Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports on the nutritional status of Bhutanese children. The objective of this paper is to summarize results from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey and to describe progress achieved during the last two decades. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2376 children aged 6 to 59 months was conducted during November-December 2008 to provide national and regional estimates. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was applied and 40 gewogs/thromdes were selected from each region (Western, Central, Eastern. Guidelines on how to measure length/height and weight followed WHO standardized procedures. Data were analysed for consistency and validation using the software WHO Anthro and the WHO SPSS macro. Underweight, stunting, overweight, wasting and thinness were defined based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. Data from 1986-88 and 1999 national surveys were reanalysed using the WHO standards to describe trends in nutritional status. Results Nationally, 34.9% Bhutanese preschool children are stunted and 10.4% are underweight. Wasting is 4.7%, with severe wasting close to 2% in rural areas, while overweight affects 4.4% of preschool children. While underweight rates are similar across regions, wasting is substantially more prevalent in the Western region and stunting in the Eastern region. Stunting shows a steep rise during the first two years of life, as high as 40%, and levels off thereafter, while wasting is greatest among children aged 6-24 months and subsequently decreases. The prevalence of stunting fell from 60.9% in 1986-88 to 34.9% in 2008, and underweight declined from 34.0% to 10.4% during same period. The percentage of wasted children dropped from 5.2% in 1986-88 to 2.5% in 1999 but then increased to 4.7% in 2008. Conclusions There have been major improvements in the nutritional status of Bhutanese children over the past two decades, however, linear growth retardation remains a significant concern. Early
Lee, Joung-Won; Hwang, Jiyoung; Cho, Han-Sok
The purpose of this study was to identify dietary patterns among children and adolescents in Korea and to examine their associations with obesity and some blood profiles. One day food consumption data measured by 24-hour recalls on 2704 subjects aged 1 to 19 were used from 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. The data of blood profiles available in the ages of 10 or older was also used. After categorizing each food consumed into 29 food or food groups, five dietary patterns were d...
Hernández Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu Lucía; Shamah-Levy Teresa; Monterrubio Eric A; Ramírez-Silva Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino Raquel; Rivera Juan A.; Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime
Objective. The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican schoolage children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administere...
Full Text Available Aim: To clarify the factors associated with reported dietary fat intake by Japanese male children. Methods: This study is based on the data of a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. Three hundred and seventy-seven male children (age, 6 - 11 years whose households were sampled in the 1995 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of the People on Health and Welfare, and the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and whose parents were identified through record linkage between the 2 survey data sets were enrolled. Results: The final dataset in this study consisted of 377 boys with 329 of their parents. Fifty-two boys were found to be overweight (13.8%. The reported dietary fat intake was higher among the overweight boys than among the non-overweight boys. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with obesity in male children. Boys who frequently consumed foods from the “fats and lipids” group and the “meat” groups, and children from nuclear families rather than 3- generation families reported high dietary fat intake. In addition, parental fat intake was also significantly associated with fat intake of male children. Conclusions: Child and parental dietary habits along with the household status should be considered when implementing nutritional education programmes to control dietary fat intake and reduce the obesity risks of male children.
... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...
Full Text Available Aim: To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya.Population and methods: A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a nationalrepresentative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995.Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined usingstandard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventypercent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in ruralareas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups.Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight.Conclusion: The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence ofstunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition withevidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of thesenutritional problems, particularly overweight.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.
Victor L. Fulgoni; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Carol E. O'Neil; Keast, Debra R
Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...
The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...
Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won
A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys an...
Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Mi Kyung
We investigated whether dietary and urinary Na is associated with adiposity in Korean children and adolescents (10-18 years), a population with a high salt intake. Study subjects were Korean children and adolescents who participated in the cross-sectional nationally representative Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). This study used measures of dietary (24-h dietary recall) and urinary Na (Na:creatinine ratio) and three methods to determine obesity (BMI, waist circumference (WC) and total body per cent fat (TBPF)). Higher Na intake was significantly associated with obesity, adjusting for the covariates. Subjects in the highest tertile of urinary Na excretion had a significantly higher OR for higher adiposity compared with those in the lowest tertile (multivariate-adjusted OR 3·13 (95% CI 1·81, 5·50) for BMI, 2·15 (95% CI 1·27, 3·66) for WC and 1·92 (95% CI 1·29, 2·86) for TBPF, respectively). Na intake estimated by the 24-h recall method also showed significant association with adiposity (multivariate-adjusted OR 2·79 (95% CI 1·66, 4·68) for BMI and 2·14 (95% CI 1·25, 3·67) for WC, respectively). The significant associations between Na and adiposity remained significant after additionally adjusting for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Our results revealed a significant positive association between urinary and dietary Na and adiposity in Korean children and adolescents, independent of SSB consumption. PMID:26759221
Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Coimbra, Carlos EA; James R. Welch; Bernardo L. Horta; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cardoso, Andrey M
Background Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008–2009, was the first survey based on a nation...
Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with s...
Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Dollard, Sheila C
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence among U.S. children 1 to 5 years old was assessed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2011 to 2012. The overall seroprevalence (95% confidence interval) of IgG was 20.7% (14.4 to 28.2%), that of IgM was 1.1% (0.4 to 2.4%), and that of low IgG avidity was 3.6% (1.7 to 6.6%), corresponding to a 17.3% (10.1 to 26.7%) prevalence of recent infection among IgG-positive children.
Scully, P; Macken, Alan P; Leddin, Des; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.
peer-reviewed The prevalence of overweight children, and hours of television viewed are positively correlated1,2. Causality may include greater periods of inactivity and exposure to food advertising and product placement while watching television. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of 2 hours of non-educational television viewing per day for children over 2 years3. However, recent evidence suggests that children aged 6-11 years watch 24.5 hours of ...
Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...
Habib, Muhammad Atif; Black, Kirsten; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Bhatti, Zaid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Raynes-Greenow, Camille
Background Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in children is a recognized public health problem that impacts adversely on child morbidity, mortality and impairs cognitive development. In Pakistan information on the true prevalence and predictors of IDA is limited. This study sought to investigate IDA in children under five years of age using data from a nationally representative stratified cross-sectional survey. Methods Secondary analysis was performed on the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011–2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic and nutritional data on mothers and children. We also collected Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. IDA was defined as having both haemoglobin levels of analysis was performed by applying univariate and multivariate techniques using logistic regression through SPSS. Findings A total of 7138 children aged between 6–59 months were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 33.2%. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated. Age flour fortification. PMID:27171139
Hye Ah Lee
Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99 is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years, and women of childbearing age (12-49 years. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin levels, morbidity and its determinants, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. In addition, data on diet and micronutrients intakes (iron, zinc, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin C, and iodine were obtained in a sub-sample of subjects. RESULTS: The response rate for the NNS-99 was 82.3%; the non-response rate was 5.9% and the remaining did not participate due to uninhabited houses. CONCLUSIONS: This survey updates the information on nutritional status in Mexico and should serve as the basis for food and nutrition policy-making and priority program design.
Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.
Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141
Davis, Jason; Brazil, Noli
Historically, Guatemalans have suffered high rates of poverty and malnutrition while nearly ten percent of their population resides abroad. Many Guatemalan parents use economic migration, mainly international migration to the United States, as a means to improve the human capital prospects of their children. However, as this investigation shows, the timing of migration events in relation to left-behind children's ages has important, often negative and likely permanent, repercussions on the physical development of their children. To illustrate these dynamics, this investigation uses an instrumental variables framework to disentangle the countervailing effects of Guatemalan fathers' absences due to migration from concomitant remittances on left-behind children's growth outcomes. Based on national-level data collected in 2000, the investigation reveals that the international migration of a father in the previous year is correlated with a 22.1% lower length/height-for-age z-score for the average left-behind child aged ≤ 3. In contrast, the receipt of remittance income has no influence on the physical stature of a child, which may indicate that migrant fathers with young children are not able to achieve economic success soon enough during their ventures abroad to fully ameliorate the harmful effects caused by their absences. PMID:27002528
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999 to 2014. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults...
Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min
Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has traditionally been a major endemic disease in Equatorial Guinea. Although parasitaemia prevalence on the insular region has been substantially reduced by vector control in the past few years, the prevalence in the mainland remains over 50% in children younger than five years. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour for febrile illness at country level, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the EG National Malaria Control Programme. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of children 0 to 5 years old, using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample at the national level. It included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and thick and thin blood smears to determine the Plasmodium infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for parasitaemia, taking into account the cluster design. Results The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 50.9%; it was higher in rural (58.8% compared to urban areas (44.0%, p = 0.06. Age was positively associated with parasitemia (p Conclusion Results suggest that a national programme to fight malaria in Equatorial Guinea should take into account the differences between rural and urban communities in relation to risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour, integrate nutrition programmes, incorporate campaigns on the importance of early treatment, and target appropriately for bed nets to reach the under-fives.
Dietary intakes and lifestyle patterns of Korean children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis: Using the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV,V), 2007-11.
Yang, Ae-Ri; Kim, Young-Nam; Lee, Bog-Hieu
We investigate dietary intake and lifestyle patterns of atopic children and adolescents (N = 539) by obesity level using a national survey of South Korea. Intakes of calcium, iron, and vitamin C in the underweight group were less than those of other groups. The frequency of drinking milk of the overweight group was higher than that of the normal weight group. Majority of the subjects had not applied nutrition labeling in food choices, had no experience of nutrition education, and were vitamin D deficient. In conclusion, most of the atopic subjects had little knowledge of nutrition and were vitamin D deficient. PMID:26595187
Henna Ahmadi Qadri
Conclusions: Nutritional status of children has been recognized as an important of National development which in turn depends on social development indices. Though the country is developing fast with wide availability of resources and food we still notice under-nourishment. Health education to the parents, especially to the mothers on dietary practices like feeding their children with healthy food in terms of quality and quantity should be given. Nutritional rehabilitation centre should be established which will guide the parents in regard to the nutrition of child to be maintain at particular growing age group. The finding of prevalence of under-nutrition in males is unique in Indian context where females are prone to get neglected and sex wise prevalence of under nutrition was usually higher in females as compared to males. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3363-3366
Sunderlin, Sylvia, Ed.; Wills, Brooke, Ed.
A consideration of nutrition and intellectual growth opens with a glossary of 12 terms and two reports on hunger in America, one by J.L. Frost and B.L. Payne, the other by the Citizens' Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition. Included are articles on nutrition and intellectual development in children, by M. Winick; maternal diet, growth,…
Optimal nutrition, including consuming 35–40% of calories (kcal) as fat, is a vital part of the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), and involves accurate assessment of dietary intake. We compared 3 methods of nutritional assessment in 8– to 14-year-old children (n=20) with CF: 1) a 24-h Dietary Reca...
Full Text Available Background: Assessing nutritional status and delivering optimal nutritional care is a part of modern day treatment of children with cancer. The nutritional practices in India for these children have not been previously described. Aims: To describe the existing nutrition assessment and management practices for children with cancer in India. Methods: Attendees of the First International Society of Pediatric Oncology-Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries workshop on nutrition in children with cancer organized in September 2014 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire related to three domains: nutritional assessment, intervention, and education. Results: Hundred and eight respondents from 42 health institutions and background in the health sector participated in the survey. There was variability in nutritional assessment, practice and education. Lack of resources and time are contributory. Conclusions: This assessment of nutritional services in India provided useful information to plan development of national guidelines, policy, and delivery of services.
James, J A; Clark, C; Ward, P. S.
We examined 42 Rastafarian children under 5 years of age who were registered with a single inner city general practice to determine the prevalence of nutritional rickets. Twenty children were receiving a strict vegan(I-tal) diet and were considered to be at high risk of developing rickets and were referred for biochemical and radiological investigation. Seven of 20 children investigated had rickets, giving an overall prevalence of 7/42. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol was successful in al...
Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 14 044 US children and adolescents aged 2-19 years. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted with the use of the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-, plausible and over-reporters of EI were identified using two methods: based on the 95 % confidence limits (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI:BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under- or over-reporter compared with a plausible reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-, plausible and over-reporters were 13·1, 81·5 and 5·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR and 18·8, 72·3 and 8·8 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites) and overweight and obesity (compared with normal weight). Over-reporting was associated with younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, normal weight and the first survey cycle. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 22 949). In conclusion, we found that EI misreporting remains prevalent and differential in US children and adolescents. PMID:26525591
Victor L. Fulgoni
Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient
We examined influences of asthma and household environment (passive smoking, gas stove use, and having a dog or cat), on seven measures of spirometric lung function in 8-16 yearold subjects, as measured in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). ...
