Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sørensen, Henrik T;
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol use has been associated with increased prevalence of asthma in children and adults, and one study reported an association between pre-natal exposure to paracetamol and asthma in early childhood. METHODS: To examine if pre-natal exposure to paracetamol is associated with the...... risk of asthma or wheezing in early childhood, we selected 66 445 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom we had information on paracetamol use during pregnancy and who participated in an interview when their children were 18-months-old and 12 733 women whose children had reached the age...... of 7 and estimated the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing at the ages of 18 months and 7 years. We also linked our population to the Danish National Hospital Registry to record all hospitalizations due to asthma up to age of 18 months. RESULTS: Paracetamol use during any time of...
Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A.
Only 60–70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to ‘live-birth bias’) that arises from studying the effects of prenatal exposure to environmental factors on long-term health outcomes among live births only in pregnancy cohorts. To illustrate this we used p...
Wiesław A. Jędrychowski
Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of the study was to assess possible association between fetal exposure to fi ne particulate matter (PM2.5 and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measured in non-asthmatic children. Material and Methods: The subjects include 118 children taking part in an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Kraków. Personal samplers of PM2.5 were used to measure fi ne particle mass in the fetal period and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath from a single exhalation effort at the age of 7. In the statistical analysis of the effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on eCO, a set of potential confounders, such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, city residence area, sensitization to house dust allergens and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms monitored over the seven-year follow-up was considered. Results: The level of eCO did not correlate with the self-reported ETS exposure recorded over the follow-up, however, there was a positive signifi cant relationship with the prenatal PM2.5 exposure (non-parametric trend p = 0.042. The eCO mean level was higher in atopic children (geometric mean = 2.06 ppm, 95% CI: 1.58–2.66 ppm than in non-atopic ones (geometric mean = 1.57 ppm, 95% CI: 1.47–1.73 ppm and the difference was statistically signifi cant (p = 0.036. As for the respiratory symptoms, eCO values were associated positively only with the cough severity score recorded in the follow-up (nonparametric trend p = 0.057. In the nested multivariable linear regression model, only the effects of prenatal PM2.5 and cough severity recorded in the follow-up were related to eCO level. The prenatal PM2.5 exposure represented 5.1%, while children’s cough represented only 2.6% of the eCO variability. Conclusion: Our study suggests that elevated eCO in non-asthmatic children may result from oxidative stress experienced in the fetal period and that heme oxygenase (HO activity in body tissues may be programmed in the fetal period by the exposure to
Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.
, Chen HY, Liao PC, Chen WJ, Wang SL. 2015. Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:95–100; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307154 PMID:25280125
Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda
Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely
Golding, Jean; Northstone, Kate; Gregory, Steven; Miller, Laura L; Pembrey, Marcus
Objectives Previously, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we have shown different sex-specific birth anthropometric measurements contingent upon whether or not prenatal smoking was undertaken by paternal grandmother (PGM±), maternal grandmother (MGM±), and the study mother (M±). The findings raised the question as to whether there were long-term associations on the growth of the study children over time. Methods Measures of weight, height, body mass index, waist ...
No changes in lymphocyte muscarinic receptors and platelet monoamine oxidase-B examined as surrogate central nervous system biomarkers in a Faroese children cohort prenatally exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls
Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Debes, Frodi;
Experimental evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Blood samples from 7-year-old exposed children were analyzed for platelet MAO......-B and lymphocyte mAChRs as potential markers of exposure to these neurotoxicants. The blood neurotoxicity biomarkers were compared with prenatal and current exposures and with neuropsychological test results. Both biomarkers showed homogeneous distributions within this cohort (mAChR, range 0...
Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of foetuses are recognized as having double Y because of the widespread use of prenatal screening using chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. 47, XYY karyotype occurs in about one out of 1,000 newborn males, but it is not often detected unless it is diagnosed during prenatal testing. Despite the fact that unbiased follow-up studies demonstrate largely normal post-natal development of young men with 47, XYY, there is a scarcity of controlled studies about the neurological, cognitive and behavioural phenotype which remains the main reason for anxiety and anticipatory negative attitudes of parents. Furthermore, prejudices still exist among professionals and the general population concerning the relationship between this sex chromosome aneuploidy and aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Methods We report on the clinical follow-up of children diagnosed prenatally with a 47,XYY karyotype, whose parents received multidisciplinary counselling and support at time of diagnosis. The specific focus of our study is on auxology, facial features, developmental milestones, behaviour, detection of aggressiveness as well as the evaluation of parental attitudes toward prenatal counselling. Clinical evaluations including auxological measurements and dysmorphological descriptions were as conducted on 13 boys aged 9 month -7 years. The Child Behavior Check List test specific for age and a 15 item questionnaire were administered to both parents. An update of ongoing problems was carried out by means of a telephone interview two years later. Results Our results show that, from birth, weight, height and head circumference were above average values while some facial features such mild hypertelorism are overrepresented when compared to parents' facial features. Language delay was detected in 8 out of 11 children older than 20 months. Parental attitudes were found to be favourable toward prenatal diagnoses of sexual
Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten;
We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a...... timing of bereavement. Our data do not suggest any causal link between exposure to prenatal stress and febrile seizures in childhood....
Jørgensen, Anne; Nellemann, Christine; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Jensen, Tina Kold; Main, Katharina M.; Andersen, Helle Raun
Prenatal environmental exposures may influence the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases later in life. This study used a multiplex approach to investigate non-fasting serum levels of metabolic markers in a cohort of school-aged children for whom associations between prenatal pesticide exposure and...... body fat content and blood pressure were previously found to be dependent on paraoxonase1 (PON1) Q192R genotype. In children with the PON1 192 R-allele, leptin, glucagon, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with prenatal pesticide exposure. For PON1 192 QQ......-homozygote children none of the biomarkers were significantly affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. In children with the R-allele, leptin was associated with both body fat measures and prenatal pesticide exposure and seems to mediate body fat accumulation in exposed children. These findings support our previous...
Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.
Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.
Whitney J Cowell
Full Text Available Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex.To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning.Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2 was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex.Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black; 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04.The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.
Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.
Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-chil...
Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot
Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA
Trump, Saskia; Bieg, Matthias; Gu, Zuguang; Thürmann, Loreen; Bauer, Tobias; Bauer, Mario; Ishaque, Naveed; Röder, Stefan; Gu, Lei; Herberth, Gunda; Lawerenz, Christian; Borte, Michael; Schlesner, Matthias; Plass, Christoph; Diessl, Nicolle; Eszlinger, Markus; Mücke, Oliver; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Wissenbach, Dirk K.; von Bergen, Martin; Herrmann, Carl; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wright, Rosalind J.; Lehmann, Irina; Eils, Roland
Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs. These data were complemented by longitudinal targeted methylation and transcriptional analyses in children from our prospective mother-child cohort LINA for whom maternal stress and wheezing information was available (n = 443). High maternal stress was associated with an increased risk for persistent wheezing in the child until the age of 5. Both mothers and children showed genome-wide alterations in DNA-methylation specifically in enhancer elements. Deregulated neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter receptor interactions were observed in stressed mothers and their children. In children but not in mothers, calcium- and Wnt-signaling required for lung maturation in the prenatal period were epigenetically deregulated and could be linked with wheezing later in children’s life. PMID:27349968
Leung Brenda MY; Kaplan Bonnie J; Field Catherine J; Tough Suzanne; Eliasziw Misha; Gomez Mariel Fajer; McCargar Linda J; Gagnon Lisa
Abstract Background Postpartum depression is a serious problem for women and their offspring. Micronutrient supplements are recommended for pregnant women because of their documented protective effects for the offspring, but their potential beneficial effects on maternal mental health are unknown. This study investigated the association between prenatal micronutrient supplementation and the risk for symptoms of postpartum depression in a longitudinal pregnancy cohort from the Alberta Pregnanc...
Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;
diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...
Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia; Whyatt, Robin M.; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Tang, Deliang; Diaz, Diurka; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Camann, David; Kinney, Patrick
Our prospective cohort study of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City is evaluating the role of prenatal exposure to urban pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pesticides, in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. We used the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to evaluate the effects on child mental and psychomotor development of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored duri...
Watson, Gene E.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M. T.; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S.; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Strain, J.J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M. W.; Myers, Gary J.
Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg0) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children’s neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of pr...
Full Text Available Introduction. The association of prenatal growth with nutritional status, metabolic syndrome (MS, and insulin resistance (IR was studied in school-age children. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was designed linking present data of children with perinatal records. 3325 subjects were enrolled. Anthropometry, blood pressure (BP, and pubertal status were assessed. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin were measured. Linear associations were assessed using the Cochran-Armitage test. Odds ratios and nonlinear associations were computed. Results. 3290 children (52% females, mean age of 11.4 ± 1 years were analyzed. Prevalence of obesity, stunting, MS, and IR was 16.0%, 3.6%, 7.3%, and 25.5%, respectively. The strongest positive association was between birth weight (BW and obesity (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.01–4.40 at BW ≥ 4,000 g compared to BW 2,500–2,999. The strongest inverse association was between birth length (BL and stunting (OR 8.70 (95% CI 3.66–20.67 at BL < 48 cm compared to BL 52-53 cm. A U-shaped association between BL and BP ≥ 90th percentile was observed. Significant ORs were also found for MS and IR. Adjustments for present fat mass increased or maintained the most prenatal growth influences. Conclusions. Prenatal growth influences MS, IR, and nutritional status. Prenatal growth was more important than present body composition in determining these outcomes.
Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Murphy, Claire
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying prenatal influences of early life growth is relevant to life-course epidemiology as some of its features have been linked to the onset of later diseases. METHODS: We studied the association between prenatal maternal characteristics (height, age, parity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, smoking, gestational diabetes and hypertension and offspring weight trajectories in infancy using SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR models, which parameterize growth in terms of three biologically interpretable parameters: size, velocity and tempo. We used data from three contemporary cohorts based in Portugal (GXXI, n=738, Italy (NINFEA, n=2,925, and Chile (GOCS, n=959. RESULTS: Estimates were generally consistent across the cohorts for maternal height, age, parity and pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity. Some exposures only affected one growth parameter (e.g. maternal height (per cm: 0.4% increase in size (95% confidence interval (CI:0.3; 0.5, others were either found to affect size and velocity (e.g. pre-pregnancy underweight vs normal weight: smaller size (-4.9%, 95% CI:-6.5; -3.3, greater velocity (5.9%, 95% CI:1.9;10.0, or to additionally influence tempo (e.g. pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity vs normal weight: increased size (7.9%, 95% CI:4.9;10.8, delayed tempo (0.26 months, 95% CI:0.11;0.41, decreased velocity (-4.9%, 95% CI: -10.8;0.9. CONCLUSIONS: By disentangling the growth parameters of size, velocity and tempo, we found that prenatal maternal characteristics, especially maternal smoking, pre-pregnancy overweight and underweight, parity and gestational hypertension, are associated with different aspects of infant weight growth. These results may offer insights into the mechanisms governing infant growth.
Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha
Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928
Lewis, Barbara A.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Min, Meeyoung O.; Wu, Miaoping; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Singer, Lynn T.
Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the long-term effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on the language development of 12-year-old children using a prospective design, controlling for confounding prenatal drug exposure and environmental factors. Method: Children who were exposed to cocaine in utero (PCE; "n" = 183)…
Clemente, Diana B; Casas, Maribel; Vilahur, Nadia; Begiristain, Haizea; Bustamante, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Fernández, Mariana F; Fierens, Frans; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Iñiguez, Carmen; Janssen, Bram G; Lefebvre, Wouter; Llop, Sabrina; Olea, Nicolás; Pedersen, Marie; Pieters, Nicky; Santa Marina, Loreto; Souto, Anna; Tardón, Adonina; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S
investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal NO2 exposure and birth weight. METHODS: We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n=376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n=550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio...
Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.
In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…
María Paz-Zulueta; Javier Llorca; Raquel Sarabia-Lavín; Francisco Bolumar; Luis Rioja; Abraham Delgado; Miguel Santibáñez
Background and Aim Literature evaluating association between neonatal morbidity and immigrant status presents contradictory results. Poorer compliance with prenatal care and greater social risk factors among immigrants could play roles as major confounding variables, thus explaining contradictions. We examined whether prenatal care and social risk factors are confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity. Methods Retrospective cohort study: 231 preg...
Harris, Maria H.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C.; White, Roberta F.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Oken, Emily
Background: Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. Objectives: We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. Methods: We studied 1,109 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual mem...
Perera, F.; Li, T.Y.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Rauh, V.A.; Zhang, Y.G.; Tang, D.L. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science
Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China's industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH-DNA adducts (benzo(a)pyrene-DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefitedby elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children's environmental health in China and elsewhere.
Background: Prenatal stress seems to have long-lasting effects on biological and psychological processes of the offspring. However, to date, there have been no studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on psychological, endocrine, and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test in children. Methods: A sample of 115 healthy, ten-year-old children was examined. The Glucocorticoids+Tocolytics group was characterized by tocolytic treatment of the ...
Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin
Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761
Full Text Available The clinical utilization of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT for identification of fetal aneuploidies is expanding worldwide. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of pregnant women's awareness, attitudes, preferences for risk information and decision-making concerning prenatal examinations with emphasis on NIPT, before its introduction into Swedish healthcare.Pregnant women were recruited to fill in a questionnaire, including multiple-choice questions and Likert scales, at nine maternity clinics located in different areas of Stockholm, Sweden.In total, 1,003 women participated in the study (86% consent rate. The vast majority (90.7% considered examinations aiming to detect fetal abnormalities to be good. Regarding NIPT, 59.8% stated that they had heard about the method previously, yet 74.0% would like to use the test if available. The main factor affecting the women's decision to undergo prenatal chromosomal screening was worry about the baby's health (82.5%, followed by the urge to have as much information as possible about the fetus (54.5%. Most women (79.9% preferred to receive NIPT information orally.The overwhelming majority of a cohort of 1,003 pregnant women considered prenatal examinations good. Moreover, the majority had a positive attitude towards NIPT and would like to use the test if available.
Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten;
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to prenatal stress may affect neurodevelopment of the fetus, but whether this exposure increases the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) later in life is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between maternal bereavement during the prenatal time period and CP in childhood...
Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the po
Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the po
Stene-Larsen, Kim; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of communication impairments at age 18 and 36 months in children born early term (gestational weeks 37-38) and late preterm (gestational weeks 34-36). STUDY DESIGN A total of 39 423 children and their mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample included 7109 children (18%) born early term and 1673 (4.2%) born late preterm. Information on gestational age and prenatal and postnatal risk factors was obtained from the Medica...
Braun, Joseph M.; Froehlich, Tanya; Kalkbrenner, Amy; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Fazili, Zia; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.
Prenatal multivitamin/folic acid supplement use may reduce the risk of autism spectrum disorders. We investigated whether 2nd trimester prenatal vitamin use and maternal whole blood folate (WBF) concentrations were associated with Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores at 4-5 years of age in a prospective cohort of 209 mother-child pairs. After…
Full Text Available Purpose: revealing of medical and biological, medical and social, medical and organizational risk factors of a birth mature children with a delay syndrome of prenatal development. The basic group included women who have given birth to mature child with a delay syndrome of prenatal development (body weight at a birth less 3000gr - 60 observations; control group consisted of women who have given birth to children with weight from 3000 to 4000gr (total N=100. Anamnesis of life and pregnancy of women given birth to mature children with the delay syndrome of prenatal development have been analyzed. Conclusion: Medical and biological, medical and social risks of birth to mature children with low weight less than 3000 gr have been determined. Low weight of mature child is the risk factor of cardiac and metabolic diseases
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie;
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn...... singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early...
Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.
A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.
Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.
BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu
Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena
Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045
Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena
Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045
Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;
BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...... trimester serum screening was used. METHODS: We used a register-based cohort study including all ongoing clinical pregnancies achieved by IVF/ICSI in 1995-2000 in Denmark. Data on fertility treatment, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome together with data on cytogenic testing and the use of triple test were...
Ernst, Sinja Alexandra
Full Text Available Background: Prospective birth cohort studies comprising follow up of children from pregnancy or birth over a long period of time, and collecting various biological samples at different times through the life-course offer a promising approach to enhance etiologic knowledge of various diseases. Especially for those where early lifetime exposures and conditions are thought to play an important role. The collection and storage of biological samples is a critical component in epidemiological studies, notably for research regarding prenatal exposures to various environmental factors as well as for DNA extraction. Our feasibility study for a birth cohort within the scope of etiology of childhood leukemia with prospective sampling of mothers and their future newborns aimed to investigate the willingness of pregnant women to participate in a birth cohort study involving collection of blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The overall aim was to develop practice-based research recommendations for a possible German birth cohort study. Methods: The study was conducted in Bremen, Germany, between January 2012 and March 2013. Pregnant women were eligible for recruitment if (i their expected date of delivery was during the study recruitment phase (September 2012–February 2013, (ii they planned to give birth at the cooperating hospital’s obstetric unit and (iii their knowledge of the German language was sufficient to understand study materials, details of participation and to fill out the prenatal self-administered questionnaire. Maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples to be used for later research activities were collected and stored at a stem cell bank already collaborating with the hospital. 22 primary care gynecologists were invited to enroll pregnant women for the study and cooperation with one hospital was established. Expectant women were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy, either during one of their prenatal care visits at
Khashan, Ali S
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.
Ungar Wendy J; Stevens Bonnie; Stade Brenda C; Beyene Joseph; Koren Gideon
Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126) children and yo...
The prenatal diagnosis of urinary tract obstruction was made in 10 neonates. These findings were confirmed postnatally by sonography, urography, voiding cystourethrography, and scintigraphy. There were 8 neonates with unilateral obstruction of the ureter, and 2 with urethral valves and reflux. Nephrectomy because of hydronephrosis was necessary in 2 instances. The prenatal diagnosis of a urinary tract obstruction is of great importance, because the neonate may be operated upon without delay. Thus the diseased kidney can be saved. Diuretic radionuclide urography is helpful in differentiating between dilated obstructed and dilated nonobstructed kidneys. (orig.)
Phelps, LeAdelle; Cox, Deborah
Notes that prenatal exposure to cocaine may result in broad range of deficits. Reviews pharmacological properties of cocaine critical to neurological and behavioral outcomes. Delineates specific multilevel and multidisciplinary interventions with family unit. Advocates that services for each child be based on individual strengths and weaknesses…
Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.
Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…
Hyter, Yvette D.
This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…
Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki;
BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. OBJECTIVES: In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intens...
Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.
The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…
EYLER, FONDA DAVIS; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; WOBIE, KATHLEEN; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson
This prospective longitudinal study evaluated the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on executive functioning in 5- and 7-year-old children. In total, 154 pregnant cocaine users, identified by urine toxicology and structured interviews, were matched to 154 nonusers. Children were assessed by certified masked evaluators, and caregivers were interviewed by experienced staff during home visits. In approximately 90% of the surviving sample tested at ages 5 and 7 years, structural equation ...
Smit, L A M; Lenters, V; Høyer, B B;
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants with...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...
Jensen, Tina K; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette B;
human studies have been conducted but associations between the anti-androgenic phthalates and male AGD have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between phthalate exposure in late pregnancy in Danish women pregnant in 2010-2012 and AGD in their infants at 3 months of age (N=273). METHODS......BACKGROUND: Phthalates comprise a large class of chemicals used in a variety of consumer products. Several have anti-androgenic properties and in rodents prenatal exposure has been associated with reduced anogenital distance (AGD); the distance from the anus to the genitals in male offspring. Few......: In the Odense child cohort urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites of di-ethyl, di-n-butyl-, di-iso-butyl-, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-, butyl-benzyl- and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DEP, DnBP, DiBP, DEHP, BBzP and DiNP, respectively) were measured among 245 mothers to boys at approximately gestational...
Park Hye-Youn; Hertz-Picciotto Irva; Sovcikova Eva; Kocan Anton; Drobna Beata; Trnovec Tomas
Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal ex...
Wu, Chun S.; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olsen, Jørn
Background To examine whether prenatal exposure to parental type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes is associated with an increased risk of malignant neoplasm or diseases of the circulatory system in the offspring. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,781,576 singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008. Children were followed for up to 30 years from the day of birth until the onset of the outcomes under study, death, emigration, or De...
Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Chen, Chi-Jen; Ito, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoichi M; Kishi, Reiko
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous chemicals extremely resistant and widespread throughout the environment, frequently being detected in human blood samples. Animal studies have revealed that exposure to PFAAs results in immunotoxicity. However, the association between PFAAs, especially long-chain PFAAs, and allergies in humans is not well established. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAAs is associated with allergic diseases among 4-year-old children in a large-scale prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 1558 mother-child pairs were included in this study and prenatal levels of eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples obtained between 28 and 32weeks of pregnancy by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Participant demographic and characteristic information were obtained from self-administered pre- and postnatal questionnaires and medical birth records. Infant allergies were assessed using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three questionnaire, which was administered 4years post-delivery. Symptoms included eczema, wheezing and rhinoconjunctivitis with a prevalence of 19.0%, 18.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Associations of PFAA quartiles with allergic outcomes were examined using logistic models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile (Q4 vs. Q1) for total allergic diseases (including at least one allergic outcome) significantly decreased for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDa) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.621; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.454, 0.847) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.712; 95% CI: 0.524, 0.966) in all children. We obtained similar results when examining the association between PFAAs and eczema. The adjusted OR (Q4 vs. Q1) for wheezing in relation to higher maternal PFHxS levels was 0.728 (95% CI: 0.497, 1.06) in all children. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to long
Yorifuji, Takashi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Bjerve, Kristian S;
-serum phospholipid concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the duration of breastfeeding. Unadjusted correlations between mercury exposure and VEP latencies were equivocal. Multiple regression models showed that increased mercury concentrations, especially in maternal hair, were associated with...... subjects after exclusion of subjects with abnormal vision conditions. We used multiple regression analysis to evaluate the association of mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair at parturition with VEP latencies after adjustment for potential confounders that included the cord...... delayed latencies for VEP peak N145. After covariate adjustment, a delay of 2.22ms (p=0.02) was seen for each doubling of the mercury concentration in maternal hair. In agreement with neuropsychological findings, the present study suggests that prenatal methylmercury exposure may have an adverse effect on...
The 11 years-long survey results indicated the amount of children increase with disconcordant development signs, thyroid structure and function disorders both with that of somatic status. Majority of blood and immune system quality and quantity parameters deviations been present during the ''acute iodine period'' among children exposed to acute irradiation gradually reached the control level. The hemopoetic and immunocompetent system function substantial deviations are continued being registered among children born in zone of radionuclide contamination. (author)
Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Haubek, Dorte;
Objective Some anti-epileptic drugs (AED) have well-known teratogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to AED and the risk of enamel defects in the primary and permanent dentition. Methods A total of 38 exposed and 129 non-exposed children, 6...... hypoplasia were recorded. Results Children prenatally exposed to AED have an increased prevalence of enamel hypoplasia (11% vs. 4%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9 to 15.4]), diffuse opacities (18% vs. 7%, OR = 3.0; [95% CI: 1.0 to 8.7, p<0.05]), and numerous (>3) white opacities (18......% vs. 10%, OR = 2.2; [95% CI: 0.8 to 6.1]) in the primary dentition. In the permanent dentition, an increased risk of numerous (>3) white opacities (34% vs. 12%, OR = 3.3; [95% CI: 1.3 to 8.4]) was found. Conclusions The present study shows that children prenatally exposed to AED have an increased risk...
Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Vrijheid, Martine; Valvi, Damaskini; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar
Background In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. Objective We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5–9 years of age. Methods Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002–2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010–2012) using generalized linear models. Results Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2–5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8–73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1–ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. Conclusions The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight. Citation Høyer BB, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Vrijheid M, Valvi D, Pedersen HS, Zviezdai V, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Bonde JP, Toft G. 2015. Anthropometry
Aschengrau Ann; Weinberg Janice M; Janulewicz Patricia A; Romano Megan E; Gallagher Lisa G; Winter Michael R; Martin Brett R; Vieira Veronica M; Webster Thomas F; White Roberta F; Ozonoff David M
Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influe...
The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of steroid genesis affecting approximately 1:10 000 children and leading to increased levels of androgens during foetal life and subsequent virilization of external genitalia in affected girls. However, prenatal virilization can be eliminated by antenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. To be fully effective, DEX treatment has to be started in the 6–7th postmenstrual week and continued until the results of the prenatal diagnosis are available ...
Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew;
DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants...... of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time points in 1018 mother-child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples....... Age acceleration (AA) was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal...
Just, Allan C.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Chen, Qixuan; Rundle, Andrew G.; Miller, Rachel L.
Background: Recent cross-sectional studies suggest a link between butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) in house dust and childhood eczema. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate whether concentrations of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), the main BBzP metabolite in urine, during pregnancy are associated prospectively with eczema in young children, and whether this association varies by the child’s sensitization to indoor allergens or serological evidence of any allergies. Methods: MBzP was measured in spot urin...
Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;
Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...
Indu Malhotra; Arlene Dent; Peter Mungai; Alex Wamachi; Ouma, John H; Narum, David L.; Eric Muchiri; Tisch, Daniel J; King, Christopher L
Editors' Summary Background Each year, Plasmodium falciparum, a mosquito-borne parasite, causes about 500 million cases of malaria and about one million people die as a result. Most of these deaths occur in young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, malaria accounts for a fifth of all childhood deaths in Africa, which makes it one of the most important childhood infectious diseases in this region. Very young children—those up to 6 months old—are relatively resistant to high-density parasit...
