Ndirangu, James; Bärnighausen, Till; Tanser, Frank; Tint, Khin; Newell, Marie-Louise
Objectives To analyse coverage of childhood vaccinations in a rural South African population and investigate whether maternal HIV status is associated with children’s vaccination status. Methods 2 431 children with complete information, 12–23 months of age at some point during the period January 2005 through December 2006 and resident in the Africa Centre Demographic Surveillance Area at the time of their birth were investigated. We examined the relationship between maternal HIV status and ch...
Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia;
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services and a...... more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination status and influenza vaccination practices of family physicians in Quebec. DESIGN: Mail survey of a random sample of 1000 family physicians. SETTING: Family practices in the province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1000 Quebec family physicians sent questionnaires, 550 responded. After excluding physicians who worked only in institutions, had no patients older than 65 years, or did clinical work less than 20% of the time, 379 respondents were eligible for the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccination status of family physicians in 1996 and professional practices based on six clinical and administrative activities pertaining to influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Prevalence of vaccination was 35.5% (95% confidence interval 30.8% to 40.4% among responding physicians and was higher among those 60 years and older, those with a chronic condition, and those perceiving high peer pressure to get vaccinated. Most respondents frequently assessed the current influenza vaccination status of their patients, risk factors for influenza-related complications, and contraindications to the vaccine. They also frequently provided education about influenza and its vaccine, recommended vaccination, and administered the vaccine. Only a few reported assessing prior influenza vaccinations or recording vaccination status regularly. Finally, vaccinated physicians recommended the vaccine more frequently to their patients than unvaccinated physicians did. CONCLUSION: Promotion programs focusing on peer influence could increase vaccination of family physicians. This could in turn improve vaccination coverage of elderly patients.
Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen
Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.
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During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Levin, Eline; Høyer, Mette;
BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to parental separation as a possible risk factor for adverse child development; however, little information is available regarding the family status of children referred to psychiatric facilities. AIMS: To assess the association between psychiatric illness...... children are at increased risk of not living with both biological parents independent of age of the child....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.
Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.
Mekonnen, Alemu; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Seager, John; Alemu, Tekie; Asgedom, Getachew
Ethiopia is one the world’s poorest countries with one of the highest rates of child malnutrition. The poor nutritional status of Ethiopian children is well documented, but the causes and relative importance of various determinants of malnutrition are not well understood. Ethiopia thus lacks an integrated cross-sectoral policy to guide nutrition programmes and interventions. While the literature on child malnutrition suggests gender- and location-related differences in malnutrition rates, thi...
Kesieme, Emeka B.; Kenechi Uwakwe; Eshiobo Irekpita; Andrew Dongo; Kefas John Bwala; Bamidele J. Alegbeleye
Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP) in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of OR...
朱坚; 符振旺; 王春雷
目的 了解影响海南省育龄妇女破伤风类毒素疫苗(TT)接种因素,为制定消除新生儿破伤风方案提供科学依据.方法 选取海南省新生儿破伤风发病较高的4个市县8个乡镇作抽取40个行政村作为问卷调查点.每个调查点随机抽取10名18 ～49岁育龄妇女进行问卷调查.结果 共完成399名育龄妇女问卷调查,大部分群众和育龄妇女对新生儿破伤发病原因和防治相关知识缺乏了解；孕产妇在家分娩率为62.4%,选择在家分娩的主要原因是住院分娩费用太高、交通不便、封建迷信与落后的风俗习惯影响；育龄妇女接种TT主动意识不高,TT接种率为57.79%.,未接种的原因主要有外出打工、怕影响生育、怕影响劳动和收费.群众易于接受宣传形式依次是电视、口头宣传、宣传画和广播.结论 海南省新生儿破伤风高危地区群众和育龄妇女对新生儿破伤发病原因和防治相关知识缺乏了解,育龄妇女TT接种率较低,应加强消毒接生与TT接种的宣传工作.%Objective To know the vaccination status and its influencing factors of tetanus toxoid vaccine of child-bearing age women in neonatal tetanus high-risk areas in Hainan to provide scientific basis for eliminating neonatal tetanus in Hainan province. Methods To choose four villages and towns of two city and county which incidence of neonatal tetanus was highest as investigation sites. Project interview and questionnaire survey in families were taken to investigate information. Results The interview of 218 persons of 24 groups and questionnaire survey of 199 child-bearing age women were completed. Most of the women didn't know the reason and prevention of neonatal tetanus. 62.4% of puerperant gave birth to children at home. The main reasons were high cost in hospital,traffic inconvenience,feudal superstition and backward customs. The active consciousness of child-bearing age women for inoculating tetanus toxoid was not
Emeka B. Kesieme
Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of ORP were vaccinated against HBV. The primary reason for not being vaccinated or for defaulting from vaccination was lack of time. Differences in age, sex, duration of practice and respondent's institution between vaccinated and unvaccinated ORP were not significant (P>0.05. The majority (86.8% had the awareness of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine. 83.8% of respondents believed that the vaccine should be given to the ORP as part of work place safety measures. The majority were aware of the modes of transmission of HBV infection. 78.9% of respondents believed that Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and 81.1% would recommend it to another staff. Conclusion. Despite a good knowledge about HBV infection and vaccine, most of ORP are still not vaccinated. Hepatitis B vaccination should be a prerequisite for working in the theatre, hence putting surgical patients at reduced risk.