目的:对哈萨克族1岁儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的原因进行分析,并提出具体应对措施。方法:选择2008年～2010年在乌鲁木齐市妇幼保健院体检的汉族儿童100名,维吾尔族儿童100名,哈萨克族儿童100名,对随机抽取的儿童进行血液检测,并对受检儿童的生活环境、饮食习惯、母亲贫血史、生育史、母乳喂养史、儿童疾病史等进行问卷调查。结果:哈萨克族儿童营养性缺铁性贫血的发病率高于汉族和维吾尔族儿童(P＜0.05)。哈萨克族儿童易患营养性缺铁性贫血与其生活环境、饮食习惯、母亲贫血史、生育史、母乳喂养史等有关。结论:哈萨克族儿童营养性缺铁性贫血发生率高,应积极改善儿童的居住环境和饮食习惯,及时为儿童添加辅食,合理营养,注重母亲孕期保健,重视儿童的疾病预防。%Objective: To analyze the causes of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in one - year old children of Kazak nationality, put forward specific measures. Methods; 100 children of Han nationality, 100 children of Uyghur nationality and 100 children of Kazak nationality who received physical examination in the hospital from 2008 to 2010 were selected, then the selected children received blood test; their living environment, dietary habits, anemia history and reproductive history of mothers, breastfeeding history and medical history were surveyed by a questionnaire. Results; The incidence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality was significantly higher than those in children of Han nationality and Uyghur nationality ( P < 0.05 ) . Nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality was related to living environment, dietary habits, anemia history and reproductive history of mothers, breastfeeding history. Conclusion; The incidence of nutritional iron deficiency anemia in children of Kazak nationality is high, the living environment and dietary habits
Children and adults with severe disabilities may have nutritional problems due to the effects of the primary disability (including such syndromes as phenylketonuria, galactosemia, and Hurler's Disease), effects related to medications (including anticonvulsants, tranquilizers, and laxatives), effects of food preferences (restrictive food…
Optimization of resistance to infection, growth, sexual maturation, wound healing, and provision of the best possible overall quality of life are important management goals in children with epidermolysis bullosa. However, all these goals rely on the maintenance of optimal nutritional status, and achieving this is extremely challenging in the severe types of the disease. Strategies to improve nutritional status have the best chance of success when the dietitian or nutritionist works as an integral member of the multidisciplinary team and is well informed of patients' situations, family dynamics, and prognoses. Even the best-coordinated dietetic interventions may exert only limited impact. PMID:20447494
Development of nutrition objectives for the years 1990 and 2000 forms an important part of a national strategy to reduce preventable health risks. These initiatives present an opportunity for nutrition professionals to define priorities for nutrition in preventive health care and to establish the nation's nutrition policy agenda for the next decade. PMID:2712964
Seashore, J. H.
Nutritional support is an integral and essential part of the management of 5-10 percent of hospitalized children. Children in the intensive care unit are particularly likely to develop malnutrition because of the nature and duration of their illness, and their inability to eat by mouth. This article reviews the physiology of starvation and the development of malnutrition in children. A method of estimating the nutritional requirements of children is presented. The techniques of nutritional su...
Full Text Available In most developing countries, nutritional rickets is a major health problem. The aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of nutritional rickets among Saudi infants, and the various clinical presentations, as well as to address the possible operating risk factors behind the disease. We carried out a retrospective study at King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records of Saudi infants under the age of 14 months over a 10-year period (between January 1990 and January 2000 were reviewed. Infor-mation collected included age, sex, clinical presentations, biochemical, radiological findings, infant nutrition, presence of other nutritional deficiencies and exposure to sunlight. There were 283 infants diagnosed with nutritional rickets due to Vitamin D deficiency (67% males who were between 6 and 14 months of age. Among the total, 70% were exclusively breast-fed, and 23% were breast-fed until the age of 1 year. The most frequent clinical presentation was hypo-calcemic convulsions (34% followed by chest infections (33% and gastroenteritis (25%. In conclusion, nutritional rickets is still prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the primary etiology being vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we recommend that every infant, who is exclusively on breast-feeding, has routine supplement of vitamin D in the range of 200 IU/day (alone or as apart of multivitamin, started soon after birth until the time of weaning.
In most developing countries, nutritional rickets is a major health problem. The aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of nutritional rickets among Saudi infants, and the various clinical presentations, as well as to address the possible operating risk factors behind the disease. We carried out a retrospective study at King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records of Saudi infants under the age of 14 months over a 10-year period (between January 1990 and January 2000) were reviewed. Information collected included age, sex, clinical presentations, biochemical, radiological findings, infant nutrition, presence of other nutritional deficiencies and exposure to sunlight. There were 283 infants diagnosed with nutritional rickets due to Vitamin D deficiency (67% males) who were between 6 and 14 months of age. Among the total, 70% were exclusively breast-fed, and 23% were breast-fed until the age of 1 year. The most frequent clinical presentation was hypo-calcemic convulsions (34%) followed by chest infections (33%) and gastroenteritis (25%). In conclusion, nutritional rickets is still prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the primary etiology being vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we recommend that every infant, who is exclusively on breast-feeding, has routine supplement of vitamin D in the range of 200 IU/day (alone or as apart of multivitamin), started soon after birth until the time of weaning. (author)
Goskowicz, M; Eichenfield, L F
Nutritional deficiencies may be associated with a variety of cutaneous findings in children. This review emphasizes new developments relating to cutaneous findings of nutritional deficiencies. Zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica, and acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruptions are seen with a variety of conditions including cystic fibrosis, anorexia nervosa, and breastfeeding. Similar cutaneous findings not related to zinc deficiency may also occur with such metabolic disorders as methylmalonic aciduria, multiple carboxylase deficiency, essential fatty acid deficiency and other amino acid deficiencies. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and coagulopathy. Vitamin A deficiency presents with a variety of systemic findings and distinctive dermatologic findings. Acute vitamin A deficiency may be seen in children infected with measles and is associated with more severe disease. The systemic and cutaneous findings of vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, are discussed. PMID:8374671
Cranial MRI was obtained in 13 of a group of 57 children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition, who were being investigated for hypermanganasaemia. Increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images has been reported in adult patients on long-term parenteral nutrition and with encephalopathy following chronic manganese exposure in arc welding. It has been postulated that these changes are due to deposition of the paramagnetic trace element manganese. In excess manganese is hepato- and neurotoxic and we present the correlation of whole blood manganese levels with imaging findings. The age range of our patients was 6 months to 10 years, and the duration of therapy 3 months to 10 years. In 7 children we found characteristic increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, with no abnormality on T2-weighted images. All patients had elevated whole blood manganese levels, suggesting that the basis for this abnormality is indeed deposition of manganese within the tissues. (orig.). With 3 figs
Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L
While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590
Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…
Sinha N; Deshmukh P; Garg B
Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materi...
Kim, Cho-Il; LEE, YOONNA; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Jang, Young-Ai
Onto the world-fastest ageing of society, the world-lowest fertility rate prompted a development of various policies and programs for a betterment of the population in Korea. Since the vulnerability of young children of low socio-economic class to malnutrition was clearly shown at the in-depth analysis of the 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, an effort to devise supplemental nutrition care program for pregnant/breastfeeding women, infants and preschool children...
Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modiﬁcations aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was signiﬁcantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de
Magdalena Radziszewska; Joanna Sadowska; Agnieszka Krzymuska
Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status and nutrition manner of children attending preschools located in Szczecin. Material and methods. The study was carried out in autumn 2008. The survey covered 105 children at the age 4-6 years. Information on home food intake was collected by parents, on the same days, the authors noted the kind and quantity of food eaten by the child in the preschool. Results. The results revealed that the nutritional status of ...
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649
The bachelor thesis is aimed to the important question relevant to the provision of the healthy lifestyle of the pre-school children. It is about the implementation of the healthy nutrition principles in the nursery school. The topic of the thesis is the children?s nutrition in terms of their healthy growth; nutrition value analysis for various food; how some food can improve the health condition of the child; connection between the healthy nutrition and immunity. Attention is also paid to th...
Theresa A. Nicklas
Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.
Catassi, Carlo; Gatti, Simona
Overweight/obesity is a growing epidemic in the Western world and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Doctors are going to play a major role as they are being called on to adapt their practices to confront it. In particular, nutrition seems to be at the core of obesity in children. The ascending trend of this phenomenon in pediatric age, with inherent healthcare implications, was already reported in epidemiological studies of the mid '90s. Public health programs of primary prevention should be stimulated and recommended, with the aim of promoting diet and lifestyle changes in the general population. In addition, accurate anthropometric measurements should be performed for use by pediatricians, who should focus efforts on preventing obesity during infancy and childhood. Nutrition plays such a pivotal role that it may be considered a valuable treatment strategy for multiple pediatric conditions, including celiac disease, Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, galactosemia, congenital deficiency of urea cycle enzymes. In view of all this, it would be advisable that food science be given higher relevance in medical education. PMID:25734596
The International Atomic Energy Agency is working to ensure improved health for all, particularly children and women, in partnership with its 132 Member States, other United Nations organizations, and donors. Its programme of technical activities is fully supportive of the recommendations adopted in 1990 by the international community during the World Summit for Children, particularly the statement 'enhancement of children's health and nutrition is a first duty'. (IAEA)
Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn
The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993
Gilton Marques dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a sistematiy review of the literature about the nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents.DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases, with inclusion of articles in Portuguese and in English with original data, that analyzed nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents. The initial search used the terms "inflammatory bowel diseases" and "children" or "adolescents" and "nutritional evaluation" or "nutrition deficiency". The selection of studies was initially performed by reading the titles and abstracts. Review studies and those withouth data for pediatric patients were excluded. Subsequently, the full reading of the articles considered relevant was performed.RESULTS: 237 studies were identified, and 12 of them were selected according to the inclusion criteria. None of them was performed in South America. During the analysis of the studies, it was observed that nutritional characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease may be altered; the main reports were related to malnutrition, growth stunting, delayed puberty and vitamin D deficiency.CONCLUSION: There are nutritional consequences of inflammatory bowel diseases in children and adolescents, mainly growth stunting, slower pubertal development, underweight and vitamin deficiencies. Nutritional impairments were more significant in patients with Crohn's disease; overweight and obesity were more common in patients with ulcerative rectocolitis. A detailed nutritional assessment should be performed periodically in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease.
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999
Bernardo Hernández; Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A Monterrubio; Claudia Ivonne Ramírez-Silva; Raquel García-Feregrino; Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administer...
In this audio podcast, listen to Michigan State University authors Lorraine J. Weatherspoon, PhD, RD, and Elizabeth Taylor Quilliam, PhD, talk about the impact food advertising may have on childrenâs eating behaviors. Created: 9/25/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/25/2013.
Ruzita, A T; Wan Azdie, M Ab; Ismail, M N
This study was conducted to determine changes in nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice of 8-year-old school children after receiving a nutrition education package. A total of 418 school children from urban and rural areas participated in this study. The intervention group consisted of 237 children while 181 children who did not receive the nutrition education package acted as controls. The nutrition education programme that was conducted for 3 weeks comprised of a video viewing session and a comic reading session followed by exercise questions as reinforcement for each session, and also classroom activities. Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaires were distributed to the children before (pre-intervention) and after (postintervention) receiving the nutrition education programme. A follow-up visit was conducted six months after the programme had elapsed. The results obtained indicated that the nutrition knowledge score increased significantly in the intervention group from 48.3±13.2 at pre-test to 54.6±16.2 in post-test and 55.0±14.3 in follow-up test (ppositive impact whereby better nutrition knowledge, attitude and healthy eating habits in children were seen. It is hoped that the improvements would be sustained throughout their lives. PMID:22692188
Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.
New findings about child nutrition and cognitive development indicate that undernourished children are typically fatigued and uninterested in their social environments. Such children are less likely to establish relationships or to explore and learn from their surroundings. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to illness and, thus,…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%, was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97. HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.
Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A
Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and
Pescud, Melanie; Pettigrew, Simone; Henley, Nadine
Objective: To explore low socioeconomic parents' beliefs in relation to children's nutrition. Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study over 12 months involving 37 low socioeconomic parents. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Method: Parents' nutrition-related beliefs were explored via interviews, focus groups and…
Fomon, Samuel J.
Intended for child health care providers, the text contains information on improving preventive efforts in nutrition, particurlarly those focused on prevention of the major health problems which are nutrition related (obesity, atherosclerosis, dental caries, and anemia). Part I focuses on screening of individual children likely to be at risk of…
Xiao Liu; Juan Liu; Xueqin Xiong; Ting Yang; Nali Hou; Xiaohua Liang; Jie Chen; Qian Cheng; Tingyu Li
Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...
Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B
This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices. PMID:16442667
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination...: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of periodic surveys... Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...
Rachel E. Scherr; Cox, Rachel J; Feenstra, Gail; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
Childhood obesity has multiple interrelated causes and so should be addressed with multiple interventions, including innovative nutrition education programs that encourage healthy lifestyle choices in children. Research indicates that garden-based nutrition education increases fruit and vegetable preferences and consumption in children. Additionally, many reports on Farm to School programs indicate they promote both increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and participation in th...
Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin
Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children. PMID:26418028
Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately ha...
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...
Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim
The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764
Wojcicki Janet M; Heyman Melvin B
Abstract Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and...
Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Julio A. Poterico
Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peru...
Undernutrition, growth failure, overweight, micronutrient deficiencies, and osteopenia are nutritional co-morbidities that affect the neurologically impaired child. Monitoring neurologically impaired children for nutritional co-morbidities is an integral part of their care. Early involvement by a ...
Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.
Bachlet, Allison M. E.
Providing adequate nutrition to children with severe neurological disabilities is extremely difficult due to the high prevalence of oral-motor dysfunction in this group. Short stature and light weight for height are common in disabled children and undernutrition is believed to play a role in this poor growth. This programme of study investigated the effect of gastrostomy-tube feeding in disabled children with oral-motor dysfunction and evaluated the energy balance and body ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age. Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package. Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study. Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition. Keywords:Malnutrition Prevention, Nutritional Intake, Nutritional Status, Preschool Children.
Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez
Full Text Available Background: During last decades it has become increasingly evident the importance of nutritional factors in the development and renovation of buccal tissues, particularly of teeth. Objective: To characterize permanent teething and its relation with nutritional factors in children between 5 and 13 years. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive, observational study developed in a universe formed by 1003 children of Health Area II in Cienfuegos, out of which a sample of 330 children was selected. Data was collected from schools, regarding the teething age and nutritional status. Ponder and measurements were carried out. Results: The average teething age was lower for girls in both maxillary bones; teething sequence was 6,1,2,4,5,3,7 for the maxilla and 6,1,2,3,4,5,7 for the inferior maxillary bone. There was a prevalence of normal weight among girls, followed by thin and undernourished values. Among boy, there was a prevalence of obesity, overweight and normal weight in that order. Nutritional statuses of thin and undernourished were related with a delayed teething, mainly in the inferior maxillary bone. Permanent teething was delayed with regard to the national media. Conclusion: A clear relation was established between teething age and nutrition, mainly among thin and undernourished children.