Chang, Linda; Cloak, Christine C; Jiang, Caroline S; Hoo, Aaron; Hernandez, Antonette B; Ernst, Thomas M
Many pregnant women smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, but the effect of nicotine on the developing human brain is not well understood, especially in young children. This study aims to determine the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on brain metabolite levels in young (3-4 years old) children, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Twenty-six children with PNE and 24 nicotine-unexposed children (controls) were evaluated with a structured examination, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and MRI/(1)H MRS (without sedation). Concentrations of N-acetyl compounds (NA), total creatine (tCR), choline-containing compounds (CHO), myo-inositol (MI), and glutamate+glutamine (GLX) were measured in four brain regions. Children with PNE had similar performance to controls on neuropsychological testing. However, compared to controls, the PNE group had lower MI (repeated measures ANOVA-p = 0.03) and tCr levels (repeated measures ANOVA-p = 0.003), especially in the basal ganglia of the girls (-19.3%, p = 0.01). In contrast, GLX was elevated in the anterior cingulate cortex of the PNE children (+9.4%, p = 0.03), and those with the highest GLX levels had the poorest performance on vocabulary (r = -0.67; p metabolite concentrations. These findings suggest that PNE may lead to subclinical abnormalities in glial development, especially in the basal ganglia, and regionally specific changes in other neurometabolites. These alterations were not influenced by the amount of nicotine exposure prenatally. However, the effects of PNE on energy metabolism may be sex specific, with greater alterations in girls. PMID:21912896
Rios-Castillo, Israel; Cerezo, Sheila; Corvalán, Camila; Martínez, Mario; Kain, Juliana
The objective of this study was to identify in low-income Chilean children with normal birthweight which factors occurring during the prenatal period and the first year are associated with overweight (OW)/obesity at 7 years. The sample included 652 7-year-olds from a larger cohort study. We collected anthropometric data at 0, 12 and 84 months, maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy characteristics, early feeding practices, number of siblings, birth order, breastfeeding, and timing of solid introduction information. We determined the residuals for z-scores for body mass index (BMI) (BAZ), weight/age and height/age0-12 months , run univariate analysis (X(2) or t-test) and multivariate logistic analyses (stepwise approach); P child). All other variables, including gender, were non-significant (P > 0.1). In low-income Chilean children with normal birth, four factors during the prenatal period and the first year were associated with OW at 7 years: pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI at birth, BMI gain between 0 and 12 months, and birth order. PMID:23241511
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Methods/design Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI, pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ, depressive symptoms (CES-D, parenting stress (PDH scale and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire. Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7 are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis, autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction. Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Discussion Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood, the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during
Full Text Available Prenatal sex hormones can induce abnormalities in the reproductive system and adversely impact on genital development. We investigated whether sex hormones in cord blood influenced the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths (2D/4D in school-aged children. Of the 514 children who participated in a prospective cohort study on birth in Sapporo between 2002 and 2005, the following sex hormone levels were measured in 294 stored cord blood samples (135 boys and 159 girls; testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone, LH, FSH, inhibin B, and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. A total of 350 children, who were of school age and could be contacted for this survey, were then requested via mail to send black-and-white photocopies of the palms of both the left and right hands. 2D/4D was calculated in 190 children (88 boys and 102 girls using photocopies and derived from participants with the characteristics of older mothers, a higher annual household income, higher educational level, and fewer smokers among family members. 2D/4D was significantly lower in males than in females (p<0.01. In the 294 stored cord blood samples, T, T/E, LH, FSH, Inhibin B, and INSL3 levels were significantly higher in samples collected from males than those from females. A multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with INSL3 in males and was significantly higher in males with <0.32 ng/mL of INSL3 (p<0.01. No correlations were observed between other hormones and 2D/4D. In conclusion, 2D/4D in school-aged children, which was significantly lower in males than in females, was affected by prenatal Leydig cell function.
... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill ... even if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get ...
Ungar Wendy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126 children and youth diagnosed with FASD, aged 8 to 21 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated in the study. Participants completed the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3. HUI3 measures eight health attributes: vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, and pain. Utilities were used to measure a single cardinal value between 0 and 1.0 (0 = all-worst health state; 1 = perfect health to reflect the global HRQL for that child. Mean HRQL scores and range of scores of children and youth with FASD were calculated. A one-sample t-test was used to compare mean HRQL scores of children and youth with FASD to those from the Canadian population. Results Mean HRQL score of children and youth with FASD was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.52 as compared to a mean score of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.94 in those from the general Canadian population (p Conclusion Children and youth with FASD have significantly lower HRQL than children and youth from the general Canadian population. This finding has significant implications for practice, policy development, and research.
Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L; Burden, Matthew J.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina
Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age = 11.3 years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradi...
It is investigated a state of the hypophysis thyroid system at 44 pregnant women in age 19-36 years, which were irradiated by low dozes during the Chernobyl NPP accident and evacuated from the contaminated zone in first 10 days. The average doze of internal irradiation of the thyroid for pregnant women is equal 4,374 +- 1,364 mGy and for irradiated prenatally children -5,283 +- 1,454 mGy. The researches of free thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroxine binding globulin were done by the radiation immunological method in a venous blood serum, and a thyrotropic hormone - by a set of the 'CIS Bio International' firm. The diagnosis of the thyroid pathology was confirmed by a ultrasonic research and determination of contents of thyroid hormones. The account of the internal irradiation dozes for a thyroid was conducted by means of a use of a single exponential model of a removing of iodine 131. The fetus' thyroid irradiation doze owing to a entering of radioisotopes to the mother's body was estimated by means of the dose rate on the basis of the Johnson three component model. Direct correlation between the thyroid function at pregnant women, which were irradiation by low doses, and frequency of occurrence of an endemic goiter at the children irradiated prenatally is established. At the contents of the free thyroxine 128,9 +- 4,8 nmol/l or more, triiodothyronine 1,9 +- 0,2 nmol/l or less and increase of an activity of thyrotropic hormone from 1,3 +- 0,1 μU/ml in 12 - 27 weeks of pregnancy up to 1,9 +- 0,2 μU/ml in 38-40 weeks it is possible to predict an occurrence of the thyroid pathology at the future child. Is offered to use from the 12-weak term of pregnancy a radiation immunological method of research of thyrotropic and thyroid hormones of pregnant women, subjected to radiation effect, for preventive maintenance and revealing of early disorders of a thyroid at the children irradiated prenatally. 10 refs., 1 tab
Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.
Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…
Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Rauh, V.A.; Xie, J.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Mailman School for Public Health
Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH-DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH-DNA adducts (specifically benzo(a)pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang.
Full Text Available Introduction: Up to 40 weeks of postconceptional age, the kangaroo mother program at the Hospital Universitario del Valle has proved to be a safe alternative for premature babies’ management with a low birth weight. Objectives: To evaluate the physical growth and morbidity in children followed since 40 weeks up to 1 year in the program. Material and methods: A cohort study was performed in newborn infants admitted to the kangaroo mother program in the newborn unit at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, with birth weight lower than 2000 g, from 40 weeks postconceptional age up to one year age, between August 2002 and July 2006. Information was collected about maternal age and morbidity, prenatal control, type of birth, gender, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, thick motor development, physical growth, morbidity, readmissions, mortality and tests results. Results: A total of 390 infants were admitted to the program, with a 61% of captation. 65% of theirs mothers did not have prenatal control. Before completing the 40 weeks, 5.3% were readmitted due to anaemia and apnoea. After 40 weeks, 13% were readmitted by bronchopneumonia and acute diarrhoea. Most of them were allocated in the reference percentiles for weight and size. Size had a better growth than weight. The cumulated low weight incidence for age at 13 months was 22%. Conclusions: To increase the coverage of prenatal control program and to watch that the children receive prescribed iron and formulated folic acid.
Wiebe, Sandra A.; Clark, Caron A. C.; De Jong, Désirée M; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wakschlag, L. S.
Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) has a well-documented association with disruptive behavior in childhood, but the neurocognitive effects of exposure that underlie this link are not sufficiently understood. The present study was designed to address this gap, through longitudinal follow-up in early childhood of a prospectively-enrolled cohort with well-characterized prenatal exposure. Three-year-old children (n = 151) were assessed using a developmentally sensitive battery capturing both cogniti...
Jensen, Tina Kold; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Swan, Shanna H.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Main, Katharina M.; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Andersson, Anna-Maria
Background: Phthalates comprise a large class of chemicals used in a variety of consumer products. Several have anti-androgenic properties, and in rodents prenatal exposure has been associated with reduced anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals in male offspring. Few human studies have been conducted, but associations between the anti-androgenic phthalates and male AGD have been reported. Objective: We aimed to study the association between phthalate exposure in ...
Clemente, Diana B.P.; Casas Sanahuja, Maribel; Vilahur Chiaraviglio, Nadia, 1982-; Bustamante Pineda, Mariona; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Pedersen, Marie; Santa Marina, Loreto; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; Nawrot, Tim S
Background: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction. Objective: We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and birth weight. Methods: We used data from two independent European coh...
Liu, Jianghong; Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian
Prenatal androgen exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior in adults. It is less clear whether this association holds for childhood externalizing behavior. This study tests the hypothesis that increased prenatal androgen exposure is associated with aggressive behavior and attention problems in childhood. The ratio of the length of the second finger digit relative to the fourth digit, which is a marker for prenatal testosterone exposure, was assessed in 239 male and female fifth g...
Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon
Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…
Lee, Helen Y; Hans, Sydney L
This study investigates the role of prenatal depression on young mothers' perception of difficulty in child behavior and parent-child interaction from pregnancy through the first two years of child development. 248 low-income, African American women aged between 13 and 21 years reported on their perceptions of child behavior, parent-child interaction, and on depressive symptoms at the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4-, 12- and 24-months postpartum. During pregnancy, a high percentage (47%) of the young mothers scored above the clinical level of prenatal depressive symptoms. These mothers anticipated and perceived significantly more child difficulty and parent-child interaction difficulty than did non-depressed mothers during pregnancy and over the first two years of the child's development. Moreover, prenatal depression uniquely predicted negative maternal perception throughout the early years of child development even after adjusting for postpartum depression history. The enduring association between prenatal depression and a mother's perception of her child is discussed with respect to the importance of pregnancy in mothers' developing mental schema about their children and the emerging parent-child relationship. PMID:26164420
Bull, Rebecca; Davidson, Wendy Anne; Nordmann, Emily
Lateralization of the brain is strongly influenced by prenatal androgens, with differential exposure thought to account for cognitive sex differences. This study investigated sex and individual differences and relationships between 2D:4D (the ratio of the 2nd to 4th digit [digit ratio] as a proxy indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure),…
Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan
In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercho...
Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a
Tearne, Jessica E; Allen, Karina L; Herbison, Carly E; Lawrence, David; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Sawyer, Michael G; Robinson, Monique
The prenatal period is recognised as a critical period for later behavioural development. This study aimed to elucidate how an adverse prenatal environment, as defined by the presence of a number of known prenatal risk factors, would influence mental health trajectories in children to 14 years of age. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies. Offspring were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). We used linear mixed regression models with random intercept and slope (random effects models) to examine the extent to which the predictor variables considered influenced changes in continuous CBCL total, internalising, and externalising T scores from ages 2 to 14. In the final multivariate models, increased offspring CBCL T scores were significantly predicted by the mother not finishing high school, smoking during pregnancy, having a total family income below the poverty line, being diagnosed with gestational hypertension and experiencing stressful life events during pregnancy. Conversely, as maternal age increased, CBCL T scores were significantly decreased. Child age also significantly interacted with maternal education, total family income, and maternal stressful life events, such that these variables predicted increases in CBCL scores from age 2 to age 10, and from age 2 to age 14 years. In the Raine Study sample, children who experienced adverse prenatal environments experienced increased levels of problem behaviours in childhood, and more problematic mental health trajectories. Maternal health risk behaviours and other psychosocial variables more commonly affected child behaviour than obstetric complications. PMID:25431038
Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung
Purpose Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Methods A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged enterovirus-infected children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. Methods This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted. PMID:27508414
Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A
The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to
Aguilera, Inma; Garcia-Esteban, R.; Iñíguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rodríguez, Àgueda; Paez, Montserrat; Ballester, Ferrán; Sunyer, Jordi
Background: Few studies have used longitudinal ultrasound measurements to assess the effect of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Objective: We examined the relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and aromatic hydrocarbons [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX)] on fetal growth assessed by 1,692 ultrasound measurements among 562 pregnant women from the Sabadell cohort of the Spanish INMA (Environment and Childhood) study. Methods: We...
Richardson, Gale A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Leech, Sharon; Willford, Jennifer
In this longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), school-age physical and cognitive development and behavioral characteristics were examined, while controlling for other factors that affect child development. At this follow-up phase, children were on average 7.2 years old, and their caregivers were 33.7 years old, had 12.5 years of education, and 48% were African American. During the first trimester, 20% of the women were frequent cocaine users (≥ 1 line/day). First trimester coc...
Marijke de Cock
Full Text Available Growth in the first year of life may already be predictive of obesity later in childhood. The objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs and child growth during the first year. Dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentylphthalate (MECPP, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexylphthalate (MEHHP, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexylphthalate (MEOHP, polychlorinated biphenyl-153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, and perfluoro-octanoic acid were measured in cord plasma or breast milk. Data on weight, length, and head circumference (HC until 11 months after birth was obtained from 89 mother-child pairs. Mixed models were composed for each health outcome and exposure in quartiles. For MEOHP, boys in quartile 1 had a higher BMI than higher exposed boys (p = 0.029. High DDE exposure was associated with low BMI over time in boys (0.8 kg/m2 difference at 11 m. Boys with high MECPP exposure had a greater HC (1.0 cm difference at 11 m than other boys (p = 0.047, as did girls in the second quartile of MEHHP (p = 0.018 and DDE (p < 0.001 exposure. In conclusion, exposure to phthalates and DDE was associated with BMI as well as with HC during the first year after birth. These results should be interpreted with caution though, due to the limited sample size.
Merchant, James A.; Allison L Naleway; Erik R. Svendsen; Kelly, Kevin M.; Burmeister, Leon F.; Stromquist, Ann M.; Taylor, Craig D.; Thorne, Peter S.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.
Epidemiologic studies of farm children are of international interest because farm children are less often atopic, have less allergic disease, and often have less asthma than do nonfarm children—findings consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. We studied a cohort of rural Iowa children to determine the association between farm and other environmental risk factors with four asthma outcomes: doctor-diagnosed asthma, doctor-diagnosed asthma/medication for wheeze, current wheeze, and cough with ex...
Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Hill, Andrew
Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesity and emotional and behavioural problems in a nationally representative sample of young children. Methods. Data were available from 11 202 children (50% boys) participating in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Height and weight were measured at 3 and 5 years and children defined as obese using IOTF cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). Emotional and behavioural problems were parentally assessed using the Strengt...
Johnson, Pamela Jo; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Pirie, Phyllis L.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between women who reported current and past physical or sexual abuse and those who did not in terms of mean total prenatal weight change, the odds for inadequate prenatal gain, and the odds for excessive prenatal gain. METHODS: This study used a matched retrospective cohort design. Data were from the charts of 578 clients of an urban prenatal care clinic. Multiple regression analyses, stratified by maternal age, were conducte...
As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...
Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic
Costa, Olga; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Vizcaino, Esther; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Grimalt, Joan O; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana
This study looked at predictors of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with a focus on dietary and household-level factors. Concentrations of BDE-47, -99, -153, and -209 and their sum (∑PBDEs) were measured in cord serum. Spanish women (n = 541) completed two semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. The daily mean intake (grams) of eggs, dairy products, meat, cereals and pasta, vegetables and pulses, fruits, shellfish and cephalopods, and fish, and the weekly mean intake (servings) of lean, large oily, other oily, and other fish from both questionnaires were averaged. Information on house size, curtains and carpets at home, mattress type, housekeeping frequency, and television use was also collected later in gestation. Multivariate censored regression was used to assess the association between PBDE concentration (log2 transformed) and potential predictors. BDE-47, -99, -209 and ∑PBDE concentrations increased by 13.6%(95% CI:0.0, 29.0%), 21.1%(2.3, 43.5%), 21.7%(0.4, 47.5%) and 11.5%(2.2, 21.7%), respectively, per interquartile range increment in daily intake of shellfish and cephalopods. Fish intake was associated with BDE-99 (20.8%[1.7, 43.4%]). When fish was disaggregated by types, BDE-99 and ∑PBDEs increased by 13.8%(4.0, 24.7%) and 5.7%(0.8, 10.8%), respectively, per 1-serving/week increment in large oily fish intake. BDE-153 was associated with higher housekeeping frequency (35.9%[0.4, 83.9%]) and BDE-209 with foam mattress use (48.9%[5.8, 109.7%]). In conclusion, seafood consumption, higher housekeeping frequency, and foam mattress were associated with prenatal PBDE exposure. PMID:27123793
Kieboom, J. K.; Verkade, H. J.; Burgerhof, J. G.; Bierens, J. J.; van Rheenen, P. F.; Kneyber, M. C.; Albers, M. J.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the outcome of drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia, and to determine distinct criteria for termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in drowned children with hypothermia and absence of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN Nationwide retrospective cohort study. S
Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; El-Fawal, Hassan A N
to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using...... linear regression. Age-7 blood-mercury concentrations were positively associated with titers of multiple neural- and non-neural-specific antibodies, mostly of the IgM isotype. Additionally, prenatal blood-mercury and -PCBs were negatively associated with anti-keratin IgG and prenatal PFOS was negatively...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation
Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth;
smoking exposure in comparison with self-report.ObjectivesTo investigate whether prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, is associated with maternal interview based assessment of motor development in infancy (age at crawling, standing-up and walking) and motor skills at young......Background Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children’s motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status of...... school age (assessed by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ’07)).MethodIn 2002–2004, 1,253 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine were included in the INUENDO birth cohort. The participating women filled in questionnaires and 1,177 provided blood samples, which were...
Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary. PMID:27261429
Fraser, A; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Tilling, K; Boyd, A.; J. Golding; Davey Smith, G.; Henderson, J.; Macleod, J; Molloy, L.; Ness, A; Ring, S.; Nelson, S M; D.A. Lawlor
Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13 761 women (contributing 13 867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years...
Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB;
of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....
Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.
A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…
Valerie A. Cardenas
Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.
Full Text Available Introduction: the obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type ii, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. Aims: the objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight / obesity in order to primary prevention. We have organized meetings with children, families and school’s members where we discussed the results of our investigation about the importance of healthy diet and lifestyle. Patients-Methods: the study was carried out on 545 children (282F, 263M, age 6.-10 years, of two primary schools in Catanzaro, from 2008 to 2010. the valuation parameters were: gender, age, weight, height, blood pressure and waist circumference. to children were also administered a questionnaire about dietary habits and lifestyle. Statistical analysis: Fisher’s test. Results: We had that 62 % of children was normal weight, 27 % overweight, 11 % obese. A particularly relevant datum is that the percentage of overweight-obese boys of 8 and 9 years old was higher (56% than that of normal weight. We found cases of hypertension only in obese children. 98% of obese, 80% of overweight and 24% of normal weight children had a high waist circumference. We did not find differences in food quality among normal weight and overweight/obese children. instead, we found significant differences in behavior between children: 90% of obese, 64% of overweight and 53% of normal weight children passed more than 2 hours in the afternoon watching television, playing computer and video games. 70% of normal weight, 82% of overweight and 95% of obese children practiced physical activity. Discussion/conclusion: our study shows a alarming fact about the increase of the obesity in children. in particular the most important
Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.C.; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H D
There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, ...
Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.
Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...
Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha
Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...
Brunekreef Bert; de Jongste Johan C; Scholtens Salome; Boer Jolanda MA; van den Berg Saskia W; Smit Henriette A; Wijga Alet H
Abstract Background Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap) in young overweight children. Methods Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 a...
Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Callenbach, P.M.C.; Rump, P.; Van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A.; Brouwer, O.F.
Purpose: Copy number variants (CVNs), detected with chromosomal microarray, have been shown to cause or predispose to epilepsy. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of microarray in a large cohort of children with epilepsy and to identify novel genes and regions for epilepsy. Method: From a sin
E. Caputo; V. Talarico; F. Mattace; L. Giancotti; Anastasio, E.; M. Baserga
Introduction: the obesity is the disease of the new millennium, because it affects about 300 million people in the world, and especially it has a high prevalence in children. obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type ii, hypertension, problems of adaptation and relationship with other, lower self-esteem and depression. Aims: the objective of our study is to identify children at risk of overweight / obesity in order to primary prevention. We have o...
Ngim, Chin Fang; Lai, Nai Ming; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ratnasingam, Vanassa
Thalassaemia is a public health problem in multi-ethnic Malaysia which mainly affects the Malays, Kadazan-Dusuns and Chinese. This study, the first in Malaysia, aims to evaluate the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis and abortion among Malaysian parents who have a child or children with thalassaemia major and the socio-demographic factors affecting their decision-making. A pre-structured questionnaire was distributed to parents of children with thalassaemia major. Response rate for completed...
Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Screening for violence during pregnancy is one of the strategies for the prevention of abuse against women. Since violence is difficult to measure, it is necessary to validate questionnaires that can provide a good measure of the phenomenon. The present study analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW instrument for the measurement of violence against pregnant women. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA were used. The sample consisted of 1,446 pregnant women from São Luís and 1,378 from Ribeirão Preto, interviewed in 2010 and 2011. Thirteen variables were selected from a self-applied questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate whether violence is a uni-or-multidimensional construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The mean-and-variance-adjusted weighted least squares estimator was used. Models were fitted separately for each city and a third model combining data from the two settings was also tested. Models suggested from modification indices were tested to determine whether changes in the WHO VAW model would produce a better fit. RESULTS: The unidimensional model did not show good fit (Root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.060, p < 0.001 for the combined model. The multidimensional WHO VAW model showed good fit (RMSEA = 0.036, p = 0.999 for the combined model and standardized factor loadings higher than 0.70, except for the sexual dimension for SL (0.65. The models suggested by the modification indices with cross loadings measuring simultaneously physical and psychological violence showed a significantly better fit compared to the original WHO model (p < 0.001 for the difference between the model chi-squares. CONCLUSIONS: Violence is a multidimensional second-order construct consisting of psychological, physical and sexual dimensions. The WHO VAW
LaPlante, D.P.; King, S.; Brunet, A. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, PQ (Canada)
The ice storm in the winter of 1998 left three million people in Quebec without power for as long as 40 days. This study recruited 224 women who were pregnant during the storm or who became pregnant within 3 months after the storm. The study examined the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in an effort to fill gaps in literature regarding prenatal stress and increased risks and to assist in the development of preventive interventions for pregnant women who have experienced stress or trauma. Natural disaster studies provide good opportunities to study the effects of PNMS, as effects are random across large numbers of women and can be assessed independently of the pregnant women's own personality traits. The study examined whether there was an effect of the timing and severity of the ice storm on perinatal outcomes and later health; intellectual and linguistic functioning at two and a half and five years of age; behavioural and attention problems at four and five and a half years of age and physical features. The study concluded that pregnant women are a risk group and need proper interventions as children experienced delays or deficiencies in several key developmental areas. tabs., figs.
Lepage, P; Msellati, Philippe; Hitimana, D.G.; Bazubagira, A.; Van Goethem, C.; Simonon, A.; Karita, E.; Dequae-Merchadou, L.; Van de Perre, P; DABIS, F.
To compare the anthropometric characteristics of children with an without HIV-1 infection. In a prospective cohort study of 218 children born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 218 children born to HIV-1 seronegative mothers in Kigali, Rwanda, 3 groups were compared : infected children (n = 46), uninfected children born to seropositive mothers (n = 140), and uninfected children born to seronegative mothers (n = 207). Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth, every 3 months ...
Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Pedersen, Lars Henning;
total of 1780 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Self-reported information on use of SSRI and anxiolytics was obtained from the Danish National Birth Cohort at the time of consent and from two prenatal interviews. Intelligence was assessed at age 5 years......OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/anxiolytics and intelligence assessed with a standard clinical intelligence test at age 5 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark, 2003-2008. POPULATION/SAMPLE: A......, and parental education, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ), maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, sex, and tester were included in the full model. The IQ of 13 medication-exposed children was compared with the IQ of 19 children whose mothers had untreated...
Masood Mohd; Yusof Norashikin; Hassan Mohamed Ibrahim; Jaafar Nasruddin
Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health O...
Leroy, Roos; Bogaerts, Kris; Martens, Luc; Declerck, Dominique
The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for the incidence of visible caries experience in a cohort of preschool children living in Flanders. Data were collected from 1,057 children; validated questionnaires on oral health-related behaviour were completed by parents at birth (2003-2004), at age 3 (2007) and 5 years (2009). At ages 3 and 5, the children were examined by trained dentists. Logistic regression analyses were performed with the following as outcome variable...
Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.h.; van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Jebb, S. A.; Wardle, J
Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronu...
Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148
O’Connor, Thomas G.; Caprariello, Peter; Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Gregory, Alice M.; Glover, Vivette; Fleming, Peter
Background Experimental animal data link prenatal stress with sleep disturbance in offspring, but the link in humans is unclear. Aims To investigate the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and depression and infant sleep disturbance from 6 to 30 months of age. Study Design Longitudinal prospective study of a large birth cohort from pregnancy to 30 months. Questionnaire measures of anxiety and depression were completed by mothers at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and at 8 weeks and 8 months postpartum Subjects The ALSPAC cohort, a prospective community study of women in the UK who have been followed since pregnancy. Outcome measures Measures of total sleep time, number of awakenings, and broadly defined sleep problems were available on children at ages 6, 18, and 30 months. Results Reliable measures of total sleep time, nighttime awakenings, and sleep problems were identified at 6, 18, and 30 months. Higher levels of prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predicted more sleep problems at 18 and 30 months, after controlling for postnatal mood and obstetric and psychosocial covariates; the association was not restricted to clinical extremes. No link with total sleep time was observed. Conclusions Mood disturbance in pregnancy has persisting effects on sleep problems in the child, a finding that is consistent with experimental animal research. The findings add to a growing literature showing that maternal prenatal stress, anxiety, and depression may have lasting effects on child development. PMID:17008033
Adhikari, Mohit H; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Griffa, Alessandra; Hagmann, Patric; Solodkin, Ana; McIntosh, Anthony R; Small, Steven L; Deco, Gustavo
Children who sustain a prenatal or perinatal brain injury in the form of a stroke develop remarkably normal cognitive functions in certain areas, with a particular strength in language skills. A dominant explanation for this is that brain regions from the contralesional hemisphere "take over" their functions, whereas the damaged areas and other ipsilesional regions play much less of a role. However, it is difficult to tease apart whether changes in neural activity after early brain injury are due to damage caused by the lesion or by processes related to postinjury reorganization. We sought to differentiate between these two causes by investigating the functional connectivity (FC) of brain areas during the resting state in human children with early brain injury using a computational model. We simulated a large-scale network consisting of realistic models of local brain areas coupled through anatomical connectivity information of healthy and injured participants. We then compared the resulting simulated FC values of healthy and injured participants with the empirical ones. We found that the empirical connectivity values, especially of the damaged areas, correlated better with simulated values of a healthy brain than those of an injured brain. This result indicates that the structural damage caused by an early brain injury is unlikely to have an adverse and sustained impact on the functional connections, albeit during the resting state, of damaged areas. Therefore, these areas could continue to play a role in the development of near-normal function in certain domains such as language in these children. PMID:26063923
Braun Joe M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. RESULTS: Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. CONCLUSION: The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.
Verhage, Vera; Noordik, Erik; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
TAKECARE is a prospective cohort study designed in The Netherlands to obtain evidence on the care chain for children and adolescents with psychosocial problems, and its long-term outcomes. Little is known about the content of care as offered and on whether the care is adequate. The cohort consists o
Maggio, Albane Bertha; Saunders, Catherine Tamsin; Gal-Duding, Claudine; Beghetti, Maurice; Martin, Xavier; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Chamay-weber, Catherine
Background Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and his family. This study aimed to determine changes in body mass indexes (BMI) after individual family-based obesity intervention with a pediatrician in a specialized obesity center for child and adolescent. Methods This cohort study included 283 patients (3.3 to 17.1 years, mean ...
Aladjidi, Nathalie; Fernandes, Helder; Leblanc, Thierry; Vareliette, Amélie; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Bertrand, Yves; Chambost, Hervé; Pasquet, Marlène; Mazingue, Françoise; Guitton, Corinne; Pellier, Isabelle; Roqueplan-Bellmann, Françoise; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Thomas, Caroline; Marie-Cardine, Aude
Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential associat...
