through legislation-drafting and regulation improvement.These rich experience is valuable for us to develop the scientific ethic and establish the management system of scientific research with Chinese characteristics.

  7. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    刘文霞; 李冰


    In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.%  本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。

  8. Investigation on the Influencing Factors of the Scientific and Innovative Elites:With a National Key Laboratory's Scientific Researcher of Chinese Academic of Sciences as the Research Object%科技拔尖创新人才影响因素研究--以中科院某院级重点实验室的科研人员为研究对象

    刘文霞; 李冰


      本文选取了中国科学院某院级重点实验室的科研人员作为考察对象,从宏观和微观方面对选取的科学家样本进行各种分析、统计,分析他们的创新成才之路,从而对培养我国的科技创新拔尖人才提出合理化建议。%In this article, a national key laboratory's scientific re-searcher of Chinese academic of sciences is set as a research ob-ject. The sample scientists are analyzed, counted in macro and micro aspects. By exploring the progress along the meritocratic path, valid suggestions are put forward for cultivating the scien-tific and innovative talent.

  9. 中国特色社会主义理论体系:科学而有用的理论%Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:Scientific and Useful Theory



    Theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is scientific and useful theory,which reflects on following aspects:proceeding from Chinese reality,it solves actual problems,working out problems of"brain"and"pocket";having abundant contents and precise logic,with series of standpoints,it reflects Party's new standard of recognition of governing law of CPC,construction rule of socialism and development discipline of human society;promoting success and changing pattern of world,it creates miracle of China and provides new development pattern for other countries.%中国特色社会主义理论体系是一种科学而有用的理论,主要体现为:面向中国问题,破解现实难题,从中国实际出发,解决了"脑袋"问题和"口袋"问题;内容丰富,逻辑严谨,用一系列重大理论观点体现了我们党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识把握的新水平;促进中国成功、改变世界格局,不仅创造了中国奇迹,也为其他国家提供了新的发展模式.

  10. Biogeografia de Portugal Continental

    Costa, José C.; Aguiar, Carlos; Capelo, J.; Lousã, Mário; Neto, Carlos


    Apresentam-se alguns conceitos fundamentais usados em Biogeografia. Propõe-se uma tipologia biogeográfica para Portugal continental desenvolvida a partir dos trabalhos de S. Rivas-Martínez para a Península Ibérica, principalmente: RIVAS-MARTÍNEZ et al (1990). São enumeradas as unidades biogeográficas reconhecidas no território continental nacional e discutem-se os seus limites até ao nível de Superdistrito, bem como os critérios e fundamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos ...

  11. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.


    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  12. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Abstracts


    Chinese Biological Abstracts (CBA), a state-level indexing and abstracting journal published monthly, is jointly sponsored by the Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences as well as the Biological Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, and approved by the State Scientific and Technological Commission.

  13. 分子配伍理论科学内涵及在现代中药研发中的应用%Scientific Connotation of Molecule Compatibility and Role in Research and Development of Modern Chinese Medicine

    王淑玲; 谢恬; 李铖璐; 曾昭武; 孙云廷; 王秋岩; 王安明; 殷晓浦


    提出分子配伍理论,为现代中药研究提供理论指导.阐述分子配伍理论产生的背景、必然性和科学内涵,及分子配伍理论的特征.论述分子配伍理论指导下的现代中药(成分中药)的特征.结果显示分子配伍理论具有3个特征:①分子配伍理论体现了中西医的有机结合;②分子配伍理论系统思维与分析还原法的有机结合;③坚持中医药理论的整体观.现代中药具有5个特征:①方中所有成分化学结构、分子式、分子量均清楚;②分子配伍符合方剂学君臣佐使的原则;③作用机制清楚、疗效确切、剂型先进、质量稳定可控;④多通道、多途径、多层次、多靶点对患病机体产生网络药理作用;⑤对复杂性、系统性疾病疗效明显,副作用小.中药现代化的关键是中医药理论现代化.分子配伍理论的提出,是时代发展的必然产物,必将促进中医药事业的繁荣昌盛.%Molecular Compatibility theory was put forward to provide theoretical guidance for modern Chinese medicine ( molecular Chinese medicine ) . They were expounded to the background, scientific connotation, necessity, features of Molecular Compatibility theory and characteristics of modem Chinese medicine. Molecular compatibility theory had three features. ①It reflected the concept of organic combination of Chinese and western medicine. ② Systematic thinking combined with analysis reduction method organically. ③The overall concept of TCM theory was adhered to; Characteristics of modern Chinese medicine by molecular compatibility theory was three. ① They were clear of the chemical structure, molecular formula, molecular weight of all ingredients in prescription. ②The principle of dunchenzuoshi was followed. ③It had clear mechanism, definite effect, advanced dosage forms, stable quality control. ④ Multichannel, multi-evel and multi-channel network pharmacological effects were produced in sick body.

  14. 美国《临床化学杂志》栏目和版面设置对中文期刊的启示%Difference of column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry

    武昱; 顾佳; 游苏宁


    Column setting shows the categories and range of the information a journal carries. Columns in medical scientific journals play an important role in helping audiences reading and retrieving more efficiently. It may also contribute to submitting papers for authors. Medical journals often seem similar to each other, lacking unique features. This article compares column setting between Chinese medical scientific journals and Clinical Chemistry, and lists the advantages of Clinical Chemistry in hope of helping local scientific journals make better benefit.%期刊设置栏目能体现出期刊内容的大致轮廓及传播信息的类别和范围,为读者的检索和阅读提供方便,是期刊总体设计的一个重要的组成部分.医学期刊栏目的科学设置不仅能够起到导读的作用,而且能够吸引优秀稿件,帮助作者在投稿时对文章进行准确定位.国内期刊常设的栏目大同小异,缺少个性和特色.本文介绍美国《临床化学杂志》栏目设置的特点,总结该刊值得借鉴之处,希望能对扩大国内科技期刊读者群体和提高期刊的社会效益和经济效益有所帮助.

  15. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.


    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  16. The geography of Chinese science

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann;


    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  17. On the Scientific Development Concept’s Guiding Role in Scientific Development of Higher Education

    Yanmin Ren


    The scientific development concept reveals the essential demands by the development of Chinese socialist modernization cause and reflects Marxism values as well as scientific outlook of world and history. Providing the answer to a series of basic issues including the purpose, direction, path and strength of development in an overall, systematic and scientific way, the scientific development concept serves as an important ideological weapon to guide the scientific development of China’s higher...

  18. Discussion on the postgraduate education of Chinese and western integrative medicine based on the major scientific research projects%基于重大科研项目探讨中西医结合医学研究生的培养

    池晓玲; 萧焕明; 谢玉宝; 施梅姐


    The high quality of Chinese and western integrative medicine talents is the premise of the integrated Chinese and Western medicine to the world. Postgraduate education is directly related to the development of Chinese and Western medicine. The Second Clinical Medical College of Guang-zhou University of Chinese Medicine integrated the declaration and organization and implementation of the national major scientific research projects with Chinese and Western Medicine. By building ech-elon team model and establishing a platform for the exchange of research and communication platform, which covers the academic, technical, scientific and technological innovation, and so on, it cultivated high-level, complex and integrated Chinese and Western Medicine talents from knowledge and skills, innovation ability, interpersonal ability, and comprehensive management ability, etc.%高素质的中西医结合医学人才是中西医结合医学走向世界的前提,中西医结合医学研究生教育直接关系到我国中西医结合医学事业的发展。广州中医药大学第二临床医学院将国家重大科研项目的申报及组织实施与中西医结合医学研究生教育相融合,通过构建梯队式导师团队,建立涵盖学术、技术、科研创新等立体化多渠道的研究生交流平台,从知识与技能、创新能力、人际能力、综合管理能力等方面培养高层次、复合型的中西医结合医学人才。

  19. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Menzel, D.W.


    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  20. The continental lithosphere

    Artemieva, Irina


    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are...... consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions of the...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith...

  1. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing


    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica. PMID:26978977

  2. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)


    ... of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies... archaeology; and physical oceanography. The selections are based on maintaining disciplinary expertise in all... disciplines of the biological, physical, chemical, and socioeconomic sciences. Currently, the OCS SC has...