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YIN Xiao Jian; XU Ya Tao; JI Liu; JI Cheng Ye
ObjectiveTo study the nutrition habits among Chinese-Korean children and adolescents in Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. MethodsData were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 for Chinese-Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years.The number of the subjects included was 4789, 4704, 5875, and 5315, respectively. ResultsThe rate of the occurrence of stunting showed a declining trend from 1995 to 2010 (for boys:urban, 6.3%; rural, 12.7% in 1995 and 3.5% for both in 2010. For girls: urban, 7.8%; rural, 13.4% in 1995 and 4.2% and 5.5%, respectively, in 2010). Although the ratio of wasting did not show significant differences between the urban and rural children and adolescents in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 respectively, the ratio of occurrence of overweight or obesity increased (for boys: urban, 7.3% and 1.3%in 1995, 17.6% and 12.9% in 2010; rural, 7.0% and 1.3% in 1995, 14.6% and 12.8% in 2010, respectively. For girls: urban, 8.1% and 1.0% in 1995, 17.3% and 8.6% in 2010; rural 5.7% and 0.7% in 1995, 16.4%and 7.4% in 2010, respectively). ConclusionThe ratio of malnutrition in children and adolescents in Chinese-Korean areas declined from 1995 to 2010, and the distinction in malnutrition between the urban and rural areas was negligible in 2010. Further, the ratio of overweight and obesity increased over this period.
Anjos, Tania; Altmäe, Signe; Emmett, Pauline; Tiemeier, Henning; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Luque, Verónica; Wiseman, Sheila; Pérez-García, Miguel; Lattka, Eva; Demmelmair, Hans; Egan, Bernadette; Straub, Niels; Szajewska, Hania; Evans, Jayne; Horton, Claire; Paus, Tomas; Isaacs, Elizabeth; van Klinken, Jan Willem; Koletzko, Berthold; Campoy, Cristina
There is growing evidence that early nutrition affects later cognitive performance. The idea that the diet of mothers, infants, and children could affect later mental performance has major implications for public health practice and policy development and for our understanding of human biology as well as for food product development, economic progress, and future wealth creation. To date, however, much of the evidence is from animal, retrospective studies and short-term nutritional intervention studies in humans. The positive effect of micronutrients on health, especially of pregnant women eating well to maximise their child's cognitive and behavioural outcomes, is commonly acknowledged. The current evidence of an association between gestational nutrition and brain development in healthy children is more credible for folate, n-3 fatty acids, and iron. Recent findings highlight the fact that single-nutrient supplementation is less adequate than supplementation with more complex formulae. However, the optimal content of micronutrient supplementation and whether there is a long-term impact on child's neurodevelopment needs to be investigated further. Moreover, it is also evident that future studies should take into account genetic heterogeneity when evaluating nutritional effects and also nutritional recommendations. The objective of the present review is to provide a background and update on the current knowledge linking nutrition to cognition and behaviour in children, and to show how the large collaborative European Project NUTRIMENTHE is working towards this aim. PMID:23884402
Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon
This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. PMID:27307424
To determine the effect of age of introduction and the type of weaning foods used, on the nutritional status of children under three years of age. Three hundred and fifty-nine children under 3 years were included in the study. Based on the age of commencement of weaning, the children were categorized as children weaned at appropriate and inappropriate age. For the type of weaning foods, the children were grouped into two categories based on the nature of food items. Children for whom weaning was started at the recommended age of 4-6 months were found to be significantly less malnourished on anthropometric measurements as compared to the other set in which weaning was started at an earlier or later age. Significant statistical difference was noted in the children weaned on nutritious home-made items compared to children having commercial foods. (author)
Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status and nutrition manner of children attending preschools located in Szczecin. Material and methods. The study was carried out in autumn 2008. The survey covered 105 children at the age 4-6 years. Information on home food intake was collected by parents, on the same days, the authors noted the kind and quantity of food eaten by the child in the preschool. Results. The results revealed that the nutritional status of more than half of the children was appropriate; however, one out of five children exhibited overweight or obesity. The analysed menus revealed that most nutrients were oversupplied in relation to the requirements. The intake of total protein, animal proteins, copper, as well as vitamins A, B2, and B6, exceeded the recommended levels more than twice. Other B-group vitamins, vitamin C, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium were supplied in a considerable surplus too. On the other hand, more than a half of the children received diets with insufficient amounts of calcium, potassium, iron and cholesterol. Conclusions. The dietary shortcomings we found may have a negative impact on the physical and mental development of the children and may increase a risk of diseases in their future adult life.
Tarini Shankar Ghosh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a global health problem affecting more than 300 million pre-school children worldwide. It is one of the major health concerns in India since around 50% of children below the age of two suffer from various forms of malnutrition. The gut microbiome plays an important role in nutrient pre-processing, assimilation and energy harvest from food. Consequently, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in malnutrition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Metagenomics approach was adopted to investigate the gut microbiome sampled from 20 rural Indian children with varying nutritional status. The changes in the abundances of various taxonomic and functional groups were investigated across these gut microbiomes. A core set of 23 genera were observed across samples, with some showing differential abundances with varying nutritional status. One of the findings of the current study is the positive/negative associations of specific taxonomic and functional groups with the nutritional status of the children. Notable alterations in the architecture of the inter-microbial co-occurrence networks were also observed with changes in nutritional status. A key example is the clustering of potentially pathogenic groups into a distinct hub in severely malnourished gut. Our data does not demonstrate causality with the microbiome patterns that we observed, rather a description of some interesting patterns, whose underlying mechanism remains to be uncovered. CONCLUSIONS: The present study envisioned interrelationships between the pattern of gut microbiome and the nutritional status of children. The cause of this pattern needs to be explored. However, insights obtained from the present study form the basis for further metagenomic investigations on larger population of children. Results of such studies will be useful in identifying the key microbial groups that can be utilized for targeted therapeutic interventions for managing severe acute
Lang, Jason E.
Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthm...
Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications: Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of children of Mexican migrant worker families under five years of age within the context of global food markets. The sample included 404 children less than five years old from farms and agricultural communities in northwest Mexico. Prevalence of stunting and underweight of children appeared very similar to that of indigenous children from the national sample survey (difference 0.9 and 1.6 percentage points, respectively. Compared to the national sample of Mexican children, stunting and underweight seemed higher in migrant children (difference 17.7 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, but wasting, an indicator of both chronic and acute undernutrition, appeared to indicate a process of nutritional recuperation. Migrant children living in poverty and suffering from chronic undernutrition, poor performance and scarce education opportunities, can be expected to eventually become agricultural workers with low productivity and poor general health. Consumer’s demands on social and environmental standards of fresh food production in developed countries could be an opportunity to impact the lives of migrant agricultural workers, their families and communities.
Full Text Available Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years and 73 typically-developing (TD children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = −0.222, p = 0.021. No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied.
Liu, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Xiong, Xueqin; Yang, Ting; Hou, Nali; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu
Restricted diets and inadequate nutrient intake of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. This study examined the nutritional statuses of children with ASD and the relationships between their behaviors and nutritional intake. A total of 154 children with ASD (age = 5.21 ± 1.83 years) and 73 typically-developing (TD) children (age = 4.83 ± 0.84 years) from Chongqing, China, were enrolled. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). The serum ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25(OH) vitamin D, and vitamin A concentrations in the children with ASD were determined. All participants underwent anthropometric examinations, dietary assessments, and questionnaire assessments about their feeding behaviors, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The ZHA, ZWA, and ZBMIA were found to be significantly lower in the children with ASD compared with those without ASD. In addition, the percentages of children exhibiting severe picky eating and severe resistance to new foods, as well as those with a reported general impression of severe eating problems and constipation, were higher among the children with ASD. These children consumed significantly fewer macronutrients compared with the children without ASD. In addition, the children with ASD had the highest rate of vitamin A deficiency, followed by iron deficiency. After adjusting for sex, the vitamin A concentration was found to be negatively correlated with the CARS score (rs = -0.222, p = 0.021). No correlation between the ferritin, folate, vitamin D, or vitamin B12 concentration and the CARS score was found. These results suggest that reduced macronutrient intakes, severe feeding behavior issues, constipation, and vitamin A deficiency are quite common among children with ASD. Further, a low serum vitamin A level may be a risk factor for symptoms of ASD. However, the underlying mechanism should be further studied. PMID:27187463
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children . 1 This study is being done to know about the feeding practices, nutritional sta tus, anaemia prevalence in children residing in rural areas of Puducherry. OBJECTIVES : 1. To study feeding practices, nutritional status, prevalence of anemia in children from 1 month to 2 years of age. 2. Influence of feeding practices on nutritional stat us and hemoglobin levels. METHODS : This is a hospital based prospective study done for a period of 1yr. The study included 200 children from 1 month to 2 years of age. Patients from rural areas of Puducherry nearing Tamil Nadu border and people from adjoi ning rural areas of Tamil Nadu come to our hospital. A questionnaire is provided to parents/guardians of children asking about feeding practices . Participants weight in kilograms and length in centimeters are measured. Blood samples are drawn from participants for the estimation of hemoglobin levels. Peripheral smear study will be done if hemoglobin level is less than 11 gram/dl. Observations are tabulated. RESULTS : 85 % children under study were initiated feed according to guidelines and 15 % were not initiated. 54% children were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and 46% children were not exclusively breast fed. 54% children were given complementary feeds after the age of 6 months. 70% had normal weight for length, 12% were moderately wasted, 18% children were severely wasted, 86% children were anemic and 14% children were not anemic. CONCLUSION : 1 . The study shows the effect of feeding practices on the
Parisa Keshani; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi; Zahra Mirzaei; Zeinab Hematdar; Najmeh Maayeshi; Mahsa Mirshekari; Hanieh Ranjbaran; Shiva Faghih
Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions ...
Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC
Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arb...
Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy Conclusiones de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999: traduciendo resultados a política nutricional
Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda Amor
OBJECTIVE: This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children
Elsa Resano-Pérez; Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Rivera, Juan A; Jaime Sepúlveda-Amor
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired performance of a range of mental and physical functions in children, along with increased morbidity. Iron supplementation at a later age may not reverse the adverse effects. National Nutritional Anemia Control Program was launched in India in 1970, but it failed to make any impact. The present study was undertaken to find out prevalence of anemia and its correlates in rural Wardha in children 6-35 months of age. Materials and Methods : Seven hundred seventy-two children between 6 months and 35 months of age were studied for anemia by cluster-sampling method. The hemoglobin was estimated in the child by ′Filter paper cyanmethemoglobin method.′ Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and other variables. Data was analyzed by SPSS 12.0.1. Results : Mean hemoglobin level was 98.5 ± 12.9 gm/L. Prevalence of anemia was 80.3%. Only 1.3% children had severe anemia (hemoglobin < 70 gm/L. The univariate analysis showed that anemia is significantly associated with age of the child, education of mother and father, occupation of father, socioeconomic status, birth order and nutritional status as measured by weight for age. The final model suggested that only educational status of the mother, occupation of the father, birth order and nutritional status of the child were significantly associated with anemia. Interpretation and Conclusion : For short-term impact, appropriate nutritional interventions remain the only operational intervention as only the nutritional status (weight for age is a modifiable factor. But for long-term sustained impact, policy makers need to focus on improving maternal education and reducing family size.
Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Suzinne Pak-Gorstein; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Jasmine Matheson
Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed an...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1 investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2 determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3 describe the nutritional interventions for these children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (January '07 - September '12 of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0 and discharge (t1, and two weeks (t2 and one month (t3 after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS, length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. RESULTS: The median (range age was 3.5 (1.0-14.8 years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9% children at t0 and in 28 (50% at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% of their weight. Median (range LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10-41 and 4.0 (0-23 days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0 significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI = -0.34 (-2.0--0.1; p = 0.03. At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0, whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥ 5% under the weight(t0. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥ 5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after hospitalization is warranted.
Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda
The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children. PMID:18442431
Full Text Available Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups to sub-optimal nutritional intake in most societies. We have investigated some of the potential determinants of malnutrition in children of 2-5 years of age. Methods and Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship between nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height and dietary and socioeconomic factors in 671 children (24-59 months of age from selected health centers in Mashhad city, Iran. Children were assessed for weight and height and the care givers were interviewed and a questionnaire was completed by the interviewers. The data were analyzed using SPSS13 software and the Z-scores were calculated using the WHO anthropometric software package. Results: The study showed that 24.4% of children were mildly underweight, 4.3% were underweight, 13% were mildly stunted, 23.6% of children were mildly wasted and 3.1% were stunted. Educational attainment, whether the children had been breast feed, average daily consumption of milk, feeding practices and type of first food were found to be the main factors determining nutritional status in our study. Conclusion: A higher daily consumption of milk, lower age at which first solid food was started; lower age for consumption of meat and good feeding practices may resolve malnutrition in this population. These findings support the need for a family-based prevention program that focus on guiding parents to foster appropriate feeding practices as well as to promote healthy food intake in the children. Future research should determine the cost-effectiveness of both short- and long-term interventions for child malnutrition.
Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA is about 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls and less than 1% in teenage boys. IDA presents when there is not sufficient iron for haemoglobin synthesis. In particular it has negative effects on the behavior, cognitive performance, immune system and physical growth of infants, preschool and school age children. Material and Methods: Blood samples of 337 randomly selected children (6-59 months living in the Ahwaz, Khuzestan province, were taken. Serum ferritin, Complete Blood Cell (CBC and hematological indices were measured Results and Discussion: In this study 61.1% of the children had serum ferritin less than 12mcg/dl. Prevalence of IDA were 29.1 %. The results showed that most children with IDA were at 12-23 months. Families with more than 6 children had 4.49 times greater chance of IDA. The mean of breast-feeding in non-IDA children was higher than IDA children (17.6 and 16.3 months respectively, P>0.05. In this study families who gave tea to their children for 1-11 months had the highest prevalence of IDA. Conclusion: There are several main risk factors for ID & IDA in the children. Parent's illiteracy, family income and using cow's milk before 12 months are among most important risk factors for iron deficiency for children.
Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor; Nur Shahida Abdul Aziz; Cheong Siew Man; Rashidah Ambak; Mohd Azahadi Omar
Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS) and Cerebral Palsy (CP) are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This s...
Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Janusz, Malgorzata; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrzak, Beata
The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary factors in nutrition influencing the immune system of children and teenagers suffering from simple obesity. The study involved 100 children and teenagers aged 7-18 with simple obesity. Nutritional data were obtained from 3-day food records. The consumed nutrients, including immunomodulators and immunostimulants, were estimated based on the nutrition interview. The results were compared with the nutritional norms. On average, the proportion of n-6:n-3 fatty acids equalled 10:1. Among the amino acids, the highest intake values in the diet were observed for glutamine (13,694.6 mg/day). The study demonstrates inadequate intake levels of iron (73% of recommended dietary allowance, RDA), vitamin C (65% of RDA), and vitamin D (11% of RDA) taking into account the median values for the entire study group. The median daily intake of other nutrients exceeded the RDA values. The diets of the participants in this study were not properly balanced with respect to immunomodulators, which may contribute to the occurrence of immunological disorders and immunodeficiency in this group of patients. PMID:26269024
Huang, Chun-Jui; Tseng, Chi-Lung; Chen, Harn-Shen; Garabwan, Chanda; Korovo, Samuela; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Won, Justin Ging-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Wang, Fan-Fen
Little is known about iodine nutritional status in island countries in the Pacific Ocean. The primary objective of this study was to report for the first time the iodine nutritional status of people in Nauru. In addition, sources of iodine nutrition (i.e., water and salt) were investigated. A school-based cross-sectional survey of children aged 6-12 years was conducted in three primary schools of Nauru. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by spot urine samples. Available water and salt samples in Nauru were collected for the measurement of iodine content. A food frequency questionnaire was conducted. The median UIC was 142 μg/L, and 25.2% and 7.4% of the population had median UIC below 100 μg/L and 50 μg/L, respectively. Natural iodine-containing foods such as seaweeds and agar were rare. Iodine was undetectable in Nauruan tank water, filtered tap water, and raindrops. Of the analyzed salt products, five kinds were non-iodized, and three were iodized (iodine content: 15 ppm, 65 ppm, and 68 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the iodine status in Nauruan school children is adequate. Iodized salt may serve as an important source of iodine nutrition in Nauru. PMID:27563920
Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy
Introduction: Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force. Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study...
KUPERMINC, MICHELLE N; Stevenson, Richard D.
Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of poor growth has led to a variety of interventions to improve growth. One of the major causes of poor growth, malnutrition, is the best-studied cont...
Ali Ghasemi; Bijan Keikhaei
Introduction: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in the world. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is about 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls and less than 1% in teenage boys. IDA presents when there is not sufficient iron for haemoglobin synthesis. In particular it has negative effects on the behavior, cognitive performance, immune system and physical growth of infants, preschool and school age children. Material and Methods: Blood samples of 3...
Lee, Soon-Kyu; Park, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Youn-Ju
The increasing rate of child obesity has developed into a serious concern in contemporary society. In Korea, additional concerns over unsanitary environments of food establishments near schools led to the enforcement in 2009 of the Special Act on the Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life in order to improve food safety and nutrition. Some of the main policies of the Special Act are the prohibition of Energy- dense Low-Nutrient density Foods (hereinafter referred to as EDLNF) at school canteens and in the outstanding businesses, along with restrictions on television advertisement for EDLNF products. Confectioneries, candies, sweetened-ice products, breads, chocolates, processed milk, fermented milk, ice cream, fish-meat sausages, fruit/vegetable beverages, carbonated beverages, mixed beverages, and lactic acid bacteria beverages are classified as applicable food types of EDLNF. To establish the nutritional standards for EDLNF, the intake proportions and the pattern of nutrients in children's preferred foods in Korea were analyzed, based on the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea. The foods containing more than 250 kcal, more than 17 g of sugar or more than 4 g of saturated fat and less than 2 g of protein per serving are considered EDLNF snacks. The Korean government is concentrating its efforts in promoting healthy environments for children in its research and in food policies. Further studies are necessary to investigate the current state of changes in the children's foods industry. PMID:24561969
Nasima Akhter; Nancy Haselow
The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP*) of Helen Keller International (HKI), Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB) Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN) from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone are...
Milner, J A
Trace elements perform important functions in growth and development. However, little information exists about their dietary requirements during the demanding period of infancy. Opportunities to add to knowledge of the physiologic significance and dietary adequacy of trace elements in human nutrition are provided by recent analytic advances. Specific, sensitive, and reliable methods for the detection of trace element imbalances are sorely needed. Although several factors influence the dietary needs of these essential elements, the basis for establishing dietary needs in infants is hindered by the death of studies that have assessed their bioavailability in this age group. Thus until it has been conclusively shown otherwise, the physiologic response to human milk is used as the standard for infant feeding practices. This review is limited primarily to the physiologic significance and bioavailability of zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, fluoride, and selenium. The space devoted to each trace element is not meant to represent the element's importance but, rather, to reflect some of the present understanding of its metabolism and utilization. PMID:2199650
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...: Geraldine McQuillan, Ph.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for...
Castillo Ana; Santiago Maria J; López-Herce Jesús; Montoro Sandra; López Jorge; Bustinza Amaya; Moral Ramón; Bellón Jose M
Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of il...
Hanaa H. Elsayed * and Amr Abd El-Hafez
Full Text Available This study was designed to assessment nutrition status and blood glutathione (GSH level for preschool children. Subjects and methods: The study included 70 (boys and girls preschool children at aged from 2-5 years. Children was randomly selected from the out patients clinic at the National Nutrition Institute Cairo. Weigh and height were measured for them to evaluate the effect of nutrients on bodies, dietary intake was collected for the children were subjected to estimation of (Energy, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrate, vitamins A, folic acid and minerals iron, zinc and selenium in their daily diet. Blood samples were collected to determine hemoglobin, glutathione and total protein concentration. Results: The dietary analysis showed that, every nutrient was lower than the requirement except total protein was higher than the recommend. Stunting showed (25.5% of boys and (20% of girls, underweight (23% of boys and 14% of girls were the problems among preschool children. A glutathione deficiency was found among 97% of boys and 100% of girls. The hemoglobin ratio 77.1% from children was equal or less than normal concentration. Total protein noticed 82.9% of boys and 85.7 of girls in normal value. Conclusion: There was little quantity of nutrients intake, glutathione level and growth. The study can be recommended to improve their daily dietary intake and nutrition habits by education programs for their parents or supplement of studied cases with special ferrous and protein specially contains sulphur amino acids in daily diet to cover Recommended Dietary Allowances and can improve tissue GSH concentration
Full Text Available Background: Since, the children are the future well-being of the entire society, it is necessary to see how the status of health of children can be improved.Objective: This paper reveals the growth and nutritional status of 0-59 month old children in India and also tries to delineate the responsible socio-economic factors behind nutrition.Methodology: The sample size of this study is 30,105 which have been collected by the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3. Data on socio-economic backgrounds are gender differences of the children, place, religion, education and age-group of mothers, wealth index and impact of colostrums on children’s growth and nutrition. Under nutrition has been assessed through the cutoff point of –2 of the z-score value corresponding to weight for age and height for age.Results: The data show that in India, 35.7 per cent children are undernourished. By age-group distribution, the maximum occurrence is noticed in the age between 24-35 months. More than 50% occurrences of underweight and stunted children are found in the states of east to central belt of India. It is also found that the distributions of weight and height around the means remain remarkably stable over age. This would appear to indicate that using of colostrums and weaning practices are possibly more important factors than solid food intake. Data reveals that mother’s education and family welfare are the prime factors to regulate the nutritional status of children. The study also reveals that mother’s education, economy, age-groups, and religion have great impact on use of colostrums.Conclusion: Analysis of possible regional and socio-economic factors thought to influence child nutrition outcomes does not reveal any substantive causal relations except for the mother’s educational status and household welfare.
Aboud, F E; Alemu, T
Forty children between the ages of 16 and 42 months and their mothers, living in an Ethiopian rural village, participated in the study. The objective was to determine the mental development of the children using the Bayley Scale of Mental Development, and to examine its relation to nutritional status and mother-child interaction. Forty-eight percent of the children were mildly or moderately malnourished; 7.5% severely so. The child's weight for age was significantly related to the child's scores on the Bayley scale. Mother-child interaction was assessed through a 30-60 min observation of the pair in a naturalistic setting around the home. The number of verbal, gestural and motor actions spontaneously initiated by the mother and child, as well as responses made by each to the others' behavior were recorded and coded separately. The rate of a mother's verbal responses to the child positively predicted the child's verbal score. In contrast, the mother's spontaneously initiated motor actions toward the child correlated negatively with the child's performance score. The mother's responsiveness was unrelated to the child's nutritional status, age or sex, but was best predicted by a fussing/crying child and by her expectations about the ages when specific social-cognitive abilities would be acquired by a child. PMID:7502104
Meehan, Courtney L; Helfrecht, Courtney; Quinlan, Robert J
Research suggests that nonmaternal caregivers (allomothers) offer essential assistance through caregiving and provisioning, helping to support lengthy child development. Here, we examine the role of allomothers and the broader social and sharing network on Aka forager children's anthropometrics. We hypothesize that nonmaternal investors strategically target their assistance when it is most needed and when it will have the greatest effect. We evaluate children's nutritional status using WHO standards [weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ)] during four periods of child development [early infancy (birth to social network across these different risk periods and examine whether the broader social network buffers the loss of a primary allomother. ANOVA results suggest that girls may be experiencing some growth faltering, while boys start smaller and remain small across these stages. We used OLS multiple regression models to evaluate the effects of sex, camp composition, risk periods, and allomothers' presence on WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ. Grandmothers are the most influential allomother, with their effect most evident during the 9 to networks buffer the loss of a grandmother. Overall, our results suggest the importance of social networks to children's nutritional status and that individuals target investment to critical phases. PMID:24452414
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination... Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Geraldine McQuillan, PhD, Division of Health and Nutrition...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regarding the high prevalence of unhealthy food habits among Iranian children, we aimed to assess the effect of a school-based nutrition education program on nutritional status of primary school students in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This randomized educational controlled trial was carried out on 221 primary school age children selected by cluster sampling in the elementary schools of Shiraz-Iran. The intervention consisted of 6 nutrition education sessions carried out through one year for children, using active learning methods. Mothers’ education was carried out in person in both lecture and question-answer sessions also via sending text messages and pamphlets. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC of children were measured before and after the intervention. Also a 168-item food frequency questionnaire was completed. Two separate nutrition knowledge questionnaires were filled up by children and their mothers. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: 171 children (83 in the case and 88 in the control group, aged 9.5-10.5 years, completed the study. Anthropometric and nutritional knowledge of the participants in both the intervention and control groups was significantly increased. Weight, height, WC and nutritional knowledge increased significantly more in the intervention group compared to the controls. Consumption of fruits and vegetables decreased in the intervention group while plain sugar and fast foods intake increased among the controls. There were no significant differences between the changes in the intake of any of the food groups in the two groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, the designed nutrition education program could increase students’ nutritional knowledge, and lead to a non-significant change towards reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods such as fast foods, sweets and salty snacks.
... Food assistance programs, Food donations, Grant programs--Social programs, Indians, Nutrition education... Service 7 CFR Part 246 RIN 0584-AE04 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and... regulations governing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)...
Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert
Background: Growing up milks (GUM) are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12-36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children.Objective: To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 1224-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM). Design: Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2...
Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate dietary intake causes malnutrition associated with poor physical and mental development, specially in children. This study evaluated the nutritional status in blind children in Ababasir Boarding Center (a boarding school in Isfahan city. Methods: A 72 hours food regimen survey was measured in 50 subjects (boys and girls by weighting method. The anthropometric data was collected to compare with NCHS normal data. Results: Energy intake was less than 75 percent RDA in all the subjects and the amounts of animal protein intake was also little. Chronic malnutrition was more prevalent. Discussion: Althought the energy intake was lower than RDA, but it did not cause under weight among them probably because of reduced physical activity due to their disability and inadequate high quality protein and other nutrients probably could be the major cause in chronic malnutrition.
Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is the most common intestinal parasite in human worldwide. It can produce a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In order to assess the nutritional status of preschool children infected with Giardia intestinalis, a cross sectional study was made in Marvdasht city, Fars Province, Southern Iran. A total of 337 preschool boys and girls aged 3-6 years were randomly selected for stool examination of intestinal parasites as well as measurement of height, weight, head and arm circumferences. A total of 77 individuals were infected with G. intestinalis. Seventy-one individuals who had only G. intestinalis and 229 with no parasitic infections were selected as infected and control groups, respectively. Z-Score of -2SD was used as cut off point of malnutrition. A total of 9 (12.7% of infected children and 18 (7.9% of non infected individuals had a height for age Z-score (HAZ below -2SD. Eight (11.3% of former group had a weight for age Z-score (WAZ under-2SD. In control group 4.4% of preschool children had WAZ under-2SD. 4.2% of infected children had a weight for height Z-score (WHZ under-2SD but none of the controls had it. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in height, weight, head circumference, HAZ, and WAZ between infected and control children (P<0.05. Also, HAZ and WAZ, was significantly different between these two groups, but not for WHZ. A higher infection with G. intestinalis in the children with lower parents’ education was observed. However the distribution of malnutrition was not significantly different between boys and girls. In conclusion the present study indicated that giardiasis retarded growth of preschool children in this region.