Muehlenbein, Michael P; Martinez, Leigh Ann; Lemke, Andrea A; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Andau, Patrick; Sakong, Rosman
Anthropozoonotic (human to nonhuman animal) transmission of infectious disease poses a significant threat to wildlife. A large proportion of travelers to tropical regions are not protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses, and a majority of these travelers demonstrate poor recall of actual vaccination status. Here we characterize self-perceived vaccination status among a large sample of ecotourists at the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre, Sabah, Malaysia. Despite their recognized travel itinerary to view endangered animals, tourists at wildlife sanctuaries are not adequately protected against vaccine-preventable illnesses. Of 633 surveys, over half reported being currently vaccinated against tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, and measles. Fewer participants reported current vaccination status for influenza, rabies, and chickenpox. Despite the fact that the majority of visitors to Sepilok are from temperate regions where influenza is relatively more prevalent, 67.1% of those surveyed with medical-related occupations reported not being currently vaccinated for influenza. Ecotourists concerned about environmental protection are themselves largely unaware of their potential contribution to the spread of diseases to animals. The risks of negatively affecting animal populations must be communicated to all concerned parties, and this may begin by urging travelers to examine their actual vaccination status, particularly as the ecotourism industry continues its rapid expansion, and is seen increasingly as a possible tool to save great ape populations from extinction. PMID:18810550
Bourgeois, A Louis; Wierzba, Thomas F; Walker, Richard I
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly among infants and young children in developing countries. Still, the true impact on child and traveler health is likely underestimated. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, but studies indicate high public health impact, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of immune protection through vaccination. ETEC vaccine development remains a World Health Organization priority. Traditionally, ETEC vaccine development efforts have focused on inducing antitoxin and anticolonization antigen immunity, as studies indicate that antibodies against both antigen types can contribute to protection and thus have potential for vaccines. Leading cellular vaccine candidates are ETVAX (a mixture of four inactivated strains) and ACE527 (a mixture of three live attenuated strains), both of which have been found to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1/2 trials. ETVAX is the furthest along in development with descending-age studies already underway in Bangladesh. Other ETEC vaccine candidates based on protein subunits, toxoids (both LT and ST), or novel, more broadly conserved ETEC antigens are also under development. Of these, a protein adhesin-based subunit approach is the most advanced. Impact and economic models suggest favorable vaccine cost-effectiveness, which may help expand market interest in ETEC vaccines. Combination vaccine formulations may help improve the economic case for development and use, and better point-of-care diagnostics will help to raise awareness of the true health burden of ETEC and highlight the potential public health benefit of ETEC vaccine introduction. Better diagnostics and vaccine demand forecasting will also improve vaccine development financing and support accelerated uptake once a licensed vaccine becomes available. PMID:26988259
Birkett, Ashley J
Despite recent progress in reducing deaths attributable to malaria, it continues to claim approximately 500,000 lives per year and is associated with approximately 200 million infections. New tools, including safe and effective vaccines, are needed to ensure that the gains of the last 15 years are leveraged toward achieving the ultimate goal of malaria parasite eradication. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency announced the adoption of a positive opinion for the malaria vaccine candidate most advanced in development, RTS,S/AS01, which provides modest protection against clinical malaria; in early 2016, WHO recommended large-scale pilot implementations of RTS,S in settings of moderate-to-high malaria transmission. In alignment with these advancements, the community goals and preferred product characteristics for next-generation vaccines have been updated to inform the development of vaccines that are highly efficacious in preventing clinical malaria, and those needed to accelerate parasite elimination. Next-generation vaccines, targeting all stages of the parasite lifecycle, are in early-stage development with the most advanced in Phase 2 trials. Importantly, progress is being made in the definition of feasible regulatory pathways to accelerate timelines, including for vaccines designed to interrupt transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes. The continued absence of financially lucrative, high-income markets to drive investment in malaria vaccine development points to continued heavy reliance on public and philanthropic funding. PMID:26993333
Evans, Thomas G; Schrager, Lew; Thole, Jelle
TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine. PMID:26973073
Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena
A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. PMID:26973063
Padinjaremattathil Thankappan Ullas; Anita Desai; Shampur Narayan Madhusudana
Rabies continues to be a significant cause of human and animal mortality, despite the availability of safe and effective prophylactics. Apart from limited access, the cost and complex schedules of rabies biologics often impact on the success of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans in the endemic countries. Mass vaccination of dogs, critical in rabies control, often fails to achieve its goal in rabies-endemic countries due to logistic, animal and vaccine-related issues. DNA vaccination has been...
de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976
This paper examines the determinants of child nutritional status in seven provinces of China during the 1990s, focusing specifically on the role of two areas of public policy, namely health system reforms and the one child policy. The empirical relationship between income and nutritional status, and the extent to which that relationship is mediated by access to quality healthcare and being...
Heath, Paul T
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. Intrapartum antibiotic strategies have reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS in a number of countries but have had no impact on late onset GBS infection (LOD). In low/middle income settings, the disease burden remains uncertain although in several countries of Southern Africa appears comparable to or higher than that of high-income countries. As disease may be rapidly fulminating cases can be missed before appropriate samples are obtained and this may lead to underestimation of the true burden. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth as well as the deficiencies in IAP strategies and absence of a solution for preventing LOD, it is clear that administration of a suitable vaccine in pregnancy could provide a better solution in all settings; it should also be cost effective. The current leading vaccine candidates are CPS-protein conjugate vaccines but protein-based vaccines are also in development and one has recently commenced clinical trials. PMID:26988258
Full Text Available Development of a preventive vaccine for HIV is the best hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. HIV has, however, proved a difficult pathogen to vaccinate against because of its very high mutation rate and capability to escape immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies that can neutralize diverse field strains have so far proved difficult to induce. Adjuvanting these vaccines with cytokine plasmids and a "prime-boost," approach is being evaluated in an effort to induce both CTL and antibody responses and thereby have immune responses active against both infected cells and free viral particles, thereby necessitating fewer doses of recombinant protein to reach maximum antibodies titers. Although obstacles exist in evaluation of candidate HIV vaccines, evidence from natural history studies, new molecular tools in virology and immunology, new adjuvants, new gene expression systems, new antigen delivery systems, recent discoveries in HIV entry and pathogenesis, and promising studies of candidate vaccines in animal models have provided reasons to hope that developing a safe and effective AIDS vaccine is possible and within reach.
Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens;
Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....
Full Text Available The idea of an edible vaccine is coming closer to reality as scientists have found a way to incorporate the protein gene with some antigen in some plants. The major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology are being overcome. In this context, genetically modified (GM plants are being investigated for the production of vaccines, antibodies and therapeutic proteins. The development of GM crops to produce drugs and vaccines has received considerable investment and is relatively well advanced. The myth surrounding edible vaccines and 'food as pill' is the difficulty to control their intake and distribution, particularly in developing countries where education levels and literacy may be low. However, this concept suffers from the fact that the potency of this class of vaccines and drugs remains unmasked to the majority of the population, which has to be publicized and campaigned in a scientific manner, to make it realistic and useful for the common man. Creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes. Thus, they have no way of establishing infection, assuring its safety, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Conventional subunit vaccines are expensive and technology-intensive, need purification, require refrigeration and produce poor mucosal response. In contrast, edible vaccines would enhance compliance, especially in children and because of oral administration, would eliminate the need for trained medical personnel. Their production is highly efficient and can be easily scaled up. If the technology is properly nurtured and given the right direction, it may usher into a new era where we will be asked to
Rammohan Anu; Awofeso Niyi; Fernandez Renae C
Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of p...
Edmonds, Eric V.
The rapid economic growth of Vietnam provides an interesting insight into the sharp decline in child labor. A study of the rising economic status of the population across Vietnam shows that children returned to school or stopped working as their family incomes grew. The decline in child labor is steep in poor households as they emerged from…
This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java. PMID:12343263
Vishal Prakash Giri
Full Text Available Tobacco abuse has an enormous impact on health. Nicotine is the main substance responsible for dependence on tobacco-containing products. The vast majority of cigarette smokers who try to quit ultimately fail because of high relapse rates. Clearly, novel approaches are needed for the treatment and prevention of nicotine addiction. Having an efficient vaccine that would generate antibodies to sequester the drug and prevent its access to the brain could go a long way toward helping a motivated addict quit an addiction. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1309-1313
Examines and questions the child and universal adult suffrage, justifying the child's exclusion, establishing criteria for voter competence, evaluating the competence of children, and chronological age as a criterion. Journal available from Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (ND)
Brad M. Farrant
Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.
Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S. V.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti
Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivar...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.
Susan C. Modesitt
Full Text Available Since introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, there remains low uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines. There is limited information postapproval about parental attitudes and barriers when presenting for routine care. This study evaluates HPV vaccine uptake and assesses demographics and attitudes correlating with vaccination for girls aged 11–12 years. A prospective cohort study was performed utilizing the University of Virginia (UVA Clinical Data Repository (CDR. The CDR was used to identify girls aged 11–12 presenting to any UVA practice for a well-child visit between May 2008 and April 2009. Billing data were searched to determine rates of HPV vaccine uptake. The parents of all identified girls were contacted four to seven months after the visit to complete a telephone questionnaire including insurance information, child’s vaccination status, HPV vaccine attitudes, and demographics. Five hundred and fifty girls were identified, 48.2% of whom received at least one HPV vaccine dose. White race and private insurance were negatively associated with HPV vaccine initiation (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85 and RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01, respectively. In the follow-up questionnaire, 242 interviews were conducted and included in the final cohort. In the sample, 183 (75.6% parents reported white race, 38 (15.7% black race, and 27 (11.2% reported other race. Overall 85% of parents understood that the HPV vaccine was recommended and 58.9% of parents believed the HPV vaccine was safe. In multivariate logistic regression, patients of black and other minority races were 4.9 and 4.2 times more likely to receive the HPV vaccine compared to their white counterparts. Safety concerns were the strongest barrier to vaccination. To conclude, HPV vaccine uptake was higher among minority girls and girls with public insurance in this cohort.
Safrit, Jeffrey T; Fast, Patricia E; Gieber, Lisa; Kuipers, Hester; Dean, Hansi J; Koff, Wayne C
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most lethal pandemics in human history, although in recent years access to highly effective anti-retroviral therapy has provided new hope worldwide. Transmission of HIV by sexual contact, childbirth and injection drug use has been reduced, but 2 million are newly infected each year, and much of the transmission is from people who do not know their status. In addition to known methods, a preventive vaccine is needed to end the pandemic. The extraordinary mutability and genetic diversity of HIV is an enormous challenge, but vaccines are being designed for broad coverage. Computer-aided design of mosaic immunogens, incorporating many epitopes from the entire genome or from conserved regions aim to induce CD8+ T cells to kill virus-infected cells or inhibit virus replication, while trimeric envelope proteins or synthetic mimics aim to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies similar to those cloned from some infected patients. Induction of more potent and durable responses may require new adjuvants or replicating chimeric vectors chimeras that bear HIV genes. Passive or genetic delivery of broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide broad protection and/or lead to insights for vaccine designers. Proof-of-concept trials in non-human primates and in one human efficacy trial have provided scientific clues for a vaccine that could provide broad and durable protection against HIV. The use of vaccines to destroy HIV reservoirs as part of therapy or cure is now also being explored. PMID:26993335
Brad M. Farrant; Maybery, Murray T.; Janet Fletcher
Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males) typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months). The results sup...