  3. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A


    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  4. Management and Organizational Technologies of Chinese Rural Youth Programs. A Scientific Exchange of Rural Youth Programs between the U.S.A. and the People's Republic of China (April 8-30, 1982).

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    An official delegation of Americans representing the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant colleges visited the People's Republic of China (PRC) to study the management and organization of the Chinese agricultural extension systems and to identify areas for the Chinese authorities to…

  5. Scientific Misconduct.

    Gross, Charles


    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  6. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  7. -induced continental warming

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo


    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  8. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Peter Proksch


    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  9. An Analysis of Difficulties Facing Chinese Scientists’ Holding Posts in International Scientific Organizations and Its Suggestions%我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题及建议探析

    李军平; 秦久怡


    Based on some literatures and cases, the paper analyzes some difficulties facing Chinese scientists’ holding posts in international scientific organizations, where some suggestions are put forward in this regard: increase training efforts to make knowledge structure of Chinese scientists diversified both in width and depth; formulate policies and regulations to attract some headquarters for international scientific organizations to be located in China; and issue policies to set up talent reserve pools for the training of preparatory teams and talents for holding posts in international scientific organizations.%结合有关文献材料和案例,本文分析了我国科学家在国际科技组织中任职存在的问题,尝试提出以下建议:加大培训,使科学家的知识结构更趋多元化;制定政策,支持和吸引国际科技组织总部落户中国;出台政策,建立人才储备库,培养国际科技组织任职预备队伍。

  10. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions :A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Chen, Lizhen; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Haiyan; Yao, Qingqun


    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute (TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) as an example, this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform, analyzed existing problems, and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  11. Lake Van Drilling Project: A Long Continental Record in Eastern Turkey

    T. Litt; S. Krastel; Örçen, S.; Karabiyikoglu, M.


    An international research group is proposing a new research initiative, the Lake Van Drilling Project ‘PaleoVan’ within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The project mainly aims at obtaining high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments, where biotic and abiotic parameters provide proxy climate data. Lake Van in Turkey has the potential to yield long continental records covering several glacial-interglacial cycles from annually...

  12. Bioenergetics of Continental Serpentinites

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.


    Serpentinization is the aqueous alteration of ultramafic (Fe- and Mg-rich) rocks, resulting in secondary mineral assemblages of serpentine, brucite, iron oxyhydroxides and magnetite, talc, and possibly carbonate and silica-rich veins and other minor phases-all depending on the evolving pressure-temperature-composition of the system. The abiotic evolution of hydrogen and possibly organic compounds via serpentinization (McCollom and Bach, 2009) highlights the relevance of this geologic process to carbon and energy sources for the deep biosphere. Serpentinization may fuel life over long stretches of geologic time, throughout the global seabed and in exposed, faulted peridotite blocks (as at Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Kelley et al., 2005), and in obducted oceanic mantle units in ophiolites (e.g., Tiago et al., 2004). Relatively little work has been published on life in continental serpentinite settings, though they likely host a unique resident microbiota. In this work, we systematically model the serpentinizing fluid as an environmental niche. Reported field data for high and moderate pH serpentinizing fluids were modeled from Cyprus, the Philippines, Oman, Northern California, New Caledonia, Yugoslavia, Portugal, Italy, Newfoundland Canada, New Zealand, and Turkey. Values for Gibbs Energy of reaction (ΔGr), kJ per mole of electrons transferred for a given metabolism, are calculated for each field site. Cases are considered both for (1) modest assumptions of 1 nanomolar hydrogen and 1 micromolar methane, based on unpublished data for a similar northern California field site (Cardace and Hoehler, in prep.) and (2) an upper estimate of 10 nanomolar hydrogen and 500 micromolar methane. We survey the feasibility of microbial metabolisms for key steps in the nitrogen cycle, oxidation of sulfur in pyrite, iron oxidation or reduction reactions, sulfate reduction coupled to hydrogen or methane oxidation, methane oxidation coupled to the reduction of oxygen, and

  13. The Influence of Chinese Civilizationon Europe, c. 1000-1400


    Bringing together Chinese and Western materials, this article makesa general survey of the spread of Chinese civilization to Europe in themedieval period and the consequent influences. It mainly retrieves thewestward dissemination of Chinese scientific thoughts, the introductionof Chinese agricultural and transport techniques, and the developmentof Chinese inventions such as papermaking and print, silk and porcelain,stirrup and gunpowder in Europe, and even the impacts of Chinesesilk craftsmen and fine arts on Europe. It concludes that Europeansingested valuable nutrition from Chinese civilization from the 11th to14th centuries, laying the foundation for the fundamental changes withgroundbreaking significance in Europe.

  14. Chinese Cooking.

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  15. International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals

    Wang, Xianwen; Wang, Zhi; Peng, Lian; Wang, Chuanli


    Using bibliometric methods, we investigate China's international scientific collaboration from 3 levels of collaborating countries, institutions and individuals. We design a database in SQL Server, and make analysis of Chinese SCI papers based on the corresponding author field. We find that China's international scientific collaboration is focused on a handful of countries. Nearly 95% international co-authored papers are collaborated with only 20 countries, among which the USA account for more than 40% of all. Results also show that Chinese lineage in the international co-authorship is obvious, which means Chinese immigrant scientists are playing an important role in China's international scientific collaboration, especially in English-speaking countries.

  16. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai


    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  17. The Barriers of Foriegn Hotels Entering the Chinese Market

    Chen, Li-Yin


    China is a late comer in the tourism industry, but it does not mean that China has lower development in the hotel industry because of its surprising growth in the number of hotel. Because the rapidly increasing international and domestic tourists, the Chinese blooming economy and many important international and continental events which will be held in China, the Chinese hotel industry has rapid development in China. Therefore, both foreign and domestic hotel corporations have been expand...

  18. [Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006].

    Pan, Lian-Jun; Xia, Xin-Yi; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Lai


    For the first time, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology published an analysis report of Chinese papers indexed in MEDLINE, which indicates that the Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the role of MEDLINE in the evaluation of scientific research. A total of 4 959 journals are listed in the Lists of Journals Indexed in MEDLINE (2006) published by National Library of Medicine, USA (NLM), of which 95 are published in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan) and 2 another Chinese periodicals are published abroad. To familiarize MEDLINE to more medical researchers and to help them contribute to the journals indexed in MEDLINE, this article lists the top 10 Chinese medical institution whose published papers were indexed in MEDLINE in 2004 along with the Chinese periodicals indexed in MEDLINE in 2006. And the status of MEDLINE in China is briefly analyzed as well. PMID:16970171

  19. Philosophical Intelligence: Letters, Print, and Experiment during Napoleon's Continental Blockade.

    Watts, Iain P


    This essay investigates scientific exchanges between Britain and France from 1806 to 1814, at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. It argues for a picture of scientific communication that sees letters and printed texts not as separate media worlds, but as interconnected bearers of time-critical information within a single system of intelligence gathering and experimental practice. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte's Continental System blockade severed most links between Britain and continental Europe, yet scientific communications continued--particularly on electrochemistry, a subject of fierce rivalry between Britain and France. The essay traces these exchanges using the archive of a key go-between, the English man of science Sir Charles Blagden. The first two sections look at Blagden's letter-writing operation, reconstructing how he harnessed connections with neutral American diplomats, merchants, and the State to get scientific intelligence between London and Paris. The third section, following Blagden's words from Britain to France to America, looks at how information in letters cross-fertilized with information in print. The final section considers how letters and print were used together to solve the difficult practical problem of replicating experiments across the blockade. PMID:27024935

  20. Chinese astronomy

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher


    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  1. Chinese Confucianism

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher


    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  2. 中国特色社会主义制度的科学内涵及重大意义%The Scientific Connotation and Great Significance of Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics



    中国特色社会主义制度是社会制度和制度体制的辩证统一,法律体系是社会制度和制度体制自身公共性、权威性和秩序性特点的外在表现,是法治社会的重要标志。中国特色社会主义制度,集中体现了中国特色社会主义的特点和优势,是当代中国发展进步的根本制度保障,标志着中国特色社会主义进入依法治国时期。%The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is the dialectic unification of social institution and institutional regime. The legal system is the external embodiment of the publicity, authority and order properties of social institution and institutional regime, being an important symbol of society under the rule of law. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics intensively embodies the traits and advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, being the radical institutional guarantee for the development and advancement of contemporary China, indicating socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new period of genuine rule of law.

