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Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H
Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890
... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...
This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212
Bryan J Vonasek; Francis Bajunirwe; Laura E Jacobson; Leonidas Twesigye; James Dahm; Grant, Monica J.; Ajay K Sethi; Conway, James H
Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely ...
Problem The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation, resulting in an abnormal post-natal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying mechanisms have focused on post-natal microbial exposure. Also, the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy may program the immune development of the child, however. Method of study This review focuses on how maternal immunity and microbial exposures regulate childhood immune and...
Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio
Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake ...
Conclusion: Although childhood immunization practices and attitudes are satisfactory, majority do not have specific knowledge on vaccines and the duration of protection they offer. Socio-demographic factors had a significant influence on the immunization status. Hence, efforts should be focused on improving them also besides educating them about vaccines to improve their knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1201-1207
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is characterized by a low grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described.
Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta
This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971
Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Erin C Dunn; Koenen, Karestan C.
Childhood adversity can have powerful effects on health over the life course. Persistent changes in cell-mediated immune function may be one pathway linking adverse childhood experiences with later disease risk. However, limited research has examined childhood adversity in relation to cell-mediated immune function, and in particular, immune response to latent viruses in adulthood. The present study investigated the association of two types of childhood adversity, socioeconomic disadvantage du...
Vikram, Kriti; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde
While correlations between maternal education and child health have been observed in diverse parts of the world, the causal pathways explaining how maternal education improves child health remain far from clear. Using data from the nationally representative India Human Development Survey of 2004-5, this analysis examines four possible pathways that may mediate the influence of maternal education on childhood immunization: greater human, social, and cultural capitals and more autonomy within t...
Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L
Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731
Landgraf-Rauf, Katja; Anselm, Bettina; Schaub, Bianca
Asthma represents the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Whereas preschool children present with wheezing triggered by different factors (multitrigger and viral wheeze), clinical asthma manifestation in school children has previously been classified as allergic and non-allergic asthma. For both, the underlying immunological mechanisms are not yet understood in depth in children. Treatment is still prescribed regardless of underlying mechanisms, and children are not always treated successfully. This review summarizes recent key findings on the complex mechanisms of the development and manifestation of childhood asthma. Whereas traditional classification of childhood asthma is primarily based on clinical symptoms like wheezing and atopy, novel approaches to specify asthma phenotypes are under way and face challenges such as including the stability of phenotypes over time and transition into adulthood. Epidemiological studies enclose more information on the patient's disease history and environmental influences. Latest studies define endotypes based on molecular and cellular mechanisms, for example defining risk and protective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and new immune phenotypes, showing promising results. Also, regulatory T cells and recently discovered T helper cell subtypes such as Th9 and Th17 cells were shown to be important for the development of asthma. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) could play a critical role in asthma patients as they produce different cytokines associated with asthma. Epigenetic findings showed different acetylation and methylation patterns for children with allergic and non-allergic asthma. On a posttranscriptional level, miRNAs are regulating factors identified to differ between asthma patients and healthy controls and also indicate differences within asthma phenotypes. Metabolomics is another exciting chapter important for endotyping asthmatic children. Despite the development of new biomarkers and the discovery of
Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Johnson, Victor J.; Wilson, Nevin W.; Biagini, Raymond E.; Wang, Wei; Frye, Bonnie; Weissman, David N.; Germolec, Dori R.; Luster, Michael I; Barmada, Michael M.
The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate ...
Early childhood immunizations have been accused to promote atopy development, either directly by the administration of agents which induce a Th2-type immune response or indirectly by the prevention of infections which otherwise would induce a preferential Th1-type immune response, and would thus skew the cytokine balance away from atopy. By contrast, BCG immunization has gained recent interest as an antagonist of exaggerated Th2-type immune response and as a potential atopy preventive tool. ...
Wang, D.; Jenders, R. A.; Dasgupta, B.
To translate national childhood immunization guidelines to a computer-based reminder recall system, hierarchical system architecture design and combined approach of tabular and procedural knowledge representation are taken. Nested branches with hierarchical combinations of single antecedent variables are used to avoid logical incompleteness, redundancy and inconsistency. Mapping to the local electronic medical vocabulary is implemented to facilitate the integration with the local information ...
Ermann, Joerg; Rao, Deepak A; Teslovich, Nikola C; Brenner, Michael B; Raychaudhuri, Soumya
Biomarkers are needed to guide treatment decisions for patients with rheumatic diseases. Although the phenotypic and functional analysis of immune cells is an appealing strategy for understanding immune-mediated disease processes, immune cell profiling currently has no role in clinical rheumatology. New technologies, including mass cytometry, gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and multiplexed functional assays, enable the analysis of immune cell function with unprecedented detail and promise not only a deeper understanding of pathogenesis, but also the discovery of novel biomarkers. The large and complex data sets generated by these technologies--big data--require specialized approaches for analysis and visualization of results. Standardization of assays and definition of the range of normal values are additional challenges when translating these novel approaches into clinical practice. In this Review, we discuss technological advances in the high-dimensional analysis of immune cells and consider how these developments might support the discovery of predictive biomarkers to benefit the practice of rheumatology and improve patient care. PMID:26034835
Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Longitudinal patterns in parents’ reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with two offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of eight decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision ma...
Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…
Stoltenberg, Scott F.; Lehmann, Melissa K.; Anderson, Cynthia; Nag, Parthasarathi; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl
The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT) system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531), the experience of childhood...
Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.
Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American, 2% other ethnic minority), the authors examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten through Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED…
Gage George N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.
Carolina Luísa Alves Barbieri; Márcia Thereza Couto
OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and par...
The aim of the research in this thesis was twofold. Part 1 aimed to provide insights into how the use of a (paper-based) clinical guideline for follow-up care of childhood cancer survivors could be improved (CCS) by communicating the guideline through a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). We first investigated factors that could facilitate a successful CDSS implementation through a systematic literature review. Subsequently, we investigated whether the use of an established ...
This dissertation studies the effects of personal experience on household decision making. I gauge personal experiences using a novel measure: the childhood experience of father's job loss. This measure is appealing for the following reasons. First, father's job loss constitutes a salient experience that is likely to be remembered for years to come. Second, the experience directly relates to the perceived riskiness of labor income, the most important source of income for the majority of house...
Fontaine, Reid G.; Yang, Chong Ming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.
Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American; 2% other ethnic minority), we examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten-Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED assessments, and their antisocial behaviors were measured by multiple raters. Structural equation modeling and linear growth analyses indicated that children differentiate ...
Westbom, L; Åberg, A; Källén, B
Among 4380 children born in 1987–1997 of women with a diagnosis of diabetes and alive at the age of one, 10 were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry before the end of 1998. The odds ratio for having a childhood cancer after maternal diabetes, stratified for year of birth, maternal age, parity, multiple birth, and 500 g birth weight class was 2.25 (95%CI 1.22–4.15). Among 5842 children born during the period 1973–1997 whose mothers had other auto-immune diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthriti...
