Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...
Full Text Available Abstract Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y (n = 1665, 6-12 y (n = 2446, 13-18 y (n = 3139, and 19+y (n = 8861. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables, using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups ( Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet.
One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...
Background One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. Methods In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption with diet quality in participants 2-5 years of age (y) (n = 1665), 6-12 y (n = 2446), 13-18 y (n = 3139), and 19+y (n = 8861). Two 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine usual intake using the National Cancer Institute method. Usual intake, standard errors, and regression analyses (juice independent variable and Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005] components were dependent variables), using appropriate covariates, were determined using sample weights. Results The percentage of participants 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y that consumed 100% FJ was 71%, 57%, 45%, and 62%, respectively. Usual intake of 100% FJ (ounce [oz]/day) among the four age groups was: 5.8 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 0.4, 3.7 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.2 for those in age groups 2-5 y, 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y, respectively. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher energy intake in 6-12 y, 13-18 y, and 19+y; and higher total, saturated, and discretionary fats in 13-18 y participants. Consumption of 100% FJ was associated with higher total HEI-2005 scores in all age groups (< 0.0001). In 100% FJ consumers, total and whole fruit consumption was higher and intake of added sugars was lower in all age groups. Conclusions Usual intake of 100% FJ consumption exceeded MyPyramid recommendations for children 2-5 y, but was associated with better diet quality in all age groups and should be encouraged in moderation as part of a healthy diet. PMID:21314991
Voigt, Sebastian; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Mankertz, Annette
Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause severe birth defects. The majority of children with congenital CMV are born to CMV-seropositive women; however, transmission from mother to fetus and resulting defects are more likely to occur when mothers experience seroconversion during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of CMV seropositivity and to identify factors that correlate with the detection of CMV-immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. Methods. Cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 13 876 serum samples from children and adolescents (aged 1-17 years). Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was correlated with children's age, gender, migration background, country of origin, place of birth, socioeconomic status, breast feeding, daycare attendance, order and number of siblings, and residence in East versus West Germany. Results. Age-adjusted seroprevalence was 27.4% (95% confidence interval, 25.8-29.0). Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence increased with age (21.5% at ages 1-2; 32.0% at ages 14-17). Cytomegalovirus seropositivity was significantly associated with migration background, country of origin and place of birth, and (among migrants only) with low socioeconomic status. Risk factors for CMV acquisition included the birth order of siblings, breastfeeding, early daycare attendance, and living in East Germany. Conclusions. In Germany, CMV seroprevalence increases with age, irrespective of gender. These data highlight risk factors associated with seroprevalence and help to identify a target age for the application of a CMV vaccine. PMID:26817022
The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruit juice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...
Ducros, V M A; Brannigan, J.A.; Lewis, R J; Wilkinson, A.J.
GerE is the latest-acting of a series of factors which regulate gene expression in the mother cell during sporulation in Bacillus. The gene encoding GerE has been cloned from B. subtilis and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified GerE has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The small plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffract beyond 2.2 Angstrom resolution with a synchrotron radiation X-ra...
Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; van Pelt W; Langelaar M; LZO; EPI
The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with data from Dutch surveillance, monitoring and control programmes and relevant research projects concerning zoonoses and zoonotic agents by the different institutions that have contributed to the pre...
Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2003-2006 has been carried out in the SAFIR programme. The programme has been administrated by the steering group that was nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR has consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The key research areas of SAFIR have been (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, that was divided in 2005 into 3a) thermal hydraulics and 3b) severe accidents, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and (6) riskinformed safety management. The research programme has included annually from 20 up to 24 research projects, whose volume has varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme during the four year period 2003-2006 is 19.7 million euros and 148 person years. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Helsinki University of Technology and RAMSE Consulting Oy. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure has consisted of the steering group, a reference group in each of the seven research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - November 2006. (orig.)
Major part of Finnish public research on nuclear power plant safety during the years 2003-2006 has been carried out in the SAFIR programme. The programme has been administrated by the steering group that was nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR has consisted of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy (Fortum), Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and Lappeenranta University of Technology (LTY). The key research areas of SAFIR have been (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, that was divided in 2005 into (3a) thermal hydraulics and (3b) severe accidents, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and (6) risk-informed safety management. The research programme has included annually from 20 up to 24 research projects, whose volume has varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme during the four year period 2003-2006 has been 19.7 million euros and 148 person years. The research in the programme has been carried out primarily by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Helsinki University of Technology and RAMSE Consulting Oy. In addition, there have been a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure has consisted of the steering group, a reference group in each of the seven research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a short summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - November
Nelson Jessica W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisphenol A (BPA and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds known to be ubiquitous in people's bodies. Population disparities in exposure to these chemicals have not been fully characterized. Methods We analyzed data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable linear regression we examined the association between urinary concentrations of BPA, serum concentrations of four PFCs, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position (SEP: family income, education, occupation, and food security. We also examined associations with race/ethnicity. Results All four PFCs were positively associated with family income, whereas BPA was inversely associated with family income. BPA concentrations were higher in people who reported very low food security and received emergency food assistance than in those who did not. This association was particularly strong in children: 6-11 year-olds whose families received emergency food had BPA levels 54% higher (95% CI, 13 to 112% than children of families who did not. For BPA and PFCs we saw smaller and less consistent associations with education and occupation. Mexican Americans had the lowest concentrations of any racial/ethnic group of both types of chemicals; for PFCs, Mexican Americans not born in the U.S. had much lower levels than those born in the U.S. Conclusions People with lower incomes had higher body burdens of BPA; the reverse was true for PFCs. Family income with adjustment for family size was the strongest predictor of chemical concentrations among the different measures of SEP we studied. Income, education, occupation, and food security appear to capture different aspects of SEP that may be related to exposure to BPA and PFCs and are not necessarily interchangeable as measures of SEP in environmental epidemiology studies. Differences by race/ethnicity were independent of SEP.
Heisig, Jan Paul; Solga, Heike
Basierend auf der OECD-Studie Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (kurz PIAAC) im Jahr 2011/2012 liegen aktuelle Informationen zu den grundlegenden Lese- und alltagsmathematischen Kompetenzen für formal gering Qualifizierte in Deutschland sowie im internationalen Vergleich vor. Die Befunde dieses Beitrags zeigen, dass gering Qualifizierte (das heißt Personen ohne eine abgeschlossene Berufs- oder Hochschulausbildung) in Deutschland im Durchschnitt über geringe grun...
SAFIR 2003-2006 is the present Finnish public research programme on nuclear power plant safety. The programme is administrated by the steering group that has been nominated by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). The steering group of SAFIR consists of representatives from Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Fortum Oyj (Fortum), National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), Helsinki University of Technology and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The six key research areas of SAFIR are (1) reactor fuel and core, (2) reactor circuit and structural safety, (3) containment and process safety functions, (4) automation, control room and IT, (5) organisations and safety management and 6) riskinformed safety management. The research programme of the year 2004 involved 23 research projects, whose volume varied from a few person months to several person years. The total volume of the programme in 2004 was 4.9 million euros and 35 person years. The research in the programme is performed primarily by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Other research units responsible for the projects include Lappeenranta University of Technology, Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd and Helsinki University of Technology. In addition, there are a few minor subcontractors in some projects. The programme management structure involves the steering group, a reference group in each of the six research areas and a number of ad hoc groups in the various research areas. This report gives a summary of the results of the SAFIR programme for the period January 2003 - October 2004. During this period the programme produced 256 publications, four Doctoral, one Licentiate and six Master Thesis. The total volume of the programme in 2003-2004 was approximately 9 M euro and 67 person years. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of physical activity (PA in the general population are difficult to characterize. Historically measurement has been based on self-report, which can be subject to bias. PA monitor use has created opportunities to improve surveillance and analytic research on activity and health. The aims of the current study were to investigate the associations between objectively measured PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors and obesity. Methods Data on PA from accelerometers, demographics, blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were obtained for adults, ages 20-65, in the NHANES surveys, 2003-2006. Outcomes were assessed as levels of moderate and vigorous activity, percentage of participants meeting recommended guidelines, and the correlations between activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Accelerometry data were available on 3,370 adults. Based on standard algorithms, activity levels were extremely low in all age-gender-race/ethnic groups, with an average of only 1 bout of vigorous activity lasting longer than 1 minute/day. Results Men spent 35 minutes in moderate activity/day, women 21 minutes; >75% of this activity was accumulated in 1-minute bouts. Levels of activity declined sharply after age 50 in all groups. Negative associations were observed between minutes of combined moderate and vigorous activity and systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index and obesity, and a positive association was seen with HDL-cholesterol (all P ≤ 0.03, suggesting valid rank ordering of participants by activity level. Conclusion The magnitude of the gap between self-report and accelerometry activity must be a result of either a vast social acceptability bias in reporting or inaccurate measurement with accelerometry. Therefore, due to the low validity of self reported PA data for epidemiologic research, it is pertinent to encourage the use of valid, objective
The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).
The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
Mattson, David J.
Executive Summary Stakeholders in management of mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands of northern Arizona have expressed increasing concern about both potential impacts of humans on lions and potential risks posed by lions to humans. A series of human-mountain lion encounters during 2000-2001 on Mt. Elden, immediately adjacent to Flagstaff, and similar incidents during 2004 near Tucson brought increased attention to management of human safety in mountain lion range. These human-centered concerns, together with long-standing questions about how the human infrastructure centered on Flagstaff might be affecting lion movements led us to initiate a mountain lion study in 2003 which we plan to continue through 2009. Our study focuses on movements and other behaviors of mountain lions, with the goal of providing information that can be used to increase human safety, decrease human impacts, and, overall, provide insight into the ecology of lions in this region. To serve this goal, we have focused on collecting data that will be the basis of explanatory models that can provide spatially-explicit predictions of mountain lion activity, specify the effects of human facilities, such as highways and urban areas, and provide insight into when, where, and how often different kinds of lions kill different kinds of prey. During 2003-2006, we captured six female and five male mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands, 10 of which we fitted with collars that collected up to six high-precision GPS fixes per day, transmitted daily to our offices via Argos satellites. This timely delivery of data allowed us to visit kill sites and other foci of localized activity to collect detailed information on lion behavior. By June 2006 we had obtained 9357 GPS locations and visited 394 sites, at which we documented 218 kills, 165 of which were by five females and 53 by five males. These data were the basis for preliminary analyses presented in this report. All lions during all seasons exhibited a
目的 了解肇庆市2003--2006年放射工作人员个人剂量监测结果,用以评价职业危害和防护效果.方法 按照的要求,采用热释光剂量方法进行监测.结果 肇庆市放射工作人员外照射人均年剂量当量范围在0.34～O.53 mSv/a之间.结论 肇庆市放射工作人员在现有条件下工作是安全的,但应加强部分乡镇级医院防护条件和提高放射工作人员的自我防护意识.
Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Pfeiffer, Christine M
The collection of articles in this supplement issue provides insight into the association of various covariates with concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition (biomarkers), beyond age, race, and sex, using linear regression. We studied 10 specific sociodemographic and lifestyle covariates in combination with 29 biomarkers from NHANES 2003-2006 for persons aged ≥ 20 y. The covariates were organized into 2 sets or "chunks": sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, and physical activity) and fit in hierarchical fashion by using each category or set of related variables to determine how covariates, jointly, are related to biomarker concentrations. In contrast to many regression modeling applications, all variables were retained in a full regression model regardless of significance to preserve the interpretation of the statistical properties of β coefficients, P values, and CIs and to keep the interpretation consistent across a set of biomarkers. The variables were preselected before data analysis, and the data analysis plan was designed at the outset to minimize the reporting of false-positive findings by limiting the amount of preliminary hypothesis testing. Although we generally found that demographic differences seen in biomarkers were over- or underestimated when ignoring other key covariates, the demographic differences generally remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. These articles are intended to provide a foundation to researchers to help them generate hypotheses for future studies or data analyses and/or develop predictive regression models using the wealth of NHANES data. PMID:23596165
Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.
Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of
Kim, Young Ha; Abris, Grace P.; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Jung Eun
High sugar intake has been suggested to be related to hypertension. To examine the associations between intakes of sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and the prevalence of hypertension, we used the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. A total of 3,044 participants aged ≥19 years were included. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariate logistic regression model. Prevalent hypertension cases were defined as s...
A country utilising nuclear energy is presumed to possess a sufficient infrastructure to cover the education and research in this field, besides the operating and supervisory organisations of the plants. The starting point of public nuclear safety research programmes is that they provide the necessary conditions for retaining the knowledge needed for ensuring the continuance of safe and economic use of nuclear power, for development of new know-how and for participation in international cooperation. In fact, the Finnish organisations engaged in research in this sector have been an important resource which the various ministries, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) and the power companies have had at their disposal. The Steering Group to the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety (FINNUS), which was launched upon the assignment of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Energy, appointed in spring 2002 a group to plan the contents of the new programme. This report contains a proposal for the general outline of the programme, preliminarily entitled as SAFIR (SAfety of Nuclear Power Plants - Finnish National Research Programme). The plan has been made for the period 2003-2006, but it is based on safety challenges identified for a longer time span as well. The favourable decision-in-principle on a new nuclear power plant unit adopted by Parliament has also been taken into account in the plan. The safety challenges set by the existing plants and the new plant unit, as well as the ensuing research needs do, however, converge to a great extent. The construction of the new power plant unit will increase the need for experts in the field in Finland. At the same time, the retirement of the existing experts is continuing. These factors together will call for more education and training, in which active research activities play a key role. This situation also makes long-term safety research face a great challenge. The general plan aims to define the
100% Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy, decreased risk for obesity, and improved biomarkers of health in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006
O’Neil Carol E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ has been positively associated with nutrient adequacy and diet quality, with no increased risk of overweight/obesity in children; however, no one has examined these factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of 100% OJ consumption with nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods Data from adults 19+ years of age (n = 8,861 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were used. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake (UI of 100% OJ consumption, selected nutrients, and food groups. Percentages of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR or above the Adequate Intake (AI were determined. Diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate adjusted logistic regression was used to determine if consumers had a lower odds ratio of being overweight or obese or having risk factors of MetS or MetS. Results Usual per capita intake of 100% OJ was 50.3 ml/d. Among consumers (n = 2,310; 23.8%, UI was 210.0 ml/d. Compared to non-consumers, consumers had a higher (p Conclusion The results suggest that moderate consumption of 100% OJ should be encouraged to help individuals meet the USDA daily recommendation for fruit intake and as a component of a healthy diet.
Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e equidade no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005 Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y equidad en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005 Longitudinal study of quality and equity in the Brazilian elementary education: GERES 2005
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o relato do desenho metodológico do "Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e eficácia no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005". O GERES ainda está em desenvolvimento e sua principal característica é o acompanhamento de uma mesma amostra de alunos dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental ao longo de quatro anos. Cinco cidades participam do estudo, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. O estudo começou em 2005 e envolve a aplicação de testes cognitivos em Leitura e em Matemática, bem como questionários contextuais para alunos, professores e diretores das escolas participantes. A Teoria de Resposta ao Item Paramétrica tem sido utilizada com o propósito de equalização das escalas para os diferentes níveis de escolarização (anos ou seus equivalentes, de modo que seja possível obter uma curva de crescimento da proficiência ao longo do tempo para cada aluno observado. O GERES tem como objetivo central investigar quais práticas pedagógicas e condições escolares contribuem para a promoção da eficácia e da eqüidade escolar, tendo como principal abordagem analítica a utilização de modelos multiníveis.Este artículo presenta relato del diseño metodológico del "Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y eficacia en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005". El GERES aún está en desenvolvimiento y su principal característica es el acompañamiento de una misma muestra de alumnos de los años iniciales de la enseñanza fundamental al longo de cuatro años. Cinco ciudades participan del estudio, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. El estudio comenzó en 2005 y envuelve la aplicación de testes cognitivos en Lectura y en Matemática, bien como cuestionarios contextuales para alumnos, profesores y directores de las escuelas participantes. La Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem Param
A low background gamma spectrometer with an Etruscan, 2500 years old lead shield and a muon veto detector were applied to study 22Na and 7Be activity concentration in ground level air aerosol samples collected weekly over the years 2003-2006 in Krakow. Each sample was formed with ca 100 000 m3 of passed air, collected with two parallel ASS-500 high volume air samplers. The results for 40K and 137Cs are also presented for reference and comparison. Presented frequency distributions for activity concentration and correlation between the obtained results are discussed. The activity concentration results confirmed seasonal variation of activity to be different for all the investigated radionuclides. Moreover, the seasonal variation in nucleus activity ratio was also noticed for 22Na and 7Be. Cosmogenic radionuclides being mainly of stratospheric origin, are subsequently attached to fine aerosols, via which they are transported to the ground level air. The mean aerosol transport time within the troposphere was estimated as equal to 7.5 days on average, reaching even 50 days in warm seasons. Limitations of the applied model were identified. (author)
Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi
The NHANES 2003-2006 has assessed iron and iodine status, 2 trace element nutrients of continued public health interest, in the U.S. population. We investigated associations of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, dietary supplement use) variables with the iron status indicators serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron in women aged 20-49 y (n = 2539, 2513, and 2509, respectively) and with urine iodine, a biomarker of iodine intake, in adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 3066). Significant correlations between the study variables and biomarkers were weak (|r| ≤ 0.24). Urine creatinine (uCr) was moderately significantly correlated with urine iodine (r = 0.52). The individual variables explained ≤ 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained 4-13% of the variability in iron indicators and 41% of the variability in urine iodine (uCr in the model). The adjusted estimated body iron was ≈ 1 unit (mg/kg) lower in non-Hispanic black vs. non-Hispanic white women and ≈ 1 unit higher in women who smoked vs. those who did not and in women consuming 1 vs. 0 alcoholic drinks/d. The adjusted estimated urine iodine concentration (uCr in the model) was 34% lower in non-Hispanic blacks vs. non-Hispanic whites, 22% higher in supplement users vs. nonusers, and 11% higher with every 10-y increase in age. In summary, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables (and uCr in the iodine model), race-ethnicity retained a strong association with sTfR, body iron, and urine iodine; smoking and alcohol consumption with iron biomarkers; and supplement use and age with urine iodine. PMID:23596169
Manuel António Delgado Preto
Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo fazer a análise estratégica e de decisões dos corpos diretivos da Federação Portuguesa de Atividades Subaquáticas (FPAS entre os quadriênios 2003/2006 e 2007/2010. Para atender este objetivo utilizamos o modelo iconográfico de análise proposto por Correia (1999 que contempla quatro dimensões (recursos; análise estratégica; natureza de decisão e resultados nas quais são utilizados indicadores que nos permitiram chegar a valores quantificáveis. A amostra foi constituída por 82 instrutores de mergulho que são stakeholders¹ desse processo. Foi aplicado um questionário em dois momentos (início e fim de cada ciclo presidencial. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma tendência de falibilidade do processo de tomada de decisão. Esta incapacidade deve-se essencialmente ao fato do processo não estar assente em instrumentos robustos. Os objetivos da estratégia, ainda que conseguidos, não o foram de forma sustentada, potenciando conflitos, que hipotecam de forma clara a sedimentação das linhas estratégicas.
Sable Island is an island situated in the Atlantic which receives pollutant flows from the Great Lakes and the United States Eastern Seaboard. The Sable Island air monitoring station was set up by the Environmental Studies Research Funds and its partners to monitor the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). This paper presents the results of the first 4 years of operation of the station. It was found that concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone exceeded desirable levels on several occasions while concentrations of NOx, SO2 and H2S recorded were much below maximum acceptable levels. In addition it was found that the episodes of elevated pollutant levels were due to transboundary flows from onshore. The Sable Island air monitoring project showed good results in its first 4 years of operation and the project partners are considering extending the program.
Cláudio Oliveira Ribeiro
Full Text Available O artigo analisa as relações Brasil-África entre 2003 e 2006, procurando demonstrar que a eleição de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva trouxe nova dinâmica às relações do Brasil com o continente africano. O discurso e a prática diplomática deste governo convergem para a construção de alianças preferenciais com parceiros no âmbito das relações Sul-Sul. Nesse contexto, defende-se que África do Sul, Angola e Nigéria são parceiros políticos e econômicos essenciais à estratégia diplomática brasileira para o continente africano.The article analyzes Brazil-Africa relations between 2003 and 2006, aiming to demonstrate that the election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva injected a new dynamic to Brazil's relations with the African continent. The discourse and diplomatic practice of the Lula government have combined to help build preferential alliances with partners within the arena of South-South relations. In this context the text argues that South Africa, Angola and Nigeria are essential political and economic partners in Brazil's diplomatic strategy for the African continent.