  3. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO


    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  4. Scientific millenarianism

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  5. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    DU; Qiang


    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  6. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    DU Qiang


    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  7. Scientific Inquiry

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2004


    Scientific inquiry reflects how scientists come to understand the natural world, and it is at the heart of how students learn. From a very early age, children interact with their environment, ask questions, and seek ways to answer those questions. Understanding science content is significantly enhanced when ideas are anchored to inquiry…

  8. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn


    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  9. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    Ben Kavoussi


    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementa...

  10. Chinese Dream


    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  11. Scientific Fraud

    Balk-Møller, Carl August; Mogensen, Sofia Lin; RAATRÆ LUNDSTEIN, SARAH; Haubroe Larsen, André; Lohse, Mayasarah; Reininger Ardilsø, Lisa; Henrysdóttir, Gu∂run; Sondergaard, Nikolai


    This study examines the developments of SSRIs and the presence of them in the market. Dr. Peter Gøtszche’s book “Deadly Medicines and Organized Crime”, claims that scientific fraud is a big part of the pharmaceutical industry and the whole healthcare system in general. Through analyzing Peter Gøtszche’s book and several of his sources, the study aims to create a roadmap in the project, that resembles the process of the antidepressant drugs have to go through, to go from an idea to a patient. ...

  12. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu


    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology an...

  13. Scale effects of the continental coastline of China

    SU Fenzhen; GAO Yi; ZHOU Chenghu; YANG Xiaomei; FEI Xianyun


    Spatial scale is a fundamental problem in Geography.Scale effect caused by fractal characteristic of coastline becomes a common focus of coastal zone managers and researchers.In this study,based on DEM and remote sensing images,multi-scale continental coastlines of China were extracted and the fractal characteristic was analyzed.The results are shown as follows.(1) The continental coastline of China fits the fractal model,and the fractal dimension is 1.195.(2) The scale effects with fractal dimensions of coastline have significant differences according to uplift and subsidence segments along the continental coastlines of China.(3) The fractal dimension of coastline has significant spatial heterogeneity according to the coastline types.The fractal dimension of sandy coastline located in Luanhe River plain is 1.109.The dimension of muddy coastline located in northern Jiangsu Plain is 1.059,while that of rocky coastline along southeastern Fujian is 1.293.(4) The length of rocky coastline is affected by scale more than that of muddy and sandy coastline.Since coastline is the conjunction of sea,land and air surface,the study of coastline scale effect is one of the scientific bases for the researches on air-sea-land interaction in multi-scales.

  14. Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine


    Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data. PMID:20205772

  15. Searching for the remains of subducted continental slabs


    @@ On the basis of oceanic geological and geophysical observations the global plate tectonics theory was put forward in the late 1960s.It inherited the essence of mobilism of continental drift and sea-floor spreading,caused a revolution of earth sciences in the twentieth century.But plate tectonics cannot satisfactorily explain the complicated geological phenomena of continents,it fails in elucidating the formation and evolution process of continents.Therefore,the formation and evolution of continents have been the hot topics explored by earth scientists in recent years.As far as China is concerned,the opening and closing of Tethys are related to the formation,evolution,and compressional reformation of Chinese continent in the Mesozoic period,hence have important implications.

  16. The stable isotope signature of continental runoff

    Recent international programmes such as the IAEA coordinated research project on 'Isotope tracing of hydrological processes in large river basins' have increased scientific awareness of the potential value of incorporating isotope tracers in large-scale water cycling studies to trace water origin and residence times, snowmelt processes, surface-groundwater exchange, evaporation-transpiration partitioning, precipitation variability, and climate/land use changes. Although isotope techniques have been widely tested and are operationally applied at the small catchment-scale, theoretical development and testing of isotope-mass balance approaches at the continental scale are still in progress. This paper proposes a theoretical basis for predicting the long-term (interannual) signatures of oxygen-18 and deuterium in continental runoff applicable for describing global isotope variability in the mean flux-weighted discharge of large rivers. For long time periods, the mass and isotope balances for the oceans and continents are given. Changes in atmospheric moisture are expected due to admixture of evaporated and transpired moisture to air masses over the continents. Oceanic moisture in coastal areas is shown as which becomes subsequently modified as it moves across the continent to inland areas (ranging from to). The approximate isotope compositions of components. Long-term differences in precipitation arise from Rayleigh-type fractionation of atmospheric moisture and precipitation during rainout over the continents. Transpired moisture is expected to be similar to precipitation or groundwater recharge for a given location, whereas evaporated moisture will be isotopically depleted (plotting on or above the MWL) and river discharge will tend to be isotopically enriched (plotting on or below the MWL). Shown are specific hydroclimate forcings on the 2H-18O isotopic composition including those related to long-term precipitation input signals (temperature, latitude, altitude

  17. Instructions for Authors by Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology


    @@ Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology (ISSN 1008-7125), founded in June, 1996, is a national academic journal being designed to present the latest basic scientific and clinical researches of gastroenterology in China.

  18. CETA'S Response to Chinese-English Dictionary Needs

    Beal, Edwin G., Jr.


    This article describes the activities of the Chinese-English Translation Assistance Group (CETA), including the development of a dictionary of general terms, and the formation of files of colloquial, scientific, and technical terms. CETA also serves as a clearinghouse for information of interest to students of Chinese. (CLK)

  19. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006

    P. Zhou; L. Leydesdorff


    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publ

  20. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...


    ... Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with...

  1. 大数据时代中国大学生科技创新思维新内涵思考%The New Connotation about the Scientific Innovative Thinking of Chinese University Students in the Era of Big Data



    论述了在大数据背景下,科技创新思维在知识结构、思维对象和思维方式三个方面发生的深刻变革。并通过问卷调查和访谈方法,调研了当前大学生的科技创新思维现状,发现大数据的认识很模糊,在科技创新活动中仍然沿用传统的思维习惯和研究方法,没有认识到大数据对于科技创新的重要作用和意义,导致其科技创新能力仍显不足。因此,对大学生科技创新思维提出了新的内涵,即掌握大数据技术的基本知识、养成大数据意识,具有这个时代所要求的相关性思维方式。%This thesis discusses deep change of scientific innovative thinking in three aspects of knowledge structure, thought object and thought mode under the background of big data. Questionnaire and interview are employed to in-vestigate the status quo of university student's scientific innovative thinking. It shows that they have vague knowl-edge of big data and they still follow traditional thought habit and research method in scientific innovation activities. They don't realize big data's important purpose and meaning towards scientific innovation. It leads to insufficiency of their scientific innovation ability. So this thesis proposes new connotation for university student's scientific innova-tive thought, which is grasp of big data technology's basic knowledge, development of big data sense and possession of relevant thought mode demanded by this era.

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...



    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Wong, Kam-Cheung


    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  5. The Chinese Banking System

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian


    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  6. Continental Growth and the Sedimentary Record

    Dhuime, B.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Cawood, P. A.


    Detrital sedimentary rocks provide average samples of the continental crust formed at different times and in different places. Some materials are more susceptible to erosion and/or to preservation bias than others, and one issue is to understand how the compositions of a range of source rocks are then recorded in the sediments. Here we considered two different approaches to model the growth of the continental crust: (i) The variation of Nd isotopes in continental shales with different deposition ages, which requires a correction of the bias induced by preferential erosion of younger rocks through an erosion parameter usually referred to as 'K'. The determination of K, and the extent to which it varies in different erosion systems, thus have fundamental implications for the models of continental growth based on radiogenic isotopes in continental sediments. (ii) The variations in U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons, from 'modern' sediments sampled worldwide. In this approach, O isotopes are used to screen 'hybrid' Hf model ages (i.e. ages resulting from mixing processes of crustal material from different ages) from Hf model ages that represent actual crust formation ages. These two approaches independently suggest that the continental crust has been generated continuously, but with a marked decrease in the continental growth rate at ~3 Ga. The >4 Ga to ~3 Ga period is characterised by relatively high net rates of continental growth (~3.0 km3.a-1), which are similar to the rates at which new crust is generated, and destroyed, at the present time. Net growth rates are much lower since 3 Ga (~0.8 km3.a-1), which may be attributed to higher rates of destruction of continental crust. The inflexion in the continental growth curve at ~3 Ga indicates a change in the way the crust was generated and preserved. This change may be linked to onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics and discrete subduction zones.