Rein, David B; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Rojas-Smith, Lucia; Hersey, James C
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Section 317 Grants Program is the main source of funding for state and jurisdictional immunization programs, yet no study has evaluated its direct impact on vaccination coverage rates. Therefore, we used a fixed-effects model and data collected from 56 US jurisdictions to estimate the impact of Section 317 financial assistance immunization grants on childhood vaccination coverage rates from 1997 to 2003. Our results showed that increases in Section 317 funding were significantly and meaningfully associated with higher rates of vaccination coverage; a 10 dollars increase in per capita funding corresponded with a 1.6-percentage-point increase in vaccination coverage. Policymakers charged with funding public health programs should consider this study's findings, which indicate that money allocated to vaccine activities translates directly into higher vaccine coverage rates. PMID:16873738
Bakker, Kevin M; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J
Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV), over an 11-y period. We (i) report robust seasonal information-seeking behavior for chicken pox using Google data from 36 countries, (ii) validate Google data using clinical chicken pox cases, (iii) demonstrate that Google data can be used to identify recurrent seasonal outbreaks and forecast their magnitude and seasonal timing, and (iv) reveal that VZV immunization significantly dampened seasonal cycles in information-seeking behavior. Our findings provide strong evidence that VZV transmission is seasonal and that seasonal peaks show remarkable latitudinal variation. We attribute the dampened seasonal cycles in chicken pox information-seeking behavior to VZV vaccine-induced reduction of seasonal transmission. These data and the methodological approaches provide a way to track the global burden of childhood disease and illustrate population-level effects of immunization. The global latitudinal patterns in outbreak seasonality could direct future studies of environmental and physiological drivers of disease transmission. PMID:27247405
Harboe, Zitta B.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas;
We evaluated the effectiveness of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 1 year after PCV7's introduction in the childhood immunization programme through a nationwide cohort study based on laboratory surveillance data. There was a decline in the...
Guillaume, Sebastien; Perroud, Nader; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe
Decision-making impairment is found in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including suicidal behavior, and has been shown to be modulated by genes. On the other hand, early trauma have/has been associated with poor mental health outcome in adulthood, in interaction with genetic factors, possibly through sustained alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and its interaction with HPA-axis related genes on decision-making abilities in adulthood among a sample of suicide attempters. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to assess decision-making in 218 patients with a history of suicide attempt. Participant fulfilled the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to report traumatic childhood experiences. Patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes. Patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly lower IGT scores than non-sexually abused individuals. Polymorphisms within CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes interacted with both childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect to influence IGT performance. In conclusion, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect may have long-term effects on decision-making through an interaction with key HPA axis genes. Even if these results need to be replicated in other sample, impaired decision-making may thus be the dimension through which child maltreatment, in interaction with HPA axis related genes, may have a sustained negative impact on adult mental health. PMID:23177644
Full Text Available Problem statement: Cancer is generally regarded as a disease of adults. But there being a higher proportion of childhood cancer (ALL-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India. The incidence of childhood cancer has increased over the last 25 years, but the increase is much larger in females. The aim was to increase our understanding of the determinants of south Indian parental reactions and needs. This facilitates the development of the care and follow-up routines for families, paying attention to both individual risk and resilience factors and to ways in which limitations related to treatment centre and organizational characteristics could be compensated. Approach: Decision Trees may be used for classification, clustering, affinity, grouping, prediction or estimation and description. One of the useful medical applications in India is the management of Leukemia, as it accounts for about 33% of childhood malignancies. Results: Female survivors showed greater functional disability in comparison to male survivors-demonstrated by poorer overall health status. Family stress results from a perceived imbalance between the demands on the family and the resources available to meet such demands. Conclusion: The pattern and severity of health and functional outcomes differed significantly between survivors in diagnostic subgroups. Family impact was aggravated by patients lasting sequelae and by parent perceived shortcomings of long-term follow-up. Female survivors were at greater risk for health related late effects.
Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Methods: Systematic review by using PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) has been conducted in English published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. Results: A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p <0.05).Furthermore, it has been proved that an effect was more prominent for DTP (OR 2.397 and p<0.05) and measles (OR 2.628 and p<0.05), not as much for polio (OR 2.284 and p>0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Conclusions: Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP and measles. (author)
This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750
François, Paul; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire
Some cells have to take decision based on the quality of surroundings ligands, almost irrespective of their quantity, a problem we name "absolute discrimination". An example of absolute discrimination is recognition of not-self by immune T Cells. We show how the problem of absolute discrimination can be solved by a process called "adaptive sorting". We review several implementations of adaptive sorting, as well as its generic properties such as antagonism. We show how kinetic proofreading with negative feedback implement an approximate version of adaptive sorting in the immune context. Finally, we revisit the decision problem at the cell population level, showing how phenotypic variability and feedbacks between population and single cells are crucial for proper decision.
Gullo, Dominic F.
Since the passage of No Child Left Behind, data-driven decision making has become one of the central foci in schools in their attempt to attain and maintain adequate levels of student academic performance. The importance of early childhood education is well established with language and literacy proficiency in the early years being viewed as a…
Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances
The article reports on a study investigating influences on Australian politicians' decision making for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy. The astronomical concept of dark matter is utilised as a metaphor for considering normalising, and therefore frequently difficult to detect and disrupt, influences implicated in politicians'…
Zlamy, Manuela; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Schmidt, Christian; Leierer, Johannes; Weinberger, Birgit; Jeller, Verena; Unsinn, Karin; Eyrich, Matthias; Würzner, Reinhard; Prelog, Martina
Background Homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the T cell compartment diversity indicate an ongoing process of thymic activity and peripheral T cell renewal during human life. These processes are expected to be accelerated after childhood thymectomy and by the influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) inducing a prematurely aged immune system. The study aimed to investigate proportional changes and replicative history of CD8+ T cells, of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) and CD103+ T cells (mostly gut-e...
Yildiz, Inci; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje; Soylu, Selen; Karaman, Serap; Canbolat, Aylin; Dogru, Omer; Erginoz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acute self-limited disease of childhood, mostly resolving within 6 months irrespective of whether therapy is given or not. Treatment options when indicated include corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and anti-RhD immunoglobulin. We reviewed our 32 years' experience for first-line therapy of acute ITP. Five hundred forty-one children (mean age: 5.3 years) diagnosed and treated for ITP were evaluated retrospectively. Among 491 acute ITP patients, IVIG was used in 27%, high-dose steroids in 27%, low-dose steroids in 20%, anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 2%, and no therapy in 22%. When the initial response (platelets >50 × 10(9)/L) to first-line treatment modalities were compared, 89%, 84%, and 78% patients treated by low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG responded to treatment, respectively (P > .05). Mean time to recovery of platelets was 16.8, 3.8, and 3.0 days in patients treated with low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG, respectively (P < .0001). Thrombocytopenia recurred in 23% of low-dose steroid, 39% of high-dose steroid, and in 36% of IVIG (P < .0001) treatment groups. Of 108 patients who were observed alone, 4 (3%) had a recurrence on follow-up and only 2 of these required treatment subsequently. Recurrence was significantly less in no therapy group compared with children treated with 1 of the 3 options of pharmacotherapy (P < .0001). Response rates were similar between patients treated by IVIG and low- and high-dose steroids; however, time to response was slower in patients treated with low-dose steroids compared with IVIG and high-dose steroids. PMID:26154620
Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627
Over the last few years, more and more heuristic decision making techniques have been inspired by nature, e.g. evolutionary algorithms, ant colony optimisation and simulated annealing. More recently, a novel computational intelligence technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system inspired technique has already been useful in solving some computational problems. In this keynote, we will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some illustrative real-world problems suitable for AIS use and show a step-by-step algorithm walkthrough. A comparison of AIS to other well-known algorithms and areas for future work will round this keynote off. It should be noted that as AIS is still a young and evolving field, there is not yet a fixed algorithm template and hence actual implementations might differ somewhat from the examples given here.