Huijbers, PMJF; Hendriks, JLM; Gerver, WJM; de Jong, Peter; deMeer, K
This study investigates the nutritional status of native children in the highlands of Nepal (1,700-3,000 m) and explores the relationship between child mortality and surviving children's nutritional status. A random sample of 145 households from 11 villages in the Koshi Hill Zone in east Nepal was s
OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for optimal nutritional care in children with a neurodevelopmental disability and an associated impairment in their ability to eat and drink. OPTIONS: Assessment of nutritional status by skinfold thickness measurement, high-energy nutrition supplementation given orally and feeding by nasogastric tubes, gastrostomy tubes or gastrojejunal tubes. OUTCOMES: Children receiving adequate nourishment are generally calmer and appear more normal than those who are underno...
Asmaa m. Abdallah*, Zainab B* and Mohamed M. A. Shahat
Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder of childhood and adolescence with important consequences for physical and emotional development. Aim of the study: This study was designed to detect the effect of diet therapy (through nutrition education program) on lipid profile and blood glucose level in diabetic children. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried on 45 diabetic children aged between 8-15 years old at diabetic nutrition clinic of nutrition inst...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND NRC was started in Visakhapatnam (KGH in December’ 2012 to nutritionally rehabilitate severely acute malnourished children. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation services provided at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center. OBJECTIVES 1 To evaluate the effectiveness of Nutritional interventional measures undertaken at Nutritional Rehabilitation Center through review of selected anthropometric measure indicators. 2 To assess the nutritional status after discharge from Nutritional Rehabilitation center. METHODS A Retrospective record based (secondary data study conducted in the month of November 2013.Sevevnty five children were admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Center (NRC of KGH, Visakhapatnam in the months of April to October 2013. The data was obtained from NRC records including anthropometric measurements at admission, discharge and follow-up. RESULTS Twenty percent of the children were less than 12 months of age and 34.7% were in the age group of 13–24 months. Forty eight percent were female and 52% were male children. Majority (93% of the children stayed in the NRC for more than 14 days. There was significant difference in the weight of children at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t= - 15.942, p=0.001. There was no significant difference in Mid Arm Circumference at the time of admission and at the time of discharge (t = -0.942, p=0.349. Fourteen percent were defaulted. There was significant difference in weight of children at the time of discharge and at the time of first follow-up (t=2.203, p=0.03 and third follow-up (t= -8.903, p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS NRCs are effective in improving the nutritional status of severely acute malnourished children and the follow-up also shows the children are having catch-up growth. RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 Adequate number of NRCs should be available for severely acute malnourished children in all the areas. 2 Effective counseling measures should be
Full Text Available Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years. Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 % of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA. Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.
Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth
We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…
YAN-PING LI; XIAO-QI HU; JING-ZHAO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; GUAN-SHENG MA
Objective To assess the nutrition status of children and adolescents in China using the WHO growth reference (2007) in comparison with that defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Methods Overweight and obesity were defined by age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by WHO (2007), IOTF (2000), and WGOC (2004), respectively. Stunting and thinness were defined as height and BMI less than two standard deviations (SD) of the WHO growth reference (2007), respectively. Data of children and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years (n=54 857, 28 273 boys, 26 584 girls) from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) were used in the study. Results The prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting and thinness among Chinese children and adolescents aged 5-19 years was 5.0%, 1.2%, 13.8%, and 7.4%, respectively when the WHO growth reference (2007) was used, whereas the estimated absolute total number affected by these 4 conditions were 14.6, 3.7, 40.6, and 21.8 million, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.1% in large cities, while the stunting prevalence was 25.1% in rural 4. Obesity prevalence assessed by the WHO growth reference was higher than that as assessed by the IOTF reference, and obesity prevalence assessed by the WGOC reference was lower than that as assessed by the IOTF reference. Conclusion The nutritional status of children and adolescents is not equal in different areas of China. Stunting is still the main health problem of the poor, while overweight and obesity are the main health problems in large cities.
Estudio antropométrico y valoración del estado nutricional de una población de escolares de Granada: comparación con los estándares nacionales e internacionales de referencia Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada: comparison of national and international reference standards
E. González Jiménez
Full Text Available Estudios recientes muestran un incremento alarmante en las tasas de sobrepeso y obesidad entre la población infantil y juvenil. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron realizar una valoración del estado nutricional y composición corporal mediante antropometría en una población de escolares de Granada capital y provincia, así como comparar el estado nutricional de la población escolar estudiada con los estándares nacionales e internacionales de referencia. La prevalencia general de sobrepeso encontrado en ambos sexos fue del 22,03% y la tasa de obesidad del 9,12%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la variable peso para la edad y el sexo (p Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and international reference standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05 and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05. Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182. This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05. As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and international reference standards.
Full Text Available Introduction: Celiac disease (CD is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts. Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition in children with CD to prevent complications of malabsorption. Results: The patients do not tolerate the proteins of cereals in bread such as wheat, barley, black barley and rye. Substituting wheat flour with rice flour, corn and potatoes and using olive oil, sunflower, corn oil and peanut oil for cooking is recommended. Until the disappearance of symptoms, consumption of milk, fat and high-fiber foods should be avoided. Deficiency of folic acid, iron, vitamin B12 and calcium are common. If necessary, iron, folic acid and multivitamin can be used. These children need proper energy according to their personal needs and should have a diet high in protein. Consumption of potatoes, corn, vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy and nuts (non- roasted in any form is allowed. Identifying foods which contain gluten (prepared sauces, sausages, salami, herbal supplements, all canned meat products, crushed barbecue, prepared soups, espresso and coffee , white vinegar, curd, dried milk, pasta, pastries prepared by wheat flour, compote and food supplements is recommended. Conclusions: The identification of substances containing gluten by parents and children, and removal of harmful substances from the diet causes the intestines to quickly begin to rebuild itself. Keywords: Nutrition, Child, Celiac, Diet.
Andrea A. García-Contreras; Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay; Enrique Romero-Velarde; Ana Isabel Ibarra-Gutiérrez; Rogelio Troyo-Sanromán; Imelda E. Sandoval-Montes
Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated bod...
Ohyver, Margaretha; Yongharto, Kimmy Octavian
Ordinal logistic regression is a statistical technique that can be used to describe the relationship between ordinal response variable with one or more independent variables. This method has been used in various fields including in the health field. In this research, ordinal logistic regression is used to describe the relationship between nutritional status of children with age, gender, height, and family status. Nutritional status of children in this research is divided into over nutrition, well nutrition, less nutrition, and malnutrition. The purpose for this research is to describe the characteristics of children in the KarangKitri Village and to determine the factors that influence the nutritional status of children in the KarangKitri village. There are three things that obtained from this research. First, there are still children who are not categorized as well nutritional status. Second, there are children who come from sufficient economic level which include in not normal status. Third, the factors that affect the nutritional level of children are age, family status, and height.
A crossectional study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was carried out in 275 children (Age range = 6-36 months) belonging to the low socio-economic strata (SES) in the rural and suburban areas of Bogor (West Java Indonesia). H. Pylori infection was diagnosed by using C-13 urea breath test and nutritional status was analyzed by z- 2 scores. The study revealed a strong (χ2 = 30.9; df=4; p2 =7.2; df=3; p<0.05) association was observed between the educational status of mothers and prevalence of H. pylori infection. Although there was a trend, the results did not yield any significant association between diarrhoea and H. pylori infection. A similar trend was also seen between anemia status and H. pylori infection. Of particular interest was the higher rate of H.pylori infection in children who were on breast-feeding as compared to those who had already been weaned (p<0.05). Stunting, a deficit of length-for-age was the only parameter among the three indicators of malnutrition (underweight, wasting, stunting), which was observed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with H. pylori infection in our study. Although the other two parameters, underweight and wasting, were also manifested, the associations were not statistically significant. The results of this study have demonstrated that H. Pylori infection has an effect on malabsorption leading to a negative impact on the ability of children to thrive. (author)
Energy and nutrient intake among Mexican school-aged children, Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Consumo de energía y nutrimentos en niños mexicanos en edad escolar, Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban/rural areas, socioeconomic status (SES and nutrition status (body mass index and height/age. RESULTS: Median energy intake was 1501 kcal/d (percent adequacy: 88.0. Overweight and obesity prevalence was 25.5%. Stunting prevalence was 10%. Children at lowest SES, indigenous and from rural communities showed the highest inadequacies for vitamin A, folate, zinc, and calcium. Overweight children and those highest SES had higher risk of excessive intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Coexistence of over and undernutrition reflects a polarized model of nutrition transition among Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Estimar el consumo y adecuación de energía y nutrimentos en niños escolares mexicanos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos en 8 716 niños de entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Se calcularon la ingesta y la adecuación de energía y nutrimentos. Se hicieron comparaciones por región, área urbana/rural, nivel socioeconómico (NSE y estado nutricio (índice de masa corporal y talla/edad. RESULTADOS: La mediana de ingestión de energía fue 1 501 kcal/día (% adecuación 88.0; 25.5% de los niños tuvieron sobrepeso u obesidad; 10%, retardo en talla. Los niños con menor NSE, los indígenas y los de comunidades rurales mostraron mayores inadecuaciones dietarias de vitamina A, folato, zinc y calcio. Los niños con sobrepeso y los de mayor NSE presentaron más riesgo de ingestiones excesivas. CONCLUSIONES: La coexistencia de malnutrición por exceso y por deficiencia
A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN WITH SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION ADMITTED IN NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTER AT CIVIL HOSPITAL BAIRAGARH, BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH
BACKGROUND: The state of Madhya Pradesh has 1.3 million severely malnourished children. Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) were started in the state to control severe malnutrition and decrease the prevalence of severe malnourished children to less than 1% among c hildren aged 1 – 5 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutritional interventional measures for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) admitted in Nutrition Rehabilitation Center by ...
MIDYAT, Levent; AKSIT, Sadık; GOKCE, Sule; YAGCI, Rasit Vural
Early childhood is a critical life period because of its importance for supplying regular and adequate nutrition, and giving essential nutritional education to the children. In the present study, between January 2004 and March 2006, food consumption of 2- to 6-year-old children from different socioeconomic levels in Izmir was investigated. Anthropometric measurements of these 518 children were also recorded. SPSS 14.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Total duration of breastfeed...
Ugochukwu, EF; Onubogu, CU; Edokwe, ES; Okeke, KN
Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six prim...
Ong Ken K; Sharp Stephen J; Lakshman Rajalakshmi R; Forouhi Nita G
Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited...
Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately half the births in the nation as well as locally. By providing nutrition education, breastfeeding promotion and foods in addition to referrals, WIC plays a crucial role in promoting lifetime health for women, infants and children. WIC helps achieve national public health goals such as reducing premature births and infant mortality, increasing breastfeeding, and reducing maternal and childhood overweight. Though individuals and families can self-refer into WIC, physicians and allied health professionals have the opportunity and are encouraged to promote awareness of WIC and refer families in their care. PMID:25285258
Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy
Full Text Available Introduction: Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force. Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted on 639 mentally disable children aged 6-<14 years (422males and 217females, from urban areas. They were classified into two age groups (6-<11& 11-<14 years. The following variables were determined using Z score indicator of weight for age, height for age and weight for height. Also, body mass index, mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness percentiles were determined. Laboratory investigation including blood hemoglobin concentration and plasma levels of vitamin A and -tocopherol as well as plasma zinc, copper and magnesium concentration were estimated. Results: Prevalence of underweight was 14.1% by Wt/age Z score. Stunting was estimated among 33.5% with significantly higher prevalence in older children. Muscle &fat depletion was detected in 30.2%, with significantly higher prevalence among males than females. Depleted fat store was detected in 14.7% of children. Wasting was documented in 14.1% of children by BMI percentile, and was significantly higher among males than females. No significant difference was detected between male and female handicapped children regarding mean blood hemoglobin values as well as mean plasma levels of the measured vitamins and minerals, except for mean plasma zinc level. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was higher in males (41.5% than females (37.1%. Deficiency of - tocopherol was more prevalent than that of vitamin A. The overall prevalence of deficiency of zinc, magnesium and copper
Anna M. Rangan
Full Text Available The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2–16 years old children (n = 4834 was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0 mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14–16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR. Children (2–3 years were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14–16 years or excessive (children 2–3 years zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required.
Christian Loret de Mola
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.
Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won
We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024
..., Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, (77 FR 4088, January 26... the web at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm . \\6\\ Riazi... foods provided under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) and the Richard B. Russell National...
Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Andersson, Maria; Berg, Gertrud; Eggertsen, Robert; Gramatkovski, Elisabeth; Hansson, Marie; Hulthén, Lena Birgitta; Milakovic, Mille; Nyström, Ernst
Abstract Background/ Objectives: Sweden has had a salt iodination program since 1936. This first national surveillance study on iodine nutrition infers an adequate level of urinary iodine concentration (UIC 125 ug/L) and the aim is now to evaluate thyroid volume (Tvol) in the same national sample. Subjects/ Methods: A stratified probability proportionate to size cluster sampling was used to obtain a representative national sample of Swedish children aged 6-12 years. Media...
R D Barr
Full Text Available Context: Malnutrition is prevalent in children with cancer at diagnosis, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC where the great majority of children live. It is associated with an added burden of morbidity and mortality. Aims: Answers were sought to the best measure of nutritional status in LMIC, the impact of anti-neoplastic therapy, effective interventions to achieve normal nutritional status and the impact of these on clinical outcomes. Results: Arm anthropometry offers reasonable estimates of fat mass and lean body mass that are both impacted adversely by treatment. Nutritional supplementation, including the use of simple local resources, is beneficial and can improve survival. Long-term survivors may continue to exhibit perturbed nutritional status. Conclusions: The prevalence and severity of malnutrition in children with cancer in LMIC demand attention. Opportunities exist to conduct studies in India to examine the effects of nutritional interventions, including on the overall well-being of survivors.