  7. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture


    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  8. Chinese Science Policy: A Comparative Analysis

    Richter, Maurice N., Jr.


    Lists the assumptions inherent in a liberal model of science and explains how the Chinese model combines a contemporary challenge to this liberal model with a strong positive valuation of science. Explains the problems and patterns related to scientific development in China and the Soviet Union. (GS)

  9. Chinese culture, social work education and research

    Chan, KL; Chan, CLW


    In the development of indigenous social work knowledge in China, the power relationship between teacher and student can act as a barrier to the development of scientific knowledge and practice research. Social work education and practice research in Chinese societies should focus on the empowerment of social work students, methodological pluralism and the development of a culturally specific practice research model.

  10. Co-word Analysis using the Chinese Character Set

    Leydesdorff, Loet


    Until recently, Chinese texts could not be studied using co-word analysis because the words are not separated by spaces in Chinese (and Japanese). A word can be composed of one or more characters. The online availability of programs that separate Chinese texts makes it possible to analyze them using semantic maps. Chinese characters contain not only information, but also meaning. This may enhance the readability of semantic maps. In this study, we analyze 58 words which occur ten or more times in the 1652 journal titles of the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database. The word occurrence matrix is visualized and factor-analyzed.

  11. Research of Automatic Assignment Topics Indexing Using Chinese Scientific and Technical Vocabulary Systems%汉语科技词系统在文献自动赋词标引中的应用研究

    闫莹莹; 许德山; 张运良; 李鹏


    文章首先介绍了汉语科技词系统的体系结构和功能,其次设计了自动赋词标引研究的整体思路,完成了自动赋词标引的系统功能实现,包括标引知识库的格式转换、算法实现和系统实现,并收集语料进行测试。最后对自动赋词标引的结果进行了分析,并且总结了该自动赋词标引研究的特点和不足,介绍了未来的工作设想。%The author introduced the system structure and function of Chinese science and technology system firstly, then designed the whole idea of automatic assignment topics indexing, completed the function of automatic assignment topics indexing system, including knowledge base format conversion, algorithm and system implementation, and col ected data to test the result. Final y, author analyzed the result of the automatic assignment topics indexing, summarized the characteristics and the insufficiency of automatic assignment topic indexing, and introduced the future work.

  12. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  13. Modernization of Chinese herbal compound and the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)

    LI Wen-lan; SUN Zhi; DU Juan


    Chinese herbal compound is playing an important role on curing human diseases. And it has been a trend that Chinese herbal compound is being used all over the world in 21 century. However, our Chinese herbal compound is facing serious challenge for the lack of canonical system of quality criterion for Chinese herbal compound so it has been a urgent problem to set up the quality control standards and reveal therapeutic basis of Chinese herbal compound. In order to give full play to the advantages of Chinese herbal compound, modern scientific and technological is used to research of Chinese herbal compound, especially the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS), because it is high sensitive, rapid, and obtain more information. It is very necessary that HPLC-MS is uesed to elucidate the effective components of basic substances of Chinese Herbal Compound, and endow traditional Chinese medicine with modern scientific connotation.

  14. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Pitrelli Nico


    Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  15. The new “Chinese dream” regards science communication

    Pitrelli Nico


    Full Text Available Science and technology: these are the mainstays China wants to concentrate on in order to stabilise its future as an emerging world power. Beijing plans to have the whole, enormous Chinese population literate in the scientific field within a few years. Scientific popularization is the key to what now, due to political influences and deep social disparities, seems remote.

  16. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology.

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu


    Discoveries are a driving force for progress in palaeontology. Palaeontology as a discipline of scientific inquiry has gained many fresh insights into the history of life, from the discoveries of many new fossils in China in the last 20 years, and from the new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology and evolutionary biology based on new fossils from China. These fossils and their studies help to clarify some historical debates about a particular fossil group, or to raise new questions about history of life, or to pose a new challenge in our pursuit of science. These works on new Chinese fossils have covered the whole range of the diversity through the entire Phanerozoic fossil record. PMID:19812080

  17. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  18. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon.

    Hofmann, Eileen E; Cahill, Bronwyn; Fennel, Katja; Friedrichs, Marjorie A M; Hyde, Kimberly; Lee, Cindy; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G; O'Reilly, John E; Wilkin, John; Xue, Jianhong


    Continental margin systems are important contributors to global nutrient and carbon budgets. Effort is needed to quantify this contribution and how it will be modified under changing patterns of climate and land use. Coupled models will be used to provide projections of future states of continental margin systems. Thus, it is appropriate to consider the limitations that impede the development of realistic models. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of modeling carbon cycling on continental margins as well as the processes and issues that provide the next challenges to such models. Our overview is done within the context of a coupled circulation-biogeochemical model developed for the northeastern North American continental shelf region. Particular choices of forcing and initial fields and process parameterizations are used to illustrate the consequences for simulated distributions, as revealed by comparisons to observations using quantitative statistical metrics. PMID:21329200

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  20. Freshwater peat on the continental shelf

    Emery, K.O.; Wigley, R.L.; Bartlett, A.S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E.S.


    Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

  1. Management of Chinese restaurant

    Cui , Longbo


    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  2. Model-Data Comparisons of Pan-Continental Drought over North America during the Common Era

    Coats, S.; Smerdon, J. E.; Seager, R.; Cook, B.


    Pan-continental droughts, or droughts that simultaneously affect a large percentage of the geographically and climatically distinct regions of North America, present significant on-the-ground management challenges and, as such, are an important target for scientific research. There are, however, two fundamental reasons why a comprehensive characterization of pan-continental droughts, and their causes, proves challenging: 1) Regional hydroclimate in North America is characterized by distinct atmosphere-ocean dynamics; 2) The relative rarity of pan-continental drought and the short (~150 year) observational record mean that there are few events by which to diagnose how these relatively distinct regional hydroclimate dynamics can combine to produce pan-continental drought. The paradigm of model-data comparisons on paleoclimatic timescales is used herein to extend the North American drought record and to simulate potential atmosphere-ocean states during pan-continental droughts, which together provide a more comprehensive understanding of pan-continental drought dynamics. Specifically, six forced transient simulations of the last millennium from the CMIP5/PMIP3 archives are analyzed in conjunction with gridded tree-ring reconstructions of hydroclimate variability from the North American Drought Atlas (NADA). Models are found to simulate pan-continental drought with the frequency and spatial patterns exhibited by the NADA. They do not, however, agree on the modes of atmosphere-ocean variability that produce pan-continental droughts. This is because simulated ENSO, PDO and AMO dynamics, and their teleconnections to North America, are different between models and observations. Despite these dynamical differences, models are also able to reproduce large-magnitude centennial-scale variability in the frequency of pan-continental drought occurrence—an important feature of the paleoclimate record. These changes do not appear to be tied to exogenous forcings, suggesting that

  3. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  4. Thoughts on studies of China continental geology and tectonics

    ZHANG Guowei; GUO Anli; YAO Anping


    As an important part of the global continents, China continent has long been situated in the peculiar tectonic position and experienced extremely complicated activities, which resulted in the regional unique characteristics for China continent on the global common geological background. These characteristics contain abundant information regarding scientific key issues of modern geological frontier. Thus, China continent can be a natural laboratory and excellent arena for the modern geosciences. The modern earth sciences have started entering the era featured with earth systematic science and beyond plate tectonics. How to take the regional advantage and exploit the treasure resource to participate the new theoretical and methodological creation is a historic opportunity and great challenge we are facing. This paper generalizes research priorities in four fields on China continental geology and tectonics for discussion. They are: China continental tectonics and dynamics; Mesozoic-Cenozoic crustal deformation and deep-seated processes in China continent and the adjacent regions; deep-seated dynamic background and evolutionary trend of crustal tectonic activities on the time scale of human existence; deepseated background and processes of conjunction and transformation of different tectonic systems.