Colin D Steer
Full Text Available Although speech and language deficits are common in children and strongly associated with poor educational and social outcomes, little attention has been paid to the antecedents. In this study we used the information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine preconception and prenatal environmental risk factors that were related to communication difficulties in children using the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC. We used an exposome-wide approach to identify environmental factors univariably associated with the CCC. Taking account of the False Discovery rate, we used a P value of 0.000157 to identify 621 of 3855 items tested. These were then subjected to a series of stepwise linear regression analyses, firstly within 10 domains: personal characteristics, health, development, education, socio-economic variables, lifestyle, home and social environments, life events and chemical and other exposures; and then with the predictive variables from each domain. The final model consisted of 19 variables independently associated with the communication scale. These variables suggested 6 possible mechanisms: stressors primarily associated with socio-economic disadvantage although other lifestyle choices such as a social network of family or friends can ameliorate these effects; indicators of future parenting skills primarily associated with aspects of parental personality; aspects of the home environment; poor maternal health with a novel finding concerning maternal hearing loss; and maternal education which was partially mediated by the child's IQ. Finally, there may be a mechanism via the maternal diet in pregnancy in particular the consumption of fatty or processed foods. This is the subject of ongoing investigation.
Dickerson, A.; Popli, G.K.
We use data from the four sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study of children born at the turn of the 21st century to document the effect that poverty, and in particular persistent poverty, has on their cognitive development in their early years. Using structural equation modelling, we show that children born into poverty have significantly lower test scores at age 3, age 5 and age 7 years, and that continually living in poverty in their early years has a cumulative negative effect on their ...
Sabrina Hense; Hermann Pohlabeln; Nathalie Michels; Staffan Mårild; Lauren Lissner; Eva Kovacs; Luis A. Moreno; Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou; Toomas Veidebaum; Licia Iacovello; Yannis Pitsiladis; Lucia Reisch; Alfonso Siani; Wolfgang Ahrens
Cohort participant retention is a crucial element and may depend on several factors. Based on data from a multicentre cohort of European children, the effect of baseline participation on attrition and the association with and the impact of single determinants in relation to the extent of attrition were investigated. Data was available for 16,225 children from the IDEFICS baseline survey (2007/2008). Attrition was defined as nonparticipation in the first follow-up examination (2009/2010). Dete...
Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A.
Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mo...
Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J
Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence comparing adult and child physical activity (PA trends and examining parent–child PA associations within a newly industrialized country setting. PA research within a newly industrialized country setting is particularly important given the negative effects of rapid urbanization, socioeconomic growth, and technological advances on PA behaviors. The purpose of our study was to examine trends and associations in PA behaviors in Chinese mother-child pairs and to investigate relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables in this dyad. Methods We studied PA behaviors in 2 separate cohorts of mother-child pairs (n = 353 followed over a 2–4 year time period using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2000 Cohort: 2000–2004; 2004 Cohort: 2004–2006. Comparable mother-child PA behaviors included total metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-hrs/wk from active commuting, leisure-time sports, and sedentary behaviors. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between mother and child PA and relationships between PA behaviors and socioeconomic variables. Results Children experienced increases in active commuting and leisure-time sports activities with increasing child age, whereas mothers experienced temporal declines in active commuting and minimal change in leisure-time sports activity. Sedentary behavior was high for children and mothers over time. Mother-child associations were positive for active commuting and leisure-time sports activities and negative for sedentary behavior (P P Conclusion Efforts to reduce sedentary behavior in Chinese mothers and children are imperative. While increased leisure-time and active commuting activities in children is encouraging, continued PA promotion in children and more intensive efforts to promote leisure-time sports and active commuting in mothers is needed.
Ngim, Chin Fang; Lai, Nai Ming; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ratnasingam, Vanassa
Thalassaemia is a public health problem in multi-ethnic Malaysia which mainly affects the Malays, Kadazan-Dusuns and Chinese. This study, the first in Malaysia, aims to evaluate the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis and abortion among Malaysian parents who have a child or children with thalassaemia major and the socio-demographic factors affecting their decision-making. A pre-structured questionnaire was distributed to parents of children with thalassaemia major. Response rate for completed surveys was 99.1 %. Out of 116 respondents, the majority (83/71.6 %) were agreeable for prenatal diagnosis, but only 33 (28.4 %) agreed to both prenatal diagnosis followed by termination of affected foetuses. Of parents who declined abortion, 77.6 % cited religious restriction as the main reason, and their religious background was a significant factor (p = 0.001), with 73.4 % of Muslim participants against termination compared to 25 % of Christians and 13.3 % of Buddhists. Gender, age, highest education level and number of children affected with thalassaemia were non-significant predictors in decision-making regarding abortion. The acceptance rate for termination of foetuses with thalassaemia major in Malaysia is low especially among the Muslims due to religious non-permissibility. Therefore, scholarly deliberations among the Malaysian Muslim religious authorities that result in a supportive stance in this issue may contribute to a more successful prevention programme. PMID:23296641
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ukraine has the highest HIV prevalence (1.6% and is facing the fastest growing epidemic in Europe. Our objective was to describe the clinical, immunological and virological characteristics, treatment and response in vertically HIV-infected children living in Ukraine and followed from birth. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS is an ongoing cohort study, in which HIV-1 infected pregnant women are enrolled and followed in pregnancy, and their children prospectively followed from birth. ECS enrolment in Ukraine started in 2000 initially with three sites, increasing to seven sites by 2009. Results A total of 245 infected children were included in the cohort by April 2009, with a median age of 23 months at most recent follow-up; 33% (n = 77 had injecting drug using mothers and 85% (n = 209 were infected despite some use of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Fifty-five (22% children had developed AIDS, at a median age of 10 months (IQR = 6-19. The most prevalent AIDS indicator disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP. Twenty-seven (11% children had died (median age, 6.2 months. Overall, 108 (44% children had started highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART, at a median 18 months of age; median HAART duration was 6.6 months to date. No child discontinued HAART and 92% (100/108 remained on their first-line HAART regimen to date. Among children with moderate/severe immunosuppression, 36% had not yet started HAART. Among children on HAART, 71% (69/97 had no evidence of immunosuppression at their most recent visit; the median reduction in HIV RNA was 4.69 log10 copies/mL over a median of 10 months treatment. From survival analysis, an estimated 94%, 84% and 81% of children will be alive and AIDS-free at 6, 12 and 18 months of age, respectively. However, survival increased significantly over time: estimated survival rates to 12 months of age were 87% for children born in 2000
Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.; Stuart, Shannon K.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide critical knowledge regarding children who are served by the child welfare system and how these children's specialized needs affect speech-language services. Specifically, the structure of social services system models is presented, with an emphasis on the cultural and systemic interactions between…
Tao, Shuman; Tao, Fangbiao
The negative effects of environmental exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and children development have been confirmed. It has been found that environmental exposures during pregnancy have a great influence on the growth and development of fetus, birth outcomes and children's psychology, behavior and neural development. In this review, according to different types of environmental exposures, we focused on the key issues of the fetus or children induced by four aspects of environment exposure, including environmental chemicals, unhealthy life styles and behaviors, stress and other risk factors, and discussed the adverse effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of infants, children's psychology, behavior, social and cognitive, such as birth defects, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, learning disorder and intelligence development and so on. We also suggested that the researches on mechanism of the negative effects of environmental exposure on children's health should be strengthened in the future. PMID:26926732
Taylor-Robinson, David C; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Smyth, Rosalind; Law, Catherine
Wheezing in childhood is socially patterned, but it is unclear what factors explain the social differences.Regression analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, based on 11 141 singleton children who participated at ages 9 months and 3, 5 and 7 years. Relative risk ratios (RRR) for early and persistent/relapsing wheeze were estimated using multinomial regression, according to measures of socioeconomic circumstances. Maternal, antenatal and early-life characteristics were assessed as potential mediators.Children of mothers with no educational qualifications were more likely to have both wheeze types, compared to children of mothers with degree-level qualifications (RRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86 for early wheeze; 1.32 95% CI 1.04-1.67 for persistent/relapsing wheeze). Controlling for maternal age, smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the elevated risk of wheezing. Male sex, maternal age, body mass index, atopy, smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to other children and furry pets were independently associated with wheezing, but the pattern of association varied between wheezing types.In this representative UK cohort, adjustment for maternal smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the socioeconomic inequalities in common wheezing phenotypes. Policies to reduce the social gradient in these risk factors may reduce inequalities in wheezing and asthma. PMID:26677938
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight develops gradually as a result of a long term surplus on the balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Aim of this study was to quantify the positive energy balance responsible for excess body weight gain (energy gap in young overweight children. Methods Reported data on weight and height were used of 2190 Dutch children participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Accumulated body energy was estimated from the weight gain observed between age 2 and age 5-7. Energy gap was calculated as the difference in positive energy balance between children with and without overweight assuming an energy efficiency of 50%. Results Ten percent of the children were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. For these children, median weight gain during 4-years follow-up was 13.3 kg, as compared to 8.5 kg in the group of children who had a normal weight at the end of the study. A daily energy gap of 289-320 kJ (69-77 kcal was responsible for the excess weight gain or weight maintenance in the majority of the children who were overweight at the age of 5-7 years. The increase in daily energy requirement to maintain the 4.8 kilograms excess weight gain among overweight children at the end of the study was approximately 1371 kJ. Conclusions An energy gap of about 289-320 kJ per day over a number of years can make the difference between normal weight and overweight in young children. Closing the energy gap in overweight children can be achieved by relatively small behavior changes. However, much more effort is required to lose the excess weight gained.
Ozge Ozalp Yuregir
Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94
Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria;
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of...... years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis......), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS...
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos
Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…
Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia;
and length, Caesarean (C)-section, week of delivery) and early postnatal factors (exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to compare maternal reports on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors between the......To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal...... cohort study IDEFICS in eight European countries. Subjects: A total of 420 parents from eight countries (43–61 per country) were asked to complete the parental questionnaire (PQ) twice at least 1 month apart. Measurements: The PQ assesses prenatal (maternal weight gain), perinatal (child's birth weight...
Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D
Background Obesity and type-2 diabetes are on the rise and in utero exposure to environmental contaminants is a suspected contributing factor. Our objective was to examine associations between prenatal exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and markers of fetal metabolic dysfunction. Methods The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study (MIREC) recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. First trimester maternal urine was ...
Zavras, Nick; Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel
Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial pl...
Idler, Nadja; Teuner, Christina M; Hunger, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Ortlieb, Sandra; Schulz, Holger; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lehmann, Irina; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schaaf, Beate; Heinrich, Joachim
Background Physical inactivity in children is an important risk factor for the development of various morbidities and mortality in adulthood, physical activity already has preventive effects during childhood. The objective of this study is to estimate the association between physical activity, healthcare utilization and costs in children. Methods Cross-sectional data of 3356 children aged 9 to 12 years were taken from the 10-year follow-up of the birth cohort studies GINIplus and LISAplus, in...
Jerrett, Michael; Shankardass, Ketan; Berhane, Kiros; Gauderman, W James; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Edward; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Molitor, Jassy N.; Molitor, John T.; Thomas, Duncan C; Peters, John; McCONNELL, ROB
Background The question of whether air pollution contributes to asthma onset remains unresolved. Objectives In this study, we assessed the association between asthma onset in children and traffic-related air pollution. Methods We selected a sample of 217 children from participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study, a prospective cohort designed to investigate associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children 10–18 years of age. Individual covariates and ne...
Titze, Karl; Koch, Sabine; Helge, Hans; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Rauh, Hellgard; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49…
Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter
Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 μg/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767
Maria Theresa Alera; Anon Srikiatkhachorn; John Mark Velasco; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Catherine B Lago; Hannah E Clapham; Stefan Fernandez; Levy, Jens W; Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk; Chonticha Klungthong; Macareo, Louis R.; Ananda Nisalak; Laura Hermann; Daisy Villa; In-Kyu Yoon
The mean age of dengue has been increasing in some but not all countries. We sought to determine the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in adults and children in a prospective cohort study in the Philippines where dengue is hyperendemic.A prospective cohort of subjects ≥6 months old in Cebu City, Philippines, underwent active community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses by weekly contact. Fever history within the prior seven days was evaluated with an acute illness visit f...
Maria Theresa Alera; Anon Srikiatkhachorn; John Mark Velasco; Ilya A Tac-An; Lago, Catherine B.; Clapham, Hannah E; Stefan Fernandez; Levy, Jens W.; Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk; Chonticha Klungthong; Macareo, Louis R.; Ananda Nisalak; Laura Hermann; Daisy Villa; In-Kyu Yoon
Background The mean age of dengue has been increasing in some but not all countries. We sought to determine the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in adults and children in a prospective cohort study in the Philippines where dengue is hyperendemic. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective cohort of subjects ≥6 months old in Cebu City, Philippines, underwent active community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses by weekly contact. Fever history within the prior seven days ...
Savabieasfahani, M; Ali, S Sadik; Bacho, R; Savabi, O; Alsabbak, M
In war zones, the explosion of bombs, bullets, and other ammunition releases multiple neurotoxicants into the environment. The Middle East is currently the site of heavy environmental disruption by massive bombardments. A very large number of US military bases, which release highly toxic environmental contaminants, have also been erected since 2003. Current knowledge supports the hypothesis that war-created pollution is a major cause of rising birth defects and cancers in Iraq. We created elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in deciduous teeth of children with birth defects from Iraq. Healthy and naturally shed teeth from Lebanon and Iran were also analyzed for trace elements. Lead (Pb) was highest in teeth from children with birth defects who donated their teeth from Basra, Iraq (mean 0.73-16.74 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm, n = 3). Pb in healthy Lebanese and Iranian teeth were 0.038-0.382 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 4) and 0.041-0.31 (208)Pb/(43)Ca ppm (n = 2), respectively. Our hypothesis that increased war activity coincides with increased metal levels in deciduous teeth is confirmed by this research. Lead levels were similar in Lebanese and Iranian deciduous teeth. Deciduous teeth from Iraqi children with birth defects had remarkably higher levels of Pb. Two Iraqi teeth had four times more Pb, and one tooth had as much as 50 times more Pb than samples from Lebanon and Iran. PMID:27491948
Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.
Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are assumed to act as endocrine disruptor chemicals. Prenatal exposure to these pollutants might influence fetal steroid hormone levels, which are thought to be related to sex-typical development and autistic traits.We examined associations of prenatal levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs with autism traits and sex-typical behaviour in childhood.We measured levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples during pregnancy using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Sex-typical behaviour was assessed at 9 years of age (n = 96 and autistic traits at 10 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; n = 100. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure and outcome variables.Blood concentrations (WHO2005-TEq of ƩPCDD/Fs ranged from 2.93-46.45 pg/g lipid base (median = 12.91 pg/g lipid base and concentrations of ƩPCBs were in the range of 1.24-25.47 pg/g lipid base (median = 6.85 pg/g lipid base which is within the range of German background exposure. We found significant negative associations between PCDD/F levels in maternal blood and SRS scores in the whole group (β = -6.66, p < .05, in girls (β = -10.98, p < .05 and, in one SRS subscale, in boys (β = -6.86, p < .05. For PCB levels, associations with one SRS subscale were significant for the whole study group as were associations with two subscales in girls. We did not find significant associations between PCDD/F or PCB levels and sex-typical behaviour for either sex.In an earlier part of this study, prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs was found to be associated with lower testosterone levels, therefore, our findings are consistent with the idea that autism spectrum conditions are related to fetal androgen levels. Several possible mechanisms, through which PCDD/Fs and PCBs might influence autistic behaviour, are discussed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV drug used. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388 were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%-4.7%, according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%. Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.8, p = 0
Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin
BACKGROUND Educational interventions in preschool children could improve dietary behavior and physical activity, and prevent unhealthy body weights in low- and middle-income countries. Previously, we have reported the beneficial impact of an educational intervention in preschoolers in a 6-month trial. We now report extended results after 36 months. METHODS Evaluating the cohort of previously intervened children, baseline measurements were made in May 2009 in 14 preschool facilities in Usaquén (Bogotá, Colombia). Follow-up measurements were performed at 18 and 36 months. The primary outcome was the mean change in children’s knowledge and attitudes scores regarding healthy eating and living an active lifestyle, including habits scores related to physical activity. Secondary outcomes were the change over time of children’s nutritional status and the mean change in parent’s knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS We included 1216 children, 3–5 years of age, and 928 parents. After adjusting by sex and age of children, socioeconomic status, age of parents, and age and education level of teachers, we found a significant increase in mean knowledge, attitudes, and habits scores at 36 months, compared with baseline: 87.94 vs 76.15 (P <.001); 86.39 vs 57.03 (P <.001); and 66.29 vs 48.72 (P <.001), respectively. We observed a similar increase in knowledge and attitude scores in parents: 73.45 vs 70.01 (P <.001); and 78.08 vs 74.65 (P <.001). The proportion of eutrophic children increased from 62.1% at baseline to 75.0% at 36 months (P <.0001). CONCLUSIONS After 36 months, the educational intervention maintained a beneficial trend toward a healthy lifestyle in children and their parents. PMID:24262725
Full Text Available Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (β = 0.018, p = 0.014 and rs2206734 (β = 0.024, p = 0.001. CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent.
Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Olsen, Else Marie; Elberling, Hanne;
,327 children. The newly introduced parent interview, the soma assessment interview, was used to assess the child's FSS. Impairing symptoms were defined as FSS that caused substantial discomfort, impairment of everyday life, absence from day-care or school and/or help-seeking in the health care system. The 1......Research on somatisation or functional disorders, characterised by the subjective report of physical symptoms in the absence of clear physical pathology, in young children is limited. This study investigates the distribution, types and co-occurrence of parent-reported functional somatic symptoms...... (FSS) and their impairment in a population-based sample of Danish 5-7-year-old children. Data were obtained from a 5-7-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The entire study population included 3,000 randomly sampled children from the cohort. Among these FSS measures were obtained for 1...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG on offspring's body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear. METHODS: We combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine with offspring's mean body mass index (BMI standard deviation scores (SDS and overweight at the age of 5-6 years (total: n = 6,254. Quantile regression was used to examine potentially different effects on different parts of the BMI SDS distribution. All models were adjusted for birth weight, maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy and stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, positive associations of total and excessive GWG with mean BMI SDS and overweight were observed only in children of non- overweight mothers. For example, excessive GWG was associated with a mean increase of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.15 units of BMI SDS (0.13 (0.02, 0.24 kg/m(2 of 'real' BMI in children of normal-weight mothers. The effects of total and excessive GWG on BMI SDS increased for higher- BMI children of normal-weight mothers. DISCUSSION: Increased GWG is likely to be associated with overweight in offspring of non-overweight mothers.
Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.
Amer, Haitham M; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Farrag, Mohamed A; Hamad, Moawia E; Alsaadi, Muslim M; Almajhdi, Fahad N
Respiratory tract infections are a principal cause of illness and mortality in children worldwide and mostly caused by viruses. In this study, the epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses was investigated in a cohort of hospitalized children at a tertiary referral center in Riyadh from February 2008 to March 2009 using conventional and real-time monoplex RT-PCR assays. Among 174 nasopharyngeal aspirates, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 39 samples (22.41%), influenza A virus in 34 (19.54%), metapneumovirus (MPV) in 19 (10.92%), coronaviruses in 14 (8.05%), and parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) in 11 (6.32%). RSV, PIVs and coronaviruses were most prevalent in infants less than 6 months old, whereas MPV and influenza A virus were more prominent in children aged 7-24 and 25-60 months, respectively. The majority of the viruses were identified during winter with two peaks observed in March 2008 and January 2009. The presented data warrants further investigation to understand the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia on spatial and temporal basis. J. Med. Virol. 88:1086-1091, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26595650
Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S;
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...
Kelly, Y; Iacovou, M; Quigley, M A; Gray, R.; Wolke, D.; Kelly, J.; Sacker, A
Objective To assess whether light drinking in pregnancy is linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in children. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting UK. Population Ten thousand five hundred and thirty-four 7-year-olds. Methods Quasi-experimental using propensity score matching (PSM) to compare children born to light (up to 2 units per week) and non-drinkers. Main outcome measures Behavioural difficulties rated by parents and teachers; cognitive test scores for reading, ma...
Belsky, D. W.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.E.
It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 ...
Iná S Santos; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Fernando C. Barros
Background Maternal mood symptoms have been associated with psychiatric disorders in children. This study aimed to assess critical periods when maternal symptoms would be more deleterious. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mood symptoms during pregnancy were self-reported by mothers at perinatal interview; and at 3-months postpartum, mothers answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through th...
Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Esplugues, Ana; Iñíguez, Carmen; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran
In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires). Parents were asked about respiratory symptoms experienced during both periods, and during wildfires only about the preventive measures adopted and the perception of exposure, along with individual data collected through the different follow-up surveys of the cohort. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and we included interaction terms for asthma/rhinitis and level of perception of exposure; 82.4 % perceived smoke smell outdoors, 40 % indoors and more than 90 % of the families observed the presence of ash. An adjusted odds ratio of 3.11 [95 % confidence interval 1.62-5.97] for itchy/watery eyes and 3.02 [1.41-6.44] for sore throat was obtained. Significant interaction terms for rhinitis and asthma in itchy/watery eyes and sneezing, and only asthma for sore throat were obtained. Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in this child population, particularly affecting susceptible individuals with asthma or rhinitis. PMID:26215426
In Tongliang, China, a coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source until its shutdown in 2004. We enrolled two cohorts of nonsmoking women and their newborns before and after the shutdown to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fetal and child growth and development. PAHs were used to measure exposure to air pollution generated by the power plant. Using PAH–DNA adduct levels as biomarkers for the biologically effective dose of PAH exposure, we examined whether PAH–DNA adduct levels were associated with birth outcome, growth rate, and neurodevelopment. Head circumference was greater in children of the second cohort, compared with the first (p = 0.001), consistent with significantly reduced levels of cord blood PAH–DNA adducts in cohort II (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of ambient PAHs (p = 0.01). -- Highlights: • We compare cohorts of mothers and newborns before and after a power plant closure. • We measure prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). • We examine birth outcomes, child growth rate and neurodevelopment in each cohort. • Cord PAH–DNA adducts and ambient PAH levels were reduced in the second cohort. • Consistent with exposure data, head circumference was greater in the second cohort. -- The associations found between PAH exposure and adverse health outcomes suggest that the removal of a coal-burning source can have rapid and direct benefits on children's health
Grandjean, Philippe; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Heilmann, Carsten;
assess whether sensitization and development of allergic disease is associated with duration of breast-feeding and prenatal or postnatal exposures to PCBs and methylmercury. METHODS: A cohort of 656 singleton births was formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001. Duration of breast-feeding and history......-feeding, although children with atopic dermatitis had lower prenatal PCB exposures than did nonallergic children. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that developmental exposure to immunotoxicants may both increase and decrease the risk of allergic disease and that associations between breast-feeding and subsequent......BACKGROUND: Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to...
Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Andreou, Penelope; Bowes, Lucy; Ambler, Antony P.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
Stressful events early in life can affect children’s mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children’s bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and children provide valid reports of bullying victimization, (2) examine the inter-rater reliability between the two informants, (3) test the predictive validity of their reports with children’s emotional and behavioral problems and (4) compar...
Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D
There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836
van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Berger, Marjolein Y; Vergouwe, Yvonne; de Wilde, Marcel; van der Lei, Johan; Mol, Henriëtte A; Oostenbrink, Rianne
Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) to identify children with serious infections lack validation in low-prevalence populations, which hampers their implementation in primary care practice. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic value of published CPRs for febrile children in primary care. Design and setting Observational cohort study among febrile children (<16 years) who consulted five GP cooperatives (GPCs) in the Netherlands. Method Alarm signs of serious infection and clinical management were extracted from routine clinical practice data and manually recoded with a structured electronic data-entry program. Eight CPRs were selected from literature. CPR-variables were matched with alarm signs and CPRs were applied to the GPC-population. ‘Referral to emergency department (ED)’ was used as a proxy outcome measure for ‘serious infection’. CPR performance was assessed by calibration analyses, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC-curve (ROC-area). Results A total of 9794 GPC-contacts were eligible, 54% male, median age 2.3 years (interquartile range 1.0–4.6 years) and 8.1% referred to ED. Frequencies of CPR-variables varied from 0.5% (cyanosis, drowsy) to 25% (temperature ≥40°C). Alarm signs frequently included in CPRs were ‘ill appearance’, ‘inconsolable’, and ‘abnormal circulatory or respiratory signs’. The height of the CPR’s predicted risks generally corresponded with being (or not being) referred to the ED in practice. However, calibration-slopes indicated that three CPRs underestimated the risk of serious infection in the GPC-population. Sensitivities ranged from 42% to 54%, specificities from 68% to 89%. ROC-areas ranged from 0.52 to 0.81, with best performance of CPRs for children aged <3 months. Conclusion Published CPRs performed moderately well in the primary out-of-hours care population. Advice is given on how to improve translation of CPRs to primary care practice. PMID:25824182
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infection is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and death in children. The impact of antimicrobial resistance and HIV infection on outcome is not firmly established. Methods We assessed the incidence of bloodstream infection and risk factors for fatal outcome in a prospective cohort study of 1828 consecutive admissions of children aged zero to seven years with signs of systemic infection. Blood was obtained for culture, malaria microscopy, HIV antibody test and, when necessary, HIV PCR. We recorded data on clinical features, underlying diseases, antimicrobial drug use and patients' outcome. Results The incidence of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was 13.9% (255/1828 of admissions, despite two thirds of the study population having received antimicrobial therapy prior to blood culture. The most frequent isolates were klebsiella, salmonellae, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 21.6% had malaria and 16.8% HIV infection. One third (34.9% of the children with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection died. The mortality rate from Gram-negative bloodstream infection (43.5% was more than double that of malaria (20.2% and Gram-positive bloodstream infection (16.7%. Significant risk factors for death by logistic regression modeling were inappropriate treatment due to antimicrobial resistance, HIV infection, other underlying infectious diseases, malnutrition and bloodstream infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae, other Gram-negatives and candida. Conclusion Bloodstream infection was less common than malaria, but caused more deaths. The frequent use of antimicrobials prior to blood culture may have hampered the detection of organisms susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials, including pneumococci, and thus the study probably underestimates the incidence of bloodstream infection. The finding that antimicrobial resistance, HIV-infection and malnutrition predict fatal
Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.;
BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal......-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. METHODS: The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p......® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age...
Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.
Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…
Marroun, H. El; White, T.J.; Knaap, N.J.F. van der; Homberg, J.R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schoemaker, N.K.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Hudziak, J.J.; Stricker, B.H.; Tiemeier, H.
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered safe and are frequently used during pregnancy. However, two case-control studies suggested an association between prenatal SSRI exposure with childhood autism. AIMS: To prospectively determine whether intra-uterine SSSRI expo
Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Christian H Lindh; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel
Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 55...
Daniel Combs; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J; Safal Shetty; Sairam Parthasarathy
Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classificatio...
Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter;
BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative...... otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. METHODS: In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low...
Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classificatio...
Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C. H. M.; Johnson, L.; Jebb, S. A.; Wardle, J.
Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronu...
Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.
Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.
