Sample records for chimeric monoclonal antibody

  1. Rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for adult refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Braendstrup, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole W; Nielsen, Ove J;


    . Recent studies have shown that rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is useful in the treatment of these patients, with overall response rates of about 50%. Most published reports have included a small number patients including case reports. The present study reports the results of a...... retrospective Danish multicenter study of rituximab in the treatment of adult patients with refractory ITP. Thirty-five patients (median age 52 years, range 17-82 years, 17 males) were included. One patient had immune thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. All patients had received prednisolone (Pred). Next to Pred...

  2. A Simple Methodology for Conversion of Mouse Monoclonal Antibody to Human-Mouse Chimeric Form

    Vinh T. Dang


    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy has mainly been used as a therapy against cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have shown that monoclonal antibody-(mAb- based passive immunotherapy is a promising approach to combat virus infection. Specific mouse mAbs can be routinely generated in large amounts with the use of hybridoma technology but these cannot be used for therapy in human beings due to their immunogenicity. Therefore, the development of chimeric and humanized mAbs is important for therapeutic purpose. This is facilitated by a variety of molecular techniques like recombinant DNA technology and the better understanding of the structure and function of antibody. The human-mouse chimeric forms allow detailed analysis of the mechanism of inhibition and the potential for therapeutic applications. Here, a step-by-step description of the conversion process will be described. The commercial availability of the reagents required in each step means that this experimentation can be easily set up in research laboratories.

  3. Advances on the treatment of solid tumor by 131I labeled mouse-human chimeric tumor necrosis therapy monoclonal antibody

    131I labeled mouse-human chimeric tumor necrosis therapy monoclonal antibody (131I-chTNT) is a kind of new drug targeting at degenerated or necrotic nuclei in the tumor necrosis zone,and may be applicable to the majority of human solid tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer,colon carcinoma and glioma, while conventional tumor cell monoclonal antibody can target only tumor cell surface antigen. Enhanced effects can be achieved by 131I-chTNT in combination with other therapies, such as radiotherapy,chemotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, which may increase tumor necrosis region and expose more combinative targets. (authors)

  4. A Molecular Model for Cocaine Binding by the Immunotherapeutic Human/Mouse Chimeric Monoclonal Antibody 2E2

    Lape, Michael; Paula, Stefan; Ball, William J.


    Immunotherapy by cocaine-binding monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. The human (γ1 heavy chain)/murine (λ light chain) chimeric mAb 2E2 has excellent affinity and specificity for cocaine and recent animal studies have demonstrated 2E2’s ability in vivo to reduce cocaine levels in the brain as well as alter cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. In this study, we used mAb 2E2 amino acid sequence information to create a...

  5. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled chimeric anti-NCA 95 antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody for bone marrow imaging

    Sarwar, M.; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others


    Chimeric mouse-human antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody (ch MAb) against non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA-95) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc (using a direct method) and {sup 125}I (using the chloramine T method), and its binding to human granulocytes and LS-180 colorectal carcinoma cells expressing carcinoembryonic antigen on their surfaces, cross-reactive with anti-NCA-95 chimeric monoclonal antibody, increased in proportion to the number of cells added and reached more than 80% and 90%, respectively. In biodistribution studies, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 125}I-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 MAb revealed high tumor uptake, and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 2.9 after 24 hours. The tumor-to-normal-organ ratio was also more than 3.0 in all organs except for the tumor-to-kidney ratio. Scintigrams of athymic nude mice confirmed the results of biodistribution studies that showed higher radioactivity in tumor and kidney of the mice administered with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch MAb. A normal volunteer injected with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled ch anti-NCA-95 antigranulocyte MAb showed clear bone marrow images, and a patient with aplastic anemia revealed irregular uptake in his lumbar spine, suggesting its utility for bone marrow scintigraphy and for the detection of hematological disorders, infections, and bone metastasis. (author)

  6. Bioactivity assays and application of 125I labeled human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03

    To investigate the bioactivity and application of 125I labeled human mouse chimeric monoclonal SM03, SM03 was labeled with 125I using Indogen method. The labeled mixture was purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR separation chromospectry. The purity and concentration of separated fractions were determined by HPLC and Protein Assay Kit, respectively. Competitive binding method and ELISA method were used for bioactivity assays. 125I-SM03 was applied to screen cell lines which express the most abundant CD22 antigen. The purity and recovery of 125I-SM03 were >99% and >47%, respectively. The bioactivity of 125I- SM03 and SM03 hasn't significant difference in statistics. Ramos cell line had the strongest special radioactivity when 125I-SM03 bound with in Raji, Daudi and Ramos cell lines. Indogen method is a good way to label Human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03 and the label will not affect the activity of SM03. The 125I-SM03 not only can be used for detect agent, but also may be put into market for NHL therapy. (authors)

  7. Mammalian Cell Culture Clarification: A Case Study Using Chimeric Anti-CEA Monoclonal Antibodies

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan


    Full Text Available The extracellular expression of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs in mammalian cell culture provides both opportunities and restrictions for the design of robust harvest and clarification operations. With advances in cell culture media and cell lines, it is now possible to achieve high titers of over 5 g/l for mAbs. However, Mammalian cells are sensitive to breakage due to shear stress that can result in release of proteases and other host cell proteins (HCPs which eventually affects product stability and purity. There is larger number of mAbs undergoing clinical development and it has placed significant importance on platform technologies of process development. Generally, Centrifugation and microfiltration are the primary harvest techniques used in the industry and depth filtration is also used as a step operation on clarification. This study compares the unit operations; centrifugation, microfiltration and depth filtration for maximum recovery of monoclonal antibodies. The results have shown that the depth filtration as more suitable operation for mammalian cell culture clarification since it gives 96% recovery of mAbs in comparison to centrifugation and microfiltration. ABSTRAK: Pengungkapan luar sel dari antibodi monoklon (monoclonal antibodies ((mAbs dalam kultur sel mamalia memberi ruang dan batasan terhadap reka bentuk penuaian yang cekap dan penerangan operasi. Dengan kemajuan dalam media sel kultur dan cell lines (produk yang berupa sel kekal yang digunakan untuk tujuan kajian biologi, kini adalah berkemungkinan untuk memperolehi titer tinggi melebihi 5g/l untuk mAbs [2]. Walaupun begitu, sel mamalia sensitif terhadap retakan disebabkan tegasan ricih yang menyebabkan pengeluaran protease dan hos sel protein yang lain, (host cell proteins (HCPs akhirnya mempengaruhi kestabilan dan keaslian produk. Terdapat mAbs dalam jumlah besar yang masih menjalani pembangunan klinikal dan sesungguhnya ini penting sebagai satu landasan teknologi dalam

  8. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-specific monoclonal antibody to detect CD19-specific T cells in clinical trials.

    Bipulendu Jena

    Full Text Available Clinical trials targeting CD19 on B-cell malignancies are underway with encouraging anti-tumor responses. Most infuse T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR with specificity derived from the scFv region of a CD19-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone FMC63. We describe a novel anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb to detect CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells before and after their adoptive transfer. This mouse mAb was generated by immunizing with a cellular vaccine expressing the antigen-recognition domain of FMC63. The specificity of the mAb (clone no. 136.20.1 was confined to the scFv region of the CAR as validated by inhibiting CAR-dependent lysis of CD19(+ tumor targets. This clone can be used to detect CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a sensitivity of 1∶1,000. In clinical settings the mAb is used to inform on the immunophenotype and persistence of administered CD19-specific T cells. Thus, our CD19-specific CAR mAb (clone no. 136.20.1 will be useful to investigators implementing CD19-specific CAR(+ T cells to treat B-lineage malignancies. The methodology described to develop a CAR-specific anti-idiotypic mAb could be extended to other gene therapy trials targeting different tumor associated antigens in the context of CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy.

  9. In vitro and in vivo behavior of radiolabeled chimeric anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody: Comparison with its murine parent

    The mutant version of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFRvIII has been found on gliomas and other tumors, but not on normal tissues. Radioiodinated murine (mu) L8A4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) specifically targets EGFRvIII xenografts in vivo when labeled using N-succinimidyl 5-iodo-3-pyridinecarboxylate (SIPC). A chimeric (ch) MAb consisting of the variable region of muL8A4 and the constant domains of human IgG2 has been developed that has an affinity and radioiodinated immunoreactive fraction comparable to muL8A4. In vitro, both MAbs were internalized and processed by EGFRvIII expressing cell lines (U87MGΔEGFR or NR6M) at similar rates (maximum intracellular retention, 35-40%). In paired-label tissue distribution studies in athymic mice bearing U87MGΔEGFR tumor xenografts, the ch:mu L8A4 uptake ratio in normal tissues rose to greater than 2:1, whereas in tumor, the ratio remained 1:1 throughout the experiment. These results indicate that chL8A4 exhibits similar binding and internalization properties as its murine parent, but suggest different intracellular processing and/or deposition of catabolites in normal tissues for chL8A4

  10. Monoclonal antibodies

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are antibodies having single specificity for a given antigen site (epitope). The development of hybridoma technology and the relative ease by which MAbs can be prepared has revolutionized many aspects of serological applications in diagnosis and differentiation of disease producing agents. The property of monospecificity offers advantages in diagnostic applications over polyclonal sera in that tests can be defined exactly with regard to the antigen detected and the affinity of reaction between the given antigenic site and the monoclonal reagent. In addition, MAbs offer better possibilities for test standardization, because the same reagent can be used in different laboratories. Such an MAb can be supplied by a central laboratory or 'grown' from hybridoma cells, ensuring that the resultant product is identical from laboratory to laboratory and that the part of the test involving the MAb reaction is the same. The methodologies for inoculation regimes, mice, cloning methods, selection of fusion partners, etc., have been validated extensively in developed country laboratories. The decision to establish a MAb production facility must be examined on a strict cost-benefit basis, since it is still expensive to produce a product. There are many MAbs available that should be sought to allow exploitation in developing tests. If a production facility is envisaged, it should produce reagents for national needs, i.e. there should be a clear problem oriented approach whereby exact needs are defined. In the field of veterinary applications, MAbs are the central reagent in many immunoassays based on the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The development of specific tests for diagnosing diseases is dominated by MAbs and has been fuelled by a strong research base, mainly in developed countries allied to developing countries through the study of related diseases. Thus, there are very many assays dependent on MAbs, some of which form the basis of

  11. Monoclonal antibodies.


    The ability to produce and exploit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized many areas of biological sciences. The unique property of an mAb is that it is a single species of immunoglobulin (IG) molecule. This means that the specificity of the interaction of the paratopes on the IG, with the epitopes on an antigenic target, is the same on every molecule. This property can be used to great benefit in immunoassays to provide tests of defined specificity and sensitivity, which improve the possibilities of standardization. The performance of assays can often be determined relating the actual weight of antibody (hence the number of molecules) to the activity. Often the production of an mAb against a specific epitope is the only way that biological entities can be differentiated. This chapter outlines the areas involving the development of assays based on mAbs. The problems involved address include the physical aspects of mAbs and how they may affect assay design and also the implications of results based on monospecific reagents. Often these are not fully understood, leading to assays that are less than satisfactory, which does not justify the relatively high cost of preparing and screening of mAbs. There are many textbooks and reviews dealing with the preparation of mAbs, the principles involved, and various purification and manipulative methods for the preparation of fragments and conjugation. There has been little general information attempting to summarize the best approaches to assay design using mAbs. Much time can be wasted through bad planning, and this is particularly relevant to mAbs. A proper understanding of some basic principles is essential. It is beyond the scope of this chapter to discuss all aspects, but major areas are highlighted. PMID:19219589

  12. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    Aurelija Zvirbliene


    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89 or site #4 (aa 280–289. The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8 of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  13. Radiolabeling and biotinylation of internalizing monoclonal antibody chimeric BR96: Potential use of extracorporeal immunoadsorption with enhanced tumor radioactivity retention of Iodine, Indium and Rhenium

    Chen, JianQing


    In this thesis, methodology of radiolabeling and simultaneous biotinylation for internalizing monoclonal antibody chimeric BR96 have been investigated by using three element groups of potential therapeutic radionuclides iodine, indium and rhenium, and their different labeling methods. The biodistribution and kinetics of biotinylated and radiolabeled chiBR96 have been studied in colon carcinoma isografted rats. The potential use of ECIA, based on the biotin-avidin concept, has been evaluated and compared with the approach of avidin `chase` in the same animal tumor model with respect to an enhancement of tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N) activity ratio. 131 refs.

  14. Radiolabeling and biotinylation of internalizing monoclonal antibody chimeric BR96: Potential use of extracorporeal immunoadsorption with enhanced tumor radioactivity retention of Iodine, Indium and Rhenium

    In this thesis, methodology of radiolabeling and simultaneous biotinylation for internalizing monoclonal antibody chimeric BR96 have been investigated by using three element groups of potential therapeutic radionuclides iodine, indium and rhenium, and their different labeling methods. The biodistribution and kinetics of biotinylated and radiolabeled chiBR96 have been studied in colon carcinoma isografted rats. The potential use of ECIA, based on the biotin-avidin concept, has been evaluated and compared with the approach of avidin 'chase' in the same animal tumor model with respect to an enhancement of tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N) activity ratio. 131 refs

  15. Immunogenicity screening assay development for a novel human-mouse chimeric anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody (Metuzumab).

    Mi, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Maohua; Chen, Tao; Wang, Muyang; Sun, Le; Chen, Zhinan


    The clinical effect of patient immune responses to therapeutic antibodies affect product safety and efficacy, which makes the development of valid, sensitive immune assays a key aspect of antibody drug development. In this paper, we reported the generations of mouse monoclonal and Cynomolgus monkey polyclonal antibodies against the anti-CD147 antibody (Metuzumab) as the internal standards and the positive controls. Seven mouse monoclonal antibodies were shown to recognize both (Fab)2 and full length of Metuzumab, but not the control normal human IgGs, and monoclonal anti-Metuzumab, Clone 2D9 was chosen to be used as the internal standard for anti-Metuzumab study. A Bridging ELISA assay was developed by coating the wells with the antibody drug, and the anti-drug antibody (ADA) in the animal sera were detected by enzyme-labeled antibody. Its limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.39ng/ml of anti-Metuzumab antibody (ADA) with linear range between 0.39-50ng/ml and R(2)=0.994. For normal monkey sera, a minimal dilution was determined to be 1:80. However, very different from peptide or other protein drugs, strong interferences from the residual antibody drugs were observed from most of the testing monkey sera in the preclinical study. It was experimentally determined that the concentration of the residual antibody drug in the assay have to be lower than 1μg/ml, so the assays were carried out at 1:100 dilution of the monkey sera. In the pre-clinical study, 32 monkeys were treated with escalating doses of Metuzumab between 0, 10, 50, 200mg/kg for 13 times over 13weeks of time period. 16 of them were terminated right after the last injection, while the other 16 were rested for additional 4weeks before termination. Afraid to miss any positive response to antibody drug, sera samples were collected at six time points, including 2-, 6- and 10-weeks post 1st dose, prior to last dose, and 2-, 4-weeks into recovery. The highest positive rates were seen with the Medium

  16. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Bakhtiar, Ray


    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  17. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, 67Ga and 131I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs




    Full Text Available The article considers the use of monoclonal antibodies in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics of oncological diseases and their production using hybridoma technolody with flow diagram and technological scheme of manufacturing process




    The article considers the use of monoclonal antibodies in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics of oncological diseases and their production using hybridoma technolody with flow diagram and technological scheme of manufacturing process


    白银; 王琰; 周丽君; 俞莉章


    To construct and express a human-mouse chimeric antibody against human bladder cancer. Method: The variable region genes of anti-human bladder cancer monoclonal antibody BDI-1 were cloned by RT-PCR. A human-mouse chimeric antibody expression vector was constructed and transfected into CHO cells. The chimeric antibody against bladder cancer was expressed and characterized. Result: Eukaryotic expression vector of the chimeric antibody against human bladder carcinoma was successfully constructed, and was expressed in eukaryotic cells; the expressed chimeric antibody ch-BDI showed same specificity as its parent McAb against human bladder cancer cells. Conclusion: The constructed chimeric antibody was expressed successfully in eukaryotic cells, and the chimeric antibody had desired affinity against human bladder cancer cells.

  1. Quantitative PET of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using {sup 64}Cu-labeled cetuximab, a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody

    Cai, Weibo; Chen, Kai; He, Lina; Cao, Qizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Stanford University School of Medicine, The Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Koong, Albert [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cancer cells, was approved by the FDA to treat patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. It is currently also in advanced-stage development for the treatment of several other solid tumors. Here we report for the first time the quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of EGFR expression in xenograft-bearing mice using {sup 64}Cu-labeled cetuximab. We conjugated cetuximab with macrocyclic chelating agent 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), labeled with {sup 64}Cu, and tested the resulting {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab in seven xenograft tumor models. The tracer uptake measured by PET was correlated with the EGFR expression quantified by western blotting. The estimated human dosimetry based on the PET data in Sprague-Dawley rats was also calculated. MicroPET imaging showed that {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab had increasing tumor activity accumulation over time in EGFR-positive tumors but relatively low uptake in EGFR-negative tumors at all times examined (<5%ID/g). There was a good correlation (R {sup 2} = 0.80) between the tracer uptake (measured by PET) and the EGFR expression level (measured by western blotting). Human dosimetry estimation indicated that the tracer may be safely administered to human patients for tumor diagnosis, with the dose-limiting organ being the liver. The success of EGFR-positive tumor imaging using {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-cetuximab can be translated into the clinic to characterize the pharmacokinetics, to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy, to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatment, and to optimize the dosage of either cetuximab alone or cetuximab in combination with other therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  2. In vitro characterization of 177Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study

    131I- and 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time (177Lu or 90Y. Immunoconjugates with different numbers of DOTA molecules per rituximab were prepared using p-SCN-Bz-DOTA. In vitro immunoreactivity and stability were tested and preliminary dosimetric results were acquired in two patients. The immunological binding properties of DOTA-rituximab to the CD20 antigen were found to be retained after conjugation with up to four chelators. The labelled product was stable against a 105 times excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 37 C, 7 days). Two patients with relapsed NHL were treated with 740 MBq/m2 body surface 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab. Scintigraphic images showed specific uptake at tumour sites and acceptable dosimetric results. The mean whole-body dose was found to be 314 mGy. The administration of 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab was tolerated well. Our results show that DOTA-rituximab (4:1) can be labelled with 177Lu with sufficient stability while the immunoconjugate retains its immunoreactivity. 177Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. (orig.)

  3. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;


    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  4. Monoclonal antibody as radiopharmaceutical

    The purification of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody 4C11 belonging to IgG sub(2a) subclass from mouse ascitis, donated by Ludwig Institute, Brazil was developed. The fragmentation of purified IgG sub(2a) by pepsin digestion and analytical studies by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) were done as preliminary assessment for their specific application in immunoscintigraphy. (author)

  5. Monoclonal antibodies as diagnostics; an appraisal

    Siddiqui M


    Full Text Available Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use.

  6. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    Aurelija Zvirbliene; Indre Kucinskaite-Kodze; Ausra Razanskiene; Rasa Petraityte-Burneikiene; Boris Klempa; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Alma Gedvilaite


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have us...

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii

    Kovacs, J A; Halpern, J L; Lundgren, B; Swan, J C; Parrillo, J E; Masur, H


    To increase understanding of the antigenic structure of Pneumocystis carinii, we developed monoclonal antibodies to rat and human P. carinii. The specificity of the antibodies was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies. Only one of five monoclonal antibodies to rat P. carinii...... reacted with human P. carinii, and none of four monoclonal antibodies to human P. carinii reacted with rat P. carinii. Two antibodies to human P. carinii reacted by immunofluorescence with only one human P. carinii isolate. Immunoblot studies identified major antigens of rat P. carinii with molecular...

  8. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin


    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology. PMID:27236550

  9. Tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies

    Many monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens have been identified, but so far none of these are tumor specific. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used for imaging of a wide variety of tumors with success. Radiolabeling of antibody is usually done with iodine isotopes of which 123I is the best candidate for radioimmunodetection purposes. The labeling of antibodies through chelates makes it possible to use metal radioisotopes like 111In, which is the best radioisotope for imaging with monoclonal antibodies due to its favorable half-life of 2.5 days. Usually imaging cannot be performed within 24 h after injection, but clearance of antibody can be increased by using F(ab)2 of Fab. Another approach is to clear non-bound antibody by a second antibody, directed against the first. The detection limit of immunoimaging is about 2 cm, but will be improved by tomography or SPECT. There is still a high false positive and false negative rate, which makes it impossible to use radioimmunodetection as the only technique for diagnosis of tumors. In combination with other detection techniques, tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies can improve diagnosis. 44 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. Combination therapy using chimeric monoclonal antibodies protects mice from lethal H5N1 infection and prevents formation of escape mutants.

    Mookkan Prabakaran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that there is a possibility of a human H5N1 pandemic and the fact that the recent H5N1 viruses are resistant to the anti-viral drugs, newer strategies for effective therapy are warranted. Previous studies show that single mAbs in immune prophylaxis can be protective against H5N1 infection. But a single mAb may not be effective in neutralization of a broad range of different strains of H5N1 and control of potential neutralization escape mutants. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected two mAbs which recognized different epitopes on the hemagglutinin molecule. These two mAbs could each neutralize in vitro escape mutants to the other and in combination could effectively neutralize viruses from clades 0, 1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 4, 7 and 8 of influenza A H5N1 viruses. This combination of chimeric mAbs when administered passively, pre or post challenge with 10 MLD50 (50% mouse lethal dose HPAI H5N1 influenza A viruses could protect 100% of the mice from two different clades of viruses (clades 1 and 2.1. We also tested the efficacy of a single dose of the combination of mAbs versus two doses. Two doses of the combination therapy not only affected early clearance of the virus from the lung but could completely prevent lung pathology of the H5N1 infected mice. No escape variants were detected after therapy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies provide proof of concept that the synergistic action of two or more mAbs in combination is required for preventing the generation of escape mutants and also to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of passive therapy against H5N1 infection. Combination therapy may allow for a lower dose of antibody to be administered for passive therapy of influenza infection and hence can be made available at reduced economic costs during an outbreak.