  5. Tectonic development of regions in continental margins on both sides of the Tsinlin paleosea

    Van, Kh.; Chzhou, Ch.; Syu, Ch.


    Starting from the middle Proterozoic (1.9-2.0 billion years ago) the region of Tsinlin was boundary, separating the territory of China geographically into north and south parts. In this region, located between the continental margins of the North Chinese platform in the north and the Yangtze in the south there were marine conditions which disappeared with the completion of the Indochinese phase of folding. Stratigraphy, conditions of sedimentation, magmatism, main faults, evolution of the tectonic structure of the region are described. The boundary between the two ancient continentaly margins passes on the Fensyan-Shanyan fault which reaches Lake Tsinkhay in the west and the Nanyan basin in the east. This fault can be called the convergent zone of absorption of the Earth's crust. On both sides of this zone, batholites of Indochinese and Yanshan age are developed. They are associated apparently with the collision of opposite marginal-continental blocks. The northern continental margin which refers to the North Chinese platform can be separated (from north to south) into 3 zones: middle-upper Proterozoic (Kuanpin and Taovan groups), Caledonian (Tsinlin group) and Hercynian (Drevonsko-Carboniferous flyschoid series). The Caledonian zone is delimited to the south by faults of Shannan-Danfen which is an early Paleozoic zone of subduction (accretion zone for absorption of the Earth's crust of Shannan-Danfen). The southern continental margin from the north of the platform of the Yangtze includes 2 zones: south, Caledonian with deposits of a marginal sea and north, Hercynian-Indochinese age with miogeosynclinal deposits. The boundary between the zones is marked by several massifs of the microcontinent type which are represented by upper Proterozoic epimetamorphic, volcanogenic sedimentary series (Yunsi group); along the northern side of this boundary, local subduction zones are encountered.

  6. On the Academic Responsibility and Social Mission of Chinese Postgraduates

    Jun Yang; Min Xie


    The progress of Chinese society requires scientific development which is the only path to get rid of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis. Under the circumstance of pre-modernity dilemma and modernity crisis, contemporary postgraduates confront many dilemmas and crises both of education and society. Under the guidance of scientific development, the solution is to realize the academic responsibility of postgraduates by scientifically developing, to accomplish the social mission by promot...

  7. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  8. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Johnson, Georgia G.


    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  9. Continental drift, organic evolution, and moral courage

    Irving, Edward

    For the past 40 years or so there has been much discussion of the reasons why, even though there was substantial evidence for it, the continental drift hypothesis of Alfred Wegener and Wladimir Koppen was rejected in the first half of the 20th century. It was often derisively dismissed out of hand.On April 7, 1998, there was a note in Eos by David Stern that included a perceptive and amusing quotation from Teddy Bullard on the question, which has recently reached something of a culmination in an important new book, The Rejection of Continental Drift, by Naomi Oreskes and published by Oxford in 1999.

  10. China ranks second in scientific publications since 2006.

    Zhou, P


    With the fast development of its economy, China plays an increasingly important role in the world. China's performance in science is also impressive. The exponential growth of Chinese scientific publications provides evidence. However, statistical results about China's world share of scientific publications provided by different institutions and researchers have been in disagreement. With the data for 2007 being now available, we provide an update on this issue and conclude that China has bec...

  11. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Balachandran C


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  12. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.


    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  13. Chinese Translation of Coca Cola: Analysis and Enlightenment

    Shiyang Ran


    The Chinese translation of Coca Cola is thought to be a well-known good translation, and many people discussed the translation or brand translation with it as an example. A large number of books or articles generally and abstractly conclude that the Chinese translation leaves people a kind of feeling of coolness and cleanness, pleases and attracts consumers’ attention and their favor, however there is not still a book or an article studying systematically and scientifically how good the trans...

  14. 大陆法系刑法中的“客观的处罚条件”%Objective Condition of Punishment in Criminal Law of Continental Law System-In Perspective of the Criminal Law of Germany, Italy, Chinese Taiwan



    The objective condition of punishment is the reason for containing punishment which is widespread in criminal law of Continental Law System. It means that a person would not be punished before the certain objective condition which is stipulated by criminal law appears since his behavior has constituted a crime. Although there is not any explicit provision about the objective condition of punishment in German criminal code, the criminal law theorists in Germany recognize it commonly. Italian criminal code has explicit provision about the objective condition of punishment in its General Provisions, and in Specific Provisions many crimes involve it. There is also not any explicit provision about it in Taiwan’s“Criminal Code”, but most Taiwan scholars take it as the fourth special element of crime in special circumstances.%“客观的处罚条件”是大陆法系刑法中普遍存在的限制刑罚发动的事由。它是指行为构成犯罪后,法律规定必须出现一定客观状况才对行为人施加刑罚的情况。德国刑法虽然没有明文予以规定,但理论界的共识是承认的。意大利刑法对此在总则中做了明确规定,在分则中也有相当罪名涉及。中国台湾地区“刑法”虽然也没有明确规定客观处罚条件,但多数学者认为其是特殊情况下的第四种犯罪成立要素。

  15. Chinese Food in America

    Jou, Diana T.


    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  16. Danish-accented Chinese

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  17. 准确把握社会主义核心价值体系科学内涵 坚决维护中华民族复兴的精神家园%Grasp Scientific Connotation of Socialist Core Value System, Safeguard Rejuvenation of Chinese Nation's Spiritual Home

    张秀华; 魏稳涛


    党的十六届六中全会第一次明确提出社会主义核心价值体系,在十七大报告中胡锦涛总书记进一步指出:"社会主义核心价值体系是社会主义意识形态的本质体现。"十七届六中全会通过的《决议》则进一步强调:"社会主义核心价值体系是兴国之魂,是社会主义先进文化的精髓,决定着中国特色社会主义发展方向。"准确把握社会主义核心价值体系的科学内涵,在实践中能更好地宣传和践行,特别是在澄清价值问题方面的一些模糊认识,具有十分重要的意义。%The core value system of socialism was put forward in the Sixth Plenary Session of the Sixteenth Central Commit- tee clearly for the first time,in the report of the 17 th Congress General Secretary Hu Jintao pointed out: "the socialist core value system is the essence of the socialist ideology". Seventeen sessions of six CCP plenary conferences through the "reso- lution" was further stressed: "the core value system of socialism is the soul of a country,advanced socialist culture is the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics, determines the direction of development." Accurately grasp the scientific connotation of socialist core value system ,which has very important sense in clarifying the value problems of some fuzzy understanding, have very important sense.

  18. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.


    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  19. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    Stout, Prentice K.


    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  20. Swell transformation across the continental shelf

    Tinder, Cynthia Viernes


    A preliminary analysis of swell decay across the continental shelf was conducted using data from the SHOaling Waves EXperiment (SHOWEX). Six Datawell Directional Waverider buoys were deployed along a cross-shelf transect, offshore of Duck, North Carolina during an active hurricane season in the fall of 1999.

  1. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Menzel, D.W.


    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  2. Tectonics and melting in intra-continental settings

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina


    Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation aswell asmetamorphismandmelting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly appar

  3. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  4. Chinese Medicines Induce Cell Death: The Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms for Cancer Therapy

    Xuanbin Wang; Yibin Feng; Ning Wang; Fan Cheung; Hor Yue Tan; Sen Zhong; Charlie Li; Seiichi Kobayashi


    Chinese medicines have long history in treating cancer. With the growing scientific evidence of biomedical researches and clinical trials in cancer therapy, they are increasingly accepted as a complementary and alternative treatment. One of the mechanisms is to induce cancer cell death. Aim. To comprehensively review the publications concerning cancer cell death induced by Chinese medicines in recent years and provide insights on anticancer drug discovery from Chinese medicines. Materials and...

  5. Chinese Patent Medicine Tongxinluo Capsule for Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Wei Liu


    Background. This study was intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo capsule for hypertension. Search Strategy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, The PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data started from the first of database to October 28, 2013. No language restriction was applied. We in...