Ahmad Nadeem; Athira; Ankitha K .; Athira V; Asha,; Bency; Anas; Ahemmed
BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ...
van Tilburg, C M
With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to further improve childhood ALL survival. The Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL 10 protocol was designed to investigate whether a reduction of chemotherapeutic treatment intensity after a standa...
Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Ruediger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jurgen; Wichmann, Ole
Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist,
Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Grace, Rachael F.
In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a black box warning to anti-D immune globulin (Rho(D) immune globulin, anti-D) for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) to warn of the complications related to severe hemolysis. The objective of this retrospective medical record review was to examine recent trends in anti-D use to treat ITP and rates of adverse events in a single large pediatric hematology program. Over a 7-year period, 176 (35%) of 502 ITP patients at our center received anti-D....
Rough set theory plays an important role in knowledge discovery, but cannot deal with continuous attributes, thus discretization is a problem which we cannot neglect. And discretization of decision systems in rough set theory has some particular characteristics. Consistency must be satisfied and cuts for discretization is expected to be as small as possible. Consistent and minimal discretization problem is NP-complete. In this paper, an immune algorithm for the problem is proposed. The correctness and effectiveness were shown in experiments. The discretization method presented in this paper can also be used as a data pretreating step for other symbolic knowledge discovery or machine learning methods other than rough set theory.
Birkhead, G S; Cicirello, H G; Talarico, J
Two publicly funded programs, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), serve large numbers of children who may be at risk for poor immunization status. A review of the literature as well as conference abstracts and program reports for studies of immunization initiatives carried out in these settings was conducted. Although the available literature is limited, it does indicate that children in these programs have low immunization levels and that interventions to improve their immunization status can be successful. Measures to improve immunization status should be implemented through WIC and AFDC. PMID:10186653
Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Elrod, Noel M; Kramer, Hannah J
The current study examined 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N=280) tendency to connect people's thoughts, emotions, and decisions into valence-matched mental state triads (thought valence=emotion valence=decision valence; e.g., anticipate something bad+feel worried+avoid) and valence-matched mental state dyads (thought-emotion, thought-decision, and emotion-decision). Participants heard vignettes about focal characters who re-encountered individuals who had previously harmed them twice, helped them twice, or both harmed and helped them. Baseline trials involved no past experience. Children and adults predicted the focal characters' thoughts (anticipate something good or bad), emotions (feel happy or worried), and decisions (go near or stay away). Results showed significant increases between 4 and 10years of age in the formation of valence-matched mental state triads and dyads, with thoughts and emotions most often aligned by valence. We also documented age-related improvement in awareness that uncertain situations elicit less valence-consistent mental states than more certain situations, with females expecting weaker coherence among characters' thoughts, emotions, and decisions than males. Controlling for age and sex, individuals with stronger executive function (working memory and inhibitory control) predicted more valence-aligned mental states. These findings add to the emerging literature on development and individual differences in children's reasoning about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. PMID:27017060
Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard
Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho
van Tilburg, C.M.
With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to fur
Bakker, Kevin M.; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J.
Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused b...
Krasch, Delilah; Carter, Deborah Russell
Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations, engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where…
Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard
Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage and all the major pneumococcal disease manifestations in a single, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve, developing country. A total of 15 published articles and 13 congress abstracts were included in the analysis. In children vaccine-type and any-type invasive pneumococcal disease (including decreases in pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality), on pneumonia incidence and mortality, and on otitis media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. PMID:27113162
Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S.; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R.
This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.
Schepers, K; Dirix, V; Mouchet, F; Verscheure, V; Lecher, S; Locht, C; Mascart, F
The search for novel vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) would benefit from in-depths knowledge of the human immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Here, we characterised in a low TB incidence country, the immune responses to a new candidate vaccine antigen against TB, the heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA), in young children in contact with an active TB case (aTB). Children with no history of BCG vaccination were compared to those vaccinated at birth to compare the initial immune responses to HBHA with secondary immune responses. Fifty-eight children with aTB and 76 with latent TB infection (LTBI) were included and they were compared to 90 non-infected children. Whereas Mtb-infected children globally secreted more interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in response to HBHA compared to the non-infected children, these IFN-γ concentrations were higher in previously BCG-vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated children. The IFN-γ concentrations were similar in LTBI and aTB children, but appeared to differ qualitatively. Whereas the IFN-γ secretion induced by native methylated and recombinant non-methylated HBHA were well correlated for aTB, this was not the case for LTBI children. Thus, Mtb-infected young children develop IFN-γ responses to HBHA that are enhanced by prior BCG vaccination, indicating BCG-induced priming, thereby supporting a prime-boost strategy for HBHA-based vaccines. The qualitative differences between aTB and LTBI in their HBHA-induced IFN-γ responses may perhaps be exploited for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25583385
Sjöberg, Veronika; Hollén, Elisabet; Pietz, Grzegorz; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Sundström, Mia; Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa; Sandström, Olof; Hernell, Olle; Hammarström, Sten; Högberg, Lotta; Hammarström, Marie-Louise
OBJECTIVES: Life-long, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD). Because there is still uncertainty regarding the safety of oats for CD patients, the aim was to investigate whether dietary oats influence the immune status of their intestinal mucosa. METHODS: Paired small intestinal biopsies, before and after >11 months on a GFD, were collected from children with CD who were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind intervention trial to either of two diets: ...
Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R
This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design test: card sort, needs analysis, or comprehension. The majority of respondents were female (90%), White non-Hispanic (62%), and averaged 29 years (SD = 5). Nearly all (96%) had "adequate" health literacy. The card sort, an activity in which end users organize information into categories, identified six pieces of critical information. These were compiled into eight example texts, which were ranked in the needs assessment. The top two were assessed for comprehension, with 100% of participants able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Using user-centered design methods, the authors developed concise, informative text messages that parents indicated would prompt them to schedule their child's immunization appointment. PMID:21986245
Segel, George B; Feig, Stephen A
Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs most commonly in young children who present with severe isolated thrombocytopenia and purpura. A marrow examination is not required unless glucocorticoids are used, lest treatment mask incipient acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but controversy exists here. The recommendations for evaluation and management remain controversial, since prospective controlled trials have not been done. There is some consensus based on experience and empiric data. Almost all children with acute ITP will recover completely without therapy. Although the various treatments may increase the platelet count, they do not influence the outcome of the illness, may increase cost, and cause significant side effects. Therefore, careful observation may be the best management option for the patient with ITP, in the absence of severe bleeding. The data available relevant to these issues are discussed. PMID:19165890
Full Text Available Abstract The development of acquired protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection in young African children is considered in the context of three current strategies for malaria prevention: insecticide-impregnated bed nets or curtains, anti-sporozoite vaccines and intermittent preventive therapy. Evidence is presented that each of these measures may permit attenuated P. falciparum blood-stage infections, which do not cause clinical malaria but can act as an effective blood-stage "vaccine". It is proposed that the extended serum half-life, and rarely considered liver-stage prophylaxis provided by the anti-folate combination sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine frequently lead to such attenuated infections in high transmission areas, and thus contribute to the sustained protection from malaria observed among children receiving the combination as intermittent preventative therapy or for parasite clearance in vaccine trials.
Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G; Lee, Steve S; Tottenham, Nim
Decision making in the context of risk is a complex and dynamic process that changes across development. Here, we assessed the influence of sensitivity to negative feedback (e.g., loss) and learning on age-related changes in risky decision making, both of which show unique developmental trajectories. In the present study, we examined risky decision making in 216 individuals, ranging in age from 3-26 years, using the balloon emotional learning task (BELT), a computerized task in which participants pump up a series of virtual balloons to earn points, but risk balloon explosion on each trial, which results in no points. It is important to note that there were 3 balloon conditions, signified by different balloon colors, ranging from quick- to slow-to-explode, and participants could learn the color-condition pairings through task experience. Overall, we found age-related increases in pumps made and points earned. However, in the quick-to-explode condition, there was a nonlinear adolescent peak for points earned. Follow-up analyses indicated that this adolescent phenotype occurred at the developmental intersection of linear age-related increases in learning and decreases in sensitivity to negative feedback. Adolescence was marked by intermediate values on both these processes. These findings show that a combination of linearly changing processes can result in nonlinear changes in risky decision making, the adolescent-specific nature of which is associated with developmental improvements in learning and reduced sensitivity to negative feedback. PMID:26389647
Khurshid, Ayesha; Jacquin, Kristine M
We examined the impact of expert witness orientation (researcher or clinical practitioner) and type of testimony (testimony for the prosecution, defense, both prosecution and defense, or no testimony) on mock jurors' decisions in a sexual abuse trial. Participants acted as mock jurors on a sexual abuse criminal trial based on recovered memory that included expert witness testimony. Results showed that expert witness testimony provided by a researcher did not impact mock jurors' guilt ratings any differently than the expert witness testimony provided by a clinical practitioner. However, type of testimony had a significant effect on jurors' guilt ratings such that jurors who read only defense or only prosecution testimony made decisions favoring the relevant side. PMID:24283545
Ay, Yilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba H; Oymak, Yesim; Toret, Ersin; Demirag, Bengu; Ince, Dilek; Ozcan, Esin; Moueminoglou, Nergial; Koker, Sultan A; Vergin, Canan
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) results from accelerated platelet destruction mediated by autoantibodies to platelet glycoproteins. Some patients with chronic ITP are refractory to all therapies [steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), anti-D and immunosuppresive drugs] and have chronic low platelet counts and episodic bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment and splenectomy in paediatric patients diagnosed with chronic and refractory ITP who were unresponsive to steroids, IVIG, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Records of patients with chronic and refractory ITP in 459 patients with primary ITP who were followed up in our hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were reviewed. Fifteen of patients received rituximab and/or applied splenectomy. Fifteen chronic ITP patients (10 boys, five girls) with a mean age of 10 years were enrolled in the study. Two of these patients were suffering from Evans syndrome. The median time since diagnosis of ITP was 10 years. The median follow-up duration after starting Rituximab and splenectomy were 13 and 9.5 months, respectively.None of the seven patients who were treated with rituximab achieved a response. A splenectomy was performed in six of the seven patients who had been treated with rituximab. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 67 and 33% of the patients, respectively. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and responses of chronic ITP patients who did not receive rituximab therapy and underwent a splenectomy. The success rate was 100% in the eight patients with chronic and refractory ITP. Rituximab therapy might not be beneficial for some children with severe chronic ITP who are refractory to standard agents. A splenectomy might be useful and preferable to rituximab. PMID:26656905
Nii Antiaye Addy
Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed
Full Text Available Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a rural community with a functional community health committee, with an urban community, with no distinct community structure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ondewari, a rural, riverine community, in Bayelsa State; and Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria; using a cross-sectional, comparative study design. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered on female head of households in both communities, with under-five children; and used to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the immunization status of children in the household below the age of 2 years, and reasons for none and incomplete immunization. Results: A total of 288 respondents were studied in the rural community, while 270 respondents were studied in the urban center. The respondents in the urban center were significantly younger (P<0.01, better educated (P<0.001, and had fewer number of children (P<0.01. The immunization status of children in the rural community was significantly better than those in the urban community (P<0.000. Only 11.46% of the children in the rural community were not immunized, compared to 47.04% in the urban community. However, the dropout rate in the rural community was much higher; with a DPT dropout rate of 77.34%, compared to 12.39% in the urban community. Most of the reasons given in the urban community for the incomplete immunization were linked lack of motivation, and include relocation (11.34% and the adverse rumor about childhood immunization (17.23%, while the reasons in the rural community were mostly health
2008254 Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of Fba,a novel fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococcus.MA Cuiqing(马翠柳),et al.Dept Immunol,Basic Med Coll,Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050017.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(3):146-150.Objective To express the novel fibronectin-binding protein Fba ofgroupAstreptococcus(GAS)and analyze its immunogenicity,so to evaluate the immune responses to GAS infection.Methods fbagene was amplified by
Disappearance of Vaccine-Type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Emergence of Serotype 19A in a Minority Population with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Low Childhood Immunization Rates▿
Tasslimi, Azadeh; Sison, Erica J.; Story, Elizabeth; Alland, David; Burday, Michele; Morrison, Susan; Nalmas, Sandhya; Smith, Stephen; Thomas, Pauline A.; Wenger, Peter; Sinha, Anushua
We analyzed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in an urban population with a 2% human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and history of low childhood immunization rates. We observed near-elimination of vaccine-type IPD. Substantial disease remains due to non-vaccine-type pneumococci, highlighting the need to increase pneumococcal immunization among HIV-infected adults.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI. DATA AND METHODS: The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1-5 years from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93 and 2005-06. The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992-93 and 2005-06. Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992-93 to 0.023 in 2005-06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%. In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian
Oli; Angus; Nnamdi; Agu; Remigus; Uchenna; Oli; Ugochukwu; Chinedum; Nwoye; Charles; Ugochukwu; Ejiofor; Obiora; Shedrack; Esimone; Charles; Okechukwu
Objective:To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization.Methods:The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria.The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection.They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice.The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital,Nnewi of Anambra State,Nigeria approved the protocol.Results:Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation.The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%.70%,64%.63%,65%and 68%for oral polio vaccine,diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus.bacillus CalmetteGuerin,measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State.The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine,pentavalent.bacillus Calmette-Guerin.measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%.114%,121%.116%,142%and 119%weight gain respectively compared with the control.Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds.Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80%of the control(physiological saline).Conclusions:The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely.The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.
Background: There are large variations in vaccination coverage, not only between high and low-income countries but also across low income countries and within low income countries. The reasons behind these variations are only sketchily understood. In particular, the current understanding of demand for childhood vaccinations is limited. Due to inadequate vaccination coverage more than one million children die annually from vaccine preventable diseases. Objective: The study set out to exami...
Sjögren, Ylva Margareta
Atopic allergy is the most common chronic disease among children in the developed world. This high prevalence could be associated with low microbial exposure. The early gut microbiota appears to be important for immune maturation. Immunomodulatory components in human milk might differ between mothers and could therefore explain the contradictory results seen regarding breastfeeding and allergy development. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether early colonization with certain gut m...
Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCV7 was introduced as universal childhood vaccination in Israel in July 2009 and PCV13 in November 2010. Here we report data on adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD, two years post PCV7 implementation and before an expected effect of PCV13. METHODS: An ongoing nationwide active-surveillance (all 27 laboratories performing blood cultures in Israel, providing all blood & CSF S. pneumoniae isolates from persons >18 y was initiated in July 2009. Capture-recapture method assured reporting of >95% cases. All isolates were serotyped in one central laboratory. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded in 90%. Second year post PCV implementation is compared to the first year. RESULTS: During July 2009 to June 2011, 970 IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.17 and 10.16 in the two consecutive years, respectively. Respective case fatality rates (CFRs were 20% and 19.1%. Incidence of IPD and CFR increased with age and number of comorbidities. Incidence rate was significantly greater during the second winter, 7.79/100,000 vs. 6.14/100,000 in first winter, p = 0.004, with a non-significant decrease during summer months (3.02 to 2.48/100,000. The proportion of IPD cases due to PCV7-serotypes decreased from 27.5% to 13.1% (first to second year (p64 y. Among younger/healthier patients serotype 5 was the major increasing serotype. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance decreased significantly in the second year. CONCLUSIONS: While overall annual incidence of IPD did not change, the indirect effect of PCV7 vaccination was evident by the significant decrease in PCV7 serotypes across all age groups. Increase in non-VT13 strains was significant in immunocompromised patients. A longer follow-up is required to appreciate the full effect of infant vaccination on annual IPD.