Holte, Jon H; Mæstad, Ottar; Jani, Jagrati V
The dynamics of childhood vaccination uptake in developing countries are unclear. Numerous studies document the relationship between vaccination coverage and access, socio economic and demographic factors. However, there is less knowledge about the relationship between vaccination coverage and carers' motivation and willingness to seek childhood vaccinations. The aim of this paper is to introduce a framework for studying demand for childhood vaccination and to examine the coherence between theoretical predictions and empirical findings in a rural area in Malawi. We interviewed 635 carers with children aged 18-59 months. About 96 percent of the respondents reported to have fully vaccinated their youngest eligible child for all routine vaccinations scheduled in the Expanded Program on Immunization. This paper concludes that easy access to vaccination services cannot explain why demand is high. Many carers had to travel long distances to reach vaccination delivery points and a considerable share of the respondents scored waiting and travelling time as long. Results from the present study, in combination with theoretical predictions, suggest that a high level of trust in distributors of information and vaccines may be an essential explanatory factor for why carers seek immunization for their children, even in the presence of considerable costs. Trust may be an important explanatory factor as it can be seen to generate positive perceived benefits. PMID:22571892
Duvoisin Nicole; Gyurech Danielle; Naguel Claudine; Lee Chung-Yol; Schilling Julian
Abstract Background Adult vaccination status may be difficult to obtain, often requiring providers to rely on individual patient recall. To determine vaccination status awareness and the sociodemographic predictors of awareness for tetanus, hepatitis A and B, tick born encephalitis (TBE) and influenza vaccination. Methods Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate a questionnaire survey of 10 321 employees (4070 women and 6251 men aged 15–72 years) of two companies in Switzerland. Results Am...
Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among adolescent females is well below national public health goals. Many known barriers to HPV vaccine receipt can be addressed in parent-physician conversations. This study sought to explore parent experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination of adolescent girls, focused on interactions with providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of parents using a nationally representative online panel. Among parents with ≥1 daughter aged 11 to 17 years, provider recommendations for HPV vaccine and specified age to begin the HPV vaccine series were associated with HPV vaccine status. Parents who reported their daughters were unlikely to complete the HPV series were more likely to have had no discussion of HPV vaccine with the provider. Efforts to increase HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females should continue to focus on improving provider discussion of HPV vaccine. PMID:26450982
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult vaccination status may be difficult to obtain, often requiring providers to rely on individual patient recall. To determine vaccination status awareness and the sociodemographic predictors of awareness for tetanus, hepatitis A and B, tick born encephalitis (TBE and influenza vaccination. Methods Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate a questionnaire survey of 10 321 employees (4070 women and 6251 men aged 15–72 years of two companies in Switzerland. Results Among 10 321 respondents, 75.5% reported knowing their tetanus vaccination status, 64.1% hepatitis A, 61.1% hepatitis B, 64.3% TBE and 71.9% influenza. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 3 employees were not aware of their vaccination status. Differences in awareness for the five vaccinations considered correlated with gender and language. These differences persisted in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Women employees, German-speaking employees and employees who paid more attention to their diet were more often aware of their vaccination status. A more reliable and readily accessible data source for vaccination status is needed in order to capitalize on opportunities to update vaccinations among Swiss employees.
Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah
We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...
Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P
We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs. PMID:26159149
Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Kofoed, Poul-Erik;
Comment on Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial. [Lancet. 2015]......Comment on Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial. [Lancet. 2015]...
Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Schmidt Jensen, Jane;
interpretation of cases of illness and atopic diseases in their personal network and family to evaluate risk for their child to develop atopic diseases or get hospitalised. This lay epidemiologi forms the basis for their decision. Davison C, Frankel S, Davey Smith G. Inheriting heart trouble: the relevance of......Introduction: In a large prospective randomised clinical trial in Denmark we are testing the hypothesis that compared to non-BCG-vaccinated infants, infants who are BCG vaccinated at birth experience less hospitalisations, use less antibiotics, and develop less atopic disease in early childhood. My...... focus for this project is parents decision making and risk evaluation. I want to investigate how parents make their decision about letting their child get a BCG vaccination and how they evaluate the risk of side effects. Method: Before the clinical trial was started, we conducted 5 focus groups with...
Lee, Hyejon; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kim, Deok Ryun; FLOYD, Sian; Oh, Sue Yeon; Lee, Jin Bum; Kim, Hee Jin
Background Delivery of Bacille Calmette-Guréin (BCG) Tokyo vaccine, with the multipuncture device, has been much preferred over BCG Pasteur, with the intradermal method, possibly due to the easier manner of administration, a desire to avoid any trouble with scars, as well as side effects and higher profits to providers in South Korea. Methods To determine BCG scar status in 0~6 year old children vaccinated with two BCG vaccines (Pasteur BCG vaccine with intradermal method and BCG Tokyo vaccin...
Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Zhou, Zhou; Deceuninck, Genevieve
Introduction: "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept frequently used in the discourse around vaccine acceptance. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing reflections on tools and indicators of vaccine hesitancy by providing results of a knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) survey conducted among parents. Methods: Data were collected in 2014 through a computer-assisted telephone interview survey administered to a sample of parents of children aged between 2 months and 17 years of age. Results: The majority of the 589 parents included in the analyses agreed on the importance of vaccination to protect their children’s health and to prevent the spread of diseases in the community. The majority of the parents (81%) reported that their child had received all doses of recommended vaccines and 40% of parents indicated having hesitated to have their child vaccinated. Fear of adverse events and low perceived vulnerability of the child or severity of the disease were the most frequent reasons mentioned by these vaccine-hesitant parents. In multivariate analyses, KAB items remaining significantly associated both with an incomplete vaccination status of the child and parents’ vaccine hesitancy were: not thinking that it is important to have the child vaccinated to prevent the spreading of diseases in the community; not trusting the received vaccination information and having felt pressure to have the child vaccinated. Discussion: Further researches will be needed to better understand when, how and why these beliefs are formed in order to prevent the onset of vaccine hesitancy. PMID:27019766
Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L
Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed. PMID:26299857
Pang, Yu; Zhao, Aihua; Cohen, Chad; Kang, Wanli; Lu, Jie; Wang, Guozhi; Zhao, Yanlin; Zheng, Suhua
Pediatric tuberculosis contributes significantly to the burden of TB disease worldwide. In order to achieve the goal of eliminating TB by 2050, an effective TB vaccine is urgently needed to prevent TB transmission in children. BCG vaccination can protect children from the severe types of TB such as TB meningitis and miliary TB, while its efficacy against pediatric pulmonary TB ranged from no protection to very high protection. In recent decades, multiple new vaccine candidates have been developed, and shown encouraging safety and immunogenicity in the preclinical experiments. However, the limited data on protective efficacy in infants evaluated by clinical trials has been disappointing, an example being MVA85A. To date, no vaccine has been shown to be clinically safer and more effective than the presently licensed BCG vaccine. Hence, before a new vaccine is developed with more promising efficacy, we must reconsider how to better use the current BCG vaccine to maximize its effectiveness in children. PMID:27002369
Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T
Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673
Fadilah Harahap; Ridwan M. Daulay; Muhammad Ali; Wisman Dalimunthe; Rini Savitri Daulay
Background Tuberculosis (TB) infection is highly prevalent in Indonesia. The source of transmission of TB to a child is usually via an adult with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The Mantoux test is a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis infection. The BCG vaccine has been used for the prevention of TB, but its efficacy is still debated. Objective To assess for an association between Mantoux test results and BCG vaccination in children who had contact with adult pulmonary tuberculosi...
Loulergue, P; Pulcini, C; Massin, S; Bernhard, M; Fonteneau, L; Levy-Brühl, D; Guthmann, J-P; Launay, O
Data on validity of self-reported vaccinations are scarce. This study, performed on healthcare students in Paris (France), aimed to evaluate this validity for occupational vaccinations. The validity of self-reported vaccination status was compared with written information. A total of 432 students were enrolled. Sensitivity rates for BCG, hepatitis B and measles were over 74%. For diphtheria-tetanus-polio and pertussis, sensitivity was below 50%. Specificity was between 70 and 95% for dTP-pertussis, and below 35% for all others. Overall, the validity of self-reported information was low, meaning that checking medical records remains the preferable strategy for assessing immunization status. PMID:25040583
Steer, Andrew C; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Dale, James B; Fraser, John D; Good, Michael F; Guilherme, Luiza; Moreland, Nicole J; Mulholland, E Kim; Schodel, Florian; Smeesters, Pierre R
Streptococcus pyogenes is an important global pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in low and middle income countries where rheumatic heart disease and invasive infections are common. There is a number of promising vaccine candidates, most notably those based on the M protein, the key virulence factor for the bacterium. Vaccines against Streptococcus pyogenes are considered as impeded vaccines because of a number of crucial barriers to development. Considerable effort is needed by key players to bring current vaccine candidates through phase III clinical trials and there is a clear need to develop a roadmap for future development of current and new candidates. PMID:27032515
Full Text Available Background: Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers’ socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included as routine immunization program.Methods: Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378 undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N=315 undergoing a health check-up in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city.Results: Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 (95% CI (confidence interval: 1.65-10.7 and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6 compared to low household income, respectively. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. Conclusions: While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization.Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization program, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine
MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca
Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797
Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I
Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). PMID:26979135
Full Text Available Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake.
Full Text Available
Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...
McCarthy, E M
Patients with inflammatory arthritis are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections. This risk is increased by immunomodulatory therapies. Vaccination for influenza and pneumococcal disease reduces the risk. Severe cases of varicella infection have occurred in patients on biologic therapies. We sought to identify vaccination rates for commonly acquired infections and to ascertain varicella immune status in patients with inflammatory arthritis. 100 patients with inflammatory arthritis were administered a standardised questionnaire. Data collected included age, diagnosis, vaccination history, history of varicella, treatment and the presence of other indications for vaccination. 58 patients (58%) had not received the influenza vaccine in the past year. Only 19 patients (19%) had ever received pneumococcal vaccine. Anti TNF use did not predict vaccination (p = .46). An increasing number of co morbid conditions predicted both pneumococcal (p < 0.003) and influenza vaccine (p < 0.03) administration. Nineteen patients (19%) gave no history of varicella infection, none having had varicella titres checked pre treatment. Immunisation rates in patients with inflammatory arthritis on immunosuppressive therapies are low. Immunisation schedules should be available for each patient during rheumatology and general practice consultations.