  11. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies: a review

    Since the description by Kohler and Milstein 1975 of their technique for producing monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity, it has become a mainstay in most laboratories that utilize immunochemical techniques to study problems in basic, applied or clinical research. Paradoxically, the very success of monoclonal antibodies has generated a literature which is now so vast and scattered that it has become difficult to obtain a perspective. This brief review represents the distillation of many publications relating to the production and use of monoclonaal antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals. Significant advances were made possible in the last few years by combined developments in the fields of tumor-associated antigens and of monoclonal antibodies. In fact monoclonal antibodies against some well defined tumor-associated antigens, has led to significantly greater practical possibilities for producing highly specific radiolabeled antibodies as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of human tumors. One of the main requirements of this methodology is the availability of stable radiopharmaceutical reagents which after labeling in vivo injection retain the capacity of specific interaction with the defined antigen and their molecular integrity. Since injection into human is the objetive of this kind of study all the specifications of radiopharmaceutical have to be fulfilled e.g. sterility, apirogenicity and absence of toxicity. (author)

  12. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.


    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references

  14. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x107 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x107 spleen cells to 1x106 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  15. Chimeric mouse-human IgG1 antibody that can mediate lysis of cancer cells

    A chimeric mouse-human antibody has been created that recognizes an antigen found on the surface of cells from many carcinomas. Immunoglobulin constant (C) domains of the mouse monoclonal antibody L6, C/sub γ2a/ and C/sub kappa/, were substituted by the human C/sub γ1/ and C/sub kappa/ by recombining cDNA modules encoding variable or C domains. The cDNA constructs were transfected into lymphoid cells for antibody production. The chimeric antibody and mouse L6 antibody bound to carcinoma cells with equal affinity and mediated complement-dependent cytolysis. In the presence of human effector cells, the chimeric antibody gave antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity at 100 times lower concentration than that needed for the mouse L6 antibody. The assay for lysis was carried out with 51Cr-labeled target calls. The chimeric antibody, but not the mouse L6 antibody, is effective against a melanoma line expressing small amounts of the L6 antigen. The findings point to the usefulness of the chimeric antibody approach for obtaining agents with strong antitumor activity for possible therapeutic use in man

  16. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.


    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  17. A monoclonal antibody against leptin.

    Mahmoudian, Jafar; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Vojgani, Yasaman; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Hadavi, Reza; Zarei, Saeed


    Leptin is an important protein that regulates energy storage and homeostasis in humans and animals. Leptin deficiency results in various abnormalities such as diabetes, obesity, and infertility. Producing a high affinity monoclonal antibody against human leptin provides an important tool to monitor and trace leptin function in different biological fluids. In this study, recombinant human leptin was conjugated to KLH and injected into mice. After immunization, mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells were fused with murine splenocytes followed by selection of antibody-producing hybridoma cells. After screening of different hybridoma colonies by ELISA, a high affinity antibody was selected and purified by affinity chromatography. The affinity constant of the antibody was measured by ELISA. Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry experiments were used to characterize the antibody. The anti-leptin antibody had a high affinity (around 1.13 × 10(-9) M) for its antigen. The saturation of the antibody with leptin (20 moles leptin per 1 mole antibody) in Western blot analysis proved that the antibody had specific binding to its antigen. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry on JEG-3 (human placental choriocarcinoma cell) cells revealed that the anti-leptin antibody recognized intracellular leptin. In conclusion, we report here the production and characterization of a murine anti-leptin antibody with high affinity for human leptin. PMID:23098305

  18. Radioimmunoguided surgery using monoclonal antibody

    The potential proficiency of radioimmunoguided surgery in the intraoperative detection of tumors was assessed using labeled monoclonal antibody B72.3 in 66 patients with tissue-proved tumor. Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was injected 5 to 42 days preoperatively, and the hand-held gamma-detecting probe was used intraoperatively to detect the presence of tumor. Intraoperative probe counts of less than 20 every 2 seconds, or tumor-to-adjacent normal tissue ratios less than 2:1 were considered negative (system failure). Positive probe counts were detected in 5 of 6 patients with primary colon cancer (83 percent), in 31 of 39 patients with recurrent colon cancer (79 percent), in 4 of 5 patients with gastric cancer (80 percent), in 3 of 8 patients with breast cancer (37.5 percent), and in 4 of 8 patients with ovarian cancer (50 percent) undergoing second-look procedures. Additional patients in each group were scored as borderline positive. Overall, radioimmunoguided surgery using B72.3 identified tumors in 47 patients (71.2 percent), bordered on positive in 6 patients (9.1 percent), and failed to identify tumor in 13 patients (19.7 percent). Improved selection of patients for antigen-positive tumors, the use of higher affinity second-generation antibodies, alternate routes of antibody administration, alternate radionuclides, and more sophisticatedly bioengineered antibodies and antibody combinations should all lead to improvements in radioimmunoguided surgery

  19. Monoclonal Antibody Therapies against Anthrax

    Zhaochun Chen; Mahtab Moayeri; Robert Purcell


    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent. The lethality of anthrax is primarily attributed to the two major virulence factors: toxins and capsule. An extensive effort has been made to generate therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies to each of the virulence components: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and ede...

  20. Monoclonal antibodies in targeted therapy

    Beata Powroźnik


    Full Text Available Targeted therapy is a new therapeutic method consisting in the inhibition of specific molecular pathways. In modern therapy, the key role is played by monoclonal antibodies, included in the group of biological agents. The success of molecularly targeted therapy is to define the proper “molecular target”, selecting the right drug active against a specific “target” and selecting a group of patients who benefit from treatment. Introduction of targeted therapy resulted in improved results of the treatment of many serious and chronic diseases. In general, targeted molecular therapies have good toxicity profiles, but some patients are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs and can develop particular and severe toxicities. Patient selection and proper monitoring significantly decrease the risk of life-threatening adverse events. Data concerning late side effects are still unavailable because of the short follow-up of molecularly targeted therapy. Currently in the U.S. and Europe there are approximately 31 registered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while 160 are subjected to clinical trials. This paper presents an overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies currently used in therapy and the present state of knowledge about them. 

  1. Advances in monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis

    Li-na HAN; Shuang HE; Yu-tang WANG; Li-ming YANG; Si-yu LIU; Ting ZHANG


    Monoclonal antibodies have become a part of daily preparation technologies in many laboratories.Attempts have been made to apply monoclonal antibodies to open a new train of thought for clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases,inflammatory diseases,cancer,and other immune-associated diseases.This paper is a prospective review to anticipate that monoclonal antibody application in the treatment of myocarditis,an inflammatory disease of the heart,could be a novel approach in the future.In order to better understand the current state of the art in monoclonal antibody techniques and advance applications in myocarditis,we,through a significant amount of literature research both domestic and abroad,developed a systematic elaboration of monoclonal antibodies,pathogenesis of myocarditis,and application of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis.This paper presents review of the literature of some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy to demonstrate the advance of monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis and a strong anticipation that monoclonal antibody application may supply an effective therapeutic approach to relieve the severity of myocarditis in the future.Under conventional therapy,myocarditis is typically associated with congestive heart failure as a progressive outcome,indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term results.Reviewing some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis,we recently found that monoclonal antibodies with high purity and strong specificity can accurately act on target and achieve definite progress in the treatment of viral myocarditis in rat model and may meet the need above.However,several issues remain.The technology on howto make a higher homologous and weak immunogenic humanized or human source antibody and the treatment mechanism of monoclonal antibodies may provide solutions for these open issues.If we are to further stimulate

  2. Monoclonal antibody therapy for Junin virus infection.

    Zeitlin, Larry; Geisbert, Joan B; Deer, Daniel J; Fenton, Karla A; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Hiatt, Andrew; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J; Altmann, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Steinkellner, Herta; Honko, Anna N; Kuehne, Ana I; Aman, M Javad; Sahandi, Sara; Enterlein, Sven; Zhan, Xiaoguo; Enria, Delia; Geisbert, Thomas W


    Countermeasures against potential biothreat agents remain important to US Homeland Security, and many of these pharmaceuticals could have dual use in the improvement of global public health. Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is an arenavirus identified as a category A high-priority agent. There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs available for preventing or treating AHF, and the current treatment option is limited to administration of immune plasma. Whereas immune plasma demonstrates the feasibility of passive immunotherapy, it is limited in quantity, variable in quality, and poses safety risks such as transmission of transfusion-borne diseases. In an effort to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based alternative to plasma, three previously described neutralizing murine mAbs were expressed as mouse-human chimeric antibodies and evaluated in the guinea pig model of AHF. These mAbs provided 100% protection against lethal challenge when administered 2 d after infection (dpi), and one of them (J199) was capable of providing 100% protection when treatment was initiated 6 dpi and 92% protection when initiated 7 dpi. The efficacy of J199 is superior to that previously described for all other evaluated drugs, and its high potency suggests that mAbs like J199 offer an economical alternative to immune plasma and an effective dual use (bioterrorism/public health) therapeutic. PMID:27044104

  3. Enhanced antigen detection in immunohistochemical staining using a 'digitized' chimeric antibody.

    Eng, Hui-Yan; Wang, Cheng-I; Xue, Yuezhen; Lee, Chia-Yin; Zulkifli, Sarah Binte; Chiam, Poh-Cheang; Ghadessy, Farid J; Lane, David P


    The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of mouse tissue sections using antibodies of mouse origin can result in high nonspecific background due to the staining of endogenous immunoglobulins (Igs) by enzyme-conjugated secondary antibodies. In order to obviate this issue, we developed a chimeric mouse-human anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (MH242) by grafting the variable regions of a known mouse antibody into a human Ig scaffold. This facilitated use of an anti-human secondary antibody, and resulted in near-zero background when compared with its parental mouse monoclonal antibody (PAb242). Furthermore, the chimeric antibody enabled reproducible detection of mutant p53 (homozygous R172H) expression in mouse tissue, an observation hitherto largely equivocal based on the use of existing antibodies. The approach we describe leads to the generation of tractable antibody reagents, whose integrity can be readily verified through DNA sequencing of expressor plasmids. The wide-spread adoption of such 'digitized' antibodies should reduce experimental disparities that can commonly arise through variations in antibody quality. PMID:26508747

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies for Lipid Management.

    Feinstein, Matthew J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M


    In recent years, biochemical and genetic studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a major mediator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and thereby a potential novel target for reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). These observations led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors, which lower LDL-c levels more than any other non-invasive lipid-lowering therapy presently available. The PCSK9 inhibitors furthest along in clinical trials are subcutaneously injected monoclonal antibodies. These PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated LDL-c-lowering efficacy with acceptable safety in phase III clinical trials and may offer a useful therapy in addition to maximally tolerated HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in certain patient groups. Longer-term data are required to ensure sustained efficacy and safety of this new class of medications. This review provides an overview of the biology, genetics, development, and clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit PCSK9. PMID:27221501

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona.

    Ainsworth, A J; Lester, T L; Capley, G


    Three monoclonal antibodies produced against Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona have been studied for their diagnostic usefulness. All three monoclonals reacted strongly in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test with serovar pomona and did not react with serovars grippotyphosa, canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae and hardjo.

  6. Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Veterinary Parasitology

    Gupta A.


    Full Text Available The discovery of hybridoma technology by Kohler and Milstein in 1975, heralded a new era in antibody research. Mouse hybridomas were the first reliable source of monoclonal antibodies. The generation of monoclonal antibodies from species other than rats and mice, has developed slowly over the last 30 years. The advent of antibody engineering and realization of the advantages of non murine antibodies has increased their relevance recently. However, in the area of veterinary parasitology, monoclonal antibodies are just beginning to fulfill the promises inherent in their great specificity for recognizing and selectively binding to antigens. This review describes the recent advances in the application of monoclonal antibodies for immunodiagnosis / prophylaxis and immunotherapy of parasitic diseases. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 183-188

  7. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    Strohl, William R


    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described. PMID:24168292

  8. Two courses of rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) for recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris

    Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.


    Background Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. The response to therapy varies greatly amongst patients and treatment may be challenging. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that selectively targets cell surface antigen...

  9. Mouse monoclonal antibodies against estrogen receptor.

    De Rosa, Caterina; Rossi, Valentina; Abbondanza, Ciro


    The production of monoclonal antibodies, by cloning hybridoma derived from the fusion of myeloma cells and spleen lymphocytes, has allowed to obtain great advances in many fields of biological knowledge. The use of specific antibodies to the estrogen receptor, in fact, has been an invaluable method to bring out its mechanisms of action and its effects, both genomic and extra-genomic. Here we describe, step by step, the production of monoclonal antibodies, starting from protocol for antigen preparation to the selection of antibody-secreting hybridoma. PMID:25182770

  10. Trends in Malignant Glioma Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    Chekhonin, Ivan; Gurina, Olga


    Although new passive and active immunotherapy methods are emerging, unconjugated monoclonal antibodies remain the only kind of biological preparations approved for high-grade glioma therapy in clinical practice. In this review, we combine clinical and experimental data discussion. As antiangiogenic therapy is the standard of care for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we analyze major clinical trials and possible therapeutic combinations of bevacizumab, the most common monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Another humanized antibody to gain recognition in GBM is epidermal growth factor (EGFR) antagonist nimotuzumab. Other antigens (VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met system) showed significance in gliomas and were used to create monoclonal antibodies applied in different malignant tumors. We assess the role of genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransnsferase) in GBM treatment outcome prediction. Besides antibodies studied in clinical trials, we focus on perspective targets and briefly list other means of passive immunotherapy.

  11. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  12. Imaging tumors with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    Using a metallic radionuclide, either directly bound to a monoclonal antibody, or to a chelating agent (such as di-ethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)) conjugated to the antibody, a tumor can be traced rapidly and with high specificity. The labelled antibody is injected into the host. In some cases, a localization of distant metastases is possible, giving an indication of tumor spreading. Detection occurs by photoscanning. (Auth.)

  13. Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Human Nestin.

    Hadavi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ahmadvand, Negah; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Tarahomi, Majid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah


    We have employed a peptide-based antibody generation protocol for producing antibody against human nestin. Using a 12-mer synthetic peptide from repetitive region of human nestin protein devoid of any N- or O-glyco-sylation sequences, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody capable of recognizing human, mouse, bovine, and rat nestin. A wide variety of nestin proteins ranging from 140-250 kDa was detected by this antibody. This antibody is highly specific and functional in applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot assays. PMID:23407796

  14. Production of Monoclonal Antibody against Human Nestin

    Hadavi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ahmadvand, Negah; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad mehdi; Tarahomi, Majid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjattallah


    We have employed a peptide-based antibody generation protocol for producing antibody against human nestin. Using a 12-mer synthetic peptide from repetitive region of human nestin protein devoid of any N- or O-glyco-sylation sequences, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody capable of recognizing human, mouse, bovine, and rat nestin. A wide variety of nestin proteins ranging from 140–250 kDa was detected by this antibody. This antibody is highly specific and functional in applications such a...

  15. Radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies for radiotherapy. Thailand

    Nuclear medicine is now playing a great role not only in diagnostic application but also in therapy of cancer patients. Under the concept of targeted radiotherapy, a number of radiopharmaceuticals based on radiolabelled biomolecules had been evaluated for treatment of cancer by many investigators. Of these, monoclonal antibodies and some small specific peptides labelled with beta emitting radiometals such as Sm-153, Re-186, Re-188 or Y-90, are being introduced into clinical trials. The objective of this project is to develop laboratory procedures to label monoclonal antibodies, peptide or other proteins with beta emitting radionuclides to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purpose

  16. Radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies for radiotherapy

    Nuclear medicine is now playing a great role not only in diagnostic application but also in therapy of cancer patients. Under the concept of targeted radiotherapy, a number of radiopharmaceuticals based on radiolabelled biomolecules had been evaluated for treatment of cancer by many investigators. Of these, monoclonal antibodies and some small specific peptides labelled with beta emitting radiometals such as Sm-153, Re-186, Re-188 or Y-90, are being introduced into clinical trials. The objective of this project is to develop laboratory procedures to label monoclonal antibodies, peptide or other proteins with beta emitting radionuclides to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purpose

  17. A region of the insulin receptor important for ligand binding (residues 450-601) is recognized by patients' autoimmune antibodies and inhibitory monoclonal antibodies.

    Zhang, B; Roth, R A


    Chimeric receptors containing different portions of the homologous human insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, and insulin receptor-related receptor were utilized to identify the epitopes recognized by various anti-insulin receptor antibodies. The antibodies studied included 12 monoclonal antibodies to the extracellular domain of the human insulin receptor as well as 15 patients' sera with autoimmune anti-insulin receptor antibodies. All of the patients' sera and all 8 mono...

  18. Monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoimaging: Current perspectives

    The ability to image tumor using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody products has been widely demonstrated. The questions of safety and efficacy remain open and require further experience, but in some clinical situations, radioimmunoimaging has provided clinically useful information. This paper deals with a set of current problems in imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and current perspectives on the possible solutions to these problems. The major areas discussed here are the following: (a) The selection process. How might we choose the ''best'' antibody for imaging from among the multitude now available and what form (i.e., which fragments) may be useful? (b) The imaging procedure: What are the basic optimal imaging parameters and how does the data produced by this modality interface with information obtained by more standard methods of imaging? (c) Quantitative techniques: How can noninvasive quantitative techniques provide information useful to the antibody selection process and to the diagnostic and therapeutic applications

  19. A monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody

    Ando, Takao; Latif, Rauf; Pritsker, Alla; Moran, Thomas; Nagayama, Yuji; Davies, Terry F.


    The thyrotropin receptor, also known as the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), is the primary antigen of Graves disease. Stimulating TSHR antibodies are the cause of thyroid overstimulation and were originally called long-acting thyroid stimulators due to their prolonged action. Here we report the successful cloning and characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MS-1) with TSHR-stimulating activity. The thyroid-stimulating activity of MS-1 was evident at IgG concentrations as low as...

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to Bacteroides fragilis lipopolysaccharide.

    Linko-Kettunen, L; Arstila, P; Jalkanen, M; Jousimies-Somer, H; Lassila, O; Lehtonen, O P; Weintraub, A; Viljanen, M K


    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Bacteroides fragilis were produced by immunizing mice before hybridization with bacterial outer membranes solubilized with Triton X-100. Nineteen stabile clones were established. They all produced antibodies that reacted more strongly with purified B. fragilis LPS than with crude sonicated antigen in an enzyme immunoassay. Four MoAbs were studied by immunoblotting and enzyme immunoassay inhibition. Immunoblotting confirmed that ...

  1. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of fusariosis with monoclonal antibodies

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.; Jungersen, Gregers; Hartvig, T.; Moser, C.; Rozell, B.L.; Blennow, O.

    establishing an accurate diagnosis. Although molecular techniques (e.g. in situ hybridization and PCR) have been explored for diagnostic use, the development of specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) for immunohistochemical identification of Fusarium spp. will extend the availability of diagnostic options for...

  2. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken interleukin-6

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced against a recombinant (r) chicken interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eight mAbs that were produced were tested for isotype; ability to inhibit recombinant forms of chicken (ch), human (h) and murine (m) IL-6; and recognition of rchIL-6 by Western immunoblotting. The mA...


    J. Majidi


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin E is one of the five classes of immonoglobulins that plays an important role in allergic diseases. Production of monoclonal antibodies by a single clonotype against different epitopes of immunoglobulin E has high priority in development of diagnostic kits.In this study, an attempt was made to produce monoclonal antibodies against human immunoglobulin E. Balb/c mice were immunized with semipurified immunoglobulin E and spleen cells fused with SP2.0 mouse myeloma eel! line in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Supernatant of hybridoma cells was screened for detection of antibody by enzyme linked immonosorbent assay method. Cloning of selective high absorbance wells were done with limiting dilution method. The suitable clone (monoclone was selected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by immunoblot. The subclass of the chosen monoclonal antibodies was determined and the clones freezed and kept in liquid nitrogen.During this study three successful fusions were carried out, which resulted in development of 156 clones with high production of anti-IgE. Fourteen clones with the highest titres were selected for cloning. After limiting dilution more than 100 monoclonal antibodies were produced and the suitable (me (GJ0F7, i.e.; the clone which displayed the high absorbance in reaction with purified immunoglobulin E and the lowest cross-reactivity with immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G and immoglobulin A was chosen. In immunoblotting, presence of high density band in reaction with immunoglobulin E was confirmed. The suitable mab was shown to be IgG 1 subclass with kappa light chain. It seems that, this mab could be successfully used in diagnostic kits.