Kistangari, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary or a secondary form. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age-specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP. This article summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. PMID:23714309
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...
Andrea Horvath Marques; Thomas G O'connor; Christine eRoth; Ezra eSusser; Anne-Lise eBjørke-Monsen
The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gesta...
This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…
More evidence on the impact of India's conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects on childhood immunization and other reproductive and child health outcomes.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, India established a conditional cash transfer program called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to increase institutional delivery and encourage the use of reproductive and child health-related services. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal receipt of financial assistance from JSY on childhood immunizations, post-partum care, breastfeeding practices, and care-seeking behaviors. METHODS: We use data from the latest district-level household survey (2007-2008 to conduct a propensity score matching analysis with logistic regression. We conduct the analyses at the national level as well as separately across groups of states classified as high-focus and non-high-focus. We carry out several sensitivity analyses including a subgroup analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card. RESULTS: Receipt of financial assistance from JSY led to an increase in immunization rates ranging from 3.1 (95%CI 2.2-4.0 percentage points for one dose of polio vaccine to 9.1 (95%CI 7.5-10.7 percentage points in the proportion of fully vaccinated children. Our findings also indicate JSY led to increased post-partum check-up rates and healthy early breastfeeding practices around the time of childbirth. No effect of JSY was found on exclusive breastfeeding practices and care-seeking behaviors. Effect sizes were consistently larger in states identified as being a key focus for the program. In an analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card, there was little to no effect of JSY among those with vaccination cards, while the effect size was much larger than the base case results for those missing vaccination cards, across nearly all immunization outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early results suggest the JSY program led to a significant increase in childhood immunization rates and some healthy reproductive health behaviors, but the structuring of financial incentives to pregnant women and health workers warrants further review. Causal
Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L
Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720
Albert De Graaf
Full Text Available Background: To empower patients to optimize lifestyle factors and compliance in intervention strategies, predictive personalised simulation models such as developed in the framework of the Virtual Physiological Human initiative (http://www.vph-institute.org/ are a potential important asset. Aim:The FP7 EU project MISSION-T2D aims to develop and validate a computer model incorporating genetic, metabolic, and nutritional data for the simulation and prediction of the onset and progression of T2D. The model should include immunological/inflammatory processes contributing to insulin resistance and beta cell function loss, functionally interacting with energy intake/expenditure-associated metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Methods: The overall architecture of the model interconnects and integrates an already established immune system simulator with newly developed and/or adapted discrete and continuous mathematical simulation models for relevant processes as detailed below. The model is programmed in ANSI/C. Results: Model sections are as follows: 1 GUT MICROBIOTA: predicts how different dietary components affect the relative abundance of important gut bacteria, thus influencing butyrate production, and thereby modulating TNF, IL-6 and IL-1β; 2 PANCREATIC BETA CELL employs mTOR signaling as a central mechanism and predicts the beta cell survival and –functionality as a function of concentration of macrophages, acivated macrophages, and beta cell antigenic proteins; 3 WHOLE BODY METABOLISM describes seven tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, by dynamic mass balances for major cellular metabolic reactions involving glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, free fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerol and ATP as driven by macronutrient meal intake and hormonal control by insulin, glucagon and epinphrine; 4 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY predicts epinephrine concentration and IL-6 as a function of exercise
... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...
The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya
Gibson, Dustin G.; Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Peter J. Winch; Levine, Orin S.; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.
Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders...
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...
The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya
Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H; Winch, Peter J; Levine, Orin S; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R
Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders, either with or without mobile phone–based incentives, sent to infant’s parents can improve immunization coverage and timeliness of routine pediatric vaccines in rural western Kenya. Methods This is a four-arm, cluster, randomized controlled trial. Villages are randomized to one of four study arms prior to enrollment of participants. The study arms are: (1) no intervention (a general health-related text message will be texted to this group at the time of enrollment), (2) text message reminders only, (3) text message reminders and a 75 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive, or (4) text message reminders and a KES200 incentive. Participants assigned to study arms 2-4 will receive two text message reminders; sent 3 days before and one day before the scheduled immunization visit at 6, 10, and 14 weeks for polio and pentavalent (containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b antigens) type b antigens) vaccines, and at 9 months for measles vaccine. Participants in incentive arms will, in addition to text message reminders as above, receive mobile phone–based incentives after each timely vaccination, where timely is defined as vaccination within 2 weeks of the scheduled date for each of the four routine expanded program immunization (EPI) vaccination visits. Mother-infant pairs will be followed to 12 months of age where the primary outcome, a fully immunized child, will be ascertained. A fully immunized child is defined as a child receiving
Cowan Anne E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries have been promoted as an effective method to improve childhood immunization rates, yet rates of registry participation in the private sector are low. We sought to describe, through a national overview, the perspectives of childhood immunization providers in private practice regarding factors associated with participation or non-participation in immunization registries. Methods Two mailed surveys, one for 264 private practices identified as registry non-participants and the other for 971 identified as registry participants, from 15 of the 31 states with population-based statewide immunization registries. Frequency distributions were calculated separately for non-participants and participants regarding the physician-reported factors that influenced decisions related to registry participation. Pearson chi-square tests of independence were used to assess associations among categorical variables. Results Overall response rate was 62% (N = 756. Among non-participants, easy access to records of vaccines provided at other sites (N = 101, 68% and printable immunization records (N = 82, 55% were most often cited as "very important" potential benefits of a registry, while the most commonly cited barriers to participation were too much cost/staff time (N = 36, 38% and that the practice has its own system for recording and monitoring immunizations (N = 35, 37%. Among registry participants, most reported using the registry to input data on vaccines administered (N = 326, 87% and to review immunization records of individual patients (N = 302, 81%. A minority reported using it to assess their practice's immunization coverage (N = 110, 29% or generate reminder/recall notices (N = 54, 14%. Few participants reported experiencing "significant" problems with the registry; the most often cited was cost/staff time to use the registry (N = 71, 20%. Conclusion Most registry participants report active participation with few
Bick, Johanna; Naumova, Oksana; Hunter, Scott; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Luthar, Suniya S.; RAEFSKI, ADAM; Grigorenko, Elena L.
In recent years, translational research involving humans and animals has uncovered biological and physiological pathways that explain associations between early adverse circumstances and long-term mental and physical health outcomes. In this article, we summarize the human and animal literature demonstrating that epigenetic alterations in key biological systems, the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, may underlie such disparities. We review evidence suggesting that changes...
Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare
Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications
Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E; Laroche, Julie
Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12-14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12-14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:26942572
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...
The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)
Miranda, Martina L.
This article examines critical issues related to teacher decision-making in early childhood music classrooms. Through the story of one teacher's experience, we take a closer look at specific criteria to guide decision-making, and strategies to deepen awareness of young children's needs in the music classroom and guide instructional…
... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...
Daniel Exley; Alyson Norman; Michael Hyland
Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electron...