  6. Getting Healthy Scientifically


    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  7. The ICDP Information Network - A Link between Continental and Marine Data ?

    Conze, R.; Behrends, K.; Waechter, J.


    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. On the other hand ODP as well as the future OD21 have also the same objectives on studying the marine geosciences: 'The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) is an international partnership of scientists and research institutions organized to explore the evolution and structure of Earth. ODP provides researchers around the world access to a vast repository of geological and environmental information recorded far below the ocean surface in seafloor sediments and rocks. By studying ODP data we gain a better understanding of Earth's past, present, and future.' (ODP web site, The main objective of the Information Network ( of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program is to provide comprehensive data and information management for continental scientific drilling projects. The Information Network offers services supporting: ” the common portal for and dissemination of project information by the ICDP Clearinghouse, ” capture of scientific drilling data using individual On-Site Drilling

  8. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  9. [Study on path of transforming traditional Chinese medicine research achievement into guideline].

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yuwen, Ya


    At present, a number of scientific research achievements has been formed. Scientific achievement is the crystallization of great efforts from scientific workers, and it's also the valuable treasure of human civilization. Standardization is an important way to promote the international communication of Chinese medicine, and it's significant in boosting China's scientific and technological progress, improving market competitiveness and promoting international trade. Transformation of scientific research to the guideline is not only beneficial to improving the technology content of the standard, but also to the conversion from scientific research achievements into productivity. Therefore, only by absorbing the advanced scientific and technological achievements, reproducing the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and medical technology in standard form, can make TCM keep pace with the times. This study preliminarily explores for the method to transform scientific research achievements into guideline, in order to provide reference for the future technical specifications, thus to further the development of TCM. PMID:25532407

  10. What is scientific misconduct?

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  11. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scientific Integrity Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Scientific Integrity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of...

  12. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin


    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  13. Incipient speciation with gene flow on a continental island: Species delimitation of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni, Passeriformes, Aves).

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin; Wang, Jichao; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Liang, Wei; Yao, Cheng-Te; Li, Shou-Hsien


    Because of their isolation, continental islands (e.g., Madagascar) are often thought of as ideal systems to study allopatric speciation. However, many such islands have been connected intermittently to their neighboring continent during recent periods of glaciation, which may cause frequent contact between the diverging populations on the island and continent. As a result, the speciation processes on continental islands may not meet the prerequisites for strictly allopatric speciation. We used multiple lines of evidence to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of the Hainan Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum owstoni), which is endemic to Hainan, the largest continental island in the South China Sea. Our analysis of mitochondrial DNA and twelve nuclear loci suggests that the Hainan Hwamei can be regarded as an independent species (L. owstoni); the morphological traits of the Hainan Hwamei also showed significant divergence from those of their mainland sister taxon, the Chinese Hwamei (L. canorum). We also inferred the divergence history of the Hainan and Chinese Hwamei to see whether their divergence was consistent with a strictly allopatric model. Our results suggest that the two Hwameis split only 0.2 million years ago with limited asymmetrical post-divergence gene flow. This implies that the Hainan Hwamei is an incipient species and that speciation occurred through ecologically divergent selection and/or assortative mating rather than a strictly allopatric process. PMID:27233437

  14. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro


    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. PMID:26296626

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.


    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. Strain weakening enables continental plate tectonics

    Gueydan, Frédéric; Précigout, Jacques; Montesi, Laurent G.J.


    International audience Much debate exists concerning the strength distribution of the continental lithosphere, how it controls lithosphere-scale strain localization and hence enables plate tectonics. No rheological model proposed to date is comprehensive enough to describe both the weakness of plate boundary and rigid-like behaviour of plate interiors. Here we show that the duality of strength of the lithosphere corresponds to different stages of microstructural evolution. Geological const...

  17. Sustainable Offshore Wind Potential in Continental Portugal

    Costa, P.; Simões, T. (Tânia); Estanqueiro, Ana


    This study intends to depict the availability of the sustainable offshore wind energy for Continental Portugal and identify the preliminary areas for developing offshore wind parks. Two scenarios were performed to distinct the different offshore wind turbine prototypes assembled by the manufactory energy sector – bottom fixed and floating models. The results achieved until now indicate that Portugal has a very large potential for offshore wind deployments ready to be exploited, especial...

  18. Corporate Governance Reforms in Continental Europe

    Luca Enriques; Paolo Volpin


    The fundamental problem of corporate governance in the United States is to alleviate the conflict of interest between dispersed small shareowners and powerful controlling managers. The fundamental corporate governance in continental Europe and in most of the rest of the world is different. There, few listed companies are widely held. Instead, the typical firm in stock exchanges around the world has a dominant shareholder, usually an individual or a family, who controls the majority of the vot...

  19. Precipitation of Continental Origin over South America

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.


    The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.

  20. Magmatic expressions of continental lithosphere removal

    Wang, Huilin; Currie, Claire A.


    Gravitational lithosphere removal in continental interior has been inferred from various observations, including anomalous surface deflections and magmatism. We use numerical models and a simplified theoretical analysis to investigate how lithosphere removal can be recognized in the magmatic record. One style of removal is a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, where removal occurs through dripping. The associated magmatism depends on the lithosphere thermal structure. Four types of magmatism ar...



    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  2. Continental Drift”: Translation and Kimiko Hahn’s Transcultural Poetry

    Xiwen Mai


    Full Text Available In the context of the expanding discourse of transnational Asian American Studies, this essay studies Kimiko Hahn, particularly her engagement with East Asian traditions in her poetry, and shows how her work exemplifies a transcultural Asian American literature that requires reading beyond the domestic boundaries of the United States. Drawing on Walter Benjamin's and Gayatri Spivak’s translation studies, it examines how Hahn critiques the assimilationist representation of Asian women in translations of Asian texts such as Arthur Waley’s version of Lady Murasaki’s The Tale of Genji. It then reads how, based on her thoughts about literary translation, Hahn experiments with creative practices of “translation,” including a retranslation of Ezra Pound’s Chinese images and untranslation of zuihitsu. Rewriting Ezra Pound’s Chinese images, Hahn reconstructs women’s voice in ancient Chinese writings. Undoing the simplistic interpretation of the classical Japanese form zuihitsu, her restorative untranslation of the form makes connections between the discursive agency of ancient Asian women writers and contemporary women poets. Thus, Hahn’s translational writing reveals a poetics of “continental drift,” a poetics that calls attention to the necessity of reading Asian American literature in transnational and transcultural contexts.

  3. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)


    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  4. Primary scientific results of Chang’E-1 lunar mission


    The strategic plan for the development of the unmanned Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is characterized by three distinct stages: "orbiting around", "landing on" and "returning from" the Moon. The first Chinese lunar probe, Chang’E-1, which was successfully launched on October 24th, 2007 at Xichang Satellite Launch Center, and guided to crash on the Moon on March 1st, 2009, at 52.36°E, 1.50°S, in the north of Mare Fecunditatis, is the first step towards the "orbiting around" stage. The Chang’E-1 mission lasted 495 days, exceeding the expected life-span by about four months. A total of 1.37 TB raw data was received from Chang’E-1. It was then processed into 4 TB scientific data products at various levels. Many scientific results have been obtained by analyzing these data, including especially the "global lunar image from the first Chinese lunar explora- tion mission". All scientific goals of Chang’E-1 have been achieved. It provides much useful materials for further advances of lunar sciences and planetary chemistry. Meanwhile, these results will serve as a firm basis for future Chinese lunar missions.

  5. Evaluating a scientific collaboratory

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Whitton, Mary C.; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.


    process of scientific work completed by 20 pairs of participants (upper level undergraduate science students) working face-to-face and remotely. We collected scientific outcomes (graded lab reports) to investigate the quality of scientific work, post-questionnaire data to measure the adoptability of the......The evaluation of scientific collaboratories has lagged behind their development. Do the capabilities afforded by collaboratories outweigh their disadvantages? To evaluate a scientific collaboratory system, we conducted a repeated-measures controlled experiment that compared the outcomes and...... of collaborating remotely. While the data analysis produced null results, considered as a whole, the analysis leads us to conclude there is positive potential for the development and adoption of scientific collaboratory systems....