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Human-Murine Chimeric Antibody against Protective Antigen of Bacillus anthracis

    Lina Hao


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a human/murine chimeric Fab antibody which neutralizes the anthrax toxin, protective antigen (PA. The chimeric Fab was constructed using variable regions of murine anti-PA monoclonal antibody in combination with constant regions of human IgG. The chimeric PA6-Fab was expressed in E. coli. BL21 and evaluated by ELISA and co-immunoprecipitation- mass spectra. The potency of PA6-Fab to neutralize LeTx was examined in J774A.1 cell viability in vitro and in Fisher 344 rats in vivo. The PA6-Fab did not have domain similarity corresponding to the current anti PA mAbs, but specifically bound to anthrax PA at an affinity of 1.76 nM, and was able to neutralize LeTx in vitro and protected 56.9% cells at 20 μg/mL against anthrax LeTx. One hundred μg PA6-Fab could neutralize 300 μg LeTx in vivo. The PA6-Fab has potential as a therapeutic mAb for treatment of anthrax.

  5. Conjugates of monoclonal antibodies and chelating polymers

    The primary purpose of protein modification with chelating polymers is to prepare monoclonal antibodies labeled with heavy metal isotopes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting metal and paramagnetic ions for NMR tomography). Conventional binding of metals to proteins via chelating agents directly coupled to proteins does not permit binding of a large number of metal atoms per protein molecule without causing alterations in the specific properties of the protein molecules. On the other hand, metal ion binding to proteins via intermediate chelating polymers should permit binding of several dozens of the metal atoms per protein molecule without affect the specific properties adversely. Moreover, the biodistribution and clearance rates can be regulated by varying the polymer properties. Modified antibodies may be used successfully in nuclear and NMR diagnostic applications and in radiotherapy. Possible applications of this approach shall be demonstrated with monoclonal antibody R11D10 for visualization of acute myocardial infarction. Use of this modification with other monoclonal antibodies is also discussed. The chemistry of protein modification with these polymers is presented

  6. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data

  7. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Technological progresses in monoclonal antibody production systems

    Rodrigues, E.; Costa, A R; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become vitally important to modern medicine and are currently one of the major biopharmaceutical products in development. However, the high clinical dose requirements of mAbs demand a greater biomanufacturing capacity, leading to the development of new technologies for their large-scale production, with mammalian cell culture dominating the scenario. Although some companies have tried to meet these demands by creating bioreactors of increased capacity, the op...

  9. Detection of enterovirus 70 with monoclonal antibodies.

    Anderson, L J; Hatch, M. H.; Flemister, M R; Marchetti, G E


    To improve the ability to identify enterovirus-70 (EV-70) from patients with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, we developed four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to EV-70. We reacted the four MAbs against nine previously characterized strains of EV-70 and heterologous viruses by virus neutralization, indirect immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two of the MAbs neutralized all nine strains of EV-70 and none of the other enterovirus types tested. Two of the MAbs gave ...

  10. Radioimmunoscintigraphy with anti-thyroglobulin monoclonal antibodies

    Monoclonal mouse antibodies to human thyroglobulin were conjugated to the cyclic dianhydride of DTPA. After radiolabelling with 111In this compound was injected into nude mice bearing various human thyroid carcinomas. Repeated imaging studies were carried out 15 min to 50 h after tracer administration. In both papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma no significant uptake of radiolabelled anti-hTG-MAb was observed. (orig.)

  11. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  12. Assay for the specificity of monoclonal antibodies in crossed immunoelectrophoresis

    Skjødt, K; Schou, C; Koch, C


    A method is described based on crossed immunoelectrophoresis of a complex antigen mixture in agarose gel followed by incubation of the gel with the monoclonal antibody. The bound monoclonal antibody is detected by the use of a secondary enzyme-labelled antibody. Using this technique we have been ...

  13. Critical evaluation of monoclonal antibody staining in breast carcinoma.

    Parham, D M; Coghill, G; Robertson, A.J.


    The immunoperoxidase staining of 84 primary invasive breast carcinomas with four monoclonal antibodies (BRST-1, HMFG1, EMA, B72.3) was evaluated by semiquantitative light microscopical examination and quantitative image analysis. Major differences in the staining of the tumours for each of the monoclonal antibodies was observed. Correlation between monoclonal antibody staining and patient age, survival, histological grade, tumour diameter and cellularity was also carried out. This showed a si...

  14. Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of E559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody.

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Banyard, Ashley C; Both, Leonard; Lotter-Stark, Hester C T; Tsekoa, Tsepo; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Chakauya, Ereck; Sabeta, Claude T; Gruber, Clemens; Fooks, Anthony R; Chikwamba, Rachel K; Ma, Julian K-C


    Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG. Here, we describe the cloning, engineering and production in plants of a candidate monoclonal antibody (E559) for inclusion in such a cocktail. The murine constant domains of E559 were replaced with human IgG1κ constant domains and the resulting chimeric mouse-human genes were cloned into plant expression vectors for stable nuclear transformation of Nicotiana tabacum. The plant-expressed, chimeric antibody was purified and biochemically characterized, was demonstrated to neutralize rabies virus in a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay, and conferred protection in a hamster challenge model. PMID:24511101

  15. Production, characterization, and antigen specificity of recombinant 62-71-3, a candidate monoclonal antibody for rabies prophylaxis in humans

    Both, L.; van Dolleweerd, C.; Wright, E.; Banyard, A. C.; Bulmer-Thomas, B.; Selden, D.; Altmann, F.; Fooks, A.R.; Ma, J. K.- C.


    Rabies kills many people throughout the developing world every year. The murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) 62-71-3 was recently identified for its potential application in rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The purpose here was to establish a plant-based production system for a chimeric mouse-human version of mAb 62-71-3, to characterize the recombinant antibody and investigate at a molecular level its interaction with rabies virus glycoprotein. Chimeric 62-71-3 was successfully expressed ...

  16. Production of monoclonal antibody with Celline-350 bioreactor

    Monoclonal antibodies are protein that are highly specific and sensitive in their reaction with specific sites on target molecules that they have become reagents of central importance in the diagnostic and treatment of human diseases. This paper reports the use of CELLine-350 bioreactor to produce continuous supply of serum-free breast cancer monoclonal antibody. Initial volume of 5ml (1.5 x 106 viable cells/ml) is inoculated into the bioreactor and harvesting is done every 5 days to obtain high yield monoclonal antibody. The serum-free supernatant is precipitated with 50% saturated ammonia sulfate and the antibody is purified by protein-G affinity chromatography. The concentration of monoclonal antibody successfully produced by the bioreactor is 0.91mg/ml respectively and it is measured by the Lowry method. This result shows that bioreactor Celline-350 is easy to handle and cost effective for the continuous production of serum free monoclonal antibody. (Author)

  17. Research Progress in Monoclonal Antibodies%单克隆抗体研究进展

    刘萍; 陈苗苗; 刘学荣; 牟克斌; 黄银君


    Hybridization techniques have made mouse monoclonal antibody widely use in diagnosis and research of human disease, and established the first milestone of therapeutic antibody. With the biology development and antibody genetic structure clarification, people can humanize mouse antibody with DNA recombination and antibody library which developed antibody techniques from chimeric and reshaped to human antibody. Both humanized monoclonal antibody and its derivative overcome the clinical shortage of mouse antibody from different angles, also bring a new dawn to made antibody.%杂交瘤技术使鼠源单克隆抗体被广泛用于人类疾病的诊断和研究,建立了治疗性抗体的第一个里程碑.随着生物学技术的发展和抗体基因结构的阐明,应用DNA重组技术和抗体库技术对鼠单抗进行人源化改造,先后出现了嵌合抗体、人源化抗体和全人抗体,它们从不同角度克服了鼠单抗临床应用的不足,使抗体制备技术进入了一个全新的时代.

  18. Production of monoclonal antibodies against canine leukocytes.

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Borges dos Santos, Roberto Robson; Lima, Carla Andrade; Rios de Sousa Gomes, Hilton; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Patrícia Meira; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Conrado dos-Santos, Washington Luis; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain


    A panel of anti-canine leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), either resting or stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Three out of 28 clones-IH1, AB6, and HG6-screened by ELISA and producing antibody with the highest specificity for canine cell immunostaining, were subjected to three subsequent subcloning steps by limiting dilution, and selected for further characterization. These MAbs belonged to IgG1 (HG6 and IH1) and IgG2a (AB6) isotypes. The distribution of cell populations expressing the antigen recognized by the antibodies was identified by indirect immunoflorescence on canine PBMC and on tissue sections of lymph node, spleen, liver and skin. The possible crossreactivity with human PBMC was also examined in immunocytochemistry. One of the antibodies specifically recognized macrophages. The MAbs presented here can be foreseen as possible valuable diagnostic and research tools to study immune functions in dogs. PMID:15165486

  19. A monoclonal antibody toolkit for C. elegans.

    Gayla Hadwiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies are critical tools in many avenues of biological research. Though antibodies can be produced in the research laboratory setting, most research labs working with vertebrates avail themselves of the wide array of commercially available reagents. By contrast, few such reagents are available for work with model organisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against a wide range of proteins that label specific subcellular and cellular components, and macromolecular complexes. Antibodies were made to synaptobrevin (SNB-1, a component of synaptic vesicles; to Rim (UNC-10, a protein localized to synaptic active zones; to transforming acidic coiled-coil protein (TAC-1, a component of centrosomes; to CENP-C (HCP-4, which in worms labels the entire length of their holocentric chromosomes; to ORC2 (ORC-2, a subunit of the DNA origin replication complex; to the nucleolar phosphoprotein NOPP140 (DAO-5; to the nuclear envelope protein lamin (LMN-1; to EHD1 (RME-1 a marker for recycling endosomes; to caveolin (CAV-1, a marker for caveolae; to the cytochrome P450 (CYP-33E1, a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum; to beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase (SQV-8 that labels the Golgi; to a chaperonin (HSP-60 targeted to mitochondria; to LAMP (LMP-1, a resident protein of lysosomes; to the alpha subunit of the 20S subcomplex (PAS-7 of the 26S proteasome; to dynamin (DYN-1 and to the alpha-subunit of the adaptor complex 2 (APA-2 as markers for sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis; to the MAGUK, protein disks large (DLG-1 and cadherin (HMR-1, both of which label adherens junctions; to a cytoskeletal linker of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family (ERM-1, which localized to apical membranes; to an ERBIN family protein (LET-413 which localizes to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells and to an adhesion molecule (SAX-7 which localizes to the plasma membrane at cell-cell contacts. In addition to

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph


    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  1. Labeling an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with 90Y

    Lymphomas are among the 10 leading causes of death, both in Cuba and in the world, with an increasing incidence in recent years. Follicular lymphoma low-grade (indolent) is one of the most common in the Western world, representing 1/3 of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). More than 90% of patients present with disseminated disease at diagnosis and generally have a slow evolution and good response to conventional treatment; but radically changed its forecast to relapse, resistance to therapeutic and histologic transformation can occur. The monoclonal antibody therapy has been a promising therapeutic. In this respect CD20 antigen it has been considered one of the most attractive targets in the therapy of follicular B cell lymphoma This is expressed in more than 90% of cases, while not present in stem cells and lines progenitors. Despite the success of immunotherapy, the relapse rate is still considerable. In order to increase the cytotoxic potential of immunotherapy, marked with beta emitting radionuclides alpha particles or monoclonal antibodies are used today. Despite encouraging results in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas refractory to other treatments, the extremely high costs of these commercial radiopharmaceuticals have greatly limited its application, even in the first world. A sustainable alternative is the marking of other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, so researchers from several countries have concentrated their efforts on rituximaby other similar antibodies labeled with therapeutic radionuclides, as a possible cost-effectively to more problem. Today in Cuba it has an electrolytic generator 90Sr-90Y Isotope Center, which ensures the availability of the radionuclide. In addition, the chimeric MAb rituximab is applied as part of the therapy of NHL in its health system and, recently, the Center for Molecular Immunology has obtained a chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody biosimilar rituximab, which is in phase clinical trial; which opens prospects for the

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to human urinary thrombopoietin

    Monoclonal antibodies (MA) to a thrombocytopoiesis-stimulating factor (TSF or thrombopoietin) were obtained from hybridomas derived from the fusion of P3 x 63/Ag 8 cells and spleen cells from TSF-immunized BALB/c mice. Media from several hybrid cultures were tested in a microantibody detection technique that measured the binding of MA to a 125I-purified TSF preparation from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Hybridized cells were injected into pristane-primed mice and the antibodies produced in the ascites fluid were also shown to bind the 125I-TSF. Compared to the results of normal mouse serum, ascites fluid containing MA was shown to bind the unlabeled TSF from HEK cells. The TSF activity was significantly reduced in the supernatant fluid after precipitating the TSF-anti-TSF immune complex by a second antibody when tested in an immunothrombocythemic mouse assay. After SDS-PAGE, the precipitate from this TSF-Ma conjugate showed that the antiserum bound a single 32,000 mol wt component, indicating the monospecificity of the MA. MA directed toward human TSF will allow studies that were not previously possible

  3. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro


    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs. PMID:24237029

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Rommer, P S; Dudesek, A; Stüve, O; Zettl, UK


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used as therapeutics in a number of disciplines in medicine, such as oncology, rheumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology and transplant rejection prevention. Since the introduction and reintroduction of the anti-alpha4-integrin mAb natalizumab in 2004 and 2006, mAbs have gained relevance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). At present, numerous mAbs have been tested in clinical trials in relapsing–remitting MS, and in progressive forms of MS. One of the agents that might soon be approved for very active forms of relapsing–remitting MS is alemtuzumab, a humanized mAb against CD52. This review provides insights into clinical studies with the mAbs natalizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. PMID:24001305

  5. SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    The long-term goal of this research project is to develop methods to improve the utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECI) to quantify the biodistribution of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) labeled with clinically relevant radionuclides (123I, 131I, and 111In) and with another radionuclide,211At, recently used in therapy. We describe here our progress in developing quantitative SPECT methodology for 111In and 123I. We have focused our recent research thrusts on the following aspects of SPECT: (1) The development of improved SPECT hardware, such as improved acquisition geometries. (2) The development of better reconstruction methods that provide accurate compensation for the physical factors that affect SPECT quantification. (3) The application of carefully designed simulations and experiments to validate our hardware and software approaches

  6. Epitope Mapping of Fc gamma RIIa Monoclonal Antibodies

    Caroline Tan Sardjono


    Full Text Available FcγRIIa (CD32 is an IgG receptor which has been shown to be important in autoimmune disease pathology. IV.3, 8.7, and 7.30 are anti-FcγRIIa monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, which block the interaction between FcγRIIa and complex IgG. In this study, the three mAbs were demonstrated to inhibit FcγRIIa function. The determination of the precise epitopes of the IV.3, 8.7, and 7.30 mAbs may become a potential approach for designing inhibitors for FcγRIIa. The epitope of IV.3, 8.7, and 7.30 were determined using chimeric receptors based on the extracellular domains of FcγRIIa and the FcεRI a chain. The epitopes for IV.3 was found to be mapped on amino acid residues 132-137, while 8.7 and 7.30 were on amino acid residues 112-119 and 157-162. Based on the crystal 3D model of FcγRIIa molecule, these amino acid sequences are clustered together forming a contiguous region within the ligand binding site of the receptor.

  7. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)


    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  8. Chimeric antibody with human constant regions and mouse variable regions directed against carcinoma-associated antigen 17-1A

    The authors have cloned the genomic DNA fragments encoding the heavy and light chain variable regions of monoclonal antibody 17-1A, and they have inserted them into mammalian expression vectors containing genomic DNA segments encoding human γ3 and kappa constant regions. The transfer of these expression vectors containing mouse-human chimeric immunoglobulin genes into Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells resulted in the production of functional IgG that retained the specific binding to the surface antigen 17-1A expressed on colorectal carcinoma cells

  9. Drug Development of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Mould, Diane R; Meibohm, Bernd


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become a substantial part of many pharmaceutical company portfolios. However, the development process of MAbs for clinical use is quite different than for small-molecule drugs. MAb development programs require careful interdisciplinary evaluations to ensure the pharmacology of both the MAb and the target antigen are well-understood. Selection of appropriate preclinical species must be carefully considered and the potential development of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) during these early studies can limit the value and complicate the performance and possible duration of preclinical studies. In human studies, many of the typical pharmacology studies such as renal or hepatic impairment evaluations may not be needed but the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these agents is complex, often necessitating more comprehensive evaluation of clinical data and more complex bioanalytical assays than might be used for small molecules. This paper outlines concerns and strategies for development of MAbs from the early in vitro assessments needed through preclinical and clinical development. This review focuses on how to develop, submit, and comply with regulatory requirements for MAb therapeutics. PMID:27342605

  10. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against fowl poxvirus.

    Singh, P; Tripathy, D N


    Vaccines for the prevention of fowl pox in chickens and turkeys have been available for more than five decades. However, in recent years outbreaks have occurred in several previously vaccinated chicken flocks. Presumably, fowl poxviruses (FPVs) antigenically different from the attenuated vaccine strains are responsible for such occurrences. In support of this concept, we previously detected minor antigenic changes in field isolates based on comparative immunoblotting with polyclonal anti-FPV serum. Realizing the need for antibodies specific against the dominant antigens of FPV, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced by immunizing mice with either a field strain of FPV or a pigeon poxvirus, currently used for vaccination. Three hybridoma clones producing MAbs reacting with a specific FPV protein were selected from a total of 83 clones. In immunoblots, two of the MAbs, P1D9 and P2H10, recognized an antigen with an apparent molecular weight varying from 39 to 46 kD, depending on the FPV strain. The third MAb, P2D4, reacted with an approximately 80-kD protein, regardless of which FPV isolate was tested. Immunofluorescent staining with P1D9 and P2D4 revealed that these MAbs react with intracytoplasmic antigens in FPV-infected cells. PMID:10879917

  11. Licensed monoclonal antibodies and associated challenges.

    Khan, Amjad Hayat; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the leading class of targeted therapeutics and remarkably effective in addressing autoimmune diseases, inflammations, infections, and various types of cancer. Several mAbs approved by US food and drug administration (FDA), are available on the market and a number are pending for approval. Luckily, FDA approved mAbs have played a pivotal role in the treatment and prevention of lethal diseases. However, claiming that licensed mAbs are 100% safe is still debatable, because infections, malignancies, anaphylactoid, and anaphylactic reactions are the more frequently associated adverse events. To evaluate benefit to risk ratio of mAbs, it is important for the clinical research staff or physicians to monitor and follow-up the patients who are receiving mAbs dozes. It is recommended that patients, physicians, biopharmaceutical companies, and researchers should keep in touch to highlight and resolve antibody-based adverse events. In this review we underscore the associated challenges of mAbs, approved by FDA from 2007-2014. PMID:27472864

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis with a 66Ga-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Myklejord, Duane V.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Theuer, Charles P.; Robert J. Nickles; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study was to develop a 66Ga-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for non-invasive imaging of CD105 expression during tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer. 66Ga was produced using a cyclotron with natZn or isotopically enriched 66Zn targets. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-1, 4, 7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with 66Ga. No difference in CD105 binding affinit...

  13. Sub-Nanogram Detection of RDX Explosive by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Ulaeto, David O; Hutchinson, Alistair P; Nicklin, Stephen


    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised to protein carrier molecules haptenized with RDX, a major component of many plastic explosives including Semtex. Sera from immunized mice detected RDX protein conjugates in standard ELISA. Clonally purified monoclonal antibodies had detection limits in the sub-ng/mL range for underivatized RDX in competition ELISA. The monoclonal antibodies are not dependent on the presence of taggants added during the manufacturing process, and are likely to have utility in the detection of any explosive containing RDX, or RDX contamination of environmental sites. PMID:26252765

  14. Monoclonal antibodies and Fc fragments for treating solid tumors

    Eisenbeis AM


    Full Text Available Andrea M Eisenbeis, Stefan J GrauDepartment of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: Advances in biotechnology, better understanding of pathophysiological processes, as well as the identification of an increasing number of molecular markers have facilitated the use of monoclonal antibodies and Fc fragments in various fields in medicine. In this context, a rapidly growing number of these substances have also emerged in the field of oncology. This review will summarize the currently approved monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of solid tumors with a focus on their clinical application, biological background, and currently ongoing trials.Keywords: targeted therapy, monoclonal antibodies, cancer, biological therapy

  15. Heterohybridoma for the production of non murine monoclonal antibodies

    Kh.Victoria Chanu and M. Ayub Ali

    Full Text Available Hybridoma technology described by kohler and Milstein produce only mouse immunoglobulins. Such immunoglobulins have limited use due to its negative side effects such as the recipient’s immune response. The production of a non murine monoclonal antibody to combat the problems of murine monoclonal antibody is again difficult due to the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line. Heterohybridoma formed by the fusion of lymphocyte of one species with the myeloma cell of a different species is the solution, which can be used for the production of non murine monoclonal antibodies. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 390-392

  16. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.;


    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  17. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A

    Malanchuk O. M.


    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of monoclonal antibodies specific to Coenzyme A. Methods. Hybridoma technique. KLH carrier protein conjugated with CoA was used for immunization. Screening of positive clones was performed with BSA conjugated to CoA. Results. Monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes CoA and CoA derivatives, but not its precursors ATP and cysteine has been generated. Conclusion. In this study, we describe for the first time the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against CoA. The monoclonal antibody 1F10 was shown to recognize specifically CoA in Western blotting, ELISA and immunoprecipitation. These properties make this antiboby a particularly valuable reagent for elucidating CoA function in health and disease.