Abdolreza S. Jahromi; Mortaza Pourahmd; Sara Azhdari; Gita Manshoori; Abdolhossain Madani; Seyed H. Moosavy
Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients ...
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive. Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;
We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....
... Hrvatski) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Ilocano (ilokano) Japanese (日本語) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hindi (हिन्दी) Vaccines for Your Children हिन्दी ( ...
Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.
Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;
suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk of......Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...... childhood cancer could therefore have public health impact....
Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet
Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...
... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...
... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...
Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas
Financial literacy predicts informed financial decisions, but what explains financial literacy? We use the concept of financial socialization and aim to represent three major agents of financial socialization: family, school and work. Thus we compile twelve relevant childhood characteristics in a new survey study and examine their relation to financial literacy, while controlling for established socio-demographic characteristics. We find in a mediation analysis that both family and school pos...
Alves, Joana Ferreira Cardoso; Maia, Ângela
Adversity during childhood has been the object of innumerous Psychology studies, justified by its prevalence and decisive impact in the development of human being. The most relevant results confirm that adverse childhood experiences increase the incidence of physical and psychological disturbances in adult age. We intends to characterizes adverse childhood experiences and relate them to health risk behaviour and with psychopathological symptoms, as found within a sample group of 4...
Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.
The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…
Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer
This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…
Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical
Tietjen, Gretchen E
Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357
Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S
Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244
Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.
Campbell, Vincent; Lofstrom, Jocelyn; Jerome, Brian
This guide makes the case for a decision-making focus in the science curriculum as a response to concern over preparing scientifically literate students. The student activities are organized by guided activities and independent exercises. Themes of the guided activities include xenotransplants, immunizations, household cleaning products, ozone,…
In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use ...
... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...
Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara
A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats. PMID:21528703
Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan
Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228
Although Uganda has made significant progress in reducing child deaths in the past five years, the country still faces major challenges in ensuring adequate early childhood development. This briefing highlights some of the major challenges affecting children during the first five years of life with focus on: the low immunization coverage rates and vaccine availability; poor child nutritional health status; and the limited enrolment of children in Early Childhood Development Centres.
Upham, John W.; Lee, Peter T.; Holt, Barbara J.; Heaton, Tricia; Prescott, Susan L.; Sharp, Mary J.; Peter D Sly; Holt, Patrick G
Increasing evidence indicates that the capacity to induce protective Th1 immune responses is impaired in early childhood, an observation that can be partially attributed to deficiencies in antigen-presenting-cell function. Synthesis of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a key Th1-trophic cytokine, is markedly reduced in the neonatal period, though there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the ontogeny of IL-12-synthetic capacity throughout the childhood years. Hence, we examined the production of bioac...
Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara
Internet as well as standard media outlets to advance a position, wholly unsupported by any scientific evidence, linking vaccines with various childhood conditions, particularly autism. Much remains to be accomplished by physician organizations; vaccine manufacturers; third-party payers; the media; and local, state, and federal governments to ensure dependable vaccine supply and payments that are sufficient to continue to provide immunizations in public and private settings and to promote effective strategies to combat unjustified misstatements by the antivaccination movement. Pediatricians should work individually and collectively at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that all children without a valid contraindication receive all childhood immunizations on time. Pediatricians and pediatric organizations, in conjunction with government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, must communicate effectively with parents to maximize their understanding of the overall safety and efficacy of vaccines. Most parents and children have not experienced many of the vaccine-preventable diseases, and the general public is not well informed about the risks and sequelae of these conditions. A number of recommendations are included for pediatricians, individually and collectively, to support further progress toward the goal of universal immunization coverage of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. PMID:20513736
... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...
Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...
... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...
JE García-Arrarás; F Ramírez-Gómez
Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically hetero...
Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan
DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed.
Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during ...
The impact of helminths on the response to immunization and on the incidence of infection and disease in childhood in Uganda: design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial of deworming interventions delivered in pregnancy and early childhood [ISRCTN32849447
Alison M Elliott; Kizza, Moses; Maria A Quigley; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Morison, Linda; Namujju, Proscovia B; Muwanga, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis; Whitworth, James AG
Background Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against inflammatory responses in allergic and autoimmune disease. These effects might develop in utero, through exposure to maternal helminth inf...
Dennison, Una; McKernan, Declan P.; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G.
Background. Increasing evidence indicates that childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia and patients with this syndrome have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in schizophrenia is associated with childhood trauma and that patients without a history of such trauma have a similar immune profile to healthy controls. Method. We recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls, all of whom completed the Childhood Trauma ...
Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical
This guide is designed to provide practical support and information about health and safety to workers in all early childhood settings. The booklet outlines the main attributes of a safe early childhood center, and then covers the following specific topics: (1) health care; (2) self-esteem; (3) immunizations; (4) nutrition; (5) medical and safety…
Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.
A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...
Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;
OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the...... development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We...... studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression...
程衍杨; 熊昊; 徐之良
目的 明确人细小病毒B19(human parvovirus B19,B19)感染对儿童新诊断免疫性血小板减少症(immune thrombo-cytopenia, ITP)的影响. 方法 选取2011年1月~2013年12月间416例首次住院并确诊为新诊断ITP患儿为疾病组;随机选取无血小板减少及其他血液系统疾病的普通呼吸道感染住院患儿130例作为对照组. ITP患儿及对照组儿童按年龄段分为0.05). ITP患儿均未接受针对B19的相关抗病毒治疗,而针对血小板减少经丙种球蛋白和(或)激素治疗后,疾病组与对照组患儿PLT缓解率差异无统计学意义,与各年龄段B19阴性的ITP患儿治疗后缓解率比较差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05). 结论 B19感染可能不是新诊断ITP患儿发病的一个主要致病因素;是否治疗B19并不影响儿童急性ITP的治疗效果,因此B19感染的新诊断ITP患儿无需同时接受B19抗病毒的相关治疗.%Objective To confirm the role of human parvovirus B 19 ( B19) infection in childhood immune thrombocytopenia ( ITP) patients.Methods A total of 416 cases of newly diagnosed childhood ITP patients from Jan .2011 to Dec.2013 had been summarized to be cases group , Then a total of 130 childhood patients with common respiratory tract infection were selected randomly as the control group . All patients had been divided in grouped by age as 0.05) was found.All the ITP patients had not been given anti -B19 treatment.The PLT remission rate,respectively, after treated with the same pro-tocol including glucocorticoid and/or immunoglobulin had a declining trend as the ages increasing .The B19 infection groups of all ages al-so had no significant difference PLT remission rate had been confirmed in non -B19 infection patients in each age groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions B19 infection may not be a major cause in childhood newly ITP , and treatment protocol with no anti -B19 treatment had no influence on the clinical curative efficacy .
Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Tiwari, Rahul V C
Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212
Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany
Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina
Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…
Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith; Terry, Barbara; Garrett, Matthew
Progress monitoring and data-based intervention decision making have become key components of providing evidence-based early childhood special education services. Unfortunately, there is a lack of tools to support early childhood service providers' decision-making efforts. The authors describe a Web-based system that guides service providers…
Full Text Available Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically heterogeneous population of free roaming cells that are capable of recognizing and neutralizing pathogens. Celomocytes present diverse morphologies and functions, which include phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, cytotoxicity, wound healing among others. Humoral immunity is mediated by a wide variety of secreted compounds that can be found in the celomic fluid and play important roles in defense against infection. Compounds such as lectins, agglutinins, perforins, complement and some cytokines make up some of the humoral responses of echinoderms. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics have allowed for the discovery of new immune genes and their products. These discoveries have expanded our knowledge of echinoderm immunity and are setting up the stage for future experiments to better understand the evolution of the immune mechanisms of deuterostomes
The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae558) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as food
Davenport, R John
As people get older, their immune systems falter. The elderly are more susceptible to infections than youngsters are, and hyperactive inflammatory responses appear to contribute to some age-associated illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Investigating the effect of aging on the immune system was once a scientific stepchild, but card-carrying immunologists are now tackling the problem head-on. Despite the immune system's complexity, researchers have started to make sense of how its components change with age. As the research progresses, scientists hope to bolster elderly people's response to infectious diseases and quiet the inflammation that can make aging a painful experience. PMID:12844525
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W
BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect
Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...