Downs Shauna M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151 with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11% of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY
Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D
Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547
Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L
Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront. PMID:27152155
Kweon, Sanghui; Kim, Yuna; Jang, Myoung-jin; Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Kirang; Choi, Sunhye; Chun, Chaemin; Khang, Young-Ho; Oh, Kyungwon
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a national surveillance system that has been assessing the health and nutritional status of Koreans since 1998. Based on the National Health Promotion Act, the surveys have been conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). This nationally representative cross-sectional survey includes approximately 10 000 individuals each year as a survey sample and collects information on socioeconomic status...
Full Text Available The nutrition status of school-age children is still poor while the need for balanced nutrition is very important for school children and this is because the public's attention to the nutritional needs only focuses in infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. According to data of Health Research (Riskesdas in 2010, the prevalence stunting in the age group of 6-12 years was 25.6%, underweight prevalence was 11.2% and overweight prevalence was accounted to 9.2%. This study aimed to determine the nutritional status of children by conducting crosssectional descriptive study with the analysis of invariance and bivariate (Chi square. The study was conducted at SDN 05 of grade 1-6 Sirnagalih Bogor with totaling 263 students aged 6-12 years old in November 2014 and assessed the nutritional status of students based on the z-score of the WHO / NCHS and reviewing the primary data (weight and height measurement and secondary data (data or documents and the identity taken from the student attendance. Nutritional status average of children in SDN 05 Sirnagalih was in normal nutritional status at approximately 68.2%. However, it still reflected some nutritional problems (very underweight, underweight and overweight, accounted for 31.8%. In underage group category, there was the nutritional status of malnourishment of 9-12 years age group with the highest number scored 37.5%. By gender, the malnourishment of boys acquired at most 34.9%. Based on parent education, malnourishment was found in students with less educated fathers; it was about 41.6%. Nutritional status of children based on the number of siblings in the family showed the nutritional status of malnourishment, showing by the number of brothers and sisters greater than two sisters and brothers that amounted to 57.9%.
Executive summary Background: South Africa is affected by the nutrition transition as one of many countries, with high prevalence of both over and undernutrition. Differences are sharp throughout the population, rural and poor suffering most frequently from underweight, stunting, vitamin A deficiency and hunger. Several initiatives have been implemented in order to improve the nutrition status. Among these are i) the Nutrition Supplementation Program, which targets children with growth pr...
Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess, through anthropometric and biochemical parameters, the positive effect on growth of enteral nutrition support in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Material and Method: Forty-three consecutive patients newly diagnosed with pediatric malignant disease and receiving intensive chemotherapy were included. Twenty-six patients received an enteral nutrition formula. Seventeen control patients did not receive enteral nutrition formula. Anthropom...
Santos, C.; Figueiredo, M.; Vieira, M.
Comunicação oral apresentada no Ist World Congress of Children and Youth Health Behaviors / 4th National Congress on Health Education que decorreu em Viseu‑Portugal, de 23 a25 May 2013, da qual só está disponível um resumo. This paper presents the nutritional status of 3‑5 years old children in a public preschool from Fundão and describes the breakfast (BF), fruit and vegetables (F&V) habits consumption.
Full Text Available Objectives: To find out the prevalence of VAD among urban school children of District Bareilly, to identify the associated biosocial factors and to suggest the suitable measures to prevent xerophthalmia among them. Methods: Six month cross sectional study was conducted among school going children in 2 purposively selected schools in an urban area of Bareilly District. A structured proforma was used to collect the information. Chi- square test was used to analyze data. Results: Of the 800 children examined, the overall prevalence of VAD was found to be 6.37%. The prevalence of VAD was highest in 11-12 years of age group children and lowest in the 3-5 years age group (P-value >.05. The prevalence of VAD was slightly higher among boys as compared to girls (P-value >.05. The prevalence of VAD was significantly higher among the children belonging to lower socioeconomic class as compared to those belonging to upper and middle socioeconomic class (P-value >.05. Nearly 48.5% of children were found to be underweight while 12.25% were overweight. Nearly a quarter of children were found to be anemic. Conclusion: Nutrition education regarding regular intake of plant foods rich in carotene such as green leafy vegetables, yellow fruits, carrots and animal foods containing retinol like fish liver oil, fish, liver, egg, meat, milk, butter, cheese, and use of fortified food like vanaspati, margarine, dried skimmed milk should be strengthened. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 188-190
Prashant G Bhat
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632...
Soldavini, Jessica; Crawford, Patricia; Ritchie, Lorrene D.
Objective: To determine whether children perceive food with nutrition claims as healthier and tasting differently than those without claims. Methods: Fourth- and fifth-graders (n = 47) from 3 California schools participated. Two identical products (cookies, crackers, or juice) were placed in front of product packages, 1 with a nutrition claim, the…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. 250.66 Section 250.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...
Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada
Conclusion: Over half of all food products marketed to children via television in Spain made some type of nutrition or health claim. Most of these products were less healthy, which could mislead Spanish consumers.
Abraham-Hardee, Sofia E.
A mixed method study pretest and posttest research design was used in this study similar to those used by the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Women, Infants and Children (WIC). An individual interview method was used to gather the qualitative data. The study was conducted using 26 caretakers and 31 children. No significant change in knowledge in the caretakers was observed across all lessons. A significant gain in knowledge was observed only in the nutrition lesson â...
Briend, A; Dykewicz, C.; Graven, K; Mazumder, R. N.; Wojtyniak, B; Bennish, M.
The usefulness of nutritional indices and classifications in predicting the death of children under 5 years old was evaluated by comparing measurements of 34 children with diarrhoea who died in a Dhaka hospital with those of 318 patients who were discharged in a satisfactory condition. In a logistic regression analysis mid-upper arm circumference was found to be as effective as other nutritional indices in predicting death. Combinations of different indices did not improve the prediction. Arm...
Srivastava, Anurag; Mahmood, Syed E.; Srivastava, Payal M; Shrotriya, Ved P; Kumar, Bhushan
Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in ...
Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain
Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...
Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
Full Text Available Introduction. The neighborhoods where the children live play an important role in their development physically and mentally. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neighborhood safety and child nutritional status in Baghdad city, Iraq. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Baghdad city, Iraq, among 400 primary school children from 4 schools. BMI-for-age Z score was used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Newly developed questionnaires on neighborhood safety were distributed to the parents to answer them. Results. In this study, males were more predominant than females with 215 participants compared to 185 females. A total of 49% were normal weight, 38.8% either overweight or obese, and only 12.2% underweight. There was a significant relationship between father education, father and mother working status, family income, and children nutritional status (P=0.10, 0.009, <0.001, 0.37, respectively. The association between neighborhood safety variables and child nutritional status was significant except for worrying about child safety and thinking of leaving the neighborhood (P=0.082, 0.084, respectively. Conclusion. Nutritional status of school children continues to be a public health issue in Iraq especially Baghdad city. There was a significant association between neighborhood safety and children nutritional status.
Conventional nutritional indices and Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure: which seems more appropriate for assessing under-nutrition among children? A cross-sectional study among school children of the Bengalee Muslim Population of North Bengal,Indi
Full Text Available
Background: Stunting, wasting and under-weight have been conventionally utilized to assess the prevalence of under-nutrition among children. As these indices grossly underestimate this prevalence mainly due to overlapping of the children into multiple categories of anthropometric failure, there is a need for an appropriate single measure to assess this prevalence and identify the more susceptible individuals. The present study tries to ascertain whether the use of the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF is more appropriate than the conventional indices for the estimation of under-nutrition among children.
Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of under-nutrition using both the conventional indices and the CIAF among 1143 children aged between 5 years to 11 years (565 boys; 578 girls belonging to the Bengalee Muslim Population (BMP, and residing in the district of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. The children were selected using a multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure. The data was collected during the period from February 2009 to May 2010. Height and weight of the children were recorded using standard procedures. The conventional anthropometric indices and the CIAF were compared with the National Center for Health Statistics reference data to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition. A child having a value 2SD’s below that of the reference median in any of these indices was classified as suffering from under-nutrition. All the necessary approvals and consents were obtained from the Gram Panchayets and school authorities, and the study was conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines for human experiments as laid down in the Helsinki Declaration of 2000.
Results: Using the conventional indices, the prevalence of under-nutrition was observed to be 17.4% (wasting, 38.5% (stunting and 47.0% (under
Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a bac...
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Bharati P; Pal M; Bharati S
Objective:The aim of the paper is to see how educational and working status of the parents affect the nutri-tional and immunization status of preschool children in India.Methods:We have used data of more than 24 000 preschool children spread over different states in India.The data were collected by National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2)in 1998-99.For assessing the nutritional status,only the Z-scores of weight-for-height (WHZ)have been computed and for immunization status,it has been seen whether BCG,DPT3,Poli-o3 and measles have been administered.Children who fall below -2SD(-3SD)from median are considered to be moderately (severely)malnourished.Results:According to the NFHS-2 data,70% of children are vac-cinated by BCG,50% receive the full course of DPT,54% get all the three dozes of polio and only 42% are protected from measles by vaccination in India.The percentages of moderately and severely wasted children in India are 12.1 and 2.8,respectively.There is a marked regional variation of these percentages.Bivariate and multivariate analysis clearly points to the need of educational status of mothers rather than fathers for proper nu-tritional and immunization status of preschool children.Parents'occupation and working status also have some effect,but not so pronounced as parents'education.Conclusion:The Indian preschool children need particu-lar attention for high risk of wasting and low immunization.The prevalence of malnutrition can be arrested more by improving the mother's education level rather than their fathers and by raising the standard of living of their house-holds.
Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.
Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.
Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…
Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor
Full Text Available Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Down Syndrome (DS and Cerebral Palsy (CP are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using a framework suggested by Arksey and O'Maley. A comprehensive search was performed to identify published and unpublished works, reviews, grey literature and reports. Inclusion criteria for the search were articles in English published from 1990 to 2014 and related to children with ASD, DS and CP. Titles, abstract, and keywords for eligibility were examined independently by the researchers. Results: A total of 305,268 titles were extracted from electronic databases and other resources. Based on the inclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected for review. The prevalence of overweight or obese children with DS ranged from 33.5% to 43.5%. The prevalence of underweight children with CP was 22.2% to 78.2%. Children with ASD at a younger age were more likely to be overweight or obese compared with normal developing children. The common nutritional indicators used were z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age, and head circumference-for-age. Conclusions: Overall, there is emerging evidence on the nutritional status of children with ASD, DS and CP although this is still very limited in developing countries including Malaysia. The evidence shows that children with CP were at risk of being underweight, while children with DS and ASD were at risk of being overweight or obese.
National Nutrition Education Clearing House, Berkeley, CA.
References applicable to both elementary and secondary levels, as well as background information of importance to teachers in the field of nutrition and nutrition education, are included in this bibliography. Although not a comprehensive list, resources include books, pamphlets, curriculum guides, bibliographies, newsletters, article reprints, and…
Kim, Min-Gyou; Oh, Seung-Won; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo
Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label readin...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary National Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... Foundation on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition Establishment Act, Public Law 111-332 (Dec. 22, 2010)....
... Register on June 28, 2013, at 78 FR 39068, was approved by OMB on August 14, 2013, under OMB Control Number... National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in... School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the...
National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…
... 77 FR 4088 was approved by OMB on February 1, 2013, under OMB Control Number 0584-0006. FOR FURTHER... / Monday, July 8, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD59 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and...
George, K A; Kumar, N S; Lal, J J; Sreedevi, R
A study on the pattern of anemia and its relation to nutritional status and dietary habits was conducted among 3633 pre-school children of 108 selected anganwadi centers in rural areas of Kerala State during the period 1996 to 1998. Children were invited with their parent or guardian. Capillary blood was collected from each child and hemoglobin was estimated by cyanomethemoglobin method. Weight and height of children were taken for assessing their nutritional status. The information regarding their age, sex, clinical condition and dietary habits was collected in a performa through an interview. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship of anemia to sex, dietary habits, and nutritional status. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was employed. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%. The percentage of anemic children among male and female children was 10.25 and 12.55 respectively and statistical analysis showed that female children were more susceptible to anemia. Normal nutritional status was seen among 46.7% of the children. When 187 (11.78%) of the mild undernourished children were anemic, the percentage anemic among the moderate undernourished children was 57 (16.37%). Moderate under nutrition and anemia showed a significant association. Anemia was reported among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Among 927 vegetarians, 86 (9.27%) were anemic and among 2,706 non-vegetarians, 328 (12.1%) were anemic. Dietary survey revealed that, consumption of iron sources, whether haem or non-haem, was below the recommended level. Undernutrition can be attributed as the major reason for nutritional anemia. Changes in eating behaviour could have potentially affected the iron bio-availability. PMID:10984998
Lewis, Jane S.; And Others
Results of a 1968 pilot study of the nutritional status of Mexican American preschool children in East Los Angeles and San Diego are reported in this document. Questionnaire data collected from mothers of preschool children are presented in terms of a description of families, prenatal care, clinical examinations, dietary intakes, and biochemical…
Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer
Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…
This publication is designed to assist early childhood providers, cooks, and parents in hygienic food preparation and a healthy diet provision for young children in Australian child care. The guide recommends nutritional requirements for children, using the five food groups as a guide for meal planning. The Australian dietary guidelines are also…
Mickelsen, Olaf; And Others
Concern over the nutritional status of the disadvantaged in America led to this study describing the prevalence of anemia among Head Start children in Pontiac, Michigan. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, along with measurements of height and weight, were performed on 77 children, 4 to 6 years old, enrolled in Head Start classes. These…
Bevans, Katherine B.; Sanchez, Betty; Teneralli, Rachel; Forrest, Christopher B.