  18. Technological progresses in monoclonal antibody production systems.

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Costa, Ana Rita; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become vitally important to modern medicine and are currently one of the major biopharmaceutical products in development. However, the high clinical dose requirements of mAbs demand a greater biomanufacturing capacity, leading to the development of new technologies for their large-scale production, with mammalian cell culture dominating the scenario. Although some companies have tried to meet these demands by creating bioreactors of increased capacity, the optimization of cell culture productivity in normal bioreactors appears as a better strategy. This review describes the main technological progresses made with this intent, presenting the advantages and limitations of each production system, as well as suggestions for improvements. New and upgraded bioreactors have emerged both for adherent and suspension cell culture, with disposable reactors attracting increased interest in the last years. Furthermore, the strategies and technologies used to control culture parameters are in constant evolution, aiming at the on-line multiparameter monitoring and considering now parameters not seen as relevant for process optimization in the past. All progresses being made have as primary goal the development of highly productive and economic mAb manufacturing processes that will allow the rapid introduction of the product in the biopharmaceutical market at more accessible prices. PMID:20043321

  19. Occult choriocarcinoma: Detection using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Occult choriocarcinoma, manifested only by an elevated B-hCG level, can be a difficult management problem. The authors evaluated the ability of I-131-labeled 5F9.3, a murine monoclonal antibody reactive with choriocarcinomas but not hCG, to detect foci of choriocarcinoma in five patients referred with elevated B-hCG levels but in whom the location of residual disease was uncertain. I-131 5F9.3, 0.5-1.0 mCi, was injected intravenously in each patient and images with dynamic background subtraction of TcHSA were obtained at later time points. In four patients chest studies were true positive (confirmed surgically in all), the chest CT scans in these patients had been interpreted as not definitely showing active disease. In the fifth patient no abnormal focus of uptake was seen and subsequent B-hCG levels normalized. In two of the patients with chest lesions, foci of abdominal uptake were seen that were not due to tumor. One of these patients had a partial small bowel obstruction; the other appeared to have a false-positive study. I-131 5F9.3 is a promising agent for the detection of occult choriocarcinomas

  20. Monoclonal Antibodies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE

    Gabriella Moroni


    Full Text Available A number of monoclonal antibodies (mAb are now under investigation in clinical trials to assess their potential role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. The most frequently used mAb is rituximab, which is directed against CD20, a membrane protein expressed on B lymphocytes. Uncontrolled trials reported an improvement of SLE activity in non-renal patients and other studies even reported an improvement of severe lupus nephritis unresponsive to conventional treatments. However two randomized trials failed to show the superiority of rituximab over conventional treatment in non renal SLE and in lupus nephritis. Preliminary trials reported promising results with epratuzumab, a humanized mAb directed against CD22, and with belimumab, a human mAb that specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of BLyS a cytokine of the tumornecrosis-factor (TNF ligand superfamily. Other clinical trials with mAb directed against TNF-alpha, interleukin-10 (Il-10, Il-6, CD154, CD40 ligand, IL-18 or complement component C5 are under way. At present, however, in spite of good results reported by some studies, no firm conclusion on the risk-benefit profile of these mAbs in patients with SLE can be drawn from the available studies.

  1. Identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    Balachandran, N; Frame, B; Chernesky, M; Kraiselburd, E; Kouri, Y; Garcia, D.; Lavery, C; Rawls, W. E.


    Monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. Complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral DNA and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Examination of a limited num...

  2. Production and characterization of yeast killer toxin monoclonal antibodies

    Polonelli, L; Morace, G


    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained after fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from mice primed with a crude extract of yeast killer toxin produced by a strain of Hansenula anomala. Hybridomas were selected by specific immunoassay reaction of their fluid with crude yeast killer toxin extract. Among the monoclonal antibodies, which were characterized by the Western blot technique, one (designated KT4) proved to have precipitating properties, thus permitting the neutralizati...

  3. Characterization of human serum spreading factor with monoclonal antibody.

    Barnes, D W; Silnutzer, J; See, C; Shaffer, M


    Serum spreading factor is a glycoprotein isolated from human serum that promotes spreading of a variety of cell types on culture dishes. We developed mouse hybridoma lines secreting monoclonal antibody to serum spreading factor that markedly inhibited the rate of serum spreading factor-promoted spreading of both fibroblastic and epithelial cells in culture. Fibronectin-promoted cell spreading was unaffected by monoclonal antibody to serum spreading factor, and the factor appeared to be distin...

  4. Current research status of radioimmunotherapy monoclonal antibody drug

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was one of the most important progresses in the field of cancer therapy over the past 20 years. It has been successfully applied in the treatment of blood system tumors such as NHL. For the utilization of RIT in therapy of solid tumors, however, development of more effective monoclonal antibodies, labeling methods and so on are needed. The current status of radionuclides, monoclonal antibodies and drugs commonly used in the RIT were briefly reviewed. (authors)

  5. Purification of Murine Monoclonal IgM Antibody


    This paper presents the purification of a monoclonal IgM antibody against human tumor associated antigen Lewis-Y by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used to identify purified IgM antibody.In flow cytometry analysis, the purified IgM antibody recognizes human breast tumor cell line MCF-7 which expresses Lewis-Y antigen.This work presents a new way for the purification of murine monoclonal IgM antibody.

  6. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.


    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  7. High throughput production of mouse monoclonal antibodies using antigen microarrays

    De Masi, Federico; Chiarella, P.; Wilhelm, H.;


    Recent advances in proteomics research underscore the increasing need for high-affinity monoclonal antibodies, which are still generated with lengthy, low-throughput antibody production techniques. Here we present a semi-automated, high-throughput method of hybridoma generation and identification...

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    In this thesis the production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 is described. The development of a suitable radioimmunoassay for the detection of anti-HSV-2 antibodies, and the selection of an optimal immunisation schedule, is given. Three assay systems are described and their reliability and sensitivity compared. (Auth.)

  9. Side-effects of monoclonal antibodies during immunoscintigraphy

    When monoclonal antibodies, most of which are developed from mouse hybridomas, are injected into the patient they are recognized as foreign globulins. The resulting immune response leads to the development of human anti-mouse antibodies or so called side-effects. (author). 1 ref


    Duarte Keila M.R.


    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV isolated in Brazil. One antibody (8G7G2 isotyped as IgG2b (kappa light chain showed strong specificity and very low cross reaction with the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. It can be used in identification of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV.

  11. Development of monoclonal antibodies that recognize Treponema pallidum.

    Saunders, J. M.; Folds, J D


    We developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies to Treponema pallidum (Nichols) antigens, some of which recognize treponemal antigens on T. pallidum (Nichols), T. pallidum strain 14, and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter. The antibodies were detected by either an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a radioimmunoassay.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to drosophila cytochrome P-450's

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies were prepared by the fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells from a female BALB/c mouse immunized by cytochrome P-450-A and P-450-B purified from Drosophila Hikone-R (BG) microsomes. P-450-A and P-450-B are electrophoretically distinct subsets of Drosophila P-450. P-450-A is ubiquitous among strains tested, while P-450-B is present in only a few strains displaying unique enzyme activities and increased insecticide resistance. The Oregon-R strain contains only cytochromes P-450-A and is susceptible to insecticides. The authors Hikone-R (BG) strain expresses both cytochromes P-450-A and P-450-B and is insecticide resistant. Antibody producing hybridomas were detected in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by binding to Hikone-R (BG) or Oregon-R microsomes. Four independent hybridomas were identified as producing monoclonal antibodies that recognized proteins in the P-450 complex by immunoblot experiments. Three monoclonal antibodies recognized P-450-A proteins, while one monoclonal antibody bound predominantly P-450-B. This monoclonal antibody also recognized southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania, Cramer) microsomal proteins

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to drosophila cytochrome P-450's

    Sundseth, S.S.; Kennel, S.J.; Waters, L.C.


    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies were prepared by the fusion of SP2/0 myeloma cells and spleen cells from a female BALB/c mouse immunized by cytochrome P-450-A and P-450-B purified from Drosophila Hikone-R (BG) microsomes. P-450-A and P-450-B are electrophoretically distinct subsets of Drosophila P-450. P-450-A is ubiquitous among strains tested, while P-450-B is present in only a few strains displaying unique enzyme activities and increased insecticide resistance. The Oregon-R strain contains only cytochromes P-450-A and is susceptible to insecticides. The authors Hikone-R (BG) strain expresses both cytochromes P-450-A and P-450-B and is insecticide resistant. Antibody producing hybridomas were detected in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by binding to Hikone-R (BG) or Oregon-R microsomes. Four independent hybridomas were identified as producing monoclonal antibodies that recognized proteins in the P-450 complex by immunoblot experiments. Three monoclonal antibodies recognized P-450-A proteins, while one monoclonal antibody bound predominantly P-450-B. This monoclonal antibody also recognized southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania, Cramer) microsomal proteins.

  14. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Pseudorabies virus

    Marković Ljiljana; Ašanin Ružica; Radojičić Sonja; Isenović Esma


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Pseudorabies virus (PrV) were obtained by the fusion of P3x-Ag8.653 myeloma and spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with a suspension of Pseudorabies (PrV) virus strains: MAVE (Morbus Aujeszk'y virus Ercegovac) and NS 257 (Novosadski virus strain). A total of 95 antibody-secreting hybridoma cells against the virus strain (MAVE and NS 257) of Pseudorabies virus have been isolated. Ten of these monoclonal antibodies were found by ELISA (Enzy...

  15. Radioimmunoimaging of experimental gliomas using radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies

    The biodistribution and tumour uptake of radiolabelled (131 I) glioma-seeking monoclonal antibodies (14 AC1) and their F(ab')2 fragments were investigated in nude mice having received glioma transplants. Radioimmunoimaging by external scintigraphy at 48 and 96 hours pointed to a superior tumour localisation by the fragments that was clearly related to the dose. Wholebody determinations of the biokinetic behaviour led to the following results: Faster clearance anc more ready elimination from the blood pool for the fragments, preferential uptake in the tumour; intact antibodies; binding in the liver, spleen and lungs. The study confirmed the value of fragments of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of tumours and pointed to the possibility of using intact monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radioisotopes and cytotoxic drugs within the scope of therapeutic programmes. (TRV)

  16. Microelectrochemical radioiodination of monoclonal antibody: a preliminary study

    The optimal reaction conditions for the microelectrochemical iodination of immunoglobulins were determined with non-specific human serum immunoglobulins. These conditions were used for the efficient radioiodination of a monoclonal antibody, 140.240, in submilligram quantities. An approximately five-fold decrease in the titre of the antibody against melanoma cells, as determined by the miniaturized mixed hemadsorption assay, was observed after iodination with an average of 0.85 atoms of iodine per molecule of antibody. (author)

  17. Transformation-related antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies.

    Strand, M


    Tumor-cell proteins that were antigenic in a syngeneic animal were identified by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies. Spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with plasma membranes of Kirsten RNA sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 cells were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells. Antibodies secreted into the culture fluid from these hybridomas were distinguished by their reactivity against proteins of different target cells. A total of 191 cultures were established; 143 produced antibodies th...

  18. Improved iodine radiolabels for monoclonal antibody therapy.

    Stein, Rhona; Govindan, Serengulam V; Mattes, M Jules; Chen, Susan; Reed, Linda; Newsome, Guy; McBride, Bill J; Griffiths, Gary L; Hansen, Hans J; Goldenberg, David M


    A major disadvantage of (131)iodine (I)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for radioimmunotherapy has been the rapid diffusion of iodotyrosine from target cells after internalization and catabolism of the radioiodinated MAbs. We recently reported that a radioiodinated, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-appended peptide, designated immunomedics' residualizing peptide 1 (IMP-R1), was a residualizing iodine label that overcame many of the limitations that had impeded the development of residualizing iodine for clinical use. To determine the factors governing the therapeutic index of the labeled MAb, as well as the factors required for production of radioiodinated MAb in high yield and with high specific activity, variations in the peptide structure of IMP-R1 were evaluated. A series of radioiodinated, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-appended peptide moieties (IMP-R1 through IMP-R8) that differed in overall hydrophilicity and charge were compared. Radioiodinations of the peptides followed by conjugations to disulfide-reduced RS7 (an anti-epithelial glycoprotein-1 MAb) furnished radioimmunoconjugates in good overall incorporations, with immunoreactivities comparable to that of directly radioiodinated RS7. Specific activities of up to 8 mCi/mg and yields > 80% have been achieved. In vitro processing experiments showed marked increases in radioiodine retention with all of the adducts; radioiodine retention at 45 h was up to 86% greater in cells than with directly iodinated RS7. Each of the (125)I-peptide-RS7 conjugates was compared with (131)I-RS7 (labeled by the chloramine-T method) in paired-label biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human lung tumor xenografts. All of the residualizing substrates exhibited significantly enhanced retention in tumor in comparison to directly radioiodinated RS7, but the nontarget uptakes differed significantly among the residualizing labels. The best labels were IMP-R4 and IMP-R8, showing superior tumor-to-non-tumor ratios

  19. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S; Hansen, J E


    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are...... coexpressed. By the coexpression of Env glycoproteins that either can or cannot bind a neutralizing MAb in an env transcomplementation assay, virions were generated in which the proportion of MAb binding sites could be regulated. As the proportion of MAb binding sites in Env chimeric virus increased, MAb...

  20. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S; Hansen, J E


    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are...... data could not exclude the existence of a threshold for neutralization. However, results from MAb neutralization of chimeric virus containing wild-type Env and Env defective in CD4 binding was readily explained by a model of incremental MAb neutralization. In summary, the data indicate that MAb...

  1. A Monoclonal Antibody with Thyrotropin (TSH) Receptor Inverse Agonist and TSH Antagonist Activities Binds to the Receptor Hinge Region as Well as to the Leucine-Rich Domain

    Chen, Chun-Rong; McLachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil


    Monoclonal antibody CS-17 is a TSH receptor (TSHR) inverse agonist (suppresses constitutive activity) and a TSH antagonist. Elucidation of the CS-17 epitope will provide insight into TSHR structure and function. Present information on its epitope conflicts with recent data regarding another TSHR inverse agonist antibody. To characterize further the CS-17 epitope, we exploited the observation that CS-17 does not recognize a chimeric receptor with TSHR hinge region residues 261–289 replaced wit...

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were obtained from hybrid myelomas, following fusion of mouse NSI myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells. Ten different antibodies were obtained from 4 separate fusions. Eight antibodies were of the IgG1 subclass. Affinities of antibodies for TSH were in the range 2 x 108-5 x 1010 M-1. Five of the antibodies were specific for TSH and did not react with LH, FSH or hCG. The remaining antibodies reacted with all these hormones and were assumed to recognise their common (α) subunit. The 5 specific antibodies fell into 3 subgroups recognising distinct antigenic determinants, whereas the 5 non-specific antibodies recognised a single determinant or closely related set of sites. It is concluded that these antibodies should be valuable reagents for use in sensitive and specific two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against human placental glutathione transferase (class pi).

    Massoud, R; Lo Bello, M; De Stefano, E; Molino, A; Zelaschi, D; Federici, G


    Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced in a mouse hybridoma system against human placental glutathione transferase (GST pi). Four of these monoclonal antibodies, named 461 to 464, were of immunoglobulin G class, whereas the monoclonal antibody 465 was of IgA class. All these MAbs specifically recognized the glutathione transferase from human placenta (class pi) showing no cross reactivity against the basic and the neutral forms of GST from human liver. When each MAb was incubated with the GST pi, no inhibition of enzymatic activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was observed except for MAb 465 which showed a slight inhibition to a serial dilution of 1:128. PMID:1709614

  4. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.


    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  5. Preparation and Identification of Anti-rabies Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

    Wen-juan Wang; Xiong Li; Li-hua Wang; Hu Shan; Lei Cao; Peng-cheng Yu; Qing Tang; Guo-dong Liang


    To provide a foundation for the development of rapid and specific methods for the diagnosis of rabies virus infection,anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies were prepared and rabies virus nucleoprotein and human rabies virus vaccine strain (PV strain) were used as immunogens to immunize 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice.Spleen cells and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused according to conventional methods:the monoclonal cell strains obtained were selected using the indirect immunofluorescence test; this was followed by preparation of monoclonal antibody ascitic fluid; and finally,systematic identification of subclass,specificity and sensitivity was carried out.Two high potency and specific monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus were obtained and named 3B12 and 4A12,with ascitic fluid titers of 1∶8000 and 1∶10000,respectively.Both belonged to the IgG2a subclass.These strains secrete potent,stable and specific anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies,which makes them well suited for the development of rabies diagnosis reagents.

  6. Efficacy of Wnt-1 monoclonal antibody in sarcoma cells

    Sarcomas are one of the most refractory diseases among malignant tumors. More effective therapies based on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of sarcomas are needed as current forms of therapy remain inadequate. Recently, it has been reported that Wnt-1/β-catenin signaling inhibits apoptosis in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody in sarcoma cells. We treated cell lines A-204, SJSA-1, and fresh primary cultures of lung metastasis of sarcoma with a monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody. Wnt-1 siRNA treatment was carried out in A-204. We assessed cell death using Crystal Violet staining. Apoptosis induction was estimated by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V and PI staining). Cell signaling changes were determined by western blotting analysis. We detected Wnt-1 expression in all tissue samples and cell lines. Significant apoptosis induction was found in monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody treated cells compared to control monoclonal antibody treated cells (p < 0.02). Similarly, we observed increased apoptosis in Wnt-1 siRNA treated cells. Blockade of Wnt-1 signaling in both experiments was confirmed by analyzing intracellular levels of Dishevelled-3 and of cytosolic β-catenin. Furthermore, the monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody also induced cell death in fresh primary cultures of metastatic sarcoma in which Wnt-1 signaling was active. Our results indicate that Wnt-1 blockade by either monoclonal antibody or siRNA induces cell death in sarcoma cells. These data suggest that Wnt-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of a subset of sarcoma cells in which Wnt-1/β-catenin signaling is active

  7. Exchanging murine and human immunoglobulin constant chains affects the kinetics and thermodynamics of antigen binding and chimeric antibody autoreactivity.

    Marcela Torres

    Full Text Available Mouse-human chimeric antibodies composed of murine variable (V and human (C chains are useful therapeutic reagents. Consequently, we investigated whether heterologous C-regions from mice and humans affected specificity and affinity, and determined the contribution of C(H glycosylation to antigen binding. The interaction of a 12-mer peptide mimetic with monoclonal antibody (mAb 18B7 to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan, and its chimeric (ch and deglycosylated forms were studied by surface plasmon resonance. The equilibrium and rate association constants for the chAb were higher than for mAb 18B7. V region affinity was not affected by C(H region glycosylation whereas heterologous C region of the same isotype altered the Ab binding affinity and the specificity for self-antigens. Structural models displayed local differences that implied changes on the connectivity of residues. These findings suggest that V region conformational changes can be dictated by the C(H domains through an allosteric effect involving networks of highly connected amino acids.

  8. Studies on radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies with 99Tcm and other radionuclides for scintigraphy

    This work performed on the development of radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies for scintigraphy using direct 99Tcm labelling and other radiolabelling methods of monoclonal antibodies with In-111, Ga-67 or Ru-103

  9. Production and radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies and its applications in nuclear medicine

    The basis of the monoclonal antibody production methodology, some immunological concepts which are important for the understanding of what is a Monoclonal Antibody, its radioiodination and acceptance as receptor-specific radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine are reviewed. (author)

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to cell surface antigens of human melanoma

    The authors have worked with three human melanoma antigens which have been defined by monoclonal mouse antibodies: p97, a glycoprotein that is structurally related to transferrin, a proteoglycan, and a GD3 ganglioside that is slightly different from the GD3 of normal brain. All three antigens can be detected in frozen sections of melanoma, using immunohistological techniques. Antibodies and Fab fragments, specific for either p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, have been radiolabelled with 131I and successfully used for tumor imaging, and Phase I therapeutic trails are underway, using 131I-labelled Fab fragments, specific for p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, to localize a potentially therapeutic dose of radiation into tumors. It may be feasible to use the same monoclonal antibodies, or antibody fragments, as carriers of neutron capturers, such as boron, for possible use in tumor therapy. The initial experiments on this are best carried out by using nude mice (or rats) carrying human melanoma xenografts

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies Attached to Carbon Nanotube Transistors for Paclitaxel Detection

    Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration

    Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.

  12. Advantage of dose fractionation in monoclonal antibody-targeted radioimmunotherapy

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 IgG was radiolabeled with 131I and administered to female athymic NCr-nu mice bearing the LS-174T human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft to determine if fractionation of MAb dose had any advantage in tumor therapy. In the LS-174T xenograft, only approximately 30%-60% of tumor cells express the B72.3-reactive TAG-72 antigen. The LS-174T xenograft was used to reflect the heterogeneity of the TAG-72 antigen often seen in biopsy specimens from patients. In contrast to a single 600-muCi dose of 131I-B72.3 IgG where 60% of the animals died from toxic effects, two 300-muCi doses of 131I-B72.3 IgG reduced or eliminated tumor growth in 90% of mice, with only 10% of the animals dying from toxic effects. Dose fractionation even permitted escalation of the dose to three doses of 300 muCi of 131I-B72.3 IgG, resulting in even more extensive tumor reduction or elimination and minimal toxic effects. The use of an isotype-matched control MAb revealed a nonspecific component to tumor growth retardation, but the use of the specific B72.3 IgG demonstrated a much greater therapeutic effect. Tumors that had escaped MAb therapy were analyzed for expression of the B72.3-reactive TAG-72 antigen with the use of the immunoperoxidase method; they were shown to have the same antigenic phenotype as the untreated tumors. We verified tumor elimination by killing the test animals after a 7-week observation period and performing histologic examination of tumor sites. We also monitored toxic effects by histologic examination of numerous organs. These studies thus demonstrate the advantage of dose fractionation of a radiolabeled MAb for tumor therapy. We anticipate that the concept of dose fractionation can be practically applied in radioimmunotherapeutic clinical trials with the development and use of recombinant-chimeric MAbs and modified constructs

  13. T-cell detection with monoclonal antibody T101 kits.

    Pollack, S M; Cimino, E F; Robbins, D S; Hoffman, P M


    A solid-phase immunoadsorption procedure (Quantigen T&B cell kit; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, Calif.) employing monoclonal antibody T101 detected mean percentages of peripheral blood T cells comparable to those obtained by rosetting with sheep erythrocytes, while lower values were obtained with an indirect immunofluorescence procedure (Cytotag T&B cell kit; Hybritech, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) employing the same antibody. Therefore, T101 binding appears to be more easily detected by solid-...