Al-Adhami, Adnan Ibrahim; Thøgersen, Dicte Bjarup; Mikkelsen, Laura Barfoed; Robrahn, Pernille Viola
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the challenges that asylum seekers meet in the asylum system, when they want to enter the labour market. Furthermore, this paper wants to examine the issues that are connected to these challenges, and whether it has an impact on the integration, when asylum seekers are left outside of the labor market. To investigate our research question we have primarily used interviews, including a qualitative research interview with an asylu...
Jensen, Børge Frank; Christiansen, Erik
We examined suicide attempters' use of health insurance services as part of an effort to prevent suicidal behaviour.......We examined suicide attempters' use of health insurance services as part of an effort to prevent suicidal behaviour....
Masmas, Tania Nicole; Møller, Eva; Buhmann, Caecilie;
non-tortured asylum seekers. Among the torture survivors, 63% fulfilled the criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder, 58% had objective psychological findings, and 42% had torture-related scars. Identification of torture survivors is important in order to initiate the necessary medical treatment...
Hartz, Donna A.; Golden, Jay S.; Sister, Chona; Chuang, Wen-Ching; Brazel, Anthony J.
Extreme heat events are responsible for more deaths in the United States than floods, hurricanes and tornados combined. Yet, highly publicized events, such as the 2003 heat wave in Europe which caused in excess of 35,000 deaths, and the Chicago heat wave of 1995 that produced over 500 deaths, draw attention away from the countless thousands who, each year, fall victim to nonfatal health emergencies and illnesses directly attributed to heat. The health impact of heat waves and excessive heat are well known. Cities worldwide are seeking to better understand heat-related illnesses with respect to the specifics of climate, social demographics and spatial distributions. This information can support better preparation for heat-related emergency situations with regards to planning for response capacity and placement of emergency resources and personnel. This study deals specifically with the relationship between climate and heat-related dispatches (HRD, emergency 911 calls) in Chicago, Illinois, between 2003 and 2006. It is part of a larger, more in-depth, study that includes urban morphology and social factors that impact heat-related emergency dispatch calls in Chicago. The highest occurrences of HRD are located in the central business district, but are generally scattered across the city. Though temperature can be a very good predictor of high HRD, heat index is a better indicator. We determined temperature and heat index thresholds for high HRD. We were also able to identify a lag in HRD as well as other situations that triggered higher (or lower) HRD than would typically be generated for the temperature and humidity levels, such as early afternoon rainfall and special events.
Ur, Jason Alik; Karsgaard, Philip; Oates, Joan
The 2003–2006 Suburban Survey at Tell Brak investigated the spatial dimensions of the city’s urban origins and evolution via intensive systematic surface survey. This report places this research in the broader context of research on Near Eastern urban origins and development, describes the survey and remote sensing methods and summarises the results, which challenge several long-held models for the timing and geographical origins of urbanism in the Near East. Urbanism at Brak coalesced over t...
The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) is tasked with the coral mapping element of the U.S. Coral Reef Task...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...
Zhou, W X; Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing
We tested 45 indices and common stocks traded in the South African stock market for the possible existence of a bubble over the period from Jan. 2003 to May 2006. A bubble is defined by a faster-than-exponential acceleration with significant log-periodic oscillations. The faster-than-exponential acceleration characteristics are tested with several different metrics, including nonlinearity on the logarithm of the price and power law fits. The log-periodic properties are investigated in detail using the first-order log-periodic power-law (LPPL) formula, the parametric detrending method, the $(H,q)$-analysis, and the second-order Weierstrass-type model, resulting in a consistent and robust estimation of the fundamental angular log-frequency $\\omega_1 =7\\pm 2$, in reasonable agreement with previous estimations on many other bubbles in developed and developing markets. Sensitivity tests of the estimated critical times and of the angular log-frequency are performed by varying the first date and the last date of the...
The updating of the Action Plan for Energy Efficiency is closely related to the need to further intensify measures for promoting energy conservation that was highlighted in the debate in Parliament on the National Climate Strategy and building of a new nuclear power plant. The Working Group with responsibility for the preparation of the updating has made an assessment of the implementation and impact of the previous Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and sought to come up with new measures and ways of increasing the effect of the actions in the previous action plan. The main instruments presented in the updated action plan are developing new technologies, economic instruments, energy conservation agreements, laws and regulations and information and training. The action plan comprises proposals for increasing the budget for energy subsidies for companies and bodies and finding new formulas for the funding of energy saving investments. Further, the aid for the renovation of buildings is proposed to be enhanced. More effort is also needed as concerns disseminating information on energy saving. The development of new technologies requires that the funding from the National Technology Agency (Tekes) for energy efficiency is kept at least at the level of 1999. An implementation of the measures proposed would require a contribution from the state amounting to about E 80 million per year. The system of Energy Conservation Agreements is proposed to be further extended and developed. The agreements could to a larger extent than before cover research and product development processes and processes for purchasing of goods and services. The Working Group proposes further examination of the possibility of imposing binding targets and applying sanctions. Energy taxation is proposed to be developed further in order to promote energy saving and co- generation with the impact of the future Directive on emission allowance trading in mind. New research and development projects are proposed to be launched in order to promote energy saving in transport and energy efficiency in the community structure. The Working Group also proposes considering the possibility of further strengthening building regulations. For the improvement of the information on energy saving, the Working Group proposes drawing up of a communication plan for the action plan period. The action plan proposed by the Working Group is estimated to save Finland the emission of some 4-6 million tonnes of CO2, depending on the fuel to be replaced, in comparison with the basic scenario for 2010. The action plan is estimated to result in a 4-6 percent reduction in the consumption of primary sources of energy in 2010 compared with a situation where no new actions were taken. The Working Group proposes setting up of a monitoring group for the implementation and monitoring of the impact of the action plan. The data obtained from monitoring will be published in connection with the monitoring of the implementation of the climate strategy. The Working Group considers that the measures proposed should be subjected to a new evaluation in connection with the national introduction of the EU scheme for emission allowance trading. (orig.)
Geel, van, P.P.; Borm, G.E.L.; Beers, Van, Eduard J.; Floot, H.; Meuffels, G.J.H.M.; Mheen, van der, H.J.C.J.; Verstegen, H.A.G.
In diverse delen van Nederland zijn initiatieven ontwikkeld om een productiekolom op te zetten voor de winning van biobrandstof uit koolzaad. In opdracht van het Hoofdproductschap Akkerbouw heeft PPO van 2003 t/m 2006 teeltonderzoek uitgevoerd in koolzaad. Het onderzoek richtte zich op de mogelijkheden om de rendabiliteit van de teelt te verhogen en op het verkennen van de koolzaadteelt op zandgrond. Naast de traditionele teelt van winterkoolzaad kregen de teelt en opbrengstpotentie van zomer...
Piernas, Carmen; Popkin, Barry M
Food and beverage portion sizes are related to childhood obesity. We examined trends in food portion sizes and the association with total meal sizes among U.S. children. We selected children 2- to 18-y-old (n = 31,337) from 4 nationally representative surveys of food intake between 1977-1978 and 2003-2006. We assessed portion sizes (kcal and g) of selected key foods (soft/fruit drinks, salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, Mexican fast foods, and hot dogs), the total energy from eating occasions that included key foods, and portion sizes of the selected key foods by source (stores, restaurants, and fast-food locations). These foods represented over one-third of children's energy intake in 2003-2006. Portion sizes increased significantly over the 30-y period and increases in pizza were particularly pronounced in the last decade [+176 kcal (736 kJ). Energy from eating occasions including pizzas and soft drinks increased, as did the proportion of energy from these foods in an eating occasion. Hamburgers and cheeseburgers increased in portion size and eating occasion size, but the proportion of these foods in the total eating occasions did not increase. Portion sizes of other key foods increased, although the total energy from eating events that included them remained constant (e.g. Mexican fast-foods, French fries, fruit drinks) or decreased (e.g. salty snacks, desserts). Portion sizes increased across all food sources (stores, restaurants, and fast foods) for soft drinks and pizzas but only at fast-food locations for French fries. Portion sizes continue to grow for selected foods. Fast-food chains appear to be linked with less healthful portion size increases for selected foods. PMID:21525258
OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical features and therapeutic decisions that influence admission to the Intensive Care unit (ICU) in children presenting with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHODS: We evaluated 47 admissions with status epilepticus to a tertiary paediatric hospital A&E over a three year period (2003-2006). Following initial management 23 episodes required admission to ICU and 24 were managed on a paediatric ward. We compared clinical, demographic data and compliance with our CSE protocol between the ICU and ward groups. RESULTS: Median age at presentation in the ICU group was 17 months (range 3 months-11 years) compared to 46 months in the ward group (range 3 months-10 years). Fifty per cent of patients in both groups had a previous history of seizures. Median duration of pre-hospital seizure activity was 30 min in both groups. More than two doses of benzodiazepines were given as first line medication in 62% of the ICU group and 33% of the ward group. Among children admitted to ICU with CSE, 26% had been managed according to the CSE protocol, compared to 66% of children who were admitted to a hospital ward. Febrile seizures were the most common aetiology in both groups. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation, administration of more than two doses of benzodiazepines and deviation from the CSE protocol appear to be factors which influence admission of children to ICU. Recognition of pre-hospital administration of benzodiazepines and adherence to therapeutic guidelines may reduce the need for ventilatory support in this group.
Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)
Full Text Available Computers and Internet, which have started to dominate our modern lives, have no doubt became part of children's living too. It is a fact that Internet has many advantages in several areas, mainly in education, communication and creativity. However, Internet also has many disadvantages, i.e., physical, psychological and social effects and dangers to children. In this article, the object is to emphasize not only these negative aspects, but also to point out the preventive measures, particularly for the parents. Modern çağın bir gereği haline gelen bilgisayar ve İnternet, kuşkusuz çocukların da yaşamına girmiştir.Internet'in, başta eğitim, iletişim, yaratıcılık olmak üzere çeşitli alanlarda yararları olduğu herkes tarafından bilinmektedir. Ancak, bilgisayar ve Internet kullanımının, çocuklar için olumsuz fiziksel, psikolojik ve sosyal etkilerinin yanında, tehlikeler de içerdiği yadsınamaz. Bu makalede, olumsuz yönlerin yanında, alınabilecek önlemlere, özellikle de ana-babaların yapabileceklerine değinilmiştir.