The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...
Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most frequent childhood malignancies worldwide and remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of relapsed patients. While remarkable progress has been made in characterizing genetic aberrations that may control these hematological disorders, it has also become clear that abnormalities in the bone marrow microenvironment might hit precursor cells and contribute to disease. However, responses of leukemic precursor cells to inflammatory conditions or microbial components upon infection are yet unexplored. Our previous work and increasing evidence indicate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs in the earliest stages of lymphoid development in mice and humans provide an important mechanism for producing cells of the innate immune system. Using highly controlled co-culture systems, we now show that lymphoid precursors from leukemic bone marrow express TLRs and respond to their ligation by changing cell differentiation patterns. While no apparent contribution of TLR signals to tumor progression was recorded for any of the investigated diseases, the replenishment of innate cells was consistently promoted upon in vitro TLR exposure, suggesting that early recognition of pathogen-associated molecules might be implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic cell fate decisions in childhood acute leukemia.
... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ttending outpatient department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala and to find out the association of the knowledge level of mothers with some selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A Cross sectional study was done among mothers of under five children attending the OPD of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala from 1 st to 30 th May, 2014. The sample size was 210 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi - square test & percentages w ere calculated. RESULT: 93.8% of mothers knew that vaccines are beneficial for their child. 58% were aware about the side effects of few vaccines. 50% of mothers believed that as polio is eradicated from India, there is no need to give polio vaccine. 35% o f mothers acquired knowledge regarding immunization through health workers. All of them had knowledge about polio vaccine but only half of them knew about rotavirus vaccine. 60% mothers believed that multiple vaccines are beneficial although 26% hold their view that it has no benefit at all. 39.5% of mothers’ had adequate knowledge about immunization. It was positively associated with education, working class and high socio - economic status of mothers. CONCLUSION: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about optional vaccines. There is a need to improve knowledge regarding immunization among general population. Adequate information about completin g the
Schmiegelow, K.; Vestergaard, T.; Nielsen, S.M.;
The pattern of infections in the first years of life modulates our immune system, and a low incidence of infections has been linked to an increased risk of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We here present a new interpretation of these observations--the adrenal hypothesis...
Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon
Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…
In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete response (CR), 1 showed partial response (PR), and 1 had progressive disease (PD) after multi-modal therapies], and 3 had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). The 12 patients underwent a total of 92 HDICIs at a mean dose of 1.6×108 immune cells/kg body weight: 71 infusions with natural killer (NK) cells, 8 with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and 13 with cascade primed immune cells (CAPRIs); 83 infusions with immune cells from the mothers, whereas 9 with cells from the fathers. Twenty cases (21.7%) of fever, including 6 cases (6.5%) accompanied with chills and 1 (1.1%) with febrile convulsion, occurred during infusions and were alleviated after symptomatic treatments. Five cases (5.4%) of mild emotion changes were reported. No other adverse events occurred during and after the completion of HDIDIs. Neither acute nor chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed following HDICIs. After a median of 5.0 months (range, 1.0-11.5 months) of follow-up, the 2 NB patients with PR and PD developed PD during HDICIs. Of the other 7 NB patients in CR, 2 relapsed in the sixth month of HDICIs, and 5 maintained CR with disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from 4.5 to 11.5 months (median, 7.2 months). One EBV-LPD patient achieved PR, whereas 2 had stable disease (SD). Our results show that HDICI is a safe immunotherapy for childhood malignancies, thus warranting further studies.
Fei Zhang; Xiao-Fei Sun
In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete r...
Summerfield, Liane M.
In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…
Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
Wei Feifei; Xu Stanley; France Eric K; Yu Xian-Jie; Chan K Arnold; Kleinman Ken; Lin Nancy D; Mullooly John; Santoli Jeanne; Lieu Tracy A
Abstract Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this stud...
Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;
BACKGROUND: Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. OBJEC...
Full Text Available Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD.
Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina
Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433
Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen
In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908
... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Healthy Decisions About Sex Ages & Stages ... read on. Your doctor wants to make sure you know the facts. Important Reminders: No one should ever be forced to have ...
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...
Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...
Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.
BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...
Ana Cláudia Molina
Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo descrever e analisar características individuais e familiares das crianças e características do serviço de saúde e suas relações com a situação vacinal para diferentes tipos de vacinas e doses. Utilizaram-se três fontes de informações: registros do Sistema Municipal de Informação em Saúde, carteira de vacinação e entrevista, mediante questionário fechado. As famílias entrevistadas estavam em fase de “maturação” de crescimento, com proles de um ou dois filhos; os cuidadores eram, na maioria, mães jovens,economicamente inativas e havia facilidade de acesso ao serviço de saúde. Cerca de 30% não receberam orientação sobre a vacina aplicada, reações e retorno da próxima vacina. Os maiores atrasos foram das vacinas contra o sarampo (6,3% e o Haemophilus influenzae tipo B(4,2%. Observa-se que o motivo do atraso vacinal e a não-vacinação parecem estar mais relacionados a características do serviço do que às da população.The aim of this study was to describe and analyze individual and family characteristics of children and those of health services, as well as their relationship with the immunization status for different kinds of vaccines and doses. Three sources of information were used: records from the Municipal Health Information System, immunization charts, and interviews using closed-ended questions. The familiesinterviewed still had one or two growing children; caretakers were usually young unemployed mothers with easy access to health services. Around 30% of them were not instructed on the vaccine being given, its reactions or when to return for the next shot. The greatest levels of tardiness occurred with the vaccines against measles (6.3% and Haemophilus influenzae B (4.2%. It was possible to observe that tardiness or absence of vaccinations seem to have a stronger relationship with service characteristics than with population characteristics.
Aas, Monica; Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Bellivier, Frank; Melle, Ingrid; Etain, Bruno
This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar disorders, in addition to a more severe clinical presentation over time (primarily an earlier age at onset and an increased risk of suicide attempt and substance misuse). Childhood trauma leads to alterations of affect regulation, impulse control, and cognitive functioning that might decrease the ability to cope with later stressors. Childhood trauma interacts with several genes belonging to several different biological pathways [Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, serotonergic transmission, neuroplasticity, immunity, calcium signaling, and circadian rhythms] to decrease the age at the onset of the disorder or increase the risk of suicide. Epigenetic factors may also be involved in the neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma in bipolar disorder. Biological sequelae such as chronic inflammation, sleep disturbance, or telomere shortening are potential mediators of the negative effects of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders, in particular with regard to physical health. The main clinical implication is to systematically assess childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders, or at least in those with a severe or instable course. The challenge for the next years will be to fill the gap between clinical and fundamental research and routine practice, since recommendations for managing this specific population are lacking. In particular, little is known on which psychotherapies should be provided or which targets therapists should focus
Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter
The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130
Feeney, Stephanie; Freeman, Nancy K.