  14. Production of Bartonella Genus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    Liang, Zhongxing; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier


    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which react with heat-resistant proteins with molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa of 14 different Bartonella species were produced. These antibodies did not react with antigens of 26 diverse bacterial strains by microimmunofluorescence assay except MAb B3D4, which reacted with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis at low titers. The identification of a common Bartonella antigenic protein will make it possible to later produce a diagnostic antigen by cloning an...

  15. Monoclonal antibodies in animal production; their use in diagnostics and passive immunization.

    Booman, P.


    One of the landmarks in immunology was the invention and development of monoclonal antibody-secreting hybridomas by Milstein and his coworkers. The enormous promise of monoclonal antibody technology, which became apparent soon after its discovery, may explain the unusual speed with which monoclonal antibodies have been applied to biological and medical sciences.In animal production monoclonal antibodies are increasingly finding application in the areas of diagnostics, passive immunization and...

  16. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.


    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  17. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine zygomycosis by murine monoclonal antibodies

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter;


    Murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against water-soluble somatic antigens (WSSA) and the wall fraction (WF) from Rhizopus arrhizus (Rhizopus oryzae) were produced in vitro by fusion of splenocytes from immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma X63-Ag 8.653 cells. Supernatants reacting only with h...

  18. Radioimmunodetection of human tumors with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    The present study reports the use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies prospectively as a diagnostic method in order to localize tumor sites in patients with a suspicion of recurrence or metastasis based on isolated elevation of serum tumor markers. Results of immunoscintigraphy are compared to data obtained with more conventional investigations including essentially ultra sonography and CT scan. (Auth.)

  19. Generation and Characterization of Novel Human IRAS Monoclonal Antibodies

    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available Imidazoline receptors were first proposed by Bousquet et al., when they studied antihypertensive effect of clonidine. A strong candidate for I1R, known as imidazoline receptor antisera-selected protein (IRAS, has been cloned from human hippocampus. We reported that IRAS mediated agmatine-induced inhibition of opioid dependence in morphine-dependent cells. To elucidate the functional and structure properties of I1R, we developed the newly monoclonal antibody against the N-terminal hIRAS region including the PX domain (10–120aa through immunization of BALB/c mice with the NusA-IRAS fusion protein containing an IRAS N-terminal (10–120aa. Stable hybridoma cell lines were established and monoclonal antibodies specifically recognized full-length IRAS proteins in their native state by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Monoclonal antibodies stained in a predominantly punctate cytoplasmic pattern when applied to IRAS-transfected HEK293 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assays and demonstrated excellent reactivity in flow immunocytometry. These monoclonal antibodies will provide powerful reagents for the further investigation of hIRAS protein functions.

  20. Novel electrokinetic approaches to improve purification processes with monoclonal antibodies

    Faude, Alexander


    This work was focussed on mAb separations using cation exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Methods to accelerate long winded development strategies of purification processes with monoclonal antibodies were developed facilitated by further improvement of understanding the basic adsorption mechanisms of proteins on chromatographic resins. The new experimental electrokinetic methods introduced are zeta potential determination with proteins via laser light scattering and electro-...

  1. Characterization of Binding Epitopes of CA125 Monoclonal Antibodies

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Halim, Adnan;


    The most used cancer serum biomarker is the CA125 immunoassay for ovarian cancer that detects the mucin glycoprotein MUC16. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) including OC125 and M11 are used in CA125 assays. However, despite considerable efforts, our knowledge of the molecular characteristics ...

  2. Enhancement of Monoclonal Antibody Production by Lysine-Containing Peptides

    Franěk, František; Eckschlager, T.; Hermann, K.


    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2003), s. 169-174. ISSN 8756-7938 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 111300005 Keywords : Monoclonal Antibody * Lysine -Containing Peptides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2003

  3. Immunotherapy with GD2 specific monoclonal antibodies

    Targeted immunotherapy focuses anti-tumor activity of antibodies and effector cells, which are actively developed by the host or adoptively transferred, onto tumor cells and into tumor sites. Such tumor selective therapy can be more specific and efficient. The value of such an approach is evident in the classical interaction of antibodies. This paper reports that the ganglioside GD2 is an ideal antigen for specific tumor targeting because of its relative lack of heterogeneity among human neuroblastoma, its high density on tumor cells, its lack of antigen modulation upon binding to antibody, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues

  4. Development of Biodegradable Nanocarriers Loaded with a Monoclonal Antibody

    Andrew Gdowski


    Full Text Available Treatments utilizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics against intracellular protein-protein interactions in cancer cells have been hampered by several factors, including poor intracellular uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation. Our current work examines the feasibility of encapsulating monoclonal antibodies within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles using a water/oil/water double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. This method can be used to prepare protective polymeric nanoparticles for transporting functional antibodies to the cytoplasmic compartment of cancer cells. Nanoparticles were formulated and then characterized using a number of physical and biological parameters. The average nanoparticle size ranged from 221 to 252 nm with a low polydispersity index. Encapsulation efficiency of 16%–22% and antibody loading of 0.3%–1.12% were observed. The antibody molecules were released from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner and upon release maintained functionality. Our studies achieved successful formulation of antibody loaded polymeric nanoparticles, thus indicating that a PLGA-based antibody nanoformulation is a promising intracellular delivery vehicle for a large number of new intracellular antibody targets in cancer cells.

  5. Design and manufacture of monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunotherapy

    Appropriate design and manufacture of monoclonal antibodies is fundamental to their use for radioimmunotherapy. Besides the right selection of antibody specificity and affinity, recombinant antibodies can be designed to simplify manufacture and minimise unwanted side effects. Although many innovative new technologies have been developed in recent years, antibodies are still most commonly produced from mammalian cells and purified by column chromatography. Purification methods have to be designed and validated to remove potential contaminants, especially retroviruses which in principle might be present in mammalian cell lines. Adherence to relevant Good Manufacturing Practice is mandatory in the production of any medicinal product and there are numerous guidelines regarding the manufacture of antibodies. This article outlines some methods used for fermentation, purification and quality control of antibodies intended for radiolabelling

  6. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A1, C7, D3, D7 and H4. As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D3 exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK1 cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells

  7. Monoclonal antibody against a Burkitt lymphoma-associated antigen.

    Wiels, J; Fellous, M.; Tursz, T


    A monoclonal antibody, referred to as 38.13, was obtained by fusing murine myeloma cells with Lewis rat splenocytes sensitized with Daudi cells (human Burkitt lymphoma containing Epstein--Barr virus genome but lacking HLA-A, -B, and -C and beta 2-microglobulin molecules at the cell surface). 38.13 antibody was demonstrated to be a rat IgM. By complement-dependent microcytotoxicity and indirect immunofluorescence assays, 38.13 antibody was shown to react specifically with cells derived from Bu...

  8. Radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies with technetium-99 m via metallothionein

    Metallothionein (MT), a small cysteine-rich protein, was used as a bifunctional chelating agent in the radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies with Tc-99m. The efficiency of the conjugation reaction of MT with antibodies (Ab) was found as 58%. The yield of radiolabelling of Tc-99m to MT-Ab by reduction method was higher than 90%, while the unspecific radiolabelling occurred less than 10%. The Tc-99m-MT-Ab has proven to be satisfactory stable in Vitro in the presence of a couple of strong chelating agents. The preliminary biological experimental results in tumor-bearing nude mice indicated that the Tc-99m-labelled anti-colorectal carcinoma monoclonal antibody 2C10 had strong affinity toward tumor and was stable in vivo

  9. Development of radiolabelling techniques of anti-CEA monoclonal antibody

    The purpose of this work was to label monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with 99Tcm such as the ior-CEA-1 antibody and polyclonal IgG using a direct method, to check the radiochemical and biological behavior of labelled products, to prepare it under sterile and apyrogenic conditions as a lyophilized kit and to employ it in clinical trials. In addition, a photoactivation method was used to label polyclonal IgG with 99Tcm and to compare with the established method using mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as the reducing agent. Finally polyclonal IgG was labelled using an indirect method in which a chelator was covalently attached to the protein and the 99Tcm added as glucoheptonate complex. The properties of 99Tcm when labelled with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies by different methods were assessed by in vitro and in vivo studies

  10. Monoclonal antibody radioimmunodetection of human-derived colon cancer

    This study was designed to determine whether monoclonal antibody directed against carcinoembryonic antigen could successfully be used in the scintigraphic localization of a human-derived colon carcinoma in a hamster model. An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-1 kappa monoclonal antibody, prepared in this laboratory, against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 (131I). Four Syrian hamsters bearing GW-39 human colon cancers received intracardiac injections of 50 mu Ci of 131I (14 micrograms of antibody). Gamma camera images were obtained at 24-hour intervals. Animals were sacrificed at 11 days, and the tumors and entire animals were counted. A double-label antibody experiment was conducted with 131I anti-CEA and nonspecific MOPC 21 IgG iodine-125 (125I) to assess localization specificity. The scintiphotos clearly showed the tumor at 24 hours, but there was significant background (blood-pool activity). Later images at six and 11 days showed a gradual decrease in background activity and more clear definition of the tumor. Animals sacrificed at 11 days showed 48-80% of residual whole body radioactivity to be present in the tumor. However, these tumors were large at sacrifice, weighing 8.9 to 12.4 g. Specific localization was confirmed by the double-label experiments where specific localization was twice nonspecific accretion of IgG in the tumor. This study has shown that a specific monoclonal antibody can successfully be used to scintigraphically localize a colon tumor of human origin. Although clearance of background activity is a gradual process, eventually most radioactivity left in the animal is localized in the tumor. This study illustrates that the potential radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies hold as immunodiagnostic agents

  11. Treating multiple sclerosis with monoclonal antibodies: a 2013 update.

    Deiß, Annika; Brecht, Isabel; Haarmann, Axel; Buttmann, Mathias


    The third part of this in-depth review series on the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with monoclonal antibodies covers the years 2010-2012. The natalizumab section gives a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy update, focusing on clinically relevant aspects. Furthermore, it outlines problems around natalizumab cessation and current evidence on therapeutic strategies thereafter. Finally, it reviews evidence on Janus-faced modes of natalizumab action besides anti-inflammatory effects, including proinflammatory effects. The section on alemtuzumab critically analyzes recent Phase III results and discusses which patients might be best suited for alemtuzumab treatment, and reviews the long-term immunological impact of this anti-CD52 antibody. The daclizumab section critically summarizes results from the Phase IIb SELECT/SELECTION trial and introduces the Phase III program. The section on anti-CD20 antibodies reviews Phase II results on ocrelizumab and ofatumumab, and discusses current perspectives of these antibodies for MS therapy. Promising recent Phase II results on the anti-IL-17A antibody secukinumab (AIN457) are outlined and a short update on tabalumab (LY2127399) is given. Other highlighted antibodies currently being tested in MS patients include GNbAC1, BIIB033, MOR103 and MEDI-551. Finally, the authors give an update on the role monoclonal antibodies could play in the therapeutic armamentarium for MS in the medium term. PMID:23448220

  12. Treatment of leukemia with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies.

    Sgouros, G; Scheinberg, D A


    In contrast to radioimmunotherapy of solid disease, wherein the primary obstacle to success is access of radiolabeled antibody to antigen-positive cells, in the treatment of leukemia delivering a lethal absorbed dose to the isolated cell appears to be the primary obstacle. The isolated cell is defined as one that is exposed only to self-irradiation (from internalized or surface-bound radiolabeled antibody) and to irradiation from free antibody in the blood. It is isolated in the sense that the particulate (beta, electron, alpha) emissions from its nearest neighboring antigen-positive cell do not contribute to its absorbed dose. Disease in the bone marrow and other tissues, since it is confined to a smaller volume, is more easily eradicated because the absorbed dose to a given cell nucleus is enhanced by emissions from adjacent cells (a smaller fraction of the emission energy is 'wasted'). The optimization simulations presented above for the M195 antibody suggest that the optimum dose of antibody that should be administered is that required to yield a concentration within the distribution volume of the antibody that is approximately equal to the concentration of antigen sites as determined by the tumor burden. Although not specifically considered in the modeling example presented above, antibody internalization and catabolism may be expected to play an important role in radioimmunotherapy treatment planning of leukemia. Depending upon the kinetics of internalization and catabolism, the absorbed dose to the red marrow and to antigen-positive cells may be reduced considerably, since catabolism, assuming that it is followed by rapid extrusion of the radioactive label, would decrease the cells' exposure time considerably. The recently demonstrated effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy in certain cases of B-cell lymphoma and in reducing tumor burden in acute myelogenous leukemia suggests that radioimmunotherapy is beginning to fulfill the promise held when it was initially

  13. Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Tumor CD105 Expression with a Dual-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W.; Yang, Yunan; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo


    CD105 (endoglin) is an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in > 10 solid tumor types, including breast cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a CD105-specific agent for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, which can have potential clinical applications in diagnosis and imaged-guided surgery of breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e. 800CW) and 64Cu to yield 64...

  14. A Recombinant Humanized Anti-Cocaine Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits the Distribution of Cocaine to the Brain in Rats

    Norman, Andrew B.; Gooden, Felicia C. T.; Tabet, Michael R.; Ball, William J.


    The monoclonal antibody (mAb), h2E2, is a humanized version of the chimeric human/murine anti-cocaine mAb 2E2. The recombinant h2E2 protein was produced in vitro from a transfected mammalian cell line and retained high affinity (4 nM Kd) and specificity for cocaine over its inactive metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester. In rats, pharmacokinetic studies of h2E2 (120 mg/kg i.v.) showed a long terminal elimination half-life of 9.0 days and a low volume of distribution at st...

  15. Cysteinylation of a monoclonal antibody leads to its inactivation.

    McSherry, Troy; McSherry, Jennifer; Ozaeta, Panfilo; Longenecker, Kenton; Ramsay, Carol; Fishpaugh, Jeffrey; Allen, Steven


    Post-translational modifications can have a signification effect on antibody stability. A comprehensive approach is often required to best understand the underlying reasons the modification affects the antibody's potency or aggregation state. Monoclonal antibody 001 displayed significant variation in terms of potency, as defined by surface plasmon resonance testing (Biacore), from lot to lot independent of any observable aggregation or degradation, suggesting that a post-translational modification could be driving this variability. Analysis of different antibody lots using analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uncovered multiple peaks of varying size. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) indicated that the antibody contained a cysteinylation post-translational modification in complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 of the antibody light chain. Fractionation of the antibody by HIC followed by ESI-MS and Biacore showed that the different peaks were antibody containing zero, one, or two cysteinylation modifications, and that the modification interferes with the ability of the modified antibody arm to bind antigen. Molecular modeling of the modified region shows that this oxidation of an unpaired cysteine in the antibody CDR would block a potential antigen binding pocket, suggesting an inhibition mechanism. PMID:27050640

  16. The Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in Human Prion Disease

    Bodemer, Walter

    Detection of PrP and its pathological isoform(s) is the key to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. There is ample evidence that PrP isoforms constitute a major component of an unknown and perhaps unconventional infectious agent. An etiological relationship between human and zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may be revealed with monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of the conformational transition rendering a nonpathogenic, almost ubiquitous cellular protein into a pathogenic one is crucial to defining pathomechanisms. The stepwise or even continuous formation of pathogenic molecules can be monitored. Any improvement in the early diagnosis could help to conceive new therapeutic measures which are not currently available. Determination of PrP isoforms in tissue, cells, or body fluids may be of prognostic value. Many experimental approaches in molecular medicine and molecular biology of the prion protein already rely on monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies such as the single-chain Fv may soon replace traditional hybridoma techniques. Binding affinity can easily be manipulated by a number of techniques, including in vitro mutagenesis - a step which could never be carried out using the traditional hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibodies are and will remain an essential support for ongoing research on the prion protein in general and on the unconventional infectious prions.

  17. Study and ICH validation of a reverse-phase liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of the intact monoclonal antibody cetuximab

    Antonio Martínez-Ortega; Agustín Herrera; Antonio Salmerón-García; José Cabeza; Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez; Natalia Navas


    Cetuximab (CTX) is a potent chimeric mouse/human monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved worldwide for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Among the various biological and physical analyses performed for full study on this biopharmaceutic, the determination of the concentration preparations throughout manufacturing and subsequent handling in hospital is particularly relevant. In the present work, the study and validation of a method for quantifying intact CTX by reverse-phase high-performan...

  18. Tumor-specific targeting by Bavituximab, a phosphatidylserine-targeting monoclonal antibody with vascular targeting and immune modulating properties, in lung cancer xenografts

    Gerber, David E.; Hao, Guiyang; Watkins, Linda; Jason H. Stafford; Anderson, Jon; Holbein, Blair; Öz, Orhan K.; Mathews, Dana; Thorpe, Philip E; Hassan, Gedaa; Kumar, Amit; Brekken, Rolf A.; Sun, Xiankai


    Bavituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody with immune modulating and tumor-associated vascular disrupting properties demonstrated in models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The molecular target of Bavituximab, phosphatidylserine (PS), is exposed on the outer leaflet of the membrane bi-layer of malignant vascular endothelial cells and tumor cells to a greater extent than on normal tissues. We evaluated the tumor-targeting properties of Bavituximab for imaging of NSCLC xenografts when...

  19. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies.

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G


    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting

  20. Production of monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunoassays

    Specific antibodies (Abs) have proven most useful and versatile tools for the identification, quantification, and localization of minute amounts of small and large molecules in biologic materials, e.g., body fluids, specific cells, and other body components. So far the most widely used technique for the production of specific Abs consists in immunization of animals like rabbits, goats, or horses, monitoring of Ab formation in the serum, and selection of animals which produce serum containing Abs sufficiently specific for the use envisaged. Although this approach has yielded many valuable results, it has some deficiencies

  1. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Suitable for Rabies Virus Antibody and Antigen Detection

    Chander, Vishal; Singh, R.P.; Verma, P. C.


    The control of an infectious viral disease as rabies is made easier by rapid and accurate diagnosis. Successful rabies prophylaxis is dependent upon the active immunization with vaccine along with passive administration of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies which together clear the virus before widespread infection of central nervous system occurs. The present study aimed at the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suitable for rabies virus antibody and antigen detection. For the pro...

  2. Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against Ractopamine

    In order to prepare the monoclonal antibody against Ractopamine (RCT), RCT-conjugated antigen was produced by methods of mixed acid anhydride. The spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized by RCT-BSA were fused with SP2/0 plasmacytoma cells using PEG4000. A hybridoma cell line of 3E1-C9-E10 was screened for specificity to RCT and cloned by limited dilution method, which secreted stable monoclonal antibodies against RCT with indirect ELISA titers of 1 x 105 in supernatant, 1 x 107 in ascites. The McAb of 3E1-C9-E10 generally had 24% cross-reactivity to Dobutamine, and showed little or no cross-reactivity to Salbutamol and Clenbuterol. (authors)

  3. Guidelines to cell engineering for monoclonal antibody production

    Costa, A.; Rodrigues, E; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently used for many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The high demand for these biopharmaceuticals has led to the development of large-scale manufacturing processes, with productivity improvements being mainly achieved by optimization of bioreactor systems. However, more recently, the early steps of production, previous to bioreactor culture, have been presented as alternative areas where productivity enhancements can be achieved. Thus, ...

  4. Production of monoclonal antibodies to human glomerular basement membrane.



    Full Text Available Using the technique of somatic cell fusion, we produced monoclonal antibodies to collagenase-digested human glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies which reacted with normal human kidney in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF studies were produced. An analysis of the binding patterns indicated that the antigens recognized could be divided into six broad groups. Monoclonal antibody B3-H10 (Group 1 reacted with only GBM in a fine granular pattern. A5-B12 and B5-C2 (Group 2 reacted with GBM and peritubular capillary in a linear pattern. B2-A12 (Group 3 reacted with only epithelial cells. Al-C9 and A4-E2 (Group 4 showed a mesangial pattern in glomerulus and a lineal pattern in tubular basement membrane (TBM, Bowman's capsule and peritubular capillary. A1-E1, A1-E11, A2-E6, A3-B6, A4-F8 and B5-H2 (Group 5 recognized determinants common to GBM, TBM, Bowman's capsule and/or peritubular capillary. A3-F1 and B5-E10 (Group 6 reacted with TBM and Bowman's capsule. The staining pattern of B3-H10 (Group 1 was characteristic because it was not linear, but finely granular along the GBM. The staining pattern of B2-A12 (Group 3 was also characteristic because only epithelial cells were stained, and processes of epithelial cells were observed as fine fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, these two types of monoclonal antibodies have not been reported previously.

  5. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies in China: Overview and Prospects


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become increasingly important as human therapeutic agents. Yet, current research concentrates on technology itself and pays attention to developed countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of mAbs development in China through systematic analysis of drug registry, patent applications, clinical trials, academic publication, and ongoing R&D projects. The trends in therapeutic areas and industrialization process are also highlighted. Developmen...