  6. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.


    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  7. Rational Thoughts on the Development of Chinese Auto Industry

    Shao Qihui


    @@ In order to keep the steady, fast and sustainable development of auto industry, we should have an overall knowledge of the history and current situation of the world auto industry, and have a correct strategic planning and scientific measures towards the Chinese auto industry.

  8. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  9. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad



    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.



    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  11. Say That in Chinese


    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  12. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Hong, Wei


    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  13. Chinese by Choice

    Beem, Kate


    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  14. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  15. Modern Chinese History Studies


    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  16. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Esther Kessler


    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  17. On Chinese Parody Translation



    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  18. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    Wang, Zuoyue


    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  19. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session


    ... Orleans Convention Center. DATES: Tuesday, May 14, 2013, Plenary Session from 9:00 a.m. to noon and.... ADDRESSES: 859 Convention Center Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana 70130, telephone (504) 613-2888....

  20. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    徐琳; 高文


    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  1. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  2. Competitiveness of the Norwegian continental shelf

    The report relates to an initiative from the Ministry of Industry and Energy in Norway to establish a development and operation forum in the petroleum sector. The aim of the forum's work is to identify and to be a contribution to realize measures for the further development of improving the competitiveness on the Norwegian continental shelf. In this connection, the importance is to focus on increased efficiency (included timing), and measures to reduce the level of exploration, development, and operation costs, and to make the Norwegian suppliers more cost efficient. The Ministry emphasizes the fundamental advantage of cooperating the work between the oil companies, suppliers, research centres, and authorities. 4 figs

  3. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice


    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  4. Finite-element models of continental extension

    Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul


    Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.

  5. Dynamics of the Precambrian Continental Crust

    Perchuk, L. L.; Gerya, T. V.; van Reenen, D. D.; Smit, C. A.


    The Precambrian continental crust is mainly composed of (1) granite greenstone belts (GGB) and (2) granulite facies complexes (GFC). The GFC are often separated from GGB by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with characteristic sense of movements reflecting thrusting of GFC onto cratonic rocks. The isotope age of the shear zones is identical to GFC, while the latter are always younger than the granite greenstone belts. The dynamics relationships between these two geological units strongly determine tectonic evolution of the Precambrian continental crust. Numerous thermobarometric studies of magmatic and metamorphic rocks show that the Archaean to Early Protorozoic crust as well as the Mantle were hot and therefore relatively soft. Such geothermal regimes may limit separation and movement of micro continents, limiting collisional mechanisms in evolution of the Precambrian crust. The goal of this paper is to show evidence for an alterative model that is based on the mechanism of gravitational redistribution of rocks within the Precambrian continental crust, which might be initiated by a fluid/heat flow related to mantle plumes. The model is tested on the basis of geological, geochemical, geophysical and petrologic data for many paired GFT GGB complexes around the word. Studied granulite complexes are located in between Archaean GGB from which they are separated by inward dipping crustal scale shear zones with reverse sense of movements. The most important evidence for this mechanism is: (i) the near isobaric cooling (IC) and (ii) decompression cooling (DC) shapes of the retrograde P T paths recorded in GFC, while rocks from the juxtaposed GGB in footwalls of the bounding shear zones record P T loops. The Pmax of the loops corresponds to the Pmin, recorded in GFC. Thus the GGB P T loop reflects the burial and ascending of the juxtaposed GGB while the GFC P T path records the exhumation only. The identical isotopic age of GFC and contacting rocks from the shear

  6. Biodiversidad del margen continental del Caribe colombiano.


    Incluye valiosa información producto de varios años de investigación marina de las aguas profundas, la plataforma continental y el talud superior del Caribe colombiano, llevada a cabo por un grupo multidisciplinario de investigadores en áreas de taxonomía, geología, ecología, cartografía y conservación del Invemar. Dentro de los resultados más destacados se encuentra el haber colectado e identificado más de 1600 especies, de las cuales alrededor del 35% se constituyeron en primeros registr...

  7. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju


    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. PMID:25300714

  8. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi


    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  9. GIS and RS soil-vegetation correlations for continental salt-lands habitats in NE Romania

    Dan Laurenţiu Stoica


    Full Text Available Continental saltlands have a high degree of peculiarity amongst European primary habitats and a prominent insular character. The present scientific approach establishes the degree of soil-vegetation correlation in continental slatlands patches as a measure of habitat continuity/fragmentation and soil conservation/degradation. The use of hyperspectral imagery, soil types’ distribution and vegetal associations’ conservation status reveal disturbances in relation with human induced modifications in comparison with normal plant-soil interdependence. Supervised classifications of LANDSAT satellite imagery along with detailed soil maps, ground truth data provided by accurate GPS positioning and field based plants evaluation are used to perform landscape metrics analyses. The landscape metrics approach is meant to find the balance between extent and grain in the case of saltlands habitats analyses and the degree of patches and classes inhomogeneity. These also give an insight of habitats connectivity and/or isolation in relation with land use topology and soil multiplexing. The resulting training sets developed for a representative, protected area in the county of Iaşi enhance the creation of a comprehensive mask to be used for the evaluation of larger areas in the silvan-steppes of North-Eastern Romania. The model is statistically tested to depict the degree of correlation and confidence. The final goal resides in more proper measures elaboration for the mitigation of continental saltland preservation and natural resources exploitation via agricultural and the associated activities.

  10. Research in Ancient Chinese Language


    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  11. Norwegian Continental Shelf Petroleum Pipe-It Integrator & Production Forecaster

    Johannessen, Kjetil


    This thesis summarizes and concludes my master thesis research work. The main objective of this research was to develop a rigorous and generic forecast model for all the fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf based on publically available data and free software. Pipe-It Norwegian Continental Shelf Integrator and Forecaster solution provides the opportunity to forecast oil and gas production rate and economics for all assets on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The solution is automatically ...

  12. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Krishna, K.S.

    margins of India, with which some of the main geological features of continental margins have been modified. This article provides a brief review on theory of plate tectonics for understanding the process of intra- continental breakup..., thereby the results are discussed for classification of the margins. The Theory of Plate Tectonics The theory of continental drift, which paves the way for discovery of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener as early as in 1912...

  13. Numerical simulation of the collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates and the deformations of the present Chinese continent


    In this paper the continental lithosphere of the East Asia is regarded as a continuum in a power law rheology. It lays on a relative soft upper mantle and limited in a trapezoid geological frame. The movement of the Indian Plate at the rate of 5 cm/a is assumed to be the main driving force for the Tibet Plateau(s uplift and the lithosphere deformation of the Chinese continent. The numerical simulation shows that the predicted horizontal deformation model of the Chinese continent is comparable with the results of the GPS observation. It implicates that the collision and compression between India and Eurasia Plates is the main driving force of the horizontal deformations of the Chinese continent. It is also shows that the patterns of the continental deformation are controlled by many factors such as the dynamical parameters of the lithosphere and the boundary conditions as well.

  14. Scientific Utopia: I. Opening scientific communication

    Nosek, Brian A


    Existing norms for scientific communication are rooted in anachronistic practices of bygone eras, making them needlessly inefficient. We outline a path that moves away from the existing model of scientific communication to improve the efficiency in meeting the purpose of public science - knowledge accumulation. We call for six changes: (1) full embrace of digital communication, (2) open access to all published research, (3) disentangling publication from evaluation, (4) breaking the "one article, one journal" model with a grading system for evaluation and diversified dissemination outlets, (5) publishing peer review, and, (6) allowing open, continuous peer review. We address conceptual and practical barriers to change, and provide examples showing how the suggested practices are being used already. The critical barriers to change are not technical or financial; they are social. While scientists guard the status quo, they also have the power to change it.