Ethics--in the form of knowledge and skill in making responsible professional decisions--is one of the most fundamental qualities of a competent early childhood educator. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) developed its Code of Ethical Conduct to promote the application of core values, ideals, and principles to…
Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166
Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166
Chawla, Akhil; Philips, Anne V; Alatrash, Gheath; Mittendorf, Elizabeth,
Early clinical trials investigating monoclonal antibodies targeting the T-cell inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown efficacy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We recently demonstrated PD-L1 expression in 20% of triple negative breast cancers suggesting that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint may be an effective treatment modality in patients with this disease.
Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka
New York: Landes Biosciences and Springer Science +Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708). ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
Amrinder Jit Kanwar
Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.
... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...
Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki
Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...
Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given
MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)
Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)
Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.
Campen, J.S. van
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...
Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A
To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...
Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala
Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...
Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.
In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,
Parents can protect the health of their children by making sure theyâre up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. This podcast discusses the importance of childhood immunization. Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR. Date Released: 4/18/2013.
Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin
This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...
Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars
During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly pri...
Barnes, Allison; Thagard, Paul
Recent research has yielded an explosion of literature that establishes a strong connection between emotional and cognitive processes. Most notably, Antonio Damasio draws an intimate connection between emotion and cognition in practical decision making. Damasio presents a "somatic marker" hypothesis which explains how emotions are biologically indispensable to decisions. His research on patients with frontal lobe damage indicates that feelings normally accompany response options and operate a...
Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ronald C. Kessler; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori
Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthri...
Mac Naughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie
Young children's views are heard rarely in public debates and are often subordinated to adults' views. This article examines how early childhood staff could support and enhance young children's participation in public decision making. We argue that when early childhood staff use their expertise in young children's physical, social and cognitive…
Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula
Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences. PMID:27156418
Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony
This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.
Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical. PMID:26968705
... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...
... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...
... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...
Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A
Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants. PMID:24906347
Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.
Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...
This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…
We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…
Maher, George M
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is a relatively uncommon and generally benign condition presenting as abrupt onset of bruising, petechiae and thrombocytopenia in an otherwise healthy child due to production of anti-platelet autoantibodies. Diagnosis is largely clinical and laboratory investigation should be kept to a minimum. Indications for treatment have not been standardized and include bleeding, parental anxiety and quality of life. Multiple treatments are available that have been proven to increase the platelet count; the most commonly employed include IVIG, steroids and WinRho (anti-D). Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious potential complication but is extremely rare and splenectomy is reserved for chronically symptomatic patients who have not responded to other modalities. Identification of molecular targets may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:25423768
Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence
BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...
Childhood obesity and incidence of asthma are increasing globally. The parallel increase of the two suggests that obesity and asthma may be related and that abnormalities in the lipid and/or glucose metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. The clinical presentation of obese asthma is distinct from other asthma phenotypes and depending on age of onset of symptoms. Asthma in obese people tends to be more severe, not typically associated with allergy, and less responsive to standard anti-inflammatory therapy, including corticosteroids. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities may lead to asthma via a number of mechanisms including changes in lung mechanics, the nitric oxide metabolism, and by causing inflammation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nutrition during pregnancy contributes to intrauterine immune and metabolic programming in the offspring, which may have major influences on predisposition to cardiovascular, metabolic, and allergic diseases, including asthma, later in life. This review will highlight some suggested mechanistic links between obesity and diabetes with asthma. PMID:26542296
Kurekci, A Emin; Atay, A Avni; Demirkaya, Erkan; Sarici, S Umit; Ozcan, Okan
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood is characterized by a typical history of acute development of purpura and bruising in an otherwise healthy child. In children it usually follows a viral infection (eg, mumps, rubella) or immunization. We report for the first time a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to mumps during the maintenance phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. PMID:16679943
Walker, D.; Roworth, M; Carter, H; Jones, I G
A survey of all general practitioners in Fife conducted prior to the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella immunization on a pilot basis in May 1987 showed that 85% considered mumps worth preventing and 94% believed the rubella programme worth augmenting with universal childhood immunization. Ninety seven per cent considered measles worth preventing and 98% were prepared to recommend measles-mumps-rubella immunization to parents instead of measles vaccine. One year after introducing the measl...
Rdo rje tshe brtan
Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.
Kane, Anne V.; Dinh, Duy M.; Ward, Honorine D
Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has be...
deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...... also propelled by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations.......Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...
Rao, Neel; Möbius, Markus M.; Rosenblat, Tanya
We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to medical information raises people’s perceptions of the benefits of immunization. The average student’s b...
... to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...
... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...
Mills, Charles; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Jonathan
Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different te...
The recording of information on triple plus polio and rubella immunizations is reviewed and immunization rates determined for patients in a single-handed practice. Rates of triple plus polio immunizations are satisfactory but rates for rubella immunization are very poor. Immunization information is not exchanged between different sections of the Health Service in Stoke-on-Trent and so the general practitioner has no reliable immunization record for his patients.
Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;
with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...
This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children
Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;
PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...
The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...
Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup
childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...
US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes
In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show
Mouridsen, Svend Erik
sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...
Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos
In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…
Koh, Edgar, Ed.
Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…
Sri Hari Charan
Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010
Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…
This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...
This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...
Abdullah G Al Otaibi
Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.
Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060
architectural competitions and claim that they reflect necessity more than vice. They are ways around the fundamental incommensurability of the alternative design proposals. The garbage can model is used as a framework for making sense of the observed counterintuitive ways of decision making. Its attempt to...
Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of hypothesis tests as related to the concept of nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities. Hypothesis tests related to an individual measurement, an individual material balance, and a sequence of materials balances are discussed. The discussion of a sequence of materials balances includes the innovation sequence, sequential decision making, and performance measures
The acute abdomen in childhood demands early diagnosis for the sake of appropriate and early therapy. A high number of differential diagnosis in the assessment of acute abdominal pain and problems, as well as different causes of diseases in different age of the children, make a partition with respect to the age of the children considerable. A partition in diseases, which are leading to acute abdominal pain in neonates, in toddlers and small infants and in schoolchildren makes sense. In older schoolchildren and adolescents also diseases of the grown up generation are possible as a cause of acute abdominal pain. The lack of compliance (cooperation and communication) in small children obstructs clinical and radiological assessment and elucidates the necessity of knowledge of causes of acute abdominal pain as much as possible. A lot of patience and experience are mandatory in the evaluation of small children and therefore make a dedicated, trained and experienced stuff necessary. A dedicated paediatric radiologist will find a safe and proper technique, and in cooperation with the referring clinician the necessary decision for therapy will be made. (orig.)
Nordling, D.; Andersson, M.; Zohari, S.; Gustafsson, L.
If a trade-off exists between reproductive effort and immune function, life-history decisions may have important implications for parasite resistance. Here, we report effects of experimental manipulation of reproductive effort on subsequent specific immune function and parasite resistance in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. Our results show that increased reproductive effort of females immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine negatively affected the ability to respond...
Veerman, J Lennert; van Beeck, Eduard F.; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Background: There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). Methods: We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the pre...
This chapter looks at John Dewey's consideration of childhood as a platform which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey's platform, we see that childhood is relevant to…
Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087
In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
The main ethical principle in prenatal testing is the autonomous decision of the pregnant woman concerned. However, recent developments in prenatal testing undermine this model. The overall number of invasive prenatal examinations has dropped significantly. Yet, the amount of pathologic results has increased. Due to the improvement in ultrasound diagnostics the predictability of possible disabilities or diseases of the unborn child has increased substantially. As a result of this pregnant wom...
Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note from ... are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.