  6. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Plants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Ghislain Moussavou; Kisung Ko; Jeong-Hwan Lee; Young-Kug Choo


    Plants are considered as an alternative platform for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) production due to the improvement and diversification of transgenic techniques. The diversity of plant species offers a multitude of possibilities for the valorization of genetic resources. Moreover, plants can be propagated indefinitely, providing cheap biomass production on a large scale in controlled conditions. Thus, recent studies have shown the successful development of plant systems for the produ...

  7. A monoclonal antibody to triplex DNA binds to eucaryotic chromosomes.

    Lee, J. S.; Burkholder, G D; Latimer, L J; Haug, B L; Braun, R P


    A monoclonal antibody (Jel 318) was produced by immunizing mice with poly[d(TmC)].poly[d(GA)].poly[d(mCT) which forms a stable triplex at neutral pH. Jel 318 did not bind to calf thymus DNA or other non pyrimidine.purine DNAs such as poly[d(TG)].poly[d(CA)]. In addition the antibody did not recognize pyrimidine.purine DNAs containing mA (e.g. poly[d(TC)].poly[d(GmA)]) which cannot form a triplex since the methyl group blocks Hoogsteen base-pairing. The binding of Jel 318 to chromosomes was as...

  8. Structural identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to rat angiotensinogen

    Balb/c mice were immunised in vivo using angiotensinogen obtained from rats. In order to confirm that an immunoreaction had taken place, the concentration of specific antibodies was determined in selected sera on the basis of a radioimmunological method. In view of the fact that the affinity of the antibodies of the three monoclonal lines isolated here was calculated to be in the order of 107 l/mol it appears that their main field of use in affinity chromatography would be the purification of angiotensinogen from rats. (orig./MG)

  9. [Continuous perfusion culture hybridoma cells for production of monoclonal antibody].

    Mi, Li; Li, Ling; Feng, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan


    Hybridoma cells were cultured by continuous perfusion in Fibra-Cel of 5L packed-bed bioreactor for 22 days in low serum or serum-free media. The corresponded amino acids were fed and serum concentration was decreased by analyzing glucose concentration, oxygen uptake rate, secretary antibody amount and amino acids concentration in culture supernatant. Comparing with continuous perfusion culture that amino acids were not fed, antibody amount of production was increased about 2-3 times. The inoculated cell density was 2.5 x 10(5) cells/mL, while the final cell density was 8.79 x 10(8) cells/mL. Antibody production was reached 295 mg/L/d at average level, and the highest level was reached 532 mg/L/d. These results provided a primary mode of enlarge culture for monoclonal antibody industralization. PMID:12192875

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to coagulation factor IX define a high-frequency polymorphism by immunoassays.

    Smith, K. J.


    Monoclonal antibodies have been used to demonstrate a polymorphism of human plasma coagulation factor IX antigen in double antibody solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. This polymorphism is detected in an assay where a monoclonal antibody (A-1) adsorbed to microtiter wells is used to bind factor IX from diluted plasma samples. Plasma samples with the factor IX polymorphism have less than 0.2 U/ml of apparent antigen when tested with the A-1 antibody, while assays with other monoclonal antibo...

  11. Antibody-mediated immune suppression is improved when blends of anti-RBC monoclonal antibodies are used in mice.

    Bernardo, Lidice; Amash, Alaa; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H


    Although the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is highly effective using polyclonal anti-D, a recombinant alternative is long overdue. Unfortunately, anti-D monoclonal antibodies have been, at best, disappointing. To determine the primary attribute defining an optimal antibody, we assessed suppression of murine red blood cell (RBC) immunization by single-monoclonal antibodies vs defined blends of subtype-matched antibodies. Allogeneic RBCs expressing the HOD antigen (hen egg lysozyme [HEL]-ovalbumin-human transmembrane Duffy(b)) were transfused into naïve mice alone or together with selected combinations of HEL-specific antibodies, and the resulting suppressive effect was assessed by evaluating the antibody response. Polyclonal HEL antibodies dramatically inhibited the antibody response to the HOD antigen, whereas single-monoclonal HEL antibodies were less effective despite the use of saturating doses. A blend of monoclonal HEL-specific antibodies reactive with different HEL epitopes significantly increased the suppressive effect, whereas a blend of monoclonal antibodies that block each other's binding to the HEL protein did not increase suppression. In conclusion, these data show that polyclonal antibodies are superior to monoclonal antibodies at suppressing the immune response to the HOD cells, a feature that can be completely recapitulated using monoclonal antibodies to different epitopes. PMID:27330002

  12. Studies on Purification of Methamidophos Monoclonal Antibodies and Comoarative Immunoactivity of Purified Antibodies



    Objective To purify Methamidophos (Met) monoclonal antibodies with two methods andcompare immune activity of purified antibodies. Method Caprylic acid ammonium sulphateprecipition (CAASP) method and Sepharose protein-A (SPA) affinity chromatography method wereused to purify Met monoclonal antibodies, UV spectrum scanning was used to determine proteincontent and recovery of purified antibodies, sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze the purity of purified antibodies, and enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine immune activity of purified antibodies.Results Antibody protein content and recovery rate with CAASP method were 7.62 mg/mL and8.05% respectively, antibody protein content and recovery rate with SPA method were 6.45 mg/mLand 5.52% respectively. Purity of antibodies purified by SPA method was higher than that by CAASPmethod. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) of antibodies purified by SPA to Met was181.26 μg/mL, and the linear working range and the limit of quantification (LOD) were 2.43-3896.01μg/mL and 1.03 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of antibodies purified by CAASP to Met was 352.82μg/mL, and the linear working range and LOD were 10.91-11412.29 ug/mL and 3.42 μg/mL,respectively. Conclusion Antibodies purified by SPA method are better than those by CAASPmethod, and Met monoclonal antibodies purified by SPA method can be used to prepare gold-labelledtesting paper for analyzing Met residue in vegetable and drink water.

  13. Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from peripheral blood B cells.

    Huang, Jinghe; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Longo, Nancy S; Laub, Leo; Lin, Chien-Li; Turk, Ellen; Kang, Byong H; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark


    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies is an important technique for understanding the specificities and characteristics of antibodies that underlie the humoral immune response to a given antigen. Here we describe a technique for isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The protocol includes strategies for the isolation of switch-memory B cells from peripheral blood, the culture of B cells, the removal of the supernatant for screening and the lysis of B cells in preparation for immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain amplification and cloning. We have observed that the addition of cytokines IL-2, IL-21 and irradiated 3T3-msCD40L feeder cells can successfully stimulate switch-memory B cells to produce high concentrations of IgG in the supernatant. The supernatant may then be screened by appropriate assays for binding or for other functions. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. It is adaptable to use in other species and enables the efficient isolation of antibodies with a desired functional characteristic without prior knowledge of specificity. PMID:24030440

  14. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.


    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  15. Monoclonal Antibody Production against Human Spermatozoal Surface Antigens

    M Jedi-Tehrani


    Full Text Available Introduction: As monoclonal antibodies are potential tools for characterization of soluble or cellular surface antigens, use of these proteins has always been considered in infertility and reproduction research. Therefore, in this study, monoclonal antibodies against human sperm surface antigens were produced. Material and Methods: To produce specific clones against human sperm surface antigens, proteins were extracted using solubilization methods. Balb/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with the proteins using complete Freund’s adjuvant in the first injection and incomplete Adjuvant in the following booster injections. Hybridoma cells producing ASA were cloned by limiting dilution. Results: Five stable ASA producing hybridoma clones were achieved and their antibody isotypes were determined by ELISA. All the isotypes were of IgG class. Their cross reactivity with rat and mice spermatozoa was examined but they did not have any cross reactivity. Conclusion: The produced antibodies can be used in further studies to characterize and evaluate each of the antigens present on human sperm surface and determining their role in fertilization.

  16. Cuban Monoclonal Antibodies for Radioimmunodiagnosis and Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer Diseases

    The Centre of Molecular Immunology produces monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer diseases. We are mainly focus on two target systems; one is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) because there is a tremendous relationship between the EGF/EGF-R system and several human tumours such as lung, head and neck, ovarian breast and brain cancers; the second one is the ganglioside system, the relevance of certain gangliosides in tumour growth and metastatic dissemination has been well documented, GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside is particularly interesting due to its restrictive expression in normal human tissues. Nimotuzumab (h-R3) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that was obtained by complementarity-determining regions grafting of a murine mAb (ior egf/r3) to a human framework having remarkable antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects. A Phase I clinical trial was performed to evaluate the toxicity and clinical effect of an intracavitary (intracerebral) administration of a single dose of nimotuzumab (h-R3) labelled with increasing doses of 188Re. All patients bearing astrocytomas grade III/IV should be treated previously with conventional therapies and have an EGF-R overexpression in the tumour, demonstrated by immunohistochemical study. Maximal tolerated dose was 3 mg of the h-R3 labelled with 10 mCi of 188Re. The radioimmunoconjugate showed a high retention in the surgical created resection cavity and the brain adjacent tissues with a mean value of 85.5% of the injected dose one hour post-administration. This radioimmunoconjugate may be relatively safe and a promising therapeutic approach for treating high grade gliomas. GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside is particularly interesting due to its restrictive expression in normal human tissues according to immunohistochemical studies, using either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. But both immunohistochemical and biochemical methods have strongly suggested its over-expression in human breast and colon

  17. Monitoring monoclonal antibody delivery in oncology: the example of bevacizumab.

    Guillaume Nugue

    Full Text Available Developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies paves the way for new strategies in oncology using targeted therapy which should improve specificity. However, due to a lack of biomarkers, a personalized therapy scheme cannot always be applied with monoclonal antibodies. As a consequence, the efficacy or side effects associated with this type of treatment often appear to be sporadic. Bevacizumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF. It is used to limit tumor vascularization. No prognosis or response biomarker is associated with this antibody, we therefore assessed whether the administration protocol could be a possible cause of heterogeneous responses (or variable efficacy. To do this, we developed a bevacizumab assay with a broad sensitivity range to measure blood bevacizumab concentrations. We then analyzed bevacizumab concentrations in 17 patients throughout the first quarter of treatment. In line with previously published data, average blood concentrations were 88+/-27 mg/L following the first dose administered, and 213+/-105 mg/L after the last (6(th dose administered. However, the individual values were scattered, with a mean 4-fold difference between the lowest and the highest concentration for each dose administered. We demonstrated that the bevacizumab administration schedule results in a high inter-individual variability in terms of blood concentrations. Comparison of assay data with clinical data indicates that blood concentrations above the median are associated with side effects, whereas values below the median favor inefficacy. In conclusion, bevacizumab-based therapy could benefit from a personalized administration schedule including follow-up and adjustment of circulating bevacizumab concentrations.

  18. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  19. Localization of melanoma with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody fragments and iodoamphetamine

    Liewendahl, K.; Kairento, A.L.; Lindroth, L.; Pyroenen, S.; Franssila, K.; Virkkunen, P.; Asko-Seljavaara, S.; Launes, J.


    In two melanoma patients, metastases accumulated both /sup 99m/Tc-labelled monoclonal anti-tumor F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments and N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine. Small metastatic deposits were localized only by labelled antibody, for which a higher target-to-nontarget ratio was observed than for radioiodoamphetamine, indicating that immunoscintigraphy may be the more sensitive method. In these two patients positive immunohistochemical staining for the antibody used was observed, whereas in a third patient, with no concentration of labelled antibody, the staining result was negative showing the specificity of the immunoscintigraphy findings. It is possible that the accumulation of radio-iodoamphetamine is due to binding to melanin but this is not certain as tissue samples from one of the two patients with positive scintigrams did not contain stainable melanin.

  20. Analysis of T-cell-dependent and -independent antigens of Rickettsia conorii with monoclonal antibodies.

    Feng, H M; Walker, D H; Wang, J. G.


    Four monoclonal antibodies from euthymic mice and two monoclonal antibodies from athymic mice were directed against antigens of Rickettsia conorii, as shown by both indirect immunofluorescence and an enzyme immunoassay. There was extensive cross-reactivity with other spotted fever group rickettsiae. Euthymic monoclonal antibodies 3-2 and 9-2 (immunoglobulin G2a [IgG2a]) and 27-10 (IgG1) distinctly outlined the acetone-fixed rickettsial surface, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence; on...

  1. Differentiation of Naegleria fowleri from Acanthamoeba species by using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry.

    Flores, B M; Garcia, C A; Stamm, W E; Torian, B E


    Monoclonal antibodies to Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba polyphaga were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and fluorescence flow cytometry to assess specificity and cross-reactivity with axenically cultured N. fowleri and Acanthamoeba spp. Four monoclonal antibodies to N. fowleri were specific for N. fowleri and had no reactivity to A. polyphaga. Similarly, four monoclonal antibodies to A. polyphaga did not react with N. fowleri. Two of t...

  2. Schistosoma mansoni. Anti-egg monoclonal antibodies protect against cercarial challenge in vivo


    Monoclonal antibodies that bind to surface membranes of developing schistosomula and/or cercarial tails were generated from mice immunized with living schistosome eggs or soluble egg antigen. These monoclonal antibodies detected at least three different surface epitopes. One surface antigen detected by anti-egg monoclonal antibody EG1C4B1 (E.1) persisted on the surface of developing schistosomula for 96 h posttransformation . The same or a cross-reactive antigen was also detected on the surfa...

  3. Rabbit monoclonal antibodies: generating a fusion partner to produce rabbit-rabbit hybridomas.

    Spieker-Polet, H; Sethupathi, P; Yam, P C; Knight, K L


    During the last 15 years several laboratories have attempted to generate rabbit monoclonal antibodies, mainly because rabbits recognize antigens and epitopes that are not immunogenic in mice or rats, two species from which monoclonal antibodies are usually generated. Monoclonal antibodies from rabbits could not be generated, however, because a plasmacytoma fusion partner was not available. To obtain a rabbit plasmacytoma cell line that could be used as a fusion partner we generated transgenic...

  4. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Application on monoclonal antibodies for progesterone measurement

    The duties of the mission were to provide instructions on the maintenance of hybridoma cell lines and their culture and the harvesting of monoclonal antibodies; to assist the counterparts in Thailand to develop work plans for the use of monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay measurements of progesterone; and to assess the need for and feasibility of establishing a laboratory for producing monoclonal antibodies directed against progesterone. The report contains a summary of the activities performed in fulfillment of these duties

  5. Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A

    The monoclonal antibody UJ13A, raised after immunization of mice with human fetal brain, recognized an antigen expressed on human neuroblastoma cell lines and fresh tumors. Antibody was purified and radiolabeled with iodine isotopes using chloramine-T. In preclinical studies, 125I-labeled UJ13A was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing xenografts of human neuroblastoma. Radiolabeled UJ13A uptake by the tumors was four to 23 times greater than that by blood. In control animals, injected with a similar quantity of a monoclonal antibody known not to bind to neuroblastoma cells in vitro (FD44), there was no selective tumor uptake. Nine patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma each received 100 to 300 micrograms UJ13A radiolabeled with 1 to 2.8 mCi 123I or 131I. Sixteen positive sites were visible on gamma scans 1 to 7 days after injection: 15 were primary or secondary tumor sites, and one was a false positive; there were two false negatives. In two of the 15 positive sites, tumor had not been demonstrated by other imaging techniques; these were later confirmed as areas of malignant infiltration. No toxicity was encountered

  6. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies of Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Envelope Protein VP28

    Wan-gang GU; Jun-fa YUAN; Ge-lin XU; Li-juan LI; Ni LIU; Cong ZHANG; Jian-hong ZHANG; Zheng-li SHI


    BALB/c mice were immunized with purified White spot syndrome virus (WSSV).Six monoclonal antibody cell lines were selected by ELISA with VP28 protein expressed in E.coll in vitro neutralization experiments showed that 4 of them could inhibit the virus infection in crayfish.Westernblot suggested that all these monoclonal antibodies were against the conformational structure of VP28.The monoclonal antibody 7B4 was labeled with colloidal gold particles and used to locate the VP28 on virus envelope by immunogold labeling.These monoclonal antibodies could be used to develop immunological diagnosis methods for WSSV infection.

  7. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    Indium-111-hydroxyquinoline labelled platelets, though useful in the detection of thrombus, have not gained widespread use owing to the time and technical skill required for their preparation. A study was therefore conducted evaluating a new method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a 111In labelled monoclonal antibody, P256, directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. When the number of receptors occupied by P256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface platelet function, as assessed by platelet aggregometry, was undisturbed. P256 was radiolabelled with 111In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo - that is, by direct intravenous injection of P256 - in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The 111In kinetics recorded after intravenous P256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P256, three had documented thrombus, tow of whom gave positive results on P256 platelet scintigraphy. The third subject had chromic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative. Imaging thrombus using a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody directed to platelets appears to offer great potential as a simple, non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of thrombosis. 3 refs. (Author)

  8. Monoclonal Antibody Shows Promise as Potential Therapeutic for MERS | Poster

    A monoclonal antibody has proven effective in preventing Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in lab animals, suggesting further development as a potential intervention for the deadly disease in humans, according to new research. MERS is a newly emerged coronavirus first detected in humans in 2012. Most cases have occurred in the Middle East, but the disease has appeared elsewhere. In all, MERS has infected more than 1,700 individuals and killed more than 600, according to the World Health Organization. No vaccines or antiviral therapies currently exist. Several candidate vaccines are being developed, and some have been tested in animal models, a prerequisite to human clinical trials.

  9. Preparation of monoclonal antibody against crocin and its characterization

    Xuan, Lijiang; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Xu, Yaming; Shoyama, Yukihiro


    Three crocin-carrier protein conjugates were synthesized and their hapten numbers were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Three monoclonal antibodies against crocin were produced by hybridomas fused with the splenocytes immunized with crocin hemisuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate and HAT-sensitive mouse myeloma cell line, P3-X63-Ag8-653. They were identified as IgG2a and IgG2b possessing λ light chain, respectively. Their wide rea...

  10. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Thytoxine


    Four hybridoma cell lines (T410D11,T415611, T413A4, T409F6) producing MAbs againstthytoxine(T4) are established by using T4-conjugated bovine serum albumin as an immunogen. These monoclonal antibodies have high affinitiess and specific against T4. The association constants of these MAbs are higher than 108 L/mol. Their cross-reactivities with T3, T2 and rT3 are lower than 0.4%, 0.04% and 0.22%, respectively. The clinical application of the T4 ELISA Kit

  11. Mapping by monoclonal antibody detection of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissues

    Couchman, J R; Caterson, B; Christner, J E;


    glycosaminoglycan (GAG), particularly with respect to self-association and interactions with other extracellular matrix components. Interactions with specific molecules from different connective tissue types, such as the collagens and their associated glycoproteins, could be favoured by particular charge...... organizations on the GAG molecule endowed by the sulphate groups. So far, it has not been possible to identify and map chondroitins of differing sulphation in tissues, but we have now raised three monoclonal antibodies which specifically recognize unsulphated, 4-sulphated and 6-sulphated chondroitin and...

  12. Monoclonal antibodies for the detection of Puccinia striiformis urediniospores

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Frøkiær, Hanne; Hearty, Stephen;


    The fungal pathogen Pst causes yellow rust disease in wheat plants leading to crop losses. The organism spreads by releasing wind-dispersed urediniospores from infected plants. In this study a library of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was developed against Pst urediniospores. Nine m......Ab-producing cell lines were cloned and their cross-reactivities characterised against a panel of airborne fungal spores representing genera commonly found in the same environment as Pst. Two specific mAbs were used to develop a competitive ELISA (Pst mAb4) and a subtractive inhibition ELISA (Pst mAb8). Standard...

  13. Immunosuppression associated with novel chemotherapy agents and monoclonal antibodies.

    Morrison, Vicki A


    The introduction of novel agents to the therapeutic armamentarium for oncologic, rheumatologic, and neurologic disorders has resulted in major clinical advances. These agents impact immune function, resulting in a discrete spectrum of infectious complications. Purine analogues and alemtuzumab alter cell-mediated immunity, resulting in opportunistic viral/fungal infections. Herpes zoster incidence increases with bortezomib. Hepatitis B reactivation may occur with rituximab. Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy have occurred following monoclonal antibody therapy. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor therapy is complicated by tuberculosis reactivation and fungal infections. We summarize the impact of these therapies on pathogenesis and spectrum of infection complicating their usage. PMID:25352632

  14. A rapid and efficient strategy to generate allele-specific anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies.

    Yamazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Nao; Saito, Tsuneyoshi; Ishii, Yumiko; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Nobukazu


    That generation of allele-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) monoclonal antibodies (ASHmAb) is very difficult is well known. This is thought to be due to the unique epitope structure, an assemblage of amino acid residues that lie separately in the amino acid sequence of human HLA, and to its low antigenicity compared with that of common epitopes recognized as xenogeneic determinants by mice. Here we report a rapid and efficient strategy to generate ASHmAb. Different from usual immunization methods is that we suppressed the production of non-allele-specific anti-HLA antibodies against xenogeneic determinants of HLA molecules by immunizing human HLA-B51 transgenic mice against non-HLA-B51 HLA tetramers. In addition, HLA-coated beads enabled rapid and efficient screening for ASHmAb. ASHmAb generated by this strategy will be useful for HLA typing and for clinical diagnosis, such as flow cytometry-based chimerism analysis for early detection of graft failure and relapse of leukemia after HLA-mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:19187783

  15. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against hepatitis C virus E2 protein bind discontinuous epitopes and inhibit infection at a postattachment step

    Sabo, Michelle C; Luca, Vincent C; Prentoe, Jannick; Hopcraft, Sharon E; Blight, Keril J; Yi, Minkyung; Lemon, Stanley M; Ball, Jonathan K; Bukh, Jens; Evans, Matthew J; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S


    infection at an early postattachment step. Receptor binding studies demonstrated that H77.39 inhibited binding of soluble E2 protein to both CD81 and SR-B1, J6.36 blocked attachment to SR-B1 and modestly reduced binding to CD81, and H77.16 blocked attachment to SR-B1 only. Using yeast surface display, we......The E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediates viral attachment and entry into target hepatocytes and elicits neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. To characterize the structural and functional basis of HCV neutralization, we generated a novel panel of 78 monoclonal antibodies...... (MAbs) against E2 proteins from genotype 1a and 2a HCV strains. Using high-throughput focus-forming reduction or luciferase-based neutralization assays with chimeric infectious HCV containing structural proteins from both genotypes, we defined eight MAbs that significantly inhibited infection of the...

  16. Novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies protect rodents against lethal filovirus challenges

    Caleb D. Marceau


    Full Text Available Filoviruses are the causative agents of lethal hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates (NHP. The family of Filoviridae is composed of three genera, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus and Cuevavirus. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of filovirus infections in humans. Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies targeting the Ebola virus (EBOV glycoprotein (GP has proven effective in protecting mice, guinea pigs and NHP from lethal challenges with EBOV. In this study, we generated two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs, termed S9 and M4 that recognize the GP of EBOV or multiple strains of Marburg virus (MARV, respectively. We characterized the putative binding site of S9 as a linear epitope on the glycan cap of the GP1 subunit of the EBOV-GP. The M4 antibody recognizes an unknown conformational epitope on MARV-GP. Additionally, we demonstrated the post-exposure protection potential of these antibodies in both the mouse and guinea pig models of filovirus infection. These data indicate that MAbs S9 and M4 would be good candidates for inclusion in an antibody cocktail for the treatment of filovirus infections.

  17. Preparation and Characteristic Identification of Monoclonal Antibody Against Sulfamethazine

    DING Liangjun; LI Jichang; FU Rui; ZHOU Yanjun; HUO Guicheng


    Two artificial antigens were synthesized successfully by diazotizing method, sulfamethazine(SM2)-human serum albumin (HSA) was used for the immunogen, and SM2-ovalbumin(OVA) was used for the coating antigen.The coupled reaction was successful by confirmation of the ultraviolet scanning spectrometer, and the conjugation ratio of SM2 with HSA and OVA was 9:1 and 15:1, respectively. Using cell-fusion and limiting dilution method to reclone 5times to get 3 hybridoma strains, which could stably secret monoclonal antibody (Mab), named CB7, BC4 and BB12. The subtype of BC4 Mab was IgG1 and chain, the molecular weight was 162 ku, the numbers of chromosomal were about 90,the affinity constant was 6.1 × 1012 M-1. No cross reactivity was seen between the Mab and the other 4 sulfonamides, as well as the 2 carries proteins. The Mab antibody had excellent stability.

  18. Discovery and characterization of hydroxylysine in recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Xie, Qing; Moore, Benjamin; Beardsley, Richard L


    Tryptic peptide mapping analysis of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-expressed, recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibody revealed a previously unreported +16 Da modification. Through a combination of MS(n) experiments, and preparation and analysis of known synthetic peptides, the possibility of a sequence variant (Ala to Ser) was ruled out and the presence of hydroxylysine was confirmed. Post-translational hydroxylation of lysine was found in a consensus sequence (XKG) known to be the site of modification in other proteins such as collagen, and was therefore presumed to result from the activity of the CHO homolog of the lysyl hydroxylase complex. Although this consensus sequence was present in several locations in the antibody sequence, only a single site on the heavy-chain Fab was found to be modified. PMID:26651858

  19. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against radiation-induced protein

    We obtained the 6 monoclonal antibodies against gamma-induced proteins of Deinococcus radiodurans, and these antibodies were designated as Mab-3F, 4B, 4D, 4F, 4G and 12G. Using these antibodies, we investigated the relations between gamma-induced proteins and other stress protein in strain R1, and the induction of proteins were compared among strain R1, resistant mutant (rec1) and radiosensitive mutant (rec30). We found new 6 proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies which were induced after gamma-irradiation especially in strain R1 and rec 1, but not induced in strain rec30. We suppose that these proteins participate in repair of DNA damages including double strand breaks caused by gamma-irradiation. One of them was around 46kDa protein band recognized by Mab-12G, and this protein was so induced in a large quantity after irradiation that the protein could detect by gold staining. In addition to this observation, we found some proteins which were induced in R1 and rec 1 by gamma-irradiation and other stress, but not in strain rec30, such as 31kDa protein band recognized by Mab-3F, 4B and 4G, and other 11 proteins which were especially induced in irradiated strain R1. The latter proteins might be reinforcement factor to radioresistance such as GroE and DnaK, or participant in repair of damage by gamma-irradiation in strain R1. (author)

  20. 188Re-labelled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody: Labelling and quality control studies

    Immunotherapy with human chimeric antibody rituximab (Rituxan, IDEC pharmaceuticals) has been a major advance in treatments of patients with CD20-positive B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the targeting features of monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation from an attached readionuclide and it is an appeling concept that has received widespread attention. Here, we report our experience using rhenium-188 (188Re)- radiolabeled chimeric anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). A stable antibody-labeling technique had been developed for 188Re. The 188Re-direct labeling of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, the methods for quality control: paper chromatography, instant thin layer chromatographysilica gel (ITLC-SG) and HPLC technique, the immunoreactivity and biological recognition of the target antigen assessment of the radiolabeled molecule, in vitro stability and the assessment of in vivo stability through biodistribution studies in normal WISTAR rats are described. For the direct radiolabeling, the reduction of monoclonal antibody (mAb) was performed with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), based on Schwarz's method at a molar ratio 2000:1 (2- ME:mAb). By means of this method some of the disulfide bonds of the antibody are reduced to sulfhydryl groups (we obtained 4-5 groups) and these groups provide sites for the formation of very strong bond between the reduced rhenium and the antibody. The methodology used in this work has been tested in a phase I radioimmunotherapy clinical trial using the humanized mAb hR3 for loco-regional treatment of brain tumours. The labeling efficiency (> 95 %) of this method showed that the final product needs no further purification for clinical purposes (low level formation of colloidal species). In vitro stability studies of the labeled anti-CD20 were performed at room temperature at 4 h, 24 h and 48 h in cysteine, human serum and saline. In the presence of normal human serum, during the first 4h, transchelation of about 15

  1. A competitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay for translational factors employing monoclonal antibodies

    Monoclonal antibodies produced by the hybridoma techniques were purified by chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue, and covalently coupled to Affi-Gel 10 to purify their antigens. The purified components were used to develop a sensitive competitive radioimmune assay for the quantitative determination of translational factors, as described here with a monoclonal antibody directed against yeast elongation factor 3. Antigen was adsorbed to polyvinyl chloride plastic surfaces and a limiting concentration of monoclonal antibody necessary to bind to the adsorbed antigen was determined. Varying concentrations of purified antigen and of samples containing unknown amounts of antigen were then mixed with the limiting concentration of monoclonal antibody, prior to or at the same time as the reaction of the antibody with the surface-adsorbed antigen. The amount of monoclonal antibody that bound to the surface-adsorbed antigen was determined with a second antibody, radioactive goat anti-mouse antibody. The addition of the free antigen preparations to the monoclonal antibody served to compete for the antibody with the antigen adsorbed to the plastic surfaces. The concentration of antigen in the unknown samples was estimated from the titration curves obtained with varying concentrations of pure antigen. This technique did not require isotopic labeling, modification or derivatization of the monoclonal antibody or its antigen. (Auth.)

  2. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  3. Immunotherapy of hepatoma with a monoclonal antibody against murine endoglin

    Guang-Hong Tan; Feng-Ying Huang; Hua Wang; Yong-Hao Huang; Ying-Ying Lin; Yue-Nan Li


    AIM: To explore the capability of a monoclonal antibody(mAb) against murine endoglin to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and suppression of hepatoma growth in murine models.METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against murine endoglin was purified by affinity chromatography and passively transfused through tail veins in two murine hepatoma models. Tumor volume and survival time were observed at three-day intervals for 48 d. Microvessels in tumor tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry against CD31, and angiogenesis in vivo was determined by alginate encapsulated assay. In addition, tumor cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay.RESULTS: Passive immunotherapy with anti-endoglin mAb could effectively suppress tumor growth, and prolonged the survival time of hepatoma-bearing mice.Angiogenesis was apparently inhibited within the tumor tissues, and the vascularization of alginate beads was also reduced in the mice passively transfused with antiendoglin mAb. In addition, increased apoptotic cells were observed within the tumor tissues from the mice passively transfused with anti-endoglin mAb.CONCLUSION: Passive immunotherapy with antiendoglin mAb effectively inhibits tumor growth via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and increasing tumor cell apoptosis, which may be highly correlated with the blockage of endoglin-related signal pathway induced by anti-endoglin mAb.

  4. Fingerprinting of Natural Product by Eastern Blotting Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    Hiroyuki Tanaka


    Full Text Available We succeeded in developing the fingerprint of natural product by eastern blotting using monoclonal antibodies. After developing and separating them on a TLC plate, solasodine glycosides are oxidized by NaIO4 and reacted with a protein to give conjugates which are recognized with anti-solamargine monoclonal antibody (MAb. Anti-solamargine MAb having wide cross-reactivity can stain and detect all solasodine glycosides by fingerprint. Different sensitivity between solamargine and solasonine was observed. The detection limit was 1.6 ng of solasonine. The hydrolysed products of solamargine were determined by fingerprint of eastern blotting compared to their Rf values depending on the sugar number. Fingerprint by eastern blotting using anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb distinguished the formula containing ginseng prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine. By double-staining of ginsenosides it is possible to suggest that the staining color shows the pharmacological activity, such as the purple bands indicate ginsenosides having stimulation activity, and the blue color indicated compound like ginsenosides possessed the depression affect for the central nervous system (CNS, respectively.

  5. Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.

    Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin


    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

  6. High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Biplab Bose; Navin Khanna; Subrat K Acharya; Subrata Sinha


    AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody.METHODS: We cloned the VH and VL genes of this mouse antibody; and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and CL domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. Coli.RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal.This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E> coli to increase the yield.CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a fulllength chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies developed for typing influenza A and influenza B viruses.

    Walls, H H; Harmon, M W; Slagle, J J; Stocksdale, C; Kendal, A P


    Monoclonal antibodies that are broadly reactive with influenza A or influenza B viruses were produced as stable reagents for typing influenza viruses. Monoclonal antibodies to influenza A were specific for either matrix protein or nucleoprotein. The antibodies to influenza B were specific for nucleoprotein or hemagglutinin protein. In an enzyme immunoassay procedure, influenza A antibodies detected H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains collected between 1934 and 1984. Each of the inf...

  8. Specificities of monoclonal antibodies against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis.

    Huber-Lukac, M; Lüthy, P; Braun, D G


    Eight hybrid cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the activated delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis were grown in BALB/c mice. Ascites fluids were collected, and the antibodies were purified by antigen-affinity chromatography. The specificity of each monoclonal antibody for the toxin and protoxin was established by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the antibodies consisted of gamma 1 heavy and kappa light chains. They were reac...

  9. Production of a diagnostic monoclonal antibody in perennial alfalfa plants.

    Khoudi, H; Laberge, S; Ferullo, J M; Bazin, R; Darveau, A; Castonguay, Y; Allard, G; Lemieux, R; Vézina, L P


    The increasing use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in diagnostic reagents necessitates efficient and cost-effective mAb production methods. In blood banks, one of the most routinely used reagents is the anti-human IgG reagent used for the detection of non-agglutinating antibodies. Here we report the production of a functional, purified anti-human IgG, through the expression of its encoding genes in perennial transgenic alfalfa. Transgenic plants expressing the light- and heavy-chain encoding mRNAs were obtained, and plants from crosses were found to express fully assembled C5-1. The purification procedure yielded mainly the H2L2 form with specificity and affinity identical to those of hybridoma-derived C5-1. The ability to accumulate the antibody was maintained both in parental F1 lines during repeated harvesting and in clonal material; the antibody was stable in the drying hay as in extracts made in pure water. Also, plant and hybridoma-derived C5-1 had similar in vivo half-lives in mice. These results indicate that plant C5-1 could be used in a diagnostic reagent as effectively as hybridoma-derived C5-1, and demonstrates the usefulness of perennial systems for the cost-effective, stable, and reliable production of large amounts of mAbs. PMID:10397849

  10. Monoclonal antibody against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (OV-TL 3) were raised against human ovarian tumor-associated antigens for diagnostic purposes. A cloned hybridoma cell line was obtained by fusion of murine myeloma cells with spleen lymphocytes from BALB/c mice immunized with a tumor cell suspension prepared from an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. The antibodies were initially screened for their ability to bind on frozen sections of human ovarian carcinoma tissue and a negative reaction on gastric carcinoma tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. The reactivity of the selected OV-TL 3 clone (IgG1 subclass) was studied on normal and neoplastic tissues as well as on a cell line derived from the original tumor cell suspension used for immunization. OV-TL 3 antibodies stained frozen sections of human ovarian carcinomas of the following histological types: serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell. No reaction was found with breast cancers or other nongynecological tumors. No differences in staining pattern were observed between primary and metastatic ovarian carcinomas. OV-TL 3 antibodies brightly stained ovarian carcinoma cell clusters in ascitic fluids and left unstained mesothelial cells and peripheral blood cells. The OV-TL 3-defined antigen also remained strongly expressed on a cell line derived from the endometrioid ovarian carcinoma originally used for generation of OV-TL 3 clone. Reactivity was weak and irregular in a few ovarian cysts, while traces of fluorescence were sometimes detected in epithelial cells lining the female genital tract. In only 3 specimens of 15 endometrium carcinomas was weak focal reactivity with OV-TL 3 antibodies observed. The results of the immunofluorescence study were confirmed by the more sensitive avidin-biotin method and by 125I-labeled OV-TL 3 antibodies

  11. Structural Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody-Maytansinoid Immunoconjugate.

    Luo, Quanzhou; Chung, Hyo Helen; Borths, Christopher; Janson, Matthew; Wen, Jie; Joubert, Marisa K; Wypych, Jette


    Structural characterization was performed on an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), composed of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), mertansine drug (DM1), and a noncleavable linker. The DM1 molecules were conjugated through nonspecific modification of the mAb at solvent-exposed lysine residues. Due to the nature of the lysine conjugation process, the ADC molecules are heterogeneous, containing a range of species that differ with respect to the number of DM1 per antibody molecule. The DM1 distribution profile of the ADC was characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF), which showed that 0-8 DM1s were conjugated to an antibody molecule. By taking advantage of the high-quality MS/MS spectra and the accurate mass detection of diagnostic DM1 fragment ions generated from the higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) approach, we were able to identify 76 conjugation sites in the ADC, which covered approximately 83% of all the putative conjugation sites. The diagnostic DM1 fragment ions discovered in this study can be readily used for the characterization of other ADCs with maytansinoid derivatives as payload. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the ADC indicated that the conjugation of DM1 destabilized the C(H)2 domain of the molecule, which is likely due to conjugation of DM1 on lysine residues in the C(H)2 domain. As a result, methionine at position 258 of the heavy chain, which is located in the C(H)2 domain of the antibody, is more susceptible to oxidation in thermally stressed ADC samples when compared to that of the naked antibody. PMID:26629796

  12. Detection of specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to cytomegalovirus by using monoclonal antibody to immunoglobulin M in an indirect immunofluorescence assay.

    M. Zerbini; Musiani, M; G. Gentilomi; La Placa, M.


    The detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to cytomegalovirus-induced late antigens by an indirect immunofluorescence assay was improved by the use of monoclonal antibodies to human IgM. Nonspecific background fluorescence was absent, facilitating the reading of the slides and the detection of a specific fluorescence reaction in sera with low levels of specific IgM. Moreover, the indirect immunofluorescence assay with monoclonal antibodies to IgM proved more sensitive than the indirec...

  13. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince


    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  14. Inhibition of lipoxygenase activity in lentil protoplasts by monoclonal antibodies introduced into the cells via electroporation

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.


    The isolation of lentil protoplasts and the transfer of anti-lipoxygenase monoclonal antibodies into plant protoplasts by electroporation is reported. The dependence of the efficiency of monoclonal antibody incorporation on the field strength is shown as well. The transferred immunoglobulins retaine

  15. Discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels.

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I


    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics is a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important molecular targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large potential target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these target proteins. Given this opportunity, substantial effort has been applied to address the technical challenges of targeting these complex membrane proteins with monoclonal antibodies. In this review recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies for these challenging membrane protein targets is addressed. PMID:27284048


    刘小云; 甄永苏


    Objective.Using monoclonal antibody (mAb) Fab′ fragment to develop mAb immunoconjugates for cancer. Methods.Fab′ fragment of mAb 3A5 was prepared by digestion of the antibody with pepsin and then reduced by dithiothreitol (DTT),while Fab′ fragment of mAb 3D6 was obtained by digestion of the antibody with ficin and subsequently reduced by β mercaptoethanol.The conjugation between Fab′ fragment and pingyangmycin (PYM),an antitumor antibiotic,was mediated by dextran T 40.Immunoreactivity of Fab′ PYM conjugates with cancer cells was determined by ELISA,and the cytotoxicity of those conjugates to cancer cells was determined by clonogenic assay.Antitumor effects of the Fab′ PYM conjugates were evaluated by subcutaneously transplanted tumors in mice. Results.The molecular weight of Fab′ fragment was approximately 53 kD,while the average molecular weight of Fab′ PYM conjugate was 170 kD.The Fab′ PYM conjugates showed immunoreactivity with antigen relevant cancer cells and selective cytotoxicity against target cells.Administered intravenously,Fab′ PYM conjugates were more effective against the growth of tumors in mice than free PYM and PYM conjugated with intact mAb. Conclusion.Fab′ PYM conjugate may be capable of targeting cancer cells and effectively inhibiting tumor growth,suggesting its therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.

  17. Clinical application of antibody monoclonal humanized anti-EGFrnimotuzumab labeled

    Most malignant tumors are of epithelial origin. These are characterized by overexpression of the receptor of epidermal growth factor (EGFR), which the neoplastic cells escape the regulatory mechanisms are allowed, so its high concentration of membrane is generally associated with a poor prognosis . By binding an antibody specifically to this receptor, preventing binding of EGF latter and activation mechanism tyrosine kinase inhibiting cell mitosis and apoptosis causing tumor cell. For this reason, the EGFr has been considered as an attractive target for anti-tumor therapy. The humanized monoclonal antibody anti-EGFr nimotuzumab was developed by the Center of Molecular Immunology (Havana, Cuba). Numerous clinical trials have been developed in the Department of Clinical Research Center Isotopes (Cuba), in which it has been applied this antibody, both labeled with 99mTc for immuno gammagraphic detection of tumors, as labeled with 188Re for radioimmunotherapy of gliomas high degree of malignancy. The aim of this paper is to show the experience of the Department of Clinical Research of CENTIS in various clinical trials with marking for both immuno gammagraphics detection of tumors, such as for radioimmunotherapy nimotuzumab. (author)

  18. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M. (National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, London (UK))


    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies for the detection of Puccinia striiformis urediniospores

    Skottrup, Peter; Frøkiær, Hanne; Hearty, Stephen; O'Kennedy, Richard; Hejgaard, Jørn; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer


    The fungal pathogen Pst causes yellow rust disease in wheat plants leading to crop losses. The organism spreads by releasing wind-dispersed urediniospores from infected plants. In this study a library of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was developed against Pst urediniospores. Nine m......Ab-producing cell lines were cloned and their cross-reactivities characterised against a panel of airborne fungal spores representing genera commonly found in the same environment as Pst. Two specific mAbs were used to develop a competitive ELISA (Pst mAb4) and a subtractive inhibition ELISA (Pst mAb8). Standard...... curves for both assays had good intra- and interday reproducibility. The subtractive inhibition ELISA had greater sensitivity with a detection limit of 1.5 105 spores ml1. Cross-reactivity studies of Pst mAb8 in the subtractive inhibition ELISA, showed reaction with other Puccinia spores only, suggesting...