Paulo Roberto Borges Souza-Jr
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize the population of HIV+ Brazilian patients with late introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ARVT, using information from the Laboratory Exam Control System. METHODS: The study analyzed 84,694 patients, representing all individuals in Brazil age 15 or over with an initial CD4+ T lymphocyte count requested between 2003 and 2006, and whose ARVT start date was later than their initial CD4+ T cell count. These patients were considered antiretroviral treatment naive. The initial CD4+ T cell distribution was analyzed according to sex, age, region and year. RESULTS: Most of the patients were between 15 and 49 years of age (91%; 56% were males; 76% were asymptomatic; 50% lived in the Southeastern region of the country, with an additional 20% in the South. Initial CD4+ counts for one-third of the patients were less than 200 cells/mm³. When combined with the number of symptomatic individuals, 41% of the total group was in need of immediate ARVT. This group included 47% of the men and 53% of the patients aged 50 years and over. CONCLUSIONS: Despite universal access to ARVT in Brazil, results show that a high proportion of patients initiate ARVT at an advanced stage of disease, indicating the need to develop strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV infection nationwide.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a população de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV que inicia tardiamente a terapia com anti-retrovirais (TARV no Brasil, utilizando informações do Sistema de Controle de Exames Laboratoriais. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados todos os indivíduos de 15 anos ou mais de idade que realizaram exame inicial para contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ para avaliação de indicação de tratamento entre os anos de 2003 e 2006, cuja data de início da terapia foi posterior ou igual à data de solicitação da contagem de células T CD4+ (84694 pacientes. Esses pacientes foram considerados como virgens de tratamento com anti-retrovirais. A distribuição da contagem inicial de linfócitos T CD4+ foi analisada por sexo, idade, Grande Região e ano de realização do exame. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes tinha entre 15 e 49 anos de idade (91%; 56% eram do sexo masculino; 76% assintomáticos; 50% residiam na Região Sudeste e 20% na Região Sul. A proporção de indivíduos cujo resultado do primeiro exame para contagem de linfócitos TCD4+ era inferior a 200 cel/mm³ foi de 33%. Somando-se a esses os indivíduos sintomáticos, o valor atinge 41% para a totalidade; 47% para os homens e 53% para os pacientes com mais de 50 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: Em que pese o acesso universal à TARV, no Brasil, os resultados mostram que uma alta proporção de pacientes inicia o tratamento em um estádio avançado da doença, apontando para a necessidade do estabelecimento de estratégias de diagnóstico precoce da infecção pelo HIV.
Karla Patricia Carvajal Muñoz
Full Text Available Anualmente la influenza causa aproximadamente 3,5 millones de casos severos en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir y analizar la situación epidemiológica de la influenza y apoyar el fortalecimiento de su sistema de vigilancia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Se calculó incidencia, riesgo relativo (RR, intervalo de confianza al 95 % (IC 95 % y número de egresos con sus promedios móviles, tasas de egreso hospitalario de influenza y neumonía. Fuentes de datos: los registros de notificación colectiva del Ministerio de Salud, la base de datos de egresos hospitalarios del Seguro Social y los registros de la vigilancia centinela del Centro Nacional de Influenza. Resultados: La incidencia anual mostró tendencia al aumento (R2 = 0,9 con picos en marzo a abril, junio a septiembre y agosto a diciembre. Las tasas anuales de egreso hospitalario mostraron tendencia a disminuir (R2 =0,9 con picos en marzo a mayo, julio a septiembre y septiembre a octubre. El pico de aislamientos del laboratorio se presentó en el segundo semestre de cada año, más frecuente en los meses de julio, agosto y septiembre. Discusión: Se cotejaron los datos de la vigilancia, los egresos hospitalarios y el laboratorio, los resultados no fueron suficientes para concluir si la influenza muestra estacionalidad. Se sugiere realizar un estudio del sistema de vigilancia de influenza para mejorar la calidad y el registro de los datos ya que es fundamental conocer la estacionalidad de la influenza y sus cambios para respaldar las intervenciones correspondientes y sus modificaciones.Influenza causes approximately 3,5 million cases of severe illness each year worldwide. Objective: To describe and analyze the influenza epidemiological situation in the past four years in order to support enhancement of the influenza surveillance system in Costa Rica. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted. Incidence and hospital discharge rates were calculated. Sources of data were: collective notification forms of the Ministry of Health, the hospital discharge data base of the Costa Rican Social Security system as well as the influenza surveillance forms of the National Influenza Center. Results: Since 2005 collective information has been gathered monthly, by province, by age-groups and sex. From 2005 through 2006, the highest rates were found in the months of March and May. Regarding hospital discharges, mobile averages showed that a peak was reached between June and September. Laboratory diagnoses were highest during the months of July through September. Discussion: Collective notification is higher in the first semester; nevertheless, hospital discharge rates are higher between June and September which match the peak reached by laboratory diagnoses for influenza virus; this may suggest seasonality but there is a lack of robust data to confirm this; therefore, we suggest conducting further seasonality studies. This study supports the development of guidelines for the influenza surveillance process in Costa Rica.
J. Jhonnel Alarco
Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar algunas características epidemiológicas de la enfermedad cerebro vascular (ECV, describir las características de la población estudiada según sexo, edad, procedencia, raza, forma de inicio, ubicación, tipos y subtipos, síntomas, antecedentes patológicos y mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Materiales y métodos, estudio descriptivo. Lugar, Hospital Regional Docente de Ica. Criterios de inclusión, pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de accidente cerebrovascular. Intervenciones, revisión de historias clínicas de archivo entre los años 2003 y 2006 Principales medidas de resultados, análisis estadístico, porcentajes y medidas de tendencia central, tabuladas en una base de datos con ayuda del programa Microsoft Excel 2003 para Windows®. Resultados, de 152 pacientes ingresados al servicio de Medicina 119 fueron casos de ECV isquémico, 33 casos fueron ECV hemorrágico. El principal antecedente patológico fue la hipertensión arterial con un 75.0 %. El síntoma más frecuente fue el trastorno motor con 80.3% seguido por alteraciones del lenguaje con 55.9%. El mayor número fue encontrado entre la séptima y octava décadas de la vida. La edad mínima fue de 17 y máxima de 102 años. La mortalidad global fue de 18 casos obteniéndose una tasa de letalidad específica para el ECV isquémico de 0,8% y de 51,5% para el ECV hemorrágico. Conclusiones: Se distingue a la HTA como el principal antecedente modificable, cuya prevención reduciría notablemente su mortalidad.
McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken
Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species recovery. Several taxa have particular problems evidenced by lack of fruit set, very small population sizes, or unstable habitats. We collected seeds of all but two taxa for seed banking, and live cuttings of two clonal shrubs for cultivation at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. The survey data, seeds and cuttings provide a baseline and a foundation for planning, conducting, and tracking recovery of the nine federally listed plant taxa of Santa Cruz Island.
The enhancement of utilization of research reactors is one of the major objectives of the IAEA's project on Effective Utilization of Research Reactors. In particular, the improvement of existing installations for neutron imaging and the effective utilization of such facilities are intended. From the experience of Type A facilities, it is obvious that some investment is required to come from simple neutron imaging methods (film, track-etch foils) to the more enhanced ones. Related to the installation and operation of the whole reactor system, the volume of the investment for an imaging device is minor. Also compared to the installations for neutron scattering research, neutron imaging systems are relatively cheap, but very efficient in the use of the neutrons. Therefore, one of the aims of the CRP was to look for adapted solutions for the individual reactor installation and beam line. Specific Research Objectives: To optimize the neutron beams for imaging purpose using modern simulation techniques; To enhance the beam intensity using modern layout principles, neutron optics, like focusing and beam guides and filters; To develop a standardized, low cost, neutron image grabber and analyzer for efficient data collection that can be used with low intensity sources; To improve signal processing techniques used in neutron imaging applications. Expected Research Outputs: Neutron radiography is used at research reactor centres in many Member States, but the facilities are not optimized for attractive potential applications. This fact has been brought out at various discussion meetings. The CRP is aimed at improving the design of beam lines in terms of neutron collimation and intensity; Improvements in resolution are normally achieved at a cost in intensity. For an instrument exhibiting good resolution, one needs to employ a fast counting system. It is proposed to work along these lines to develop an optimised detection system. Many facilities, at present, have small CCD systems, but they are not optimised. The experience of advanced facilities will be used to optimise their operation. Optimisation should result in additional applications and/or increased utilization of neutron radiography; This CRP will help to expand the knowledge and understanding of various neutron radiography imaging techniques and their applications among the research reactor community in developing Member States and will be helpful in training qualified neutron radiography specialists who, in addition to operating existing facilities, will be able to take up developmental work in future; The programme will help in building long term relationships between scientists from developing and developed countries. This will help in encouraging further bilateral and/or multilateral collaborations among institutions/reactor facilities in various Member States
This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9) participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and dissemination of results.
Holderman, Charlie [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Bonners
The Kootenai River ecosystem has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam, completed in 1972 on the river near Libby Montana. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel, eliminating nutrient production and habitat diversity crucial to the functioning of a large river-floodplain ecosystem. Libby Dam continues to create large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows, and greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches. These changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to this artificial loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the Kootenay Lake's North Arm in 1992, the South Arm in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes the macroinvertebrate community in the Kootenai River and its response to experimental nutrient addition during 2005 and 2006. This report also provides an initial evaluation of cascading trophic interactions in response to nutrient addition. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 12 sites along a 325 km section of the Kootenai River, representing an upriver unimpounded reference reach, treatment and control canyon reach sites, and braided and meandering reach sites, all downstream from Libby Dam. Principle component analysis revealed that richness explained the greatest amount of variability in response to nutrient addition as did taxa from Acari, Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Analysis of variance revealed that nutrient addition had a significant effect (p<0.0001) on invertebrate abundance, biomass, and richness at sites KR-9 and KR-9.1 combined (the zone of maximum biological response). Richness, a valuable ecological metric, increased more than abundance and biomass, which were subject to greater sampling bias. Cascading trophic interactions were observed as increased algal accrual, increased in-river invertebrate abundance, and increased invertebrate counts in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsonii) guts samples, but were not quantitatively tested. Sampling and analyses across trophic levels are currently ongoing and are expected to better characterize ecological responses to experimental nutrient addition in the Kootenai River.