David L. Olds
adverse maternal and child outcomes that are important in their own right, but that also have significant implications for the development of criminal behavior. This paper summarizes a three-decade program of research that has attempted to improve the health and development of mothers and infants and their future life prospects with prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. The program, known as the Nurse-Family Partnership, is designed for low-income mothers who have had no previous live births. The home visiting nurses have three major goals: to improve the outcomes of pregnancy by helping women improve their prenatal health; to improve the child’s health and development by helping parents provide more sensitive and competent care of the child; and to improve parental life-course by helping parents plan future pregnancies, complete their educations, and find work. Given consistent effects on prenatal health behaviors, parental care of the child, child abuse and neglect, child health and development, maternal life-course, and criminal involvement of the mothers and children, the program is now being offered for public investment throughout the United States, where careful attention is being given to ensuring that the program is being conducted in accordance with the program model tested in the randomized trials. The program also is being adapted, developed, and tested in countries outside of the US: the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Australia, and Canada, as well as Native American and Alaskan Native populations in the US, where programmatic adjustments are being made to accommodate different populations served and health and human service contexts. We believe it is important to test this program in randomized controlled trials in these new settings before it is offered for public investment.
... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...
Paulis Winifred D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of the adult Dutch population is currently overweight and the prevalence of overweight children is rising at alarming rates as well. Obese children consult their general practitioner (GP more often than normal weight children. The Dutch government has assigned a key role to the GP in the prevention of overweight. The DOERAK cohort study aims to clarify differences between overweight and non-overweight children that consult the GP; are there differences in number of consultations and type and course of complaints? Is overweight associated with lower quality of life or might this be influenced by the type of complaint? What is the activity level of overweight children compared to non-overweight children? And is (sustained overweight of children associated with parameters related to the energy balance equation? Methods/Design A total of 2000 overweight (n = 500 and non-overweight children (n = 1500 aged 2 to 18 years who consult their GP, for any type of complaint in the South-West of the Netherlands are included. At baseline, height, weight and waist circumference are measured during consultation. The number of GP consultations over the last twelve months and accompanying diagnoses are acquired from the medical file. Complaints, quality of life and parameters related to the energy balance equation are assessed with an online questionnaire children or parents fill out at home. Additionally, children or parents keep a physical activity diary during the baseline week, which is validated in a subsample (n = 100 with an activity monitor. Parents fill out a questionnaire about demographics, their own activity behaviour and perceptions on dietary habits and activity behaviour, health and weight status of their child. The physical and lifestyle behaviour questions are repeated at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The present study is a prospective observational cohort in a primary care setting. Discussion The
Vardavas, C I; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, E; Martinez, D; Henderson, A J; Granell, R; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Fantini, M P; Gori, D; Annesi-Maesano, I; Slama, R; Duijts, L; de Jongste, J C; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Morales, E; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Thijs, C; Mommers, M; Kuehni, C E; Gaillard, E A; Tischer, C; Heinrich, J; Pizzi, C; Zugna, D; Gehring, U; Wijga, A; Chatzi, L; Vassilaki, M; Bergström, A; Eller, E; Lau, S; Keil, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Kogevinas, M
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years.Individual data of 27 993 mother-child pairs from 15 European birth cohorts were combined in pooled analyses taking into consideration potential confounders.Children with maternal exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy and no other smoking exposure were more likely to develop wheeze up to the age of 2 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with unexposed children. Risk of wheeze was further increased by children's postnatal passive smoke exposure in addition to their mothers' passive exposure during pregnancy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.19-1.40) and highest in children with both sources of passive exposure and mothers who smoked actively during pregnancy (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.59-1.88). Risk of wheeze associated with tobacco smoke exposure was higher in children with an allergic versus nonallergic family history.Maternal passive smoking exposure during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for wheeze in children up to the age of 2 years. Pregnant females should avoid active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke for the benefit of their children's health. PMID:26965294
Adam R Aluisio
Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan.A cohort of 1-11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007-2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models.3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82% completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40-3.62. Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35-0.39, P<0.001. Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001, from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.92, p<0.001 and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p = 0.006. Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.016 and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37, p = 0.006 respectively].Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue infection is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases. More data regarding the disease burden and the prevalence of each clinical spectrum among symptomatic infections and the clinical manifestations are needed. This study aims to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of symptomatic dengue infection in Thai children during 2006 through 2008. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a school-based prospective open cohort study with a 9,448 person-year follow-up in children aged 3-14 years. Active surveillance for febrile illnesses was done in the studied subjects. Subjects who had febrile illness were asked to visit the study hospital for clinical and laboratory evaluation, treatment, and serological tests for dengue infection. The clinical data from medical records, diary cards, and data collection forms were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Dengue infections were the causes of 12.1% of febrile illnesses attending the hospital, including undifferentiated fever (UF (49.8%, dengue fever (DF (39.3% and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF (10.9%. Headache, anorexia, nausea/vomiting and myalgia were common symptoms occurring in more than half of the patients. The more severe dengue spectrum (i.e., DHF had higher temperature, higher prevalence of nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, rash, diarrhea, petechiae, hepatomegaly and lower platelet count. DHF cases also had significantly higher prevalence of anorexia, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain during day 3-6 and diarrhea during day 4-6 of illness. The absence of nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, petechiae, hepatomegaly and positive tourniquet test may predict non-DHF. CONCLUSION: Among symptomatic dengue infection, UF is most common followed by DF and DHF. Some clinical manifestations may be useful to predict the more severe disease (i.e., DHF. This study presents additional information in the clinical spectra of symptomatic dengue infection.
Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik;
-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI......BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year...... and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with...
Avershina, E; Storrø, O; Øien, T; Johnsen, R; Wilson, R; Egeland, T; Rudi, K
Bifidobacteria are a major microbial component of infant gut microbiota, which is believed to promote health benefits for the host and stimulate maturation of the immune system. Despite their perceived importance, very little is known about the natural development of and possible correlations between bifidobacteria in human populations. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed stool samples from a randomly selected healthy cohort of 87 infants and their mothers with >90% of vaginal delivery and nearly 100% breast-feeding at 4 months. Fecal material was sampled during pregnancy, at 3 and 10 days, at 4 months, and at 1 and 2 years after birth. Stool samples were predicted to be rich in the species Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. dentium, B. breve, and B. longum. Due to high variation, we did not identify a clear age-related structure at the individual level. Within the population as a whole, however, there were clear age-related successions. Negative correlations between the B. longum group and B. adolescentis were detected in adults and in 1- and 2-year-old children, whereas negative correlations between B. longum and B. breve were characteristic for newborns and 4-month-old infants. The highly structured age-related development of and correlation networks between bifidobacterial species during the first 2 years of life mirrors their different or competing nutritional requirements, which in turn may be associated with specific biological functions in the development of healthy gut. PMID:23124244
This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon physical and cognitive development in childhood. Outcome data is provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study of a cohort of British children who were all potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of the epidemic. Results indicate significant detrimental effects of the epidemic upon birth weight and ...
Aladjidi, Nathalie; Fernandes, Helder; Leblanc, Thierry; Vareliette, Amélie; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Bertrand, Yves; Chambost, Hervé; Pasquet, Marlène; Mazingue, Françoise; Guitton, Corinne; Pellier, Isabelle; Roqueplan-Bellmann, Françoise; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Thomas, Caroline; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Lejars, Odile; Fouyssac, Fanny; Bayart, Sophie; Lutz, Patrick; Piguet, Christophe; Jeziorski, Eric; Rohrlich, Pierre; Lemoine, Philippe; Bodet, Damien; Paillard, Catherine; Couillault, Gérard; Millot, Frédéric; Fischer, Alain; Pérel, Yves; Leverger, Guy
Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term outcome is not well known. In France, a collaborative pediatric network set up via the National Rare Disease Plan now provides comprehensive clinical data in children with this disease. Patients aged less than 18 years at the initial presentation of autoimmune cytopenia have been prospectively included into a national observational cohort since 2004. The definition of ES was restricted to the simultaneous or sequential association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Cases were deemed secondary if associated with a primitive immunodeficiency or systemic lupus erythematosus. In December 2014, we analyzed the data pertaining to 156 children from 26 centers with ES whose diagnosis was made between 1981 and 2014. Median age (range) at the onset of cytopenia was 5.4 years (0.2-17.2). In 85 sequential cases, the time lapse between the first episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1-16.3). The follow-up period as from ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8). ES was secondary, revealing another underlying disease, in 10% of cases; various associated immune manifestations (mainly lymphoproliferation, other autoimmune diseases, and hypogammaglobulinemia) were observed in 60% of cases; and ES remained primary in 30% of cases. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were 25 and 61%, respectively. Overall, 69% of children required one or more second-line immune treatments, and 15 patients (10%) died at the age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1). To our knowledge, this is the first consistent long-term clinical description of this rare syndrome. It underscores the high rate of associated immune manifestations and the burden of long-term complications and treatment toxicity. Future challenges include (1) the identification of the underlying genetic defects inducing immune dysregulation and (2) the need to better characterize patient subgroups and second
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically significant CNVs. Here we report the use of array-CGH for the first time in a Greek cohort. A total of 82 children of Greek origin with mean age 4.9 years were analysed in the present study. Patients with visible cytogenetic abnormalities ascertained by standard karyotyping as well as those with subtelomeric abnormalities determined by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA or subtelomeric FISH had been excluded. Results Fourteen CNVs were detected in the studied patients. In nine patients (11% the chromosomal aberrations were inherited from one of the parents. One patients showed two duplications, a 550 kb duplication in 3p14.1 inherited from the father and a ~1.1 Mb duplication in (22(q13.1q13.2 inherited from the mother. Although both parents were phenotypically normal, it cannot be excluded that the dual duplication is causative for the patient's clinical profile including dysmorphic features and severe developmental delay. Furthermore, three de novo clinically significant CNVs were detected (3.7%. There was a ~6 Mb triplication of 18q21.1 in a girl 5 years of age with moderate MR and mild dysmorphic features and a ~4.8 Mb duplication at (10(q11.1q11.21 in a 2 years old boy with severe MR, multiple congenital anomalies, severe central hypotonia, and ataxia. Finally, in a 3 year-old girl with microcephaly and severe hypotonia a deletion in (2(q31.2q31.3 of about ~3.9 Mb was discovered. All CNVs were confirmed by Fluorescence in situ
Catherine G Sutcliffe
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa enter care at a late stage of disease. As preparation of the child and family for antiretroviral therapy (ART can take several clinic visits, some children die prior to ART initiation. This study was undertaken to determine mortality rates and clinical predictors of mortality during the period prior to ART initiation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of HIV-infected treatment-naïve children was conducted between September 2007 and September 2010 at the HIV clinic at Macha Hospital in rural Southern Province, Zambia. HIV-infected children younger than 16 years of age who were treatment-naïve at study enrollment were eligible for analysis. Mortality rates prior to ART initiation were calculated and risk factors for mortality were evaluated. RESULTS: 351 children were included in the study, of whom 210 (59.8% were eligible for ART at study enrollment. Among children ineligible for ART at enrollment, 6 children died (mortality rate: 0.33; 95% CI:0.15, 0.74. Among children eligible at enrollment, 21 children died before initiation of ART and their mortality rate (2.73 per 100 person-years; 95% CI:1.78, 4.18 was significantly higher than among children ineligible for ART (incidence rate ratio: 8.20; 95% CI:3.20, 24.83. In both groups, mortality was highest in the first three months of follow-up. Factors associated with mortality included younger age, anemia and lower weight-for-age z-score at study enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the need to increase efforts to identify HIV-infected children at an earlier age and stage of disease progression so they can enroll in HIV care and treatment programs prior to becoming eligible for ART and these deaths can be prevented.
Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten;
children were in the unexposed group. All children were followed up from birth until their death, migration, onset of autism, or the end of 2006. Information on autism was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios in the exposed group...... conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all 1492709 singletons in Denmark born from 1978 to 2003. A total of 37275 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or up to 1 year before pregnancy. These children were included in the exposed group, and the remaining...... compared with those in the unexposed group. RESULTS: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was not associated with an increased risk of autism in the offspring. The hazard ratios did not differ by the nature of the exposure (maternal relationship to the deceased or cause of death). The hazard...
Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granström, Charlotta;
(pooled unadjusted HR = 1.24 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.11-1.39; pooled adjusted HR = 1.24 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.09-1.41). There was no significant association between length increase from birth to 12 months and type 1 diabetes (pooled unadjusted HR = 1.06 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 0......IMPORTANCE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases with onset in childhood, but environmental risk factors have not been convincingly established. OBJECTIVE: To test whether increased growth during the first year of life is associated with higher risk of childhood......-onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a cohort study using information from 2 population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), of children born between February 1998 and July 2009...
Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J. [CUNY Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Community & Preventative Medicine
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.
Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten
This study determines the prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, food hypersensitivity and urticaria and the frequency of sensitization in children with and without clinical allergic disease. In an ongoing prospective non-interventional birth cohort study of 562 unselected...... children, 404 children were subjected to interview, clinical examination, lung function measurements and allergy testing at 6 yr of age. Sensitization measured by skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (S-IgE) was determined for 24 different allergens. The 1-yr period prevalence of atopic......% and 55% (defined as SPT >/=3 mm and/or S-IgE >/=0.35 kU/l for at least one allergen). Symptoms were linked to sensitization for 44% in the asthma group and 42% in the rhinoconjunctivitis group, whereas sensitization could not be linked to worsening of the eczema in any cases of atopic dermatitis...
Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Vrijheid, Martine;
-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate school difficulties, special care and behavioral problems in 8 year-old very preterm (VPT children. PATIENT AND METHODS: Longitudinal population-based cohort in nine regions of France of VPT children and a reference group born at 39-40 weeks of gestation (WG. The main outcome measures were information about school, special care and behavioral problems using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire from a questionnaire to parents. RESULTS: Among the 1439 VPT children, 5% (75/1439 were in a specialised school or class, 18% (259/1439 had repeated a grade in a mainstream class and 77% (1105/1439 were in the appropriate grade-level in mainstream class; these figures were 1% (3/327 , 5% (16/327 and 94% (308/327 , respectively, for the reference group. Also, 15% (221/1435 of VPT children in a mainstream class received support at school versus 5% (16/326 of reference group. More VPT children between the ages of five and eight years received special care (55% (794/1436 than children born at term (38% (124/325; more VPT children (21% (292/1387 had behavioral difficulties than the reference group (11% (35/319. School difficulties, support at school, special care and behavioral difficulties in VPT children without neuromotor or sensory deficits varied with gestational age, socioeconomic status, and cognitive score at the age of five. CONCLUSIONS: Most 8-year-old VPT children are in mainstream schools. However, they have a high risk of difficulty in school, with more than half requiring additional support at school and/or special care. Referral to special services has increased between the ages of 5 and 8 years, but remained insufficient for those with borderline cognitive scores.
Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD
Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab
Iourov Ivan Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular diagnosis and research in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and children with intellectual disability (mental retardation and congenital anomalies. Here, we introduce the Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies analyzed by BAC array CGH and a novel bioinformatic strategy. Results Among 54 individuals highly selected according to clinical criteria and molecular and cytogenetic data (from 2426 patients evaluated cytogenetically and molecularly between November 2007 and May 2012, chromosomal imbalances were detected in 26 individuals (48%. In two patients (4%, a previously undescribed condition was observed. The latter has been designated as meiotic (constitutional genomic instability resulted in multiple submicroscopic rearrangements (including CNVs. Using bioinformatic strategy, we were able to identify clinically relevant CNVs in 15 individuals (28%. Selected cases were confirmed by molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Eight out of 26 chromosomal imbalances (31% have not been previously reported. Among them, three cases were co-occurrence of subtle chromosome 9 and 21 deletions. Conclusions We conducted an array CGH study of Russian patients suffering from intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. In total, phenotypic manifestations of clinically relevant genomic variations were found to result from genomic rearrangements affecting 1247 disease
A cohort of 154 children born between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987 to mothers who had been evacuated from Pripyat to Kiev, and 143 classmates from Kiev were examined. Individual dose reconstruction of the children exposed in utero was carried out considering internal and external exposure. Prenatal equivalent brain doses were 19.2 ± 11.3 mSv and 0.8 ± 0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4 ± 631.8.1 mSv and 44.5 ± 43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. There were 20 children from Pripyat town (13.2%) who had been exposed in utero to thyroid doses >1 Sv. The prenatally exposed children show significantly more diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders. Among mothers of the exposed group of children with the neuropsychiatric disorders there are much more depression and somatization, as well as mental disorders
Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji
Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking ...
Murrin, Celine M; Mirjam M Heinen; Kelleher, Cecily C.
Children's diet patterns are likely to be influenced by their mothers' diet pattern. The primary objective of this study was to examine whether children's adiposity could be influenced by diet patterns of mothers during pregnancy. A secondary objective was to study the relative influence of fathers' and children's dietary patterns on childhood adiposity. The design was a prospective cross-generational cohort study initiated with 1,124 mothers recruited during pregnancy. Self-reported question...
Predictors of nutritional recovery time and survival status among children with severe acute malnutrition who have been managed in therapeutic feeding centers, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study
Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma
Background Malnutrition remains to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The prevalence of wasting in Ethiopia remained about 10 % for the past ten years. Mortality rate of children with severe acute malnutrition treated in inpatient set ups has remained unacceptably high. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia. The study population were children with severe acute malnutrition aged from 6 to 59 mont...
van Dijk, Janneke H.; Moss, William J; Hamangaba, Francis; Munsanje, Bornface; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.
Background Travel time and distance are barriers to care for HIV-infected children in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization of care is one strategy to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few programs have been evaluated. We compared outcomes for children receiving care in mobile and hospital-affiliated HIV clinics in rural Zambia. Methods Outcomes were measured within an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital, Zambia from 2007 to 201...
Peter Hodkinson; Andrew Argent; Lee Wallis; Steve Reid; Rafael Perera; Sian Harrison; Matthew Thompson; Mike English; Ian Maconochie; Alison Ward
Purpose Critically ill or injured children require prompt identification, rapid referral and quality emergency management. We undertook a study to evaluate the care pathway of critically ill or injured children to identify preventable failures in the care provided. Methods A year-long cohort study of critically ill and injured children was performed in Cape Town, South Africa, from first presentation to healthcare services until paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission or emergency dep...
Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among children in Germany and other European countries. Only a few studies are available on trends in pediatric CAM use over time. The study’s objective was to present updated results for prevalence, predictors, and costs of CAM use among German children and a comparison with findings from a previous follow-up of the same birth cohort. Methods Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of medicina...
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Prenatal Tests Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... be done before pregnancy or at the first prenatal visit. If there is Rh incompatibility, treatments can ...
Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Truffert, Patrick; Fily, A.; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Pierrat, Véronique
Aim to describe the development of very preterm children free of cerebral palsy or severe sensory impairment in the domains of gross and fine motor functions, language and sociability at a corrected age of 2 years; to identify factors associated with performances in each domain. Methods 347 children born in 1997 before 33 weeks of gestation, part of the EPIPAGE population-based cohort study, had their psychomotor development assessed with the Brunet-Lezine scale. Results The study population had a mean gestational age of 30.1 ± 2.0 weeks. Lower developmental quotients (DQ) were observed in the study group compared to the reference sample (96 ±13 vs 104 ± 8, pdevelopment. The mechanisms by which neonatal factors played a role need further investigation. However socioeconomic status had a great impact on development and our results underline the need for improved support of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents after a preterm birth. PMID:20491713
Twenge, Jean M; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
A within-scale meta-analysis was performed on 310 samples of children (ages 8-16; N = 61,424) responding to the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Girls' depression scores stayed steady from ages 8 to 11 and then increased between ages 12 and 16. Boys' CDI scores were stable from ages 8 to 16 except for a high CDI score at age 12. Girls' scores were slightly lower than boys' during childhood, but girls scored higher beginning at age 13. There were no socioeconomic status effects and no differences between White and Black samples. However, Hispanic samples scored significantly higher on the CDI. Analyses for birth cohort showed a slight decrease in boys' CDI scores over time and no change for girls. Longitudinal studies demonstrated a marked testing effect. PMID:12428771
Dong-Kyu Kim; Chae Seo Rhee; Doo Hee Han; Tae-Bin Won; Dong-Young Kim; Jeong-Whun Kim
BACKGROUND: It has been well known that pediatric allergic rhinitis was associated with poor performance at school due to attention deficit. However, there were no cohort studies for the effect of treatment of allergic rhinitis on attention performance in pediatric population. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether attention performance was improved after treatment in children with allergic rhinitis. METHODS: In this ARCO-Kids (Allergic Rhinitis Cohort Study for Kids), consecu...
LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary
Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcoho...
Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali; Skinhøj, Peter; Obel, Niels
The long-term mortality in children diagnosed with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis is poorly documented.......The long-term mortality in children diagnosed with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis is poorly documented....
Epidemiological studies of farm children are of international interest because farm children have been found to be less often atopic, to have less allergic disease, and to often have less asthma than non-farm children, findings consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. We studied ...
Full Text Available Cohort participant retention is a crucial element and may depend on several factors. Based on data from a multicentre cohort of European children, the effect of baseline participation on attrition and the association with and the impact of single determinants in relation to the extent of attrition were investigated. Data was available for 16,225 children from the IDEFICS baseline survey (2007/2008. Attrition was defined as nonparticipation in the first follow-up examination (2009/2010. Determinants of attrition were analysed by logistic regression. The statistical significance level was set at α=0.01 to account for the large sample size. The strongest associations were seen for baseline item non-response, especially when information on migration background (odds ratio (OR = 1.55; 99% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 2.31, single parenthood (OR = 1.37; 99% CI: 1.12, 1.67, or well-being (OR = 1.46; 99% CI: 1.19, 1.79 was lacking. Drop-out proportion rose with the number of missing items. Overweight, low education, single parenthood and low well-being scores were independent determinants of attrition. Baseline participation, and the individual determinant effects seemed unrelated to the variation of the extent of attrition between study centres. A high level of item nonresponse as well as overweight and disadvantageous sociodemographic conditions were identified as main attrition determinants, suggesting the consideration of these aspects in conduct and analysis of cohort studies in childhood obesity research.
Ryborg, Christina T; Søndergaard, Jens; Lous, Jørgen;
BACKGROUND: Studies about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with otitis media have primarily focused on short-term effects of the disease, and how treatment with insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) affects the HRQOL. More knowledge is needed about how long-term HRQOL is associated...... media was significantly improved after 13 months. The improvement of HRQOL was significantly lower for children with sleep problems compared with children without sleep problems. The improvement in HRQOL was significantly lower in children whose parents had been absent from work during the preceding 3......: HRQOL in children with otitis media was significantly improved after 13 months. The improvement in HRQOL was significantly lower for children with sleep problems. The improvement in HRQOL was significantly lower in children whose parents had been absent from work due to the child's otitis media. There...
... children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While autism is generally considered a developmental brain disorder, research has not identified a consistent or causative lesion,” said ... the prenatal brain develops, neurons in the cortex differentiate into ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by
Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an...
Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam
Insomnia is common in children, and is associated with decreased school performance and increased psychopathology. Although adult insomnia is linked to worsened health-related quality of life (HRQOL), there is insufficient data evaluating insomnia and HRQOL in children. We examined the HRQOL and health associations of insomnia in a longitudinal cohort of 194 children (96 girls, age at study start 8.7 ± 1.6 years, age at data analysis 15.0 ± 1.8 years) over 7 years. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition (ICSD2) derived insomnia was seen intermittently in 27% of children, and was persistent in 4%. Children reporting ICSD2-derived insomnia had lower HRQOL. Additionally, the presence of insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medical condition (intermittent insomnia odds ratio 5.9 [95% CI 1.3-26.7, p = 0.04], persistent insomnia odds ratio 8 [95% CI 2.3-27.7, p = 0.001]). Persistent ICSD2-derived insomnia was associated with an increased risk of reporting a new medication (odds ratio 4.9 (95% CI 1.0-23.6), p = 0.049), and reporting a new psychiatric medication (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI: 2.6-73.5, p = 0.002). These associations were present even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Insomnia in children is associated with worsened HRQOL and health outcomes. PMID:27295263
Bernard Jonathan Y.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth
Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PC...
Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;
BACKGROUND: To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake >/=5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism. METHODS: Participants were 80 552 children and their mothers enro...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. METHODS: We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900. The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. RESULTS: When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01. We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. CONCLUSION: We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal
Thurber, Katherine A.; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy
Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap. This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC c...
Shet, Anita; Bhavani, PK; Kumarasamy, N; Arumugam, Karthika; Poongulali, S.; Elumalai, Suresh; Swaminathan, Soumya
Background Children living with HIV have higher-than-normal prevalence of anemia. The beneficial effect of therapeutic iron has been questioned in the setting of high prevalence of infections. This study examines anemia prevalence and effect of standard therapeutic iron on HIV disease progression among children. Methods Perinatally-infected children aged 2–12 years were enrolled at three sites in southern India, and were followed for 1 year with clinical assessments, dietary recall and anthro...
Liew, Woei Kang; Chiang, Wen Chin; Goh, Anne EN; Lim, Hwee Hoon; Chay, Oh Moh; Chang, Serena; Tan, Jessica HY; Shih, E'Ching; Kidon, Mona
Background We have noticed changes in paediatric anaphylaxis triggers locally in Singapore. Objective We aimed to describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features, causative agents and management of children presenting with anaphylaxis. Methods This is a retrospective study of Singaporean children presenting with anaphylaxis between January 2005 and December 2009 to a tertiary paediatric hospital. Results One hundred and eight cases of anaphylaxis in 98 children were included. Food...
Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe
1986-1987 from whom lead was measured in cord-blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory......, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were...... observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=-1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.12 to -0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=-2.73, 95%CI...
Wintergerst, U.; Hoffmann, F.; Jansson, A.; Notheis, G.; Huss, K.; Kurowski, M.; Burger, D.
OBJECTIVES: To obtain data on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in children in clinical practice. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children received efavirenz capsules or tablets in accordance with manufacturer's dosing recommendations. Plasma was collected at regular visits and analysed by HPLC. The therape
Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy
Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454
Avershina, Ekaterina; Storrø, Ola; Øien, Torbjørn; Johnsen, roar; Wilson, Robert; Egeland, Thore; Rudi, Knut
Bifidobacteria are a major microbial component of infant gut microbiota, which is believed to promote health benefits for the host and stimulate maturation of the immune system. Despite their perceived importance, very little is known about the natural development of and possible correlations between bifidobacteria in human populations. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed stool samples from a randomly selected healthy cohort of 87 infants and their mothers with>90% of vaginal delive...
Eleftheriades Makarios; Tsoplou Panagiota; Vasileiadis Lefteris; Kitsos George; Garas Antonios; Louizou Eirini; Rapti Stamatia-Maria; Kefalas Konstantinos; Vetro Annalisa; Manolakos Emmanouil; Peitsidis Panagiotis; Orru Sandro; Liehr Thomas; Petersen Michael B; Thomaidis Loretta
Abstract Background The genetic diagnosis of mental retardation (MR) is difficult to establish and at present many cases remain undiagnosed and unexplained. Standard karyotyping has been used as one of the routine techniques for the last decades. The implementation of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) has enabled the analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) with high resolution. Major cohort studies attribute 11% of patients with unexplained mental retardation to clinically s...
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan E.; Szatmari, Peter; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline
Sex differences were examined in 3-year-olds with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ascertained from a high-risk cohort, and high- and low-risk comparison groups. Participants included 319 high-risk siblings and 129 low-risk controls. Eighty-five siblings were diagnosed with ASD, including 57 of 176 boys (32.4%) and 28 of 143 girls (19.6%), implying…
Allen Kelly M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.