Background: To enhance the impact of school nutrition programs on children's health, more information is needed on the associations between healthy and unhealthy food offerings during school lunch periods and children's eating behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contributions of food offerings and participation in school lunch…
N C Ashok
Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.
Ong Ken K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2 and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6. Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042. At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6% or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7% than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour.
Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313
Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.
Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313
Diaconu Ramona; Bozomitu Laura; Anton Emil; Popovici Paula; Anton Carmen; Timofte Daniel; Alin Ciobica; Moraru Evelina
Cystic fibrosis is a polymorphic disease characterized by severe genetic dysfunctions. Besides the complex genetic background, most patients with cystic fibrosis also have increased susceptibility to infections and and their nutritional status is affected. Chronic pulmonary infection and gastrointestinal or nutritional abnormalities are characteristics of this disorder. Of our selected 56 subjects, 21.28% presented a pulmonary condition, and 28.57% digestiv...
Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea
The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:19751782
Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni
Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758
Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.
Estado nutricional de niños con Síndrome Down del Centro Nacional de Educación Especial de Costa Rica Nutritional status of children with Down syndrome from the National Center for Special Education in Costa Rica
Alejandra Madrigal Loría
Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el estado nutricional de niños con Síndrome Down de 7 a 14 años, que asistieron al Centro Nacional de Educación Especial, durante el 2007. Métodos: Se valoraron indicadores antropométricos (peso, talla, pliegues cutáneos, bioquímicos (glicemia basal, perfil de lípidos, hemoglobina, hematocrito y función tiroidea, clínicos (revisión de expedientes, examen físico realizado por médico del Centro, dietéticos (frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, observación no participante de meriendas y almuerzos y peso directo para determinación del valor nutricional del almuerzo servido en el Centro, de estilo de vida y socioeconómicos (método de entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: Se logró captar 16 niños, la mitad de los cuales presentó exceso de peso, bajo consumo de vegetales y un elevado consumo de harinas refinadas y alimentos fuente de carbohidratos simples (bebidas azucaradas y postres, grasa saturada y colesterol (embutidos, frituras. Llama la atención que 12/15 sujetos presentó hipertrigliceridemia y 11/15 valores bajos de HDL-colesterol. Además se reportó un bajo nivel de actividad física. Conclusión: Esta investigación es un primer acercamiento desde el punto de vista nutricional, a la niñez costarricense con Síndrome Down, sin embargo se necesita profundizar para generar lineamientos de atención nutricional que mejoren la calidad de vida de estos niños.Objective: To evaluate the condition of children suffering from Down syndrome with ages between seven and 14, who went to "National Center for Special Education" during 2007. Methods: Several processes were evaluated; for example: anthropometric indicators (weight, height, cutaneous skinfolds, biochemical (basal blood glucose, lipids profile, hemoglobin, hematocrit, thyroidal function, clinical (revision of medical records and physical exams performed in the medical center. Also eating habits, life style and socioeconomic aspects were taken into
House, Simon H
before conception prevents both structural faults and wrong setting of gene-switches. Children's habits set. Once courting most are preoccupied and many pregnant unintentionally. Childhood is the time to be adopting a healthy lifestyle, the way to healthy babies The mother's nutritional and emotional status throughout pregnancy continues to affect her child's future physical and mental health, behaviour and ability. Before conception a woman needs to build her appropriate body stores - vitamins and minerals, proteins, docosahexaenoic acid. Before bearing another child, a replenishment time of 3 years is desirable. A return to childbearing in the 20s and early 30s could reduce risks that have risen with the recent shift towards conception by school children and by women in their late 30s or more. Governments, schoolteachers, health professionals, need to adopt this policy of transgenerational health. Empowerment with knowledge is the one way to fend off the growing pandemic of mental ill health and related disorders and to make the most of a nation's genetic potential. Financially there could be no better investment, let alone in enhancing people's lives. Childhood is the most appropriate time for education in this way to generating a healthy, able and peaceful human race. Essential to our amazing genetic systems are the resources of land, sea and air. We are one with our biosphere. We need urgently to follow up the vital work of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, and of Far East initiatives in sea-bed and sea husbandry. PMID:25005446
Abosede, Olayinka; McGuire, Judith S.
The main sources of malnutrition in Africa, as elsewhere, are inadequate food intake, excessive disease, maternal malnutrition, and deleterious food and health behavior. The authors review several successful innovative approaches to addressing nutrition problems in Africa: the Iringa Nutrition Program in Tanzania, the Zimbabwe Children's Supplementary Feeding Program, the Zaire Weaning Foods Processing Program, and the Senegal Growth Promotion Program. They identify the lessons from these pro...
Polloni, Laura; Toniolo, Alice; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Baldi, Ileana; Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella
Background Avoidance of food allergens requires adapting dietetic habits, changing nutritional approach. A restriction of food choice can result in a monotonous diet and impact social life. This study investigated the impact of food allergy on nutritional behavior and attitudes of patients and their families. Methods A survey involving mothers of food allergic children aged 0–16 years was carried out. We primarily studied the variables related to the child (age, gender, clinical history, food...
Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted for determining the eating habits and food knowledge and rate of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry of the school children. And to explore the relationship between the ability of recognizing brand logos currently featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating habits, food knowledge and preferences. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Edirne. The questionnaire form was composed of three parts. In the first part; the socio-demographic characteristics and nutritional habits, in the second part; food knowledge and preferences of the students and in the third part; ability to recognize brand logos were questioned. RESULTS: 1018 students were participated in the study. The results of the study confirmed the findings of previous studies that the diet of children aged 9-11 was poor. The majority of the children reported eating unhealthy foods such cips, crisps and fast-food and drinking fizzy drinks at least once a day. Children knew healthy foods (med:8 but did not prefer healthy foods (med:5. 84.9 % of the students recognized more than the half of the brand logos. A correlation was found between higher brand logo recognition and poorer eating behaviors and food knowledge. CONCLUSION: Nonetheless this study did not presented strong evidence to suggest a casual link between food advertising and poor diet; it indicated that food promotion may have an influence on children. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 459-464
Diongue, M; Ndiaye, P; Yameogo, I; Faye, B F; Dia, A Tal; Diousse, P
Malnutrition is an important indicator of development, and its consequences in children and adolescents produce a serious socioeconomic burden. Children living on the street are more vulnerable than others. Thus, our objective was to analyze the nutritional status of children living on the streets of Manga, through a cross-sectional and analytical study. The snowball technique was used for sampling. Data came from individual interviews, blood samples and medical examinations. Of the 237 children studied, 84.8% were boys; the overall mean age was 11.5 years, and 72.6% were adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years). Growth retardation (15.9%) predominated among the children aged 4 to 9 years, while a weight deficit (27.9%) was most common among those aged 10 to 17. Half of the children (50.2%) with blood tests (N = 119) had anemia. There was a link between anemia and underweight (p = 0.0145). Children who ate at least three times a day were 2.63 times less likely to be anemic (p<0.001). Factors associated with anemia (p<0.005) included survival activities. We frequently found nutritional deficits and anemia in these children. A targeted nutritional program would be a good entry point for their successful reintegration.. PMID:25466289
Full Text Available Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections remain a public health problem in developing countries. Their prevalence is particularly high in rural areas with people of low socioeconomic level. A single or mixed STH infection rarely causes death, but can affect nutritional status, growth, cognitive development and human health, especially in children. Objective To compare the nutritional status of STH-infected and uninfected children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2010 in children from 3 primary schools in the Simpang Empat and Kabanjahe Subdistricts, Karo District, North Sumatera Province. Fecal examinations were done by the Kato-Katz method to diagnose STH infections. Participants of this study consisted of 140 infected children and 141 uninfected children. Nutritional status classification was based on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control growth charts. All categorical data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results Of 140 infected children, 8.6% were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 17.1% with Trichuris trichiura and 74.3% with mixed infections (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. We found significantly more STH infected children with mild to moderate malnutrition than the uninfected group. We also found significantly more mildly to moderately malnourished children with moderate infection intensity than mild infection intensity. Conclusion We find significantly more STH infected children with mild to moderate malnutrition than the uninfected group. We also find significantly more mildly to moderately malnourished children with moderate infection intensity than mild infection intensity. Higher severity of infection is associated with lower nutritional status. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:136-41.].
... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has be...
Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to realize that normal length and weight being attained at 1 year of age, would predict the nutritional status at 3 years of age. To asses the nutritional status and the associated socio-demographic characteristics in supposedly healthy Children of up to 2 years of age and highlight the importance of anthropometric measurements in routine child health care. Anthropometric measurements i.e. height and weight, were measured and a standard Questionnaire was used to interview the mothers regarding socio-demographic back ground information after a verbal informed consent and ensuring confidentiality. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height of the children were compared with the National Centre of Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population of the United States and Z -score< - 2 SD were considered as stunted, under weight and wasted respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS software package. We observed stunting in 22%, wasting in 15% and under weight in 31.6% children. Majority of children with low weight were between 19 - 24 months of age Regarding socio-economic status of the households, 53.8% had family income less than Rs. 6000 month and almost 50% had a family size of 6-10 persons. Parents' education to the level of illiteracy (father, 27% and mother, 4 0%) and incomplete immunization ( 20%) were other associated factors for stunting, wasting and under weight. About 32% of children up to 2 years of age in the selected population were under weight, followed by stunning (22%). Policy Message: Anthropometric measurement of children is useful in routine child care settings as it will facilitate early identification and timely interventions for emerging health problems. (author)
Efeito dos vieses de sobrevivência nas prevalências da desnutrição em crianças no sexto ano de vida. Brasil PNSN, 1989 Effects of survival bias on the prevalence of malnutrition in six-year-old children in Brazil, based on the National Survey on Health and Nutrition, 1989
Odete de Oliveira
Full Text Available O crescimento da criança mensurado por indicadores antropométricos é um instrumento importante na avaliação da condição nutricional das crianças e do estágio de desenvolvimento de uma sociedade. Este estudo usa o indicador estatura para idade, com ponto de corte em -2 Z para estimar a prevalência da desnutrição entre uma população em crianças com seis anos de idade incluída na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN. Baseando-se em estimativas relacionadas às taxas de mortalidade das crianças com menos de cinco anos cujas mortes poderiam ser atribuídas à desnutrição, a correção do viés de sobrevivência é feita usando a metodologia de Boerma. Esta correção torna-se mais evidenciada na população de baixa renda e menos desenvolvida. Comparando as áreas de menor e maior desenvolvimento no País (Nordeste e Sudeste respectivamente, observou-se que as taxas de prevalência da desnutrição no grupo das crianças de seis anos de idade não demonstram quaisquer alterações na região Sudeste, ao passo que na região Nordeste estas taxas sofrem um aumento de 26% para 34%, representando desta forma um aumento de 31% na taxa de desnutrição. Em números absolutos, esta taxa corresponde à adição de 90.100 crianças ao grupo de desnutridos.Child growth as measured by anthropometric indicators is an important tool for assessing children's nutritional status and society's developmental stage. This study uses the height-for-age indicator with the cutoff point at -2 Z to estimate prevalence of malnutrition in a population of six-year-old children included in the Brazilian National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN. Prevalence variability was analyzed according to gender, trimestral age range, per capita family income, and region of residence. Based on estimates of mortality rates for children under five whose deaths could be ascribed to malnutrition, the survival bias correction was performed using the Boerma
Lingas, Elena O.; Bukofzer, Eliana
We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children. PMID:19443816
Ernesto Grazziotin Longhi; Jeanine Eggers Caramori
At present, we undergo a nutritional transition, that is, from malnutrition to obesity, and it is known that it presents deleterious effects to health. A sample of 94 children from 4 to 14 years, resident in Aldeia Monte Caseiros, Muliterno (RS) was studied. The predominance of nutritional deficits determined were 5.08% for the weight index for the age, of 22.03% for the height index for the age and obesity/overweight, of 8.57% for adolescents, and 10.16% for children. It is conclude...
Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.
Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…
Alkon, A; Crowley, AA; Neelon, SE; Hill, S.; Pan, Y.; Nguyen, V.; Rose, R.; Savage, E; Forestieri, N; Shipman, L; Kotch, JB
BACKGROUND: To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A seven-month randomized control tr...
Zhou, Chengchao; Sylvia, Sean; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Yi, Hongmei; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Loyalka, Prashant; Chu, James; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott
China's rapid development and urbanization have induced large numbers of rural residents to migrate from their homes to urban areas in search of better job opportunities. Parents typically leave their children behind with a caregiver, creating a new, potentially vulnerable subpopulation of left-behind children in rural areas. A growing number of policies and nongovernmental organization efforts target these children. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether left-behind children are really the most vulnerable and in need of special programs. Pulling data from a comprehensive data set covering 141,000 children in ten provinces (from twenty-seven surveys conducted between 2009 and 2013), we analyzed nine indicators of health, nutrition, and education. We found that for all nine indicators, left-behind children performed as well as or better than children living with both parents. However, both groups of children performed poorly on most of these indicators. Based on these findings, we recommend that special programs designed to improve health, nutrition, and education among left-behind children be expanded to cover all children in rural China. PMID:26526256
Foster, Z; Byron, E; Reyes-García, V; Huanca, T; Vadez, V; Apaza, L; Pérez, E; Tanner, S; Gutierrez, Y; Sandstrom, B; Yakhedts, A; Osborn, C; Godoy, R A; Leonard, W R
This study examines patterns of growth and nutritional status of indigenous Tsimane' children under 9 years of age (n = 199 boys and 210 girls), based on a cross-sectional sample from 58 villages from the Beni Deparment of lowland Bolivia. Compared with US children, Tsimane' children are quite short, with linear growth tracking at or below the US 5th centile in both sexes. The prevalence of low height-for-age ("stunting;" HA Z-scores weight-for-height in Tsimane' children approximates the US median, with the prevalence of low weight-for-height ("wasting"; WH Z-scores children is similar to that of their US age peers, and this suggests that they are not experiencing acute protein malnutrition. Variation in measures of nutritional status of Tsimane' children is modestly correlated with village-level differences. Degree of isolation, as measured by distance to urban centers or to primary forest, was not a strong predictor of children's anthropometric status. Rather, in both boys and girls, nutritional status was most strongly associated with number of teachers in the village, a measure of access to education. Comparative analyses indicate that high levels of statural growth stunting are common among indigenous populations throughout lowland South America. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality (diets low in key micronutrients) and high disease loads. Further research is needed to identify the specific causes and potential interventions for the high rates of childhood growth stunting in this region. PMID:15386291
Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria
This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority. PMID:27049315
... salty foods at a young age. The proposed intermediate standards should help children reduce their salt preference and develop healthier eating habits. However, a simultaneous reduction of sodium levels in foods... Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN...
Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.
Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…
Mushtaq Muhammad Umair
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.
Bachmann, M.O.; Reading, R; Husbands, C.; O'Brien, M.; Thoburn, J.; Shemilt, I; Watson, J.; N. Jones; Haynes, R; Mugford, M
Background: The Children Act 2004 and National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services require fuller integration of health, education and social services for children and young people in England and Wales. The UK government supported the establishment of 35 experimental children's trust pathfinders (henceforth called children's trusts) in England. Methods: A questionnaire was completed by managers in all 35 children's trusts a year after their start. Children'...
Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.
Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowl...
Xu, Tingting; Jones, Ithel
The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of age, family socio-economic status (SES), and parents' food knowledge on preschool, kindergarten, and second grade students' conceptual understanding of food and nutrition. Fifty-two parent-child dyads, consisting of 17 preschoolers, 17 kindergartners, and 18 second graders participated in…
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.
Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…
Carlos Jr, E A Coimbra
The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population. PMID:24896060
VÃ¡squez, Clemente; Trujillo-HernÃ¡ndez, BenjamÃn; Velasco-RodrÃguez, Raymundo; Bautista-HernÃ¡ndez, VÃctor Manuel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their...
Meshram, Indrapal I; Stephen Gade; PothuRaju Battina
Introduction: Street children are the most neglected and vulnerable population group in most of the urban cities in India, and are at risk of undernutrition, and substance abuse. Aims & Objectives: To assess the nutritional status, prevalence of anemia, risk behavior and substance abuse among street children. Material & Methods: It was a street based cross-sectional study carried out on the streets of Hyderabad. Data on age, schooling, family history, reasons for street life, number ...
Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada; María José Bosqued-Estefanía; Javier Damián; Lázaro López-Jurado; María Ángeles Moya-Geromini
Objective: To describe the use of nutrition and health claims in products directed at children via television in Spain and to analyse their nutrient profile. Methods: A cross-sectional study of television food advertisements over 7 days in five Spanish television channels popular among children. The products were classified as core, non-core or miscellaneous, and as either healthy or less healthy, according to the United Kingdom Nutrient Profile Model. We registered all claims contained on...
Weir Kelly A; Tweedy Sean M; Boyd Roslyn N; Bell Kristie L; Stevenson Richard D; Davies Peter SW
Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality o...
Agustian, Leon; Sembiring, Tiangsa; Ariani, Ani; Lubis, Bidasari
Background Iron has been shown to improve growth in children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), as indicted by increases in height and weight. Frequently, malnutrition and iron deficiency coexist. Objective To determine the effect of iron treatment on nutritional status in children with IDA. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Bilah Hulu, a subdistrict of Labuhan Batu, North Sumatera, Indonesia, between November 2006 and February 2007. Iron deficie...
Ali Naser, Ihab; Jalil, Rohana; Wan Muda, Wan Manan; Wan Nik, Wan Suriati; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Abdullah, Mohamed Rusli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children in low-income households. A cross sectional study involved a survey of households (n = 223) receiving the financial assistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS Eligible mothers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria such as non-pregnant, non-lactating mothers, aged 18 to 55 years with their youngest children aged 2 to 12 years, were purposively selected. The ...
Sherin Billy Abraham; Ramesh Chand Chauhan; Muthu Rajesh; Anil Jacob Purty; Zile Singh
Background: Malnutrition and poor health among school children is the common cause of low school enrolment, high absenteeism, early dropout and poor classroom performance. This study was conducted to assess the various morbidities and nutritional status among school children. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted during year 2013 in a higher secondary school located in a coastal area of Puducherry. A total of 714 students were interviewed and examined. A pre-designed and pre-teste...
Sherin Billy Abraham
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition and poor health among school children is the common cause of low school enrolment, high absenteeism, early dropout and poor classroom performance. This study was conducted to assess the various morbidities and nutritional status among school children. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted during year 2013 in a higher secondary school located in a coastal area of Puducherry. A total of 714 students were interviewed and examined. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to interview and examine all the participated students. Body weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. WHO criteria for classification of nutritional status was used. Visual acuity and colour vision was assessed using Snellen's chart and Ishihara's pseudo isochromatic chart respectively. Mean scores and proportions were calculated and chi-square test was applied. P value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among 714 student, 369 (51.4% were males and 345 (48.6% were females. The mean age of children was 10.2 +/- 3.1 years. Among all age groups and both sexes, the observed BMI was lower as compared to the reference values. The prevalence of underweight among children of 5-9 years was (30.7% and (1.1% were severely underweight. The prevalence of stunting was 10.4%, including 0.1% of severely stunted children. A total of 30.7% children were thin (low BMI for age. Pallor (39.5%, myopia (34.9% and dental caries (14.7% were the common morbidities observed among children. The pallor was observed more commonly among girls and this difference was statistically significant (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Under-nutrition is a prevalent condition among school children. Apart from various nutritional programmes, health education to parents, community and school teachers are quite important to address this problem. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 718-722
A survey was carried out in Khartoum North Ahmed Gasim specialist Hospital for children to identify aetiological factors that lead to incidence of nutritional anaemia among children under under five years of age. The sample consists of 192 patients taken from the hospital wards (experimental group), and 60 healthy children taken from out patient vaccination department of same hospital. A questionnaire was used as a tool for collection data regarding children and their families with emphasis to general information, socio-economic information, dietary information, anthropometric information, medical history and laboratory investigations including haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV)%, peripheral blood picture, serum ferritin, serum folate and serum B12. Results show no correlation between anaemia and age R(0.1048) p12 deficiency. Some children affected had mixed deficiency anaemia (3.182). Iron deficiency without anaemia was common among healthy children (control) 22.8%. Some recommendations were set for the improvement of the existing situation e.g. health education, nutrition education with emphasis on intake of supplements and weaning diets rich in iron and folate. Follow up and surveillance program to compact nutritional anaemia should be adopted.(Author)
Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T
The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (pbreakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO recommendations. The parent questionnaires reveal that most
Chelsea E. Modlin, BA
Full Text Available Background: Poor nutrition has been associated with impaired immunity and accelerated disease progression in HIV- infected children. The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of nutrient intake in HIV-infected children and compare these to standard recommendations. Methods: We surveyed HIV-infected Tanzanian children enrolled in a pediatric care program that provided routine nutritional counseling and vitamin supplementation. We obtained anthropometric measurements and determined 24-hour macronutrient and micronutrient intakes and food insecurity. Values were compared to recommended nutrient intakes based on age and gender. Results: We interviewed 48 pairs of children and their caregiver(s. The age of the child ranged from 2-14 years; median age 6 and 60% female. The median weight-for-height z-score for children ≤ 5 years was 0.69 and BMI-for-age z-scores for children >5 was -0.84. Macronutrient evaluation showed that 29 (60% children were deficient in dietary intake of energy; deficiency was more common in older children (p=0.004. Micronutrient evaluation shows that over half of study subjects were deficient in dietary intake of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B12, and calcium. Food insecurity was reported by 20 (58% caregivers. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: The diets of many HIV-infected children at a specialized treatment center in Tanzania do not meet recommended levels of macro- and micro-nutrients. Food insecurity was a contributory factor. Enhanced dietary counseling and provision of macro- and micro-nutrient supplements will be necessary to achieve optimal nutrition for most HIV-infected children in resource-poor regions.
In previous literature, social capital has been hypothesized as a substitute for other forms of capital, such as physical and human capital. This paper contributes to this literature, studying the association between mothers' access to social capital via participation in community organizations and their children's nutritional status at 1 and 5 years. Using the Peruvian sample of the Young...
Nael Lapidus; Andrea Minetti; Ali Djibo; Guerin, Philippe J; Sarah Hustache; Valérie Gaboulaud; Grais, Rebecca F.
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Médecins sans Frontières nutritional program in the region of Maradi (Niger) included 68,001 children 6-59 months of age with either moderate or severe malnutrition, according to the NCHS reference (weight-for-height
Cook, Judith; And Others
Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…
Márquez Costa, María Verónica; Alberici Pastore, Carla
Hospitalization contributes to worsening of the nutritional status and malnutrition is associate to increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to asses nutritional status/risk using anthropometry and the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), comparing their results to clinical outcomes. For that propose, was conducted an observational longitudinal study with children up to one month of life, hospitalized in Pediatric ward of a teaching hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by Body Mass Index for age and weight for age. Nutritional risk was classified as high, intermediate or low. The length of stay, clinical outcome and complications were taken of the medical records. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Research. Were evaluated 181 children, from both sexes. The median age was 8.8 (IQR 3.3; 26.9) months and the median length of stay was 7 (IQR 4; 10) days. There was 20.8% of malnutrition in children younger than one year. Most of the children (55.3%) were classified as in intermediate nutritional risk. The length of stay was associated to nutritional risk, while anthropometry was associated to only in those younger than one year. There were five infectious complication, not associated to nutritional status/risk. Therefore, nutritional risk was significantly associated to length of stay, showing that STRONGkids was a better method compared to anthropometric nutritional assessment to predict this outcome. PMID:26320301
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 Factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos de edad escolar: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición, 1999
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.OBJETIVO: Documentar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños mexicanos en edad escolar (5 a 11 años de edad obtenidas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición en 1999 (ENN-1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El sobrepeso y la obesidad (definida como un exceso de tejido adiposo en el organismo se evaluaron a través del Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC en 10 901 niños, tomando como patrón de referencia el propuesto por el International Obesity Task Force. Las variables sociodemográficas se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario aplicado a la madre del niño. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 19
To determine whether otitis media affects First Nations children more severely than other children, I studied the data on otitis media occurrence among these children; on risk factors, particularly bottle feeding; and on prevention and treatment. First Nations children do seem to have more severe otitis media than other children. Health promotion might help ameliorate the situation. Supporting breastfeeding in the community is strongly recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.
H Khajavikia; N Taleschian-Tabrizi
Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is a hereditary disorder of the immune system which damages the mucosa of the small intestine caused by gluten consumption(even very small amounts). Villous atrophy, leads to malabsorption, which is due to decreased absorption levels. The first bowel symptoms are seen during the first 2 years of life. Currently, the only treatment is to compliance with a gluten-free diet lifelong. The purpose of this study was to introduce the principles of proper nutrition...
da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Sarubbi Junior, Vicente; Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Bertoli, Ciro João; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Leone, Claudio
OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive®). RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.
Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Madsen, Inge; Bjerrum, Merete;
In Denmark the national guidelines for nursing documentation outlines twelve areas in which nurses have to systematically document daily care. Nutrition is one of these areas. However, the guidelines are frameworks that do not specify exactly what data nurses have to collect and which areas nurses...... need to document about nutrition in order to make a nursing specific documentation. This present study set out to identify a Nursing Minimum Data set for nutrition in a clinical setting. As data was used validated and available tools to screen or assess patients’ nutritional risk. A systematic...... literature search was undertaken identifying x eligible instruments. An inductive qualitative content analysis identified eighteen subcategories that were divided into five main categories: 1 Anthropometry such as weight, height, biochemistry, muscle mass and fat etc., 2 Ability to eat, 3 Intake, 4 Factors...
Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia
The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage. PMID:19083442
Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat
Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156
Weng Kin Wong
Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.
Lana N Hattar; Theresa A Wilson; Leanel A Tabotabo; E O'Brian Smith; Stephanie H Abrams
AIM: To assess nutrition, physical activity and healthful knowledge in obese children with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH or NA) compared to children without liver disease. METHODS: Children with biopsy-proven NASH comprised the NASH group. Age, sex and ethnicity matched control groups consisted of obese (OB) and lean (CO) children with no liver disease. Subjects were administered the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey and one blood draw was obtained. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled with a mean age of 12.1 2.1 years, and all were Hispanic. Even though the OB and NA had a similar increased body mass index (%), 35% of the NA group always read nutrition labels compared to none in the OB (P 2 compared to only 63.6% of those with grade 1 or no fibrosis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with NASH had increased sedentary behavior, decreased activity, and fruit intake. Larger studies may determine the benefit of changing these behaviors as treatment for NASH.
Alina Esther González Hermida
Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.
It is proposed to use N-15 labelled amino acids to study protein turnover in nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Ghana, particularly children with Kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition) and measles. The Ministry of Health of Ghana has recently formulated a low cost protein-rich supplement (Weanimix) using local food products. The purpose of the research project is to study protein turnover in normal and malnourished children, and thereby to gain a better understanding of how to identify those children that are really in need of protein supplementation. 2 refs
Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan
This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care. PMID:23828627