Wasserman, Ira; Stack, Steven
Previous work on Russian roulette has focused on data from large cities. It is unclear if the epidemiological patterns based on large cities will replicate for the nation as a whole, and if the influence of minority status will be moderated by urban context. The present investigation fills these gaps by providing descriptive epidemiological data…
Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin
Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761
Stegger, Sara; Munch, Kathrine; Madsen, Josefine
Abstract The point of departure for this project is to shed light on the individual asylum seekers’ sense of belonging to the culture and user-driven drop-in centre the Trampolinhouse, thus this is where the gathering of the empirical data has been collected. The empirical data in this project relies on a mixture of participant observations and qualitative interviews with four users of the house, one of the informants works at the house whereas the remaining three are asylum seekers. T...
Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...... of the recognised constructions of children, as well as examining contexts for them, from schools and kindergartens to inner cities and war-zones. The result gives insight into the notions of inclusion and exclusion, the placement and displacement of children within generational ranks and orders, and...... the kinds of places that children create for themselves....
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Many children act in TV shows.They work several hours everyday, 1 they cannot go to regular(正规的) 2.How dothey get their schooling?In Hollywood,about forty, 3 give lessons for the children.Theirwork iS very 4 .They make sure that the children 5 many differ-ent subjects.They make sure, 6 ,that the children get enough 7and play.
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...
Anderson, Sally Dean
Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools, with...... their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to...
Gualtieri, C. Thomas C.; And Others
The use of the diagnosis "borderline" was evaluated with 16 children (6 to 13 years old) who were referred for comprehensive evaluation. None met DSM III criteria for borderline personality disorder. The borderline label had a negative impact on some children and was not helpful for treatment planning or disposition. (Author/SEW)
... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...
This publication summarizes the research conducted during an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) undertaken to address technical and operational difficulties in the detection of and response to illicit trafficking of nuclear material. Equipment to detect illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials at borders has specific technical and operational requirements that are very different from equipment used in other radiation monitoring cases. Automated and manual measurements need to be done in the field, often outdoors, at land or sea borders, crossing points or airports. The free flow of goods and passengers must not be impacted, thus requiring that the measurement time be short. The design needs to take into account that the users of the equipment are not experts in radiation detection; thus the results of the measurements should be easy to understand
Fedele, D; Petr-Gotzens, M G; Rafanelli, P
The occurrence of new FU Orionis-like objects is fundamental to understand the outburst mechanism in young stars and their role in star formation and disk evolution. Our work is aimed at investigating the properties of the recent outburst of V1647 Ori. Using optical and mid infrared long slit spectroscopy we monitored V1647 Ori in outburst between February 2004 and January 2006. The optical spectrum is characterized by Halpha and Hbeta in P-Cygni profile and by many weak FeI and FeII emission lines. Short timescale variability was measured in the continuum and line emission. On January 2006 we detected for the first time forbidden emission lines ([OI], [SII] and [FeII]). These lines are likely produced by an Herbig-Haro object driven by V1647 Ori. The mid infrared the spectrum of V1647 Ori is flat and featureless at all epochs. The SED changed drastically: the source was much redder in the early outburst than in the final phase. The magnitude rise and the SED of V1647 Ori resembles that of a FUor while the du...
Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray
In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…
Katz Jeffrey N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism is a common, fatal, and costly injury which complicates major surgery in older adults. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends high potency prophylaxis regimens for individuals undergoing total hip or knee replacement (THR or TKR, but surgeons are reluctant to prescribe them due to fear of excess bleeding. Identifying a high risk cohort such as older adults with comorbidities and co-occurring comorbidities who might benefit most from high potency prophylaxis would improve how we currently perform preoperative assessment. Methods Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified older adults who underwent THR or TKR in the U.S. between 2003 and 2006. Our outcome was VTE, including any pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the effects of comorbidities on VTE occurrence. Comorbidities under consideration included coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, diabetes, and cerebrovascular disease. We also examined the impact of co-occurring comorbidities on VTE rates. Results CHF increased odds of VTE in both the THR cohort (OR = 3.08 95% CI 2.05-4.65 and TKR cohort (OR = 2.47 95% CI 1.95-3.14. COPD led to a 50% increase in odds in the TKR cohort (OR = 1.49 95% CI 1.31-1.70. The data did not support synergistic effect of co-occurring comorbidities with respect to VTE occurrence. Conclusions Older adults with CHF undergoing THR or TKR and with COPD undergoing TKR are at increased risk of VTE. If confirmed in other datasets, these older adults may benefit from higher potency prophylaxis.
Azita Bala Ghafari
Full Text Available , , , (Received 24 June, 2009 ; Accepted 16 September, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The neonatal mortality rate is an important index for evaluation of public health. It involves the death of infants under 28 days. Obviously, recognizing the characteristics of neonatal mortality in this center, may be useful for promoting the procedures in the NICU, as well as planning to impede the severe complications or death.Materials and methods: This is a descriptive study performed by analyzing the available data from the medical records of NICU patients at Boo-Ali Sina Educational & Therapeutic Center during 2003 and 2006. The number of deaths, names, and medical records number of the dead infants were collected. Among 1238 patients in the NICU, 363 deaths were reported. According to medical records, 222 deaths occurred in neonates aged 0 to 27 days. Data were collected using a checklist, the validity and reliability of which were approved by clinicians. The Descriptive methods were used in analyzing the data.Results: The findings include: 140 subjects were male (63.1%; 72 from single birth (77.5%; the age-group of mothers of 38 cases (37.7% was 20-24 y; 132 cases (59.5% resided in villages; 129 cases (58.1% with prenatal care; 120 cased of Caesarian section (54%; 155 cases (76% with birth weight lower than 2500 grams and 154 preterm (75.5%. Mortality during neonatal period was divided in two groups: early death (0-6 days 142 cases (62% and late death (7-27 days 80 cases (36%.Conclusion: Correct and exact completion of NICU forms would help undertaking descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies.Key words: Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, late neonatal mortality, NICUJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20(74: 79-83 (Persian
Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta
Zooplankton communities were examined for the first time in three different hydrographic regions of the Hudson Bay system (HBS) in early August to early September from 2003 to 2006. Sampling was conducted at 50 stations distributed along different transects located in Hudson Bay (HB), Hudson Strait (HS), and Foxe Basin (FB). Variations in zooplankton biomass, abundance, taxonomic composition, and diversity in relation to environmental variables were studied using multivariate techniques. During all sampling years, the total zooplankton biomass was on average four times lower in HB than in HS and FB. Clustering samples by their relative species compositions revealed no interannual variation in zooplankton community but showed a marked interregional variability between the three regions. Water column stratification explained the greatest proportion (25%) of this spatial variability. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), the zooplankton taxa that contribute most to the separation of the three regions are Microcalanus spp., Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Aeginopsis laurentii, Sagitta elegans, Fritillaria sp., and larvae of cnidaria, chaetognatha, and pteropoda in HB; hyperiid amphipods in FB; and Pseudocalanus spp. CI-CV, Calanus glacialis CI-CVI, Calanus finmarchicus CI-CVI, Calanus hyperboreus CV-CVI, Acartia longiremis CI-CV, Metridia longa N3-N6 CI-CIII CVIf, Eukrohnia hamata, larvae of echinodermata, mollusca, cirripedia, appendicularia, and polychaeta in the northwestern and southeastern HS transects. For the HB transect, the RDA analyzed allowed us to distinguish three regions (HB west, central, and east) with different environmental gradients and zooplankton assemblages, in particular higher concentration of Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii and CI-CVI, as well as benthic macrozooplankton and meroplankton larvae in western HB. In HS, Calanoid species (mainly C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) were mostly observed at the north shore stations associated with the weakly stratified Arctic-North Atlantic waters coming from southwestern Davis Strait (inflow). In general, the RDA models tested among the HBS regions were very consistent with its general surface circulation pattern for summer conditions in terms of environmental variables and distinct zooplankton assemblages. Overall, zooplankton biomass and diversity indices (H‧, J‧, and S) were lower in the most stratified environment (i.e., HB) than in the deeper (FB) and more dynamic (HS) regions. The results of this work clearly show that the spatial differentiation and structure of the zooplankton communities are strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the HBS that, trough their actions on temperature, salinity, stratification, mixing conditions and depth strata, lead to the spatial differentiation of these communities.
Academy for Educational Development, 2007
An area of particular concern in adolescent literacy is comprehension of informational text: many students can successfully decode words without actually being able to understand the texts they read. As they progress through school, they have to read increasingly complex texts but receive little if any explicit instruction to help them. Beyond the…
Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some nongovernmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening dropin centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.
Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children
Sjöberg, Rickard L
Background: Most cases of child sexual use are identified through statements made by children and in many cases such statements constitute the only evidence available that abuse occurred. Despite its importance the use of children's testimonies is however complicated by the fact that a substantial proportion of victims delay disclosure of abuse or even deny such experiences when asked for them directly. A further complicating factor, highlighted by an abundance of experiment...
Rončević Nevenka; Stojadinović Aleksandra; Batrnekantonić Daliborka
According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, thes...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Data on the distribution and on risk factors in Germany are sketchy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples of a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2003-2006 in children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years in Germany (KiGGS were analysed (n = 12,614 to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Data from standardized interviews were used to assess potential risk factors. First, sera were screened for anti-Borrelia antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.3-5.4%. Positive and borderline ELISA test results were confirmed by a line blot revealing a combined prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI 3.6-4.5%. Seroprevalence of ELISA was significantly higher in males (odds ratio (OR = 1.37; CI 1.15-1.63 and in the southern part of Germany (OR = 1.41; CI 1.09-1.83, but significantly lower in children and adolescents with migration background (OR = 0.33; CI 0.24-0.44. Study participants from households with cats had a higher chance of seropositivity (OR = 6.7; CI 5.6-8.0. In a multivariable model the odds of seropositivity increases by 11% for every year of age for boys and 6% for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey is the first nationwide, representative seroprevalence survey of LB in children and young adolescents. The study shows that infections with Borrelia burgdorferi are endemic in all parts of Germany despite regional differences. Even at a young age children are exposed to tick bites including seropositivity. Encouraging a thorough check for ticks and promptly removal of ticks are the key public health strategies to reduce the risk of LB and other tick-borne diseases in children and adolescents. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to better understand the burden of disease related to LB.
... Talking to Children Stepfamily Problems Sleep Problems School Refusal Parents with Cancer: Tips for Talking to Kids Moving: Helping Children Cope Foster Care Disaster: Helping Children Cope Depression in Children and ...
Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... are overweight. Some children have problems from drinking cow's milk. For instance, a milk allergy may cause: Belly pain or cramping Nausea and ...
... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...
Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara
A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395
Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity. PMID:21289034
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Schlene, Vickie J.
Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)
Alcohol is a socially recognized, legal luxury food in Germany. Alcohol dependence is simultaneously the largest dependency problem of our society and can result from moderate alcohol consumption. An early arising complication of harmful alcohol consumption are injuries which are connected with a high rate of Retrauma. Harmful alcohol consumption may be partly the result of ineffective coping strategies. The sense of coherence (SOC) measures the extent to which people are able to cope with st...
"Die Aktivitäten im Bereich der beruflichen Weiterbildung erreichen innerhalb des deutschen Beschäftigungssystems lediglich ein unterdurchschnittliches Niveau. Der stetige Anstieg der Qualifikationsanforderungen erfordert jedoch eine Steigerung der Weiterbildungsaktivitäten und insbesondere eine Bildungsstrategie, die vor allem niedrig qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte aktiviert und in lebensbegleitende Lernprozesse integriert. Um erfolgreiche Lösungsansätze im Bereich der beruflichen Weiterbildung...
Oil pollution in the Black Sea marine organisms during 2003-2006: mussel, shellfish, and algaeKaradeniz deniz organizmalarında 2003-2006 yıllarında petrol kirliliği: midye, deniz salyangozu ve deniz algleri
Güven, Kasım Cemal; Nesimigil, Filiz; Cumalı, Selin
Abstract Oil pollution was investigated in mussel, shellfish and 3 green, 1 brown and 2 red algae collected different part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The oil pollution was found in the samples collected from the east part of the Black Sea were found more polluted than west and middle part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey.The maximum oil pollution levels in the mussels samples collected in 2005-2006 are similar as 106.01-107.33 μg/L wet weight.Oil pollution found in mussel, Rapana venos...
... DONATE TODAY Home / Spotlight On / Migraine in Children Migraine in Children Thank you to Marcy Yonker, MD, FAHS for her contribution to this spotlight! Migraine and Children: It’s a Family Affair Migraine headaches ...
... Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation TV Violence and Children Quick Links Facts For Families Guide ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...
... headaches . Home > Migraine Variants in Children Print Email Migraine Variants in Children ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine Variants in Children There are several disorders that ...
... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...
Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...
Our Children, 1995
This adaptation of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) booklet "Safeguarding Your Children" discusses cooperative efforts of communities, schools, and homes to protect children from violence. (SM)
Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne
higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children. The...
Larusdottir, Aldis Run
and carrying through an evacuation where the youngest children need the most assistance in both phases. Self preservation i.e. where children descended stairs unassisted, was less than 25 % for children aged 0-2 years but over 85 % for children aged 3-6 years. Warning method influenced pre-evacuation time...
Ramadan, Hassan H.
Rhinosinusitis is a very common disease worldwide and specifically in the US population. It is a common disease in children but may be underdiagnosed. Several reasons may account to the disease being missed in children. The symptoms in children are limited and can be very similar to the common cold or allergic symptoms. Cough and nasal discharge may be the only symptoms present in children. A high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis in these children. The m...
This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326
Many children and young people living in London are affected by HIV. Most such children come from families from sub-Saharan Africa. Some HIV-positive parents have died, some are ill, and some are well. Some older children know that their parents are infected with HIV, but most children are unaware. To help these children understand their situations, children with a parent or parents who have died or are very sick are invited to 6 half-days of storytelling and play, led by a family counselor and someone who uses drama. Trained volunteers come from local AIDS organizations. The sessions vary depending upon what the children choose to discuss. The adults' role is to help the children begin to reflect upon their feelings in a way which is easy for them to express. Sessions usually begin with the creation of a story using a toy animal, after which children subsequently act out the imaginary family in different ways. PMID:12294833
Jepson, A M
Parents for Children is a specialist adoption agency set up to find homes for children with special needs--that is, those with physical, mental, and emotional handicaps; older children; and sibling groups. Of the first 38 children placed, one child died and six placements broke down, although four children were later re-placed. Almost all the children referred to the agency had been in care for most of their lives. A full assessment of each child is necessary before placement, but in several ...
In this paper, mainly through analysis of problems on existing children entertainment facilities and the impact of children entertainment facilities on children psychological development, it is to be discussed about the key point of children entertainment facilities design.
The author, an instructor from 1979-83 at the Children's Theatre Program of the Komplex Budaya Negara (National Cultural Complex), describes how children's theatre has evolved to achieve a distinct Malaysian identity by drawing from traditional theatre forms. (PD)
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2001
In prose and art, students and staff from a residential treatment center for troubled children in Columbus, Ohio, express and illustrate the depth of pain that children and their caregivers face in the process of healing from abuse. (Author)
Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne; Siggard Jensen, Hans; Ackerman, Edith; Knoop, H. H.
Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....
... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Jul 21,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000749.htm Children and grief To use the sharing features on this page, ... your own child, learn the normal responses to grief that children have and the signs when your ...
... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
... 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: What is a ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
Cochrane, R. McCrae; Sachs, Jacqueline
Finds no differences in the degree to which adults and seven-year-old children generalized Spanish stress patterns, although the children showed less interference from English stress patterns than the adults. (Author/RL)
... TV, in movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ... watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the violent episodes ...
Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.
Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.
Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.
Melinda Morea; Nicolae Miu
Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children. Material and methods: We performed a cross sectional, retrospective study. A total of 395 children aged between 2-19 years old were examined.. The children have undergone physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF ...
This article is intended to provide evidence to suggest that information for teachers regarding transgender children does not represent an adequate picture of transgendered children in schools and that primary schools need to be made more aware of how to deal with transgender children, even if these children do not make themselves known to staff. It will argue that this is probably a contributing factor in transgender children’s underachievement in school. The implications of this research...
The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...
Avakyan, Tamara; Volikova, Svetlana
Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanag...
Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars
It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....
Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...
Auman, Mary Jo
The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…
Finds that an onset/rime analogy explanation accounted for the children's correct recodings of pseudowords better than a phoneme blending explanation, that the number of pseudowords children recoded correlated with the number of conventional words they recoded, and that children who were better able to conserve parts and wholes recoded more…
Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Reading Teacher, 2008
Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…
Reading Teacher, 2002
Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
... of Constipation in Children Constipation happens when stool stays too long in a child's colon. Causes of constipation in children may include ignoring the urge to have a bowel movement, a diet low in fiber, certain medicines or health problems. Diagnosis of Constipation in Children A doctor will ...
Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun;
A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restaurants...
Choonara, I; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.
The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...
Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter;
Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
The Green Paper, Every child matters, recognised the crucial importance of the children's workforce to improving outcomes for children and young people. The Children's Workforce Strategy sets out the government's vision of a world-class children's workforce which is increasingly competent and confident, inspiring trust and respect from parents and carers as well as from children and young people themselves. The document sets out four major strategic challenges: to recruit more high quality staff into the children's workforce; to retain people in the workforce including by offering better development and career progression; to strengthen interagency and multi-disciplinary working; and to promote stronger leadership and management. The strategy builds on work already in hand and on existing good practice. It puts forward proposals to tackle each of the strategic challenges with action nationally and locally. PMID:16114715
Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.
According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...
Mihić Biljana D.
Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
In a review of literature on the subject, etiology, pathophysiology, methods of blood pressure measurement and clinical aspects of hypertension in children are discussed. The measurement of blood pressure in children over 2 years of age as a routine procedure in ambulatory examination is emphasized. Despite controversial views expressed on the value of "Report of the task force on blood pressure control in children "Indicating blood pressures over 90th percentile for sex and age as actual hyp...
Broström professor m.so., Stig
research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate with...... children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children....
Scully, P; Macken, Alan P; Leddin, Des; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; O'Gorman, Clodagh S.
peer-reviewed The prevalence of overweight children, and hours of television viewed are positively correlated1,2. Causality may include greater periods of inactivity and exposure to food advertising and product placement while watching television. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a maximum of 2 hours of non-educational television viewing per day for children over 2 years3. However, recent evidence suggests that children aged 6-11 years watch 24.5 hours of ...
Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed
Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...
LASK, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; M. Tranter
Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.
The impact of private use of PCV7 in 2009 and 2010 on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by young children in Portugal: Comparison with data obtained since 1996 generating a 15-year study prior to PCV13 introduction.
Nunes, Sónia; Félix, Sofia; Valente, Carina; Simões, Alexandra S; Tavares, Débora A; Almeida, Sónia T; Paulo, Ana C; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel
In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007. Pneumococci were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of 1092 children up to six years old attending day-care in an urban area. Among these, 76% (819/1070) were vaccinated and 62% (677/1092) carried pneumococci. In 2009-2010, serotype replacement was extensive. Carriage of PCV7 serotypes was 4.9% and 5.8%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively, with the majority being of serotype 19F (carried by 4.3% and 4.6% of all participants, respectively). Colonization by serotype 19F was associated with vaccine status (7.7% (19/248) of non-vaccinees vs. 3.5% (29/818) of PCV7-vaccinees, p=0.010). Carriage of serotype 19A was high in 2009 and 2010 (8.6% of all participants) consistent with values already observed in 2007; carriage of serotype 6A was <1% (10/1092), indicating a major decline after 2007 (5.8% or 31/538, p<0.001). Non-vaccine serotypes increased and serotype 6C became the most frequently carried serotype in 2010 (11.2% (54/481)). High-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥2mg/L) showed a decreasing trend (p<0.001), whereas resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin increased (p<0.001) and was detected in 15-20% of all isolates in 2009-2010, most of which were non-vaccine serotypes. Antimicrobial use decreased over time (p<0.001). In conclusion, widespread private use of PCV7 has impacted on colonization leading to near elimination of all PCV7 serotypes except for serotype 19F. Antimicrobial consumption
Abstract This paper is about children and stress. Stress among children is a serious problem and to be aware of that as a preschool teacher is very important. I’ve focused on the youngest children in preschool. I’ve searched for information in litterateur and articles. To fins literature is not a problem because it is a lot written about this subject. I did two interviews with three preschool teachers. All my sources agree that stress among children is a problem that we must try to work again...
Choonara, I A; McKay, P; Hain, R; Rane, A.
1. The metabolism of morphine was studied in 12 children and nine premature neonates on a continuous infusion of morphine (10-360 micrograms kg-1 h-1). 2. The mean plasma clearance of morphine was significantly higher in children than neonates (25.7 and 4.7 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively) (P less than 0.01). 3. All the neonates and children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) in plasma. All the children and five neonates had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-glucu...
... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...
Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia
Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Rud, B; Halken, S; Damholt, V
In a 10-year period, 31 children, including 9 infants, were treated for hematogenous osteomyelitis. Fifteen children were treated closed and 16 open. Thirteen of 14 positive cultures were Staphylococcus aureus. Three recurrences could possibly have been prevented by a more aggressive primary...
Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;
Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...
Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…
Brendtro, Larry; Van Bockern, Steve
Discusses problems facing children and adolescents in the former Soviet Union. Describes efforts of Bureau for Youth Welfare which has networked with various organizations to create projects in all the Russian Republics. Briefly describes international conference on Modern Society and the Psychosocial Problems of Children held in Moscow in May…
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Platoff, Anne M.
In the Soviet Union (1922-1991) small flags designed for and used by children were more than just toys. Deep scholarship and extensive illustrations of flags from the author’s collection show how such flags played a significant role in the socialization of Soviet children.
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Examines possible solutions for improving the status of children in India. Suggests that there is a need to focus on child rights issues related to public awareness, attitudinal change, political commitment, mass sensitization, and outreach. Suggests an appropriate strategy for the restoration of the rights of children in India. (AA)
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.
These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…
Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel
One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we propo
The philosophy is outlined of the therapy of malignant tumors in children, including Hodgkin type lymphomas and non-Hodgkin tumors, such as Wilm's tumor. The role of radiotherapy is defined and discussed in the comprehensive management of children using a combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy system. (L.O.). 5 refs
Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; Leblanc, Allana G; Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Katzmarzyk, P T; Tremblay, Mark S; Barreira, Tiago V; Broyles, Stephanie T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Zhao, Pei
24-hour accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, Ind...... with the lunar cycle in this global sample of children. Whether this seemingly minimal difference is clinically meaningful is questionable....
Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive culture…
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…
Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia
A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…
All the parents want their children to go to bed by themselves and sleep through the night. Unluckily, over 30% of today--s parents do not have such children. Instead, their kids are awake at night crying or resist going to bed in the evening.
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with
Reading Teacher, 2001
Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)
In addition to the established methods of X-ray radiography, or conventional tomography, for the diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis in children, ultrasonography is another very useful technique. In many cases, MRI well supplements the range of available methods, but CT is inferior to the latter. Bone scintiscanning is not applicable for a differential diagnosis, i.e. for discriminating osteomyelitis from other lesions such as bone tumors or tumorous lesions. Due to the very small contribution of scintigraphy to differential diagnosis or therapy selection in case of osteomyelitis or other skeletal lesions in children, the radiation dose to the children as a result of scintiscanning is an important factor, with the energy dose to the metaphyseal growth complexes being the crucial dose. Skeletal scintiscanning in children therefore requires extremely accurate indication, and its almost routine application for differential diagnosis of localised bone lesions in children is by no means justified. (orig./MG)
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...
Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D
The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634
Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored
Choonara, I; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A
The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than 0.01), suggesting that morphine sulphation decreases after the neonatal period. The amount of M3S formed, even in neonates, is low suggesting that this is a minor metabolic pathway. PMID:2288836
杨斌; 梁谷米; 于红燕; 张齐云; 仲西蒙; 续文; 顾明; 周毓瑾
目的 分析民航空勤人员医学临时停飞原因与特点,为航卫保障工作提供可靠的临床流行病学依据.方法 对2003年至2006年度516例东方航空江苏有限公司空勤人员因医学原因临时停飞情况进行调查,其中飞行员123人,空中乘务员342人,空中安全员51人.分析不同年度、不同职别人员医学临时停飞原因及临时停飞天数.应用SPSS 13.0统计软件进行统计分析.结果 ①临时停飞疾病居前10位的是上呼吸道感染、急性肠炎、气压性中耳炎、急性胃肠炎、软组织损伤、急慢性胃炎、痛经和月经不调、扁桃体炎、腰扭伤和腰肌劳损、皮炎.②上呼吸道感染是引起医学临时停飞的首要原因,高血压、气压性中耳炎、妊娠分别是飞行员、空中安全员、空中乘务员医学临时停飞的主要原因.③上呼吸道感染和气压性中耳炎在医学临时停飞总天数中位居前列,骨折、烫伤、肾炎及肾盂肾炎以及腰椎间盘突出症在单次医学临时停飞天数中位居前列.结论 应加强对空勤人员的健康教育,有针对性地开展预防工作,使其加强体质锻炼,养成良好生活习惯,降低医学临时停飞率.%Objective To analyze the characteristics and causes leading to civil aircrew medical temporary grounding and to provide the clinical epidemiology reference for aeromedical protection.Methods The constituent ratio of grounding cases and days of medical temporary grounding from 2003 to 2006 in China Eastern Airlines Jiangsu Ltd.were investigated and statistically analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software.Results The top ten diseases led to 516 aircrew medical temporary grounding in China Eastern Airlines Jiangsu Ltd.were upper respiratory tract infection,acute enteritis,barotraumatic otitis media,acute gastroenteritis,soft tissue injury,acute or chronic gastritis,dysmenorrhea and menoxenia,tonsillitis,lumbar sprain and lumbar muscle strain and dermatitis.Upper respiratory tract infection was the prime reason for aircrew medical temporary grounding.Hypertension disease,barotraumatic otitis media and pregnancy were the other important causes leading pilot,security officer and steward medical temporary grounding.Upper respiratory tract infection and barotraumatic otitis media,fracture,scald,nephritis and pyelonephritis and prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc ranked the top of total and average sick leave days.Conclusions It is suggested that the health education and orientated prevention should be strengthened.Participating in physical exercise and taking good lifestyle habit would be helpful to reduce the rate of medical temporary grounding.
Drifting buoy data from SVP Drifting Argos Buoys, deployed by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystems Division (CRED) near Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands, 2003-2006 (NODC Accession 0067473)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes data from multiple SVP drifters deployed in the region of the Marianas Archipelago to assess ocean currents and sea surface...
Chianese, D.; Bernasconi, A.; Friesen, G.; Cereghetti, N.; Pola, I.; Bura, E.; Nagel, K.; Pittet, D.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Ballerini, N.; Rioggi, S.
This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the ISAAC-TISO test centre in southern Switzerland. The main objective of the test centre is the evaluation of photovoltaic module quality, i.e. the assessment of the power values declared by the manufacturer, the electrical behaviour and energy production in varying climatic conditions, the stability of these values over time, and module life-span. Up till now, both outdoor and indoor structures for testing the electrical behaviour of modules have been realised. Indoor measurements under standard conditions are carried out using a solar simulator, outdoor measurements are carried out using external stands capable of accommodating 18 pairs of modules. The aim of the test procedure is to verify the actual power of modules; to verify if module guarantees are respected; to observe the behaviour of modules under real climatic conditions; to compare the energy yield of the different types of module; and finally, to develop methods for forecasting energy yield. The test installations are described in detail and various results are presented. Building-integrated photovoltaics is discussed and the mechanical characteristics of various module types are examined.
Senior Roca , Diana Margarita
Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta el impacto que los resultados de los exámenes de calidad de la educación superior (ECAES tienen en la comunidad académica en general, se consideró importante estudiar aspectos sociodemográficos, psicol ógicos y condiciones educativas relacionadas con la vida universitaria, de estudiantes que obtuvieron puntajes en el examen ECAES, por encima de dos desviaciones estándar; calificación que supera al 97% de la poblaci ón que presenta este examen. Se pretende contribuir con este trabajo a la reflexión y análisis sobre el rendimiento académico, para incorporar los resultados encontrados, en el diseño de alternativas de trabajo que ayuden a otros estudiantes a alcanzar el éxito académico. En este estudio participaron 36 profesionales de psicología, egresados de cinco universidades colombianas. Se encontró que estos estudiantes se caracterizan porque atribuyen su alto puntaje en el ECAES a su capacidad intelectual, consideran que el éxito académico se debe a su esfuerzo personal, no tienen problemas para leer y comprender textos en inglés, tienen fácil acceso a Internet, se encuentran motivados para seguir estudiando luego de culminar su carrera universitaria, desean realizar estudios fuera del país, las actividades académicas desarrolladas en la universidad tenían sentido para ellos, no les preocupaba que los docentes fueran estrictos, se encontraban orgullosos de pertenecer a su universidad y consideraban que su opinión era tenida en cuenta al momento de tomar decisiones en su familia. Los resultados suministrados por la prueba AF-5, muestran que tienen un autoconcepto alto en la dimensión académico-laboral.
Ford, R. E.
Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal education" efforts doing environmental and ecotourism outreach with groups such as the Hugh Parkey Foundation and EarthWatch Institute in Belize and others in Honduras such as FUCSA (Fundacion Cuero y Salado), FUPNAPIB (Fundacion Parque Nacional Pico Bonito), REHDES (Red Ecologista Hondurena para el Desarrollo Sostenible), and SMBC (Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y Conservacion). See more about the projects on water resources, herpetofauna on the Pacific coast, and the West Indian manatee at: http://resweb.llu.edu/rford/ Lessons learned about designing, organizing, implementing, and financing such geosciences educational partnerships will be presented as well as describing "next steps". Suggestions about how other universities could join with us will be also proposed.
目的 对校医院4年易感因素进行调查分析,为进一步提高大学校医院感染管理的水平提供参考依据.方法 对北京大学校医院2003年1月至2006年12月1845例住院患者病例进行回顾分析.结果 4年中,共发生感染病例102例次,感染率为 5.53%.以呼吸道感染为首位,占73.54%,其次为泌尿道感染,占9.80%.检出致病菌以革兰氏阴性杆菌为主.住院时间越长,院感发生率越高;年龄60岁以上、长期卧床、介入性治疗等患者,院感发生率明显增加.结论 校医院感染发生率与住院时间、年龄、长期卧床、介入性诊疗操作、合并症多等因素有关.
Full Text Available It has long been a tradition in interaction design to involve users in order to better capture user needs and preferences. The involvement of children as informants and design partners is well documented for interaction design but its use in serious games design is much less reported. Where children are contributing to the design of learning materials their knowledge may be incomplete. This paper reports on the organisation of, and the deliverables from, a participatory design activity with children in which they were charged with designing a game for children in another continent. The study found that children predominantly focussed on the learning aspects of the serious game during their design activities but they were also able to consider some of the game aspects. They demonstrated understanding of instruction but were less aware of some of the other aspects of learning including feedback on understanding. Involving children in the design of the serious game lead to some nice insights that were included in the game that was subsequently built and shipped. Taking Müller’s third place in HCI as inspiration, the paper concludes with some reflection for how to involve children in serious game design.