  20. Parenteral Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: The Advent of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Singer, Barry A


    Improved disease control is critical for enhancing the lives of those living with multiple sclerosis. With specific immunologic targets, monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatments are highly effective options for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. The mechanism, efficacy, and current safety profiles are detailed for the two mAb therapies, natalizumab and alemtuzumab, with regulatory approval in multiple countries. Daclizumab, which targets the interleukin-2 receptor, and ocrelizumab, which depletes B cells, have convincing phase 3 clinical trial data and may very well provide new options in the near future. Trial results of other B-cell-directed therapies, ofatumumab and rituximab, are reviewed. Less-frequent dosing of glatiramer acetate and interferon β-1a highlight developments in the first generation of parenteral immunomodulatory therapy. Remyelination using mAbs has moved into clinical trials with the first agents, anti-LINGO-1, rHIgM22, and anti-SEMA 4D. PMID:27116720

  1. Iodination of monoclonal antibodies, proteins and peptide using iodogen

    The use of the iodinating reagent 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α, 6α-diphenylglycholuril (Iodogen) to label monoclonal antibodies (McAbs). Proteins and peptides was invesrigated with McAbs identified as mouse IgG and IgM, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), glucagon (Glu), human insulin(hI) and albumin(Alb). The labeled products were purified by gel chromatography and their immunoreactivity were detected by RIA or IRMA> Comparison of the Iodogen method with the lactoperoxides and chloramine-T methods showed that the Iodogen method had a number of advantages: 1) technically simpler ; 2) a high labeling efficiency could be obtained; 3) the immunoreactivity of the products was minimally affected; 4) the products were stable for up to 4 months

  2. Production of monoclonal antibody against Salmonella typhimurium by hybridoma technique

    In this research S.typhimurium killed by irradiation was used as antigen was prepared by exposing the bacteria to gamma rays from 60Cobalt source with the dose of 2.5 kGy, Specific lymphocyte cell were obtained by immunizing 3 months old Balb-C mice with the antigen. the immunizations were done by subcutan route with the interval of 2 weeks. The hybridoma cells were made by fussing the specific lymphocyte cells with the myeloma cells. It was found that the animals (immunization + irradiation with a low dose of I Gy ) yielded monoclonal antibody with higher value (5.15 mg/ml) than the control animals (3.25 mg/ml). (author)

  3. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus


    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  4. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等


    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  5. Novel CD20 monoclonal antibodies for lymphoma therapy

    Cang Shundong


    Full Text Available Abstract Rituximab (RTX, a monoclonal antibody (mAb against CD20, has been widely used for lymphoma therapy. RTX in combination with cyclophosphamide /doxorubicin /vincristine /prednisone (R-CHOP remains the standard frontline regimen for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, suboptimal response and /or resistance to rituximab have remained a challenge in the therapy of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. Novel agents are under active clinical trials. This review will summarize the latest development in new mAbs against CD20, which include second-generation mAbs, ofatumumab, veltuzumab (IMMU-106, ocrelizumab (PRO70769, and third-generation mAbs, AME-133v (ocaratuzumab, PRO131921 and GA101 (obinutumumab.

  6. Preparation and Identification of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Vibrio anguillarum

    Chen Shiyong(陈师勇); Zhang Peijun; Mo Zhaolan; Zhang Zhendong; Zou Yuxia; Xu Yongli


    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against V.anguillarum strain M3 are prepared, and their isotypes are also characterized. Among them, C1C5 is the only Mab which does not crossreact with other eleven non-V.anguillarum strains. The proteinase K digestion test shows that the epitopes recognized by C1C5, C6C3 and C6C32 Mabs contained protein. The periodate oxidation test showed that the epitopes recognized by Mabs except C1C5 are glycosylated. In addition, results of additivity test indicate that the epitopes recognized by C6C3 and C6C32 Mabs are similar, and quite different from those recognized by Mab C1C5.

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies as Treatment Modalities in Head and Neck Cancers

    Vivek Radhakrishnan


    Full Text Available The standard treatments of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC causes disturbance to normal surrounding tissues, systemic toxicities and functional problems with eating, speaking, and breathing. With early detection, many of these cancers can be effectively treated, but treatment should also focus on retaining the function of the proximal nerves, tissues and vasculature surrounding the tumor. With current research focused on understanding pathogenesis of these cancers in a molecular level, targeted therapy using monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs, can be modified and directed towards tumor genes, proteins and signal pathways with the potential to reduce unfavorable side effects of current treatments. This review will highlight the current MoAb therapies used in HNSCC, and discuss ongoing research efforts to develop novel treatment agents with potential to improve efficacy, increase overall survival (OS rates and reduce toxicities.

  8. The future of CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in B-cell malignancies.

    Czuczman, Myron S; Gregory, Stephanie A


    Limitations of therapeutic options for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have necessitated the development of novel treatments/strategies. Rituximab (chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody [mAb]) considerably improved therapeutic outcomes for patients with B-cell malignancies, particularly when combined with chemotherapy; outcomes, however, are limited by rituximab resistance or reduced response upon re-treatment. Novel anti-CD20 mAbs are in development that may enhance mAb therapy. Ofatumumab (human anti-CD20 mAb) induces highly potent cell lysis, including in cells with low CD20 expression, and is the most clinically advanced new anti-CD20 mAb. Positive phase III interim data for ofatumumab in fludarabine-refractory CLL that is also refractory to alemtuzumab or less suitable for alemtuzumab due to bulky (>5 cm) lymphadenopathy has led to FDA approval of this agent in this population. Preclinical and early clinical assessment of other novel anti-CD20 mAbs include: ocrelizumab, veltuzumab, GA101, AME-133v, and PRO131921; data suggest potential for improved efficacy over rituximab that will require substantiation in large-scale clinical trials. New treatment strategies and novel anti-CD20 mAbs have the potential to enhance long-term outcomes for CLL and NHL. PMID:20367564

  9. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone: characterization of a monoclonal antibody

    The introduction of cell-hybridization techniques by Koehler and Milstein in 1975 to produce monoclonal antibodies (MA) was a definite improvement in methodological tools of radioimmunoassay, quite apart from all other applications of this technique in immunohistochemistry, affinity chromatography, target-directed drug delivery systems etc. MAs would ideally be suited in RIAs, when the specificity is the crucial aspect of the determination. However, for reasons which are not completely understood, assays with MAs very often lack the attribute of being highly sensitive. Despite several reports in the literature on MAs against human growth hormone (HGH), none of these seem sensitive enough to be of use in clinical chemistry, where a too strongly marked specificity may even be unwanted. However, from the scientific point of view, MAs against polypeptide hormones are of great interest. An MA to HGH was developed with a sensitivity limit of 0.2 ng. The titre of the ascites fluid is higher than 1:106 and the specificity against human placental lactogen, human prolactin and rat growth hormone is nearly complete. A critical step of the RIA procedure is the separation of bound and free hormone. A combination of human immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin) with polyethylene glycol gives optimal results. A Scatchard plot reveals an affinity constant of 4x10-11M-bar and a maximal binding capacity of 2x108cpm/μL. In conclusion, our monoclonal antibody represents an excellent investigational tool for endocrine research and it seems to be the most sensitive and specific MA to HGH described to date. However, for practical clinical applications, there seems to be little advantage of an MA over a conventional polyclonal antiserum. (author)

  10. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini


    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  11. Probing Functional Changes in Exocyst Configuration with Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Inamdar, Shivangi M; Hsu, Shu-Chan; Yeaman, Charles


    Spatial regulation of exocytosis relies on the exocyst, a hetero-octameric protein complex that tethers vesicles to fusion sites at the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, our understanding of mechanisms regulating exocyst assembly/disassembly, localization, and function are incomplete. Here, we have exploited a panel of anti-Sec6 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to probe possible configurational changes accompanying transitions in exocyst function in epithelial MDCK cells. Sec6 is quantitatively associated with Sec8 in high molecular weight complexes, as shown by gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation studies. We mapped epitopes recognized by more than 20 distinct mAbs to one of six Sec6 segments. Surprisingly, mAbs that bound epitopes in each segment labeled distinct subcellular structures. In general, antibodies to epitopes in N-terminal domains labeled Sec6 in either cytosolic or nuclear pools, whereas those that bound epitopes in C-terminal domains labeled membrane-associated Sec6. In this latter group, we identified antibodies that labeled distinct Sec6 populations at the apical junctional complex, desmosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and vimentin-type intermediate filaments. That each antibody was specific was verified by both Sec6 RNAi and competition with fusion proteins containing each domain. Comparison of non-polarized and polarized cells revealed that many Sec6 epitopes either redistribute or become concealed during epithelial polarization. Transitions in exocyst configurations may be regulated in part by the actions of Ral GTPases, because the exposure of Sec6 C-terminal domain epitopes at the plasma membrane is significantly reduced upon RalA RNAi. To determine whether spatio-temporal changes in epitope accessibility was correlated with differential stability of interactions between Sec6 and other exocyst subunits, we quantified relative amounts of each subunit that co-immunoprecipitated with Sec6 when antibodies to N-terminal or C-terminal epitopes were used

  12. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis of Keratin Expression in the Central Nervous System

    Franko, Maryellen C.; Gibbs, Clarence J.; Rhoades, Dorothy A.; Carleton Gajdusek, D.


    A monoclonal antibody directed against a 65-kDa brain protein demonstrates an epitope found in keratin from human epidermis. By indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody decorates intracytoplasmic filaments in a subclass of astrocytes and Purkinje cells of adult hamster brain. Double-label immunofluorescence study using antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein and this antibody reveals the 65-kDa protein to be closely associated with glial filaments in astrocytes of fetal mouse brain cultures. Immunoblot analysis of purified human epidermal keratin and hamster brain homogenate confirms the reactivity of this antibody to epidermal keratin polypeptides. All the major epidermal keratins were recognized by this antibody. It did not bind to the remaining major intermediate filament proteins. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibody 34C9 recognizes a cytoskeletal structure connected with intermediate filaments. In addition, the monoclonal antibody demonstrates that epidermal keratins share an epitope not only among themselves but also with a ``neural keratin.''

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J


    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  14. In silico design, construction and cloning of Trastuzumab humanized monoclonal antibody: A possible biosimilar for Herceptin

    Soudabeh Akbarzadeh-Sharbaf; Bagher Yakhchali; Zarrin Minuchehr; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar; Sirous Zeinali


    Background: There is a novel hypothesis in that antibodies may have specificity for two distinct antigens that have been named "dual specificity." This hypothesis was evaluated for some defined therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab. In silico design and construction of expression vectors for trastuzumab monoclonal antibody also in this work were performed. Materials and Methods: First, in bioinformatics studies the 3D structur...

  15. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy does not Abrogate Rejection Risk in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Sanjeev Goswami


    Monoclonal antibodies are being increasingly used as therapeutic agents in medicine. Rituximab (anti-CD20) and Daclizumab (anti-IL2Rα) are two such monoclonal antibodies used to prevent organ rejection, but are not fail-safe. We have analyzed the pre and post-transplant antibody profile in serum of renal transplant recipients receiving Rituximab and /or Daclizumab. Study Group: Kidney recipients with acute rejection and having PRA > 10% pre-transplant were selected for the study (n=11). Those...

  16. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSVF occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSVF, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSVF at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy

  17. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)


    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  18. Prokaryotic expression and renaturation of engineering chimeric Fab antibody against human hepatoma

    Jin-Liang Xing; Xiang-Min Yang; Xi-Ying Yao; Fei Song; Zhi-Nan Chen


    AIM: To express chimeric Fd (cFd) and chimeric light chain (cL) in E.coli respectively and refold them into chimeric Fab (cFab) antibody.METHODS: cFd and cL genes were respectively inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a to construct recombinant vectors pET32a/cFd and pET32a/cL. Then,the competent E. colicells were transformed by the recombinant vectors and induced by IPTG. Moreover, a large quantity of cFd and cL expression products were prepared and mixed with equal molar to refold into cFab by gradient dialysis. The refolded products were identified and analyzed by sodium SDS-PAGE, Western blotting,ELISA and HPLC.RESULTS: High efficient prokaryotic expressions of both cFd and cL in the form of non-fusion protein were obtained with the expression levels of 28.3% and 32.3% of total bacteria proteins, respectively. Their relative molecular masses were all 24 ku or so, and both of them mainly existed in the form of inclusion bodies. In addition, cFd and cL were successfully refolded into cFab by gradient dialysis, with about 59.45% of recovery when the starting total protein concentration was 100 μg/mL. The renatured cFab could specifically bind to related antigen with high affinity.CONCLUSION: The cFab antibody against human hepatoma was highly and efficiently expressed and refolded, which laid a solid foundation for studying its application in the treatment of hepatoma.

  19. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    Doran, J-P


    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  20. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of 125I-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for 125I-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. 125I-M110 and 125I-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of 125I-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while 125I-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82

  1. Radioiodination of monoclonal antibody intact anti-CEA

    The purpose of this study is to examine a convenient system that can be used to iodinate monoclonal antibodies which is rapid, simple, efficient and reproducible, and which can be accomplished in radiopharmaceutical laboratories. It is important to remember that antibodies are sensitive biochemicals, subject to losses of the activity that is essential to their mode of action, namely the ability to bind specific antigen. The advent of solid phase iodination agents has greatly expanded the range of gentle iodination techniques available for iodinating sensitive biological materials. The agent most widely used is the Iodogen (1,3,4,6 tetrachloro-3a-6a diphenylglycoluril) method. Anti-CEA 4C sub(11) IgG sub(2a,k) (prepared in the Ludwig Institute-Sao Paulo-Brazil ) is used as model to evaluate the Iodogen methodology. The miniature chromatographic system, also rapid, accurate, simple, efficient was elaborated to determine the labelling efficiency incorporation of iodine into immunoglobulin, and the radiochemical purity of sup(131)I-anti-CEA. (author)

  2. Characterization of novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to human neurturin.

    Hongo, J A; Tsai, S P; Moffat, B; Schroeder, K A; Jung, C; Chuntharapai, A; Lampe, P A; Johnson, E M; de Sauvage, F J; Armanini, M; Phillips, H; Devaux, B


    Neurturin (NTN) a structural and functional relative of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, was originally identified based on its ability to support the survival of sympathetic neurons in culture. Similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Neurturin has been shown to bind to a high affinity glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor (GFRalpha2) and induce phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret, resulting in the activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. A panel of six novel murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to human Neurturin has been developed and characterized. Four of the MAbs tested inhibit, to varying degrees, binding of NTN to the GPI-linked GFRalpha2 receptor. Three MAbs cross-react with the murine homolog. These antibodies have been shown to be useful reagents for Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and also for the development of a sensitive, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human NTN. Novel, specific MAbs with varying epitope specificities and blocking activity will be valuable tools for both the in vitro and in vivo characterization of NTN and its relationship to the GFRalpha2 and Ret receptors. PMID:11001403

  3. Generation and characterization of rat and mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for MeCP2 and their use in X-inactivation studies.

    K Laurence Jost

    Full Text Available Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 binds DNA, and has a preference for methylated CpGs and, hence, in cells, it accumulates in heterochromatin. Even though it is expressed ubiquitously MeCP2 is particularly important during neuronal maturation. This is underscored by the fact that in Rett syndrome, a neurological disease, 80% of patients carry a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Since the MECP2 gene lies on the X chromosome and is subjected to X chromosome inactivation, affected patients are usually chimeric for wild type and mutant MeCP2. Here, we present the generation and characterization of the first rat monoclonal MeCP2 specific antibodies as well as mouse monoclonal antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal antibody. We demonstrate that our antibodies are suitable for immunoblotting, (chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence of endogenous and ectopically expressed MeCP2. Epitope mapping revealed that most of the MeCP2 monoclonal antibodies recognize the C-terminal domain and one the N-terminal domain of MeCP2. Using slot blot analysis, we determined a high sensitivity of all antibodies, detecting amounts as low as 1 ng of MeCP2 protein. Moreover, the antibodies recognize MeCP2 from different species, including human, mouse, rat and pig. Lastly, we have validated their use by analyzing and quantifying X chromosome inactivation skewing using brain tissue of MeCP2 heterozygous null female mice. The new MeCP2 specific monoclonal antibodies described here perform well in a large variety of immunological applications making them a very valuable set of tools for studies of MeCP2 pathophysiology in situ and in vitro.

  4. Use of monoclonal antibodies against avian retroviral protein p19 for competitive radioimmunoassay and immunodiffusion

    Monoclonal antibodies were used in competitive binding assays to investigate the arrangement of three epitopes on protein p19 of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). It is reasoned that if the epitopes recognized by two monoclonal antibodies are physically close, the binding of one antibody will sterically block the binding of the other; conversely no blocking will occur if the epitopes are sufficiently distant. The results of these competitive binding assays demonstrated the presence of two distinct antigenic sites on protein p19. The monoclonal antibodies against protein p19 of AMV were also tested in gel double immunodiffusion. Since p19 protein shows strong tendency to aggregate, it was not surprising that clear precipitin lines with these monoclonal antibodies were obtained. (author)

  5. Immunolocation of antisperm monoclonal antibody 6B10 and corresponding antigen

    高绍荣; 胡国俊; 段崇文; 刘辉; 韩之明; 宋祥芬; 陈大元


    An antisperm monoclonal antibody 6B10 was produced by hybridoma technique of the isotype IgG. The monoclonal antibody was purified by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and protein A-Sepharose Cl-4B affinity chromatography. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the purity of the antibody. Evaluation of the sperm acrosomal status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining. It was found that monoclonal antibody 6B10 can inhibit the sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone. The corresponding antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody 6B10 was located on the plasma membrane of the sperm acrosome by indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and immunoelectronmicroscopy. Sperm protein was extracted by 1% Triton X-100. The molecular weight of the antigen is 50 ku, detected by Western blot. The antigen is a key protein in the sperm acrosome reaction and may be the receptor of progesterone on the sperm acrosome. It may either be developed as a candidate contraceptive vaccine

  6. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies against peptide in the context of MHCII using magnetic enrichment.

    Spanier, Justin A; Frederick, Daniel R; Taylor, Justin J; Heffernan, James R; Kotov, Dmitri I; Martinov, Tijana; Osum, Kevin C; Ruggiero, Jenna L; Rust, Blake J; Landry, Samuel J; Jenkins, Marc K; McLachlan, James B; Fife, Brian T


    Monoclonal antibodies specific for foreign antigens, auto-antigens, allogeneic antigens and tumour neo-antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) are highly desirable as novel immunotherapeutics. However, there is no standard protocol for the efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies that recognize peptide in the context of MHCII, and only a limited number of such reagents exist. In this report, we describe an approach for the generation and screening of monoclonal antibodies specific for peptide bound to MHCII. This approach exploits the use of recombinant peptide:MHC monomers as immunogens, and subsequently relies on multimers to pre-screen and magnetically enrich the responding antigen-specific B cells before fusion and validation, thus saving significant time and reagents. Using this method, we have generated two antibodies enabling us to interrogate antigen presentation and T-cell activation. This methodology sets the standard to generate monoclonal antibodies against the peptide-MHCII complexes. PMID:27292946

  7. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy: Potential, problems, and prospects: Scientific highlights

    This meeting focused on areas of research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Topics covered included the production, purification, and fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies and immunochemistry of hybridomas; the production and the chemistry of radionuclides; the radiohalogenation and radiometal labeling techniques; the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies; the considerations of immunoreactivity of radiolabeled preparations; the instrumentation and imaging techniques as applied to radioimmunodetection; the radiation dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic use of labeled antibodies; the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy studies; and perspectives and directions for future research. Tutorial as well as scientific lectures describing the latest research data on the above topics were presented. Three workshop panels were convened on ''Methods for Determining Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies - Problems and Pitfalls,'' Radiobiological and Dosimetric Considerations for Immunotherapy with Labeled Antibodies,'' and ''The Human Anti-Mouse Antibody Response in Patients.''

  8. Selection of monoclonal antibody E48 IgG or U36 IgG for adjuvant radioimmunotherapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    van Bree, R.; Roos, J C; Plaizier, M. A.; Quak, J.J.; Van Kamp, G J; den Hollander, W.; Snow, G. B.; van Dongen, G. A.


    Preliminary data from recent clinical radioimmunoscintigraphy studies indicate that 99mTc-labelled murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) E48 and U36 have a similar ability to target squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) selectively. In the present study we describe additional aspects of murine and chimeric MAb (mMAb and cMAb) E48 and U36, which might influence the selection of one MAb for adjuvant radioimmunotherapy. To make direct comparison possible, ten patients received 11.2 ...

  9. Isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for products of avian oncogene myb.

    Evan, G. I.; Lewis, G K; Bishop, J M


    We isolated a series of monoclonal antibodies which were raised against a bacterially expressed protein, bp37v-myb, and coded for by part of the avian v-myb gene. These monoclonal antibodies recognized a range of antigenic specificities on bp37v-myb, and this was reflected in their differing specificities for the gene products of the v-myb, c-myb, and E26 viral oncogenes. One monoclonal antibody recognized, in addition to the v-myb and c-myb gene products, a conserved nuclear protein found in...

  10. Positron emission tomography imaging of tumor angiogenesis with a 66Ga-labeled monoclonal antibody.

    Engle, Jonathan W; Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Valdovinos, Hector F; Myklejord, Duane V; Barnhart, Todd E; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study was to develop a (66)Ga-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for noninvasive imaging of CD105 expression during tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer. (66)Ga was produced using a cyclotron with (nat)Zn or isotopically enriched (66)Zn targets. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with (66)Ga. No difference in CD105 binding affinity or specificity was observed between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105 based on flow cytometry analysis. Reactivity of (66)Ga for NOTA, corrected to the end of bombardment, was between 74 and 222 GBq/μmol for both target enrichments with 80% radiochemical yield. Serial PET imaging revealed that the murine breast cancer 4T1 tumor uptake of (66)Ga-NOTA-TRC105 was 5.9 ± 1.6, 8.5 ± 0.6, and 9.0 ± 0.6% ID/g at 4, 20, and 36 h postinjection, respectively (n = 4). At the last time point, tumor uptake was higher than that of all organs, which gave excellent tumor contrast with a tumor/muscle ratio of 10.1 ± 1.1. Biodistribution data as measured by gamma counting were consistent with the PET findings. Blocking experiment, control studies with (66)Ga-NOTA-cetuximab, as well as ex vivo histology all confirmed the in vivo target specificity of (66)Ga-NOTA-TRC105. Successful PET imaging with high specific activity (66)Ga (>700 GBq/μmol has been achieved) as the radiolabel opens many new possibilities for future PET research with antibodies or other targeting ligands. PMID:22519890