  15. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui


    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  16. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin


    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  17. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  18. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    H. F. Goessling


    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  19. Collision zone magmatism aids continental crustal growth

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Ralf, Halama; Gevorg, Navasardian; Chuck, Connor; Massimo, D'Antonio; Samuele, Agostini; Osamu, Ishizuka; Sergei, Karapetian; Arkadi, Karakhanian


    The continental crust has a broadly andesitic bulk composition and is predominantly generated at convergent margins. However, estimates of the bulk composition of oceanic arcs indicate a bulk composition closer to basalt than to andesite. Hence, reworking processes that transform basaltic island arc crust into andesitic continental crust are essential[1] and explaining growth of andesitic continental crust via accretion of arc crustal fragments remains problematic. Recent studies of magmatism in the Great Tibetan Plateau[2], as site of multiple and still active continent-continent collisions, have proposed that andesitic CC is generated via amalgamation of large volumes of collision-related felsic magmas generated by melting of hydrated oceanic crust with mantle geochemical signatures. We aim to test this hypothesis by evaluating geochemical data from the volcanically and tectonically active Lesser Caucasus region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and E. Turkey), as the only other region where active continent-continent collision takes place. We will benefit from the newly compiled volcano-tectonic database of collision-related volcanic and plutonic rocks of Armenia that is comparable in quality and detail to the one available on Tibet. Our dataset combines several detailed studies from the large Aragats shield volcano[3] and associated monogenetic volcanic fields (near the capital city of Yerevan), as well as > 500 Quaternary to Holocene volcanoes from Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic highlands (toward Armenia-Nagorno-Karabakh-Azerbaijan-Iran border). The Armenian collision-related magmatism is diverse in volume, composition, eruption style and volatile contents. Interestingly, the majority of exposed volcanics are andesitic in composition. Nearly all collision-related volcanic rocks, even the highly differentiated dacite and rhyolite ignimbrites, have elevated Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying only little (average ~ 0.7043 and ~ 0

  20. Success factors of Chinese restaurants

    Aakala, Liwen Heli


    The objectives of the thesis fall into three aspects: 1) understanding Chinese entrepreneurship through some major aspects; such as, the characteristics of Chinese entrepreneur and successful skills needed; 2) scanning the Chinese culture that is associated with their entrepreneurial success in restaurant business as well as understanding the Finnish culture that affects Chinese restaurants’ presence in Finland; 3) acquainting with the competitive strategies that those Chinese restaurants emp...

  1. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    Gupta, H. K.


    The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10

  2. The Contrast of Chinese and English in the Translation of Chinese Poetry

    Ning Li


    Chinese poetry is the soul of Chinese literature and Chinese culture. A good translation of a Chinese verse can promote the prevalence of Chinese culture. In the translation of Chinese poetry, translators should not only keep the characteristics of Chinese poems, but also embody the English characteristics. This article analyzed some versions of translation and proposed factors affecting the translation of Chinese poetry.

  3. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    Bülent Pekdağ


    Full Text Available This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. Also, the information that will be beneficial for readers and researchers on the scenario preparation of scientific movies and picture selection was mentioned.

  4. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    S. M. Liu


    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  5. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese



    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  6. Chinese Female Creativity



    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  7. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  8. Chinese remainder codes

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng


    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  9. Chinese Remainder Codes

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃


    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  10. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian


    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  11. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong


    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals remarkable predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society,...

  12. Russia's scientific legacy


    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  13. 《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》2009-2013年文献计量学分析%Analysis of the scientific papers published in the Chinese Journal of Nautical Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine from 2009 to 2013 through the approach of bibliometrics

    甘辉亮; 吕传禄; 王映红; 林永丽; 莫琳芳; 张阵阵


    目的 通过分析《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》2009-2013年的文献计量学指标,使读者更全面地了解该期刊,为本编辑部提升杂志学术水平提供借鉴与参考.方法 运用文献计量学方法,以该刊2009-2013年刊载文献为研究对象,参考2010-2014年《中国科技期刊引证报告(扩刊版)》,对杂志5年间载文量、引用频次、影响因子、基金论文比、地区分布数等指标进行统计分析.结果 (1)载文量:年期刊载文量逐年下降,2013年略有回升;(2)引用频次:总被引频次整体呈现出逐年递增的趋势,即年指标2011年大幅提升,2012-2013年趋于平稳;(3)影响因子:2010-2011年期刊影响因子相对较低,2012、2013年影响因子有较大提升;(4)基金论文比:2012年最高为0.38,2013年最低为0.128,波动较大.(5)地区分布数:近5年,期刊每年刊载来自全国约20个省、自治区、直辖市约90个机构与单位的稿件;(6)平均作者数:每年的论文平均作者数均大于4.结论 《中华航海医学与高气压医学杂志》是我国航海医学、高压氧医学、潜水医学领域唯一的核心期刊,亦是本领域的医师、学者、机构进行科研、交流的重要平台.通过近5年的文献计量学统计分析,能够客观反映期刊的发展现状与趋势,对指导期刊改进工作和促进学科发展有重要的借鉴意义.%Objective To get a more comprehensive knowledge of the Chinese Journal of Nautical Medicine and Hyperbaric Medicine through analysis of the bibliometric data published in the journal from 2009 -2013,so that readers will have a profound knowledge of the journal and it will also facilitate the editorial board to improve the academic level of the journal by drawing experience from others.Methods With the scientific papers published in the journal from 2009-2013 as research subjects,in reference to " the Citation Report of the China Science and Technology Journals" between the years of

  14. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    Bülent Pekdağ


    This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. A...

  15. Shaping a Scientific Self

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold the...... importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....


    Masic, Izet


    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in ...

  17. Achievements of Space Scientific Experiments Aboard SJ-8 Satellite

    XIE Jingchang; WAN Shixin; ZHANG Pu; LIN Hai; LIU Fang; HU Wenrui


    As scientific experiment payloads, microgravity experiments of fluid physics, life science,combustion science, physics and accelerator measurement were conducted on board the Chinese recoverable satellite SJ-8 during 18-day orbital flight. The experimental payloads and an experiment support system constituted the microgravity experiment system of the flight mission. This article has presented the briefs of the scientific achievements of these space experiments, the composition and performance of the Microgravity Experimental System (MES) and the general picture of the overall flight mission, respectively.

  18. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    Peter Proksch


    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  19. The Chinese Politeness Scale



    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine


    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  1. Chinese New Year



    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  2. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Daniel Zhou


    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  3. Country Review: Chinese Taipei



    This report, prepared by the Secretariat of the OECD was the basis for a peer review examination of Chinese Taipei at the OECD’s Global Forum on Competition on 9 February, 2006. Competition law in Chinese Taipei has been an important element of the program of economic reforms that moved the economy from centrally directed emphasis on manufacturing and exports to a market-driven emphasis on services and high technology. The competition law follows mainstream practice about restrictive agreemen...

  4. The Magic of Chinese


    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  5. Winners of 2008 CAS Award for international Scientific Cooperation

    XIN Ling


    @@ On 14 January, 2009, CAS honored three foreign scientists for their lasting and fruitful contributions to the collaboration between CAS and the world: Akito Arima, president of the Japan Science Foundation, Yuen-Ron Shen, professor of physics with the University of California at Berkley, and Michel Che, catalyst expert and chair professor at Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Their association with the Chinese scientific community can be dated back to some three decades ago.

  6. Discussion of current Chinese flag issure



    Flag issue refers to a question of what methodology to be adopted as a guiding ideology, and which road to take. Solving the problem correctly concerns to the prospect and fortune of our nation. In the tide of economic globalization and world multi-polarization, that means we must hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, implement the scientific approach on the development comprehensively, change all the wrong ideas, and don’t copy “western”mode blindly, to make the right direction of banner deeply into the hearts of people.

  7. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar


    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  8. Tropospheric arsenic over marine and continental regions

    Particulate and vapor concentrations of atmospheric As have been measured over various marine and continental areas. Particulate sample were collected on double Whatman 41 filters. Particulate-vapor samples were collected using an in-line filter system with a 0.45-μm pore size Nuclepore filters as a particle prefilter in front of two Whatman 41 filters impregnated with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and glycerol for vapor As collection. Arsenic determinations were by destructive neutron activation. The data from the Nuclepore-impregnated filter samples indicates that the major fraction of As in the atmosphere is particulate but a vapor component of As is detectable, most frequently associated with high sampling temperatures and high total As concentrations. With the data presented here, estimates of representative global near-surface concentrations of atmospheric arsenic have been made

  9. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Menzel, D.W.


    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...