Fenton, L.Z.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
Background. In pediatrics, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is usually due to necrotizing enterocolitis in premature newborns. Beyond infancy, PI is uncommon. ''Benign pneumatosis'' is PI in patients with few or no symptoms that resolves with conservative management. Objective. Our goal was to better characterize benign PI in children. Our investigation focused on identifying underlying risk factors, symptoms at time of diagnosis, management and outcome. Materials and methods. Available medical records and radiographs of children with pneumatosis intestinalis from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed for underlying conditions, symptoms at time of radiographs, management and outcome. Results. Thirty-seven children (mean age 4 years) were included. Thirty-two children had identifiable risk factors. Twenty -five children were immunocompromised by their underlying conditions or therapeutic regimen. Thirty-five children were managed conservatively with resolution of PI. Two patients, however, required surgery and one patient died. Conclusion. Benign pneumatosis does occur in children. The majority have underlying risk factors, most commonly related to immunosuppression. Clinical deterioration is the most useful indicator for surgical intervention. In most patients PI resolves with conservative management. (orig.)
Kukreja, Kamlesh; Vaidya, Sandeep
Advanced medical treatment options have improved pediatric survival but often require invasive vascular procedures or venous access. These procedures increase the risk for thromboembolism in children, and there has been a corresponding increase in the reported incidence of deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome in the pediatric population. Percutaneous venous interventions using catheter-directed therapy (CDT), like mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis, have been used much less frequently in children, even though they have shown good results in adults. A multidisciplinary team including pediatric hematology, interventional radiology, and intensive care unit is suggested for management of venous thrombosis in children. Indications and contraindications for CDT in children are similar to adults. Mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis are some of the more commonly performed treatments. CDT in children requires adapting to patient size and locally available equipment. Ultrasound guidance for access, "cork" technique, appropriate dosing of tissue plasminogen activator for infusion/pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and simultaneous administration of heparin, plasminogen (fresh frozen plasma), and deficient coagulation factors are some of the important variations of CDT technique in children. Postprocedure monitoring is very important for successful thrombolysis. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are increasingly being used in children as well, for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) if there is a significant risk of PE with/without contraindications to anticoagulation. PMID:21335289
Jameela A Kari
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.
A qualitative research study of children's experiences of living with domestic violence and their experiences of the service responses they recieved. This report was commissioned by the Office of the Minister for Children and presents the findings of 61 qualitative interviews with a sample of 22 children, (including children as young as 5), 19 mothers and 20 key professionals. The report provides considerable detail of (1) the kinds of violent households children live in and (2) how state and...
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.
Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…
Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…
Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…
Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle
In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...
Langlois, Kellie A; Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E
Based on the results of Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey, this article presents an overview of how often First Nations children living off reserve, Métis children and Inuit children aged 2 to 5 consume various types of food, including foods considered traditional or country among Aboriginal people. The frequency with which First Nations children living off reserve and Métis children consumed items from major food groups tended to be similar. While lower percentages of Inuit children were reported to regularly consume items from these food groups, relatively high percentages of Inuit children consumed traditional or country foods. Around two-thirds of all Aboriginal children ate fast food and processed foods at least once a week, and just over half had salty snacks, sweets and desserts at least once a day. Consumption patterns varied, depending on whether children lived in a Census Metropolitan Area/Census Agglomeration. PMID:24258058
The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
Full Text Available ... a vesicoureteral reflux study. It can take several seconds to a few days for radiotracers to travel ... into a vein in your child's arm or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to ...
... drinking the wrong types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in ... such as chocolate, peanut butter, and dark-colored soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...
... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
... dosages also must be tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and emotional growth and development. Special consideration must be given to potential side ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Full Text Available ... Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001430.htm Speech disorders - children To use the sharing features on ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Read More Autism spectrum disorder Cerebral palsy Hearing loss Intellectual disability ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...
Search The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF) is a national, non-profit organization focused on pediatric cardiomyopathy, a chronic disease of the heart muscle. CCF is dedicated to accelerating the search for ...
... therapy that harnesses the immune system of healthy siblings." In lay terms? To make transplants safer and more successful through tumor vaccines. Madelen and friend share a quiet moment at The Children's Inn ...
Terry, R L; Stockton, L A
The role of framed eyeglasses in children's person schemata was examined. American first graders (35 girls, 36 boys), rated by their teachers as low, medium, or high in cognitive development, judged peers photographed with and without glasses for physical attractiveness, school performance, conduct, sociability, and sociometric choice. There was a general same-sex bias in the children's ratings. The stimulus persons tended to be rated lower in attractiveness (especially if they were girls), school performance, and conduct when they were wearing glasses than when they were not wearing glasses. Glasses negatively influenced sociometric choice, but only for the most cognitively developed children. These results indicated that adults' stereotypes about people who wear glasses eventually become part of children's person schemata. PMID:8231122
... Registry Learn About NF Facts & Statistics NF1 NF2 Schwannomatosis About Us Foundation News & Events Employment Opportunities About ... Children's Tumor Foundation Home - Neurofibromatosis, NF, NF1, NF2, Schwannomatosis What Is NF? Facts & Statistics Schwannomatosis Diagnosis of ...
... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...
Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)
Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
... frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ... different issues affecting the child. A child and adolescent psychiatrist can help coordinate the evaluation, and work ...
... regular menstrual periods. Obese children often have low self-esteem. They are more likely to be teased or ... EA, et al. Best practice updates for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 May; ...
... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...
... different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect their ability to function well with ... ET is frustrating and embarrassing for children and adolescents, and can lead to anxiety, depression, and social ...
Pyle, Wilma J.
Children's literature and school texts have reflected society's relegation of women to inferior, passive roles; while there is now an awareness that stereotypes and sexist terms should be eliminated, there is the danger that overreaction will diminish literary quality. (JD)
... for a child to fit through. Make sure fire escapes are not accessible or have adequate fencing. ... children understand the difference between real guns and weapons they see on TV, movies, or video games. ...
... Cord Tumors Neuroblastoma Wilms Tumor Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin Disease Rhabdomyocarcoma Retinoblastoma Osteosarcoma Ewing Family of Tumors Learn About Cancer in Children Whether your child has just been diagnosed with ...
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...
Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S
The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830
Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Erin Clyne; Jason, Leonard A.
This case study evaluates the use of a Restrictive aide and the complementary use of parental mediation techniques to reduce media viewing among children. A family was provided a TV Token Timer, which involved a positive reward in exchange for participating in activities outside of watching television. Media viewing habits decreased from the baseline to the completion of the intervention at week 8 for both children. The parent reported high levels of Instructive mediation and positively evalu...
Mattson, Christina Phillips
Children’s Literature Grows Up proposes that there is a revolution occurring in contemporary children’s fiction that challenges the divide that has long existed between literature for children and literature for adults. Children’s literature, though it has long been considered worthy of critical inquiry, has never enjoyed the same kind of extensive intellectual attention as adult literature because children’s literature has not been considered to be serious literature or “high art.” Children...
Agarwal Abhinav; Mohta Anup; Anand Ritesh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visib...
A recent study by Fischer (2011) found that children independently choose the direction that letters and digits face during literacy development when lacking explicit knowledge of directionality. In explanation of this finding, Fischer proposes an implicit right writing rule claims that the direction children choose is mainly biased rightward (drawing from left to right) because the majority of letters in the English language face this way. The purpose of this study was to test for the preval...
Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.
Benzagmout, Mohammed; Boujraf, Saïd; Chakour, Khalid; Chaoui, Mohammed El Faïz
Background: The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing, and skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-20% of all extrapulmonary cases. Spinal tuberculosis occurs mostly in children and young adults. It causes bone destruction, spinal deformity and neural complications. Materials and Methods: Our study includes 37 children (below 15 years of age) with spinal tuberculosis treated in our department in the last 6 years. The demographic data, clinical profile, surgical intervention and outcome of the...
Perou, Ruth; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Claussen, Angelika H; Scott, Keith G.; Beckwith, Leila H; Howard, Judy; Katz, Lynne F; Smith, D.
Abstract Background One in five Americans under age 18 lives in a family below the Federal poverty threshold. These more than 15 million children are at increased risk of a wide variety of adverse long-term health and developmental outcomes. The early years of life are critical to short- and long-term health and well-being. The Legacy for Children TM model was developed in response to this need and marries the perspective...
Gunnarsson, Nina Veetnisha
Two general questions directed the focus of this thesis: (1). What are the everyday practical and moral underpinnings of parenting children with allergy? (2). How do particularly mothers retrospectively account for and justify they are responsible parents and moral agents in the interview situation? The overall aim was to explore the everyday practical and interactional strategies used by mothers when they are parenting children with allergy and in such contexts and relations where their...
Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph
Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277
Thanks to the development of rapid sequences with better resolution, applications of uro MR have rapidly increased in children. Difficulties that remain are related to the variable ages of the patients. It is therefore mandatory to standardize as much as possible the techniques that are used in order to obtain reproducible results. In this review, the examination protocols will be explained. In a second part the current applications in children will be illustrated and discussed, especially in comparison with the other imaging techniques
Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...
Behavioral problems are becoming more and more common phenomena in children education. When behavioral problems occur it is very important to have the appropriate approach that mitigates or completely removes them. The key to this is to know as much as possible about children development and behavioral problems. The theoretical part contains the features of a child's development and then I focused on behavioral problems and the causes that bring to such results. I described methods to remove...
Tatlı, Burak; Ekici, Barış
Myelomeningocele nbsp; is a defect of neural arch which causes body structure and function disorders participation restrictions and activity limitation in children Keeping body structure and functions and gaining functional independence are the most important goals in the rehabilitation of children with myelomeningocele In this study we analysed the effects of Kinesio Taping on sitting posture and functional independence in 4 cases with myelomeningocele Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 177 80
Dennis, Everette E.; Pease, Edward C.
Throughout history the media has primarily been produced by adults, for adults, about adults. Increasingly, children have become a matter of high priority in the modern media society, and as they have, they have also become the subject of much concern. From debates in Congress about the detrimental effects of movies, comic books, and video games over the last century to efforts to court children as media consumers, there is a clear recognition that the media are not now and probably ne...
The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...
Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM
Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite man...
Conway, A.G.; O'Hara, P
In this paper we examined educational participation by farm children, from two small areas in the West of Ireland. There has been a dramatic increase in participation, especially since the introduction of free post-primary education in 1967. This reflects the changing ability of parents to afford education for their children. Participation on smaller farms was lower than on larger farms up to 1967, but since that time it has almost equalised. Differences between those from smaller as compared...