Reed, Zarifah; Cardosa, Mary Jane
Although outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in young children have long been recognized worldwide, the occurrence of rare and life-threatening neurological, respiratory, and cardiac complications has propelled this common condition into the spotlight as a major public health problem in the affected countries. Various enteroviruses cause HFMD, but the severe complications have been mostly associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71). Medical treatment is supportive and measures to interrupt transmission have been challenging to implement. Preventive vaccines could have an important clinical impact, especially among children younger than 3 years old who are most susceptible to the neurological complications. Several groups in the highly affected Asia-Pacific region are working towards vaccines against EV71 and some candidates have progressed to late-stage clinical trials with two vaccines recently reported to have been approved by the regulatory authorities in China. This report summarizes current issues and progress in the development of vaccines against EV71. PMID:26973065
Hong, Kee-Jong; Park, Pil-Gu; Seo, Sang-Hwan; Rhie, Gi-eun; Hwang, Kyuh-Jam
Tularemia is a high-risk infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Due to its high fatality at very low colony-forming units (less than 10), F. tularensis is considered as a powerful potential bioterrorism agent. Vaccine could be the most efficient way to prevent the citizen from infection of F. tularensis when the bioterrorism happens, but officially approved vaccine with both efficacy and safety is not developed yet. Research for the development of tularem...
Azodo, CC; Ehizele, AO; Uche, I; Erhabor, P
Background: The development of success-oriented hepatitis-B vaccine uptake approach among dental surgeons is dependent on the availability of comprehensive baseline data. Objective: To determine the hepatitis-B vaccination status among dental surgeons in Benin City. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of dental surgeons in Benin City was conducted in May 2011. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, occupational risk rating of contracting hepati...
Riddle, Mark S; Guerry, Patricia
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine. PMID:26973064
Martín, Javier; Samoilovich, Elena; Dunn, Glynis; Lackenby, Angie; Feldman, Esphir; Heath, Alan; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina; Cooper, Gill; Yermalovich, Marina; Minor, Philip D.
The isolation of a capsid intertypic poliovirus recombinant from a child with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis is described. Virus 31043 had a Sabin-derived type 3-type 2-type 1 recombinant genome with a 5′-end crossover point within the capsid coding region. The result was a poliovirus chimera containing the entire coding sequence for antigenic site 3a derived from the Sabin type 2 strain. The recombinant virus showed altered antigenic properties but did not acquire type 2 antigeni...
Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey
Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418
Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442
Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…
Chadha, Manpreet K.; Fakih, Marwan; Muindi, Josephia; Tian, Lili; Mashtare, Terry; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and influenza infection. We conducted a prospective influenza vaccination study to determine the influence of vitamin D status on serological response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. METHODS During the 2006–2007 influenza season, CaP patients treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were offered vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®, 2006–2007) and sera collected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers before and 3 months after vaccination. Response to vaccination was defined as ≥1:40 titer ratio or a fourfold increase in titer at 3 months, against any of the three strains. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D3) levels were measured using DiaSorin 125I radioimmunoassay kits. RESULTS Thirty-five patients with CaP participated in the study. Median baseline 25-D3 level was 44.88 ng/ml (range: 9.16–71.98 ng/ml) Serological response against any of the three strains was noted in 80%. There was a significant effect of baseline 25-D3 level when tested as a continuous variable in relation to serological response (P = 0.0446). All patients in the upper quartile of 25-D3 level responded by mounting a serological response (P = 0.0344). None of the other baseline variables (age, race, chemotherapy status, or white cell count) had an effect on serological response. CONCLUSIONS In this study in CaP patients, a replete vitamin D status was associated with more frequent serological response to influenza vaccine. PMID:20812224
the STRONG Kids Research Team; Paige, Katie N.; Margarita Teran-Garcia; Donovan, Sharon M.; Salma M. A. Musaad; Fiese, Barbara H.
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, o...
Full Text Available Introduction: Polio vaccination rates remain low in certain regions of Malaysia. The Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (FTKL reported coverage of only 29.3% in 2005 and 61.2% in 2006, despite a Department of Health campaign to provide free three-round immunizations. The estimated numbers of live births used to calculate these rates may have artificially lowered the reported coverage percentages.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional household survey was conducted throughout the FTKL in 2007 to assess the actual polio vaccination status of children aged 9 to 24 months. Minimum sample size was calculated and proportionately divided among the 11 FTKL parliamentary constituencies. Residential areas were then randomly selected for in-person interviews. We used the gathered information, verified by medical records, to calculate the actual vaccination coverage and to compare the rates determined by using estimated or registered live births for the region.Results: Of the 1713 study participants, 98.3% had completed their polio vaccination schedule. Only 21 children had been partially vaccinated, and nine children were completely unvaccinated. FTKL residents had 20 431 live births registered for 2006, as opposed to the official estimate of 28 400. When the registered value of live births was used to calculate vaccination coverage, the 2006 coverage increased (to 85.1%.Conclusion: Actual vaccination coverage in Kuala Lumpur was much higher than the estimated coverage previously reported, reflecting the expected success of the Department of Health immunization campaign. Estimated values of live births are insufficient to accurately determine vaccine status and should be avoided.
Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran
Among more than 2500 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serovars, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis account for approximately fifty percent of all human isolates of NTS reported globally. The global incidence of NTS gastroenteritis in 2010 was estimated to be 93 million cases, approximately 80 million of which were contracted via food-borne transmission. It is estimated that 155,000 deaths resulted from NTS in 2010. NTS also causes severe, extra-intestinal, invasive bacteremia, referred to as invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. iNTS disease usually presents as a febrile illness, frequently without gastrointestinal symptoms, in both adults and children. Symptoms of iNTS are similar to malaria, often including fever (>90%) and splenomegaly (>40%). The underlying reasons for the high rates of iNTS disease in Africa are still being elucidated. Evidence from animal and human studies supports the feasibility of developing a safe and effective vaccine against iNTS. Both antibodies and complement can kill Salmonella species in vitro. Proof-of-principle studies in animal models have demonstrated efficacy for live attenuated and subunit vaccines that target the O-antigens, flagellin proteins, and other outer membrane proteins of serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. More recently, a novel delivery strategy for NTS vaccines has been developed: the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology which presents surface polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins in their native conformation. GMMA technology is self-adjuvanting, as it delivers multiple pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. GMMA may be particularly relevant for low- and middle-income countries as it has the potential for high immunologic potency at a low cost and involves a relatively simple production process without the need for complex conjugation. Several vaccines for the predominant NTS serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, are
Eric V. Edmonds
From 1993 to 1997, GDP per capita in Vietnam grew by between 6 and 7 percent annually. Child labor declined by 28 percent over this period. Using a simple, nonparametric decomposition, I investigate the relationship between improvements in per capita expenditure and child labor with a panel dataset of Vietnamese households that spans this episode of growth. I find that improvements in per capita expenditure can explain 80 percent of the decline in child labor that occurs in households whose e...
... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...
Jean Huang; Horng-Yih Ou; James Lin; Rudruidee Karnchanasorn; Wei Feng; Raynald Samoa; Lee-Ming Chuang; Chiu, Ken C
Background The liver plays a key role in fuel metabolism. It is well established that liver disease is associated with an increased risk for diabetes mellitus. Hepatitis C virus infection has been known to increase the risk of diabetes. However, much less is known about the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in diabetes. We examined the association of diabetes based on the vaccination status for HBV. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included adult subjects (≥20 y/o) with HBV s...
Full Text Available AIM: This descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the status of families' coping with stress who have a handicapped child. METHOD: Sampling was not done as the study was conducted with the entire population (80 of whom 70 individuals were reached. The research data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher and the "Styles of Coping with Stress Scale." Data were evaluated with number-percentage calculations, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in styles of coping with stress and the family's degree of closeness to the child, educational level, type of work and occupational status, income level, family type, age of handicapped child, status of having social support, place of residence, and status of having a transportation problem (p<0.05. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 413-420
Tumwine James K; Tylleskär Thorkild; Nankabirwa Victoria; Sommerfelt Halvor
Abstract Background Despite provision of free childhood vaccinations, less than half of all Ugandan infants are fully vaccinated. This study compares women with some secondary schooling to those with only primary schooling with regard to their infants' vaccination status. Methods A community-based prospective cohort study conducted between January 2006 and May 2008 in which 696 pregnant women were followed up to 24 weeks post partum. Information was collected on the mothers' education and vac...
Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.
Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098
Melissa B Gilkey
Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.
Tuck Seng Cheng
Full Text Available Inaccurate parental perception of their child's weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child's weight status verbally and visually.At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child's measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child's actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic (κ.Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821 with complete data on mothers' verbal and visual perceptions and children's anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child's weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child's weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child's weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%, and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%, their child's weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%. Birth order (p<0.001, maternal (p = 0.004 and child's weight status (p<0.001 were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions.Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child's weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood obesity, educating parents and caregivers about their child
Collins John; Tomo Ichikawa; Halima Abdu; Isaac Ocheke; Udochukwu Diala; Virginia Modise-Letsatsi; Takayuki Wada; Seline Okolo; Taro Yamamoto
Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totall...
Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria
The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI) inspired in seven cards graphically representing the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children r...
Pesch, Megan H; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C
Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status. PMID:26924561
Kaikkonen Kaisu M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.
Lohia, Neha; Udipi, Shobha A
Background Infant and child feeding index (ICFI) an age-specific index, can be used to assess child feeding practices. We used the ICFI to assess feeding practices for urban slum children and the association between ICFI and child nutritional status. Methods 446 children aged 6 to 24 months from urban slums of Mumbai, India were studied. We used the 24-hour diet recall to study dietary diversity and a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of food groups during the preceding week. ICFI ...
Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A
Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791
Full Text Available Background: Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs among healthcare workers (HCWs in Aleppo University hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n= 321. Results: Two hundred and forty-six (76.6% HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8% had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4% were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR=16,95% CI (2.55-100, P< 0.01], doctors [OR=10,95% CI (2.1 47.57, P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03, P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19, P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57, P < 0.01], respectively. Conclusion: HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.
Background: Hepatitis B is the most common serious infection of the liver and can lead to premature death from liver cancer or liver failure. Of the two billion people who have been infected with Hepatitis B virus, more than 350 million have chronic infection. The objectives of this study were to assess the Hepatitis B vaccination status, reasons for non-compliance and the risk of exposure to doctors at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two doctors were selected from the various departments of the hospital by simple random sampling. They were given a self-administered questionnaire after taking verbal consent. Some doctors refused to fill-in the questionnaire while some others were on leave during the time of study and the remaining 215 doctors responded to the questionnaire. Results: A total of 215 doctors, (age range 22-59 years) responded to the questionnaire. Amongst them 11.6% had not received even a single dose of Hepatitis B vaccine while 14.4% had not completed the required course of vaccination. Most common reason cited by doctors for non immunisation was that they had not thought about it. Consultants were more likely of the other doctors to have received completed vaccination (83.9% versus 69.9%) (p<0.05). They were also significantly more likely to know their antibody titre after completing vaccination. Needle stick injuries were common. One hundred and forty-five doctors in the study admitted having received at least one needle prick/sharp injury. Of them, 51.6% had received a needle prick/sharp injury more than once. Conclusion: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine in the market doctors continue to remain non-vaccinated. It is the lack of awareness and carelessness on part of doctors coupled with the negligence of the risk that has led them being incompletely vaccinated. There is a need to ensure that every doctor is completely vaccinated against Hepatitis B before he/she enters professional practice. (author)
Kaikkonen Kaisu M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka M; Vanhala Marja L; Laitinen Jaana H; Korpelainen Raija I
Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight statu...
Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith
Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…
Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.
Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil
Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424
Parletta, Natalie; Peters, Jacqueline; Owen, Amber; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Brennan, Leah
Parenting styles have been associated with health-related behaviours in children and adolescents. We present a series of studies. Study 1 investigated parenting styles and parent-child communication styles as cross-sectional predictors of dietary patterns in children, and study 2 as cross-sectional predictors of weight status in adolescents. Data…
Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J
ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for brain function and development. We examined whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy affects risk of autistic traits in childhood. Within the Generation R cohort, we measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3:ω-6 ratio in midpregnancy (Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 2001-2005). Child autistic traits at 6 years were assessed by using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form in 4,624 children. A lower maternal ω-3:ω-6 ratio during pregnancy was associated with more autistic traits in the offspring (β = -0.008, 95% confidence interval: -0.016, -0.001). In particular, a higher total ω-6 and linoleic acid status were associated with more autistic traits (all P's < 0.05). Associations were independent of child intelligence, suggesting that the fatty acid distribution specifically affects the development of autistic traits in addition to general neurodevelopment. Maternal plasma ω-3 status was not associated with child autistic traits and, consistently, neither was prenatal dietary fish intake. Our study shows that a lower prenatal ω-3:ω-6 ratio is associated with more child autistic traits, which is largely accounted for by higher ω-6 instead of lower ω-3 status. These results suggest a biological pathway between maternal fatty acid intake during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. PMID:27052119
Fox, Kiira; Heaton, Tim B.
Purpose: Rural children in developing countries have poor health outcomes in comparison with urban children. This paper considers 4 questions regarding the rural/urban difference, namely: (1) do individual-level characteristics account for rural/urban differences in child nutritional status; (2) do community-level characteristics account for…
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto
In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food ...
In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor), ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This proce...
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha
This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731
Givens, S R; Moore, M L
The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates for preschoolers remain low. Changing social conditions including a rising child poverty rate, a high teenage birth rate, an increased rate of births to unmarried women, and higher levels of unintended pregnancy may be contributing to stalled progress. PMID:7745540
Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Nearly 5.5 million children in the United States grow up in the shadows of undocumented status. We review the ecological domains of influence in children's and adolescents' lives and briefly consider health, cognitive, socioemotional, educational, and labor market outcomes ripe for study. We also reflect upon the ethical policy…
IrohTam, Pui-Ying; Hanisch, Benjamin R.; Forward, Brennan
We report a case of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia due to serotype 19A in a child who had received four doses of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and review the literature on effectiveness of this vaccine. Pediatricians should be alert to the fact that up-to-date immunization status with pneumococcal vaccine does not preclude illness from invasive disease caused by a vaccine serotype.
Full Text Available This work questions the premise that the nutritional status of children under six years of age is a reliable indicator of family health. To do so, a research strategy based in case studies was carried out, following a qualitative design (participant observation and semistructured interviews using intentional sampling and framed within the interpretivist paradigm. The anthropometric measurements of 20 children under six years of age attending the local Child Care Center in Villa La Tela, Córdoba were evaluated. Nutritional status was understood as an object that includes socially determined biological processes, and was therefore posited analytically as a cross between statistical data and its social determination. As a statistic, child nutritional status is merely descriptive; to assist in the understanding of its social determination, it must be placed in dialectical relationship with the spheres of sociability proposed to analyze the reproduction of health problems.
Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K;
When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert...
Adolescent period usually are omitted regarding the vaccination and the other health evaluations, in our country. Adolescent period is usually considered as between the ages of 8-18 years. During this period, it is important to evaluate routine adolescent examination as well as vaccination status.Childhood (0-18 years) vaccination can be considered in three stages; infantil period vaccinations (
Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M
This study challenges the commonly held view that the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection status of FIV-vaccinated cats cannot be determined using point-of-care antibody test kits due to indistinguishable antibody production in FIV-vaccinated and naturally FIV-infected cats. The performance of three commercially available point-of-care antibody test kits was compared in a mixed population of FIV-vaccinated (n=119) and FIV-unvaccinated (n=239) cats in Australia. FIV infection status was assigned by considering the results of all antibody kits in concert with results from a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR™). Two lateral flow immunochromatography test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV; Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) had excellent overall sensitivity (100%; 100%) and specificity (98%; 100%) and could discern the true FIV infection status of cats, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. The lateral flow ELISA test kit (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo) could not determine if antibodies detected were due to previous FIV vaccination, natural FIV infection, or both. The sensitivity and specificity of FIV RealPCR™ for detection of viral and proviral nucleic acid was 92% and 99%, respectively. These results will potentially change the way veterinary practitioners screen for FIV in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced, especially in shelter scenarios where the feasibility of mass screening is impacted by the cost of testing. PMID:26459979
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...
Trimble, Robert; Atkins, Jane; Quigg, Troy C; Burns, Cara C; Wallace, Gregory S; Thomas, Mary; Mangla, Anil T; Infante, Anthony J
Poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in most of the world through the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In the United States, use of OPV was discontinued by the year 2000 because of the potential for vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP); an average of eight cases were reported each year in the United States during 1980-2000. Polio eradication efforts in other parts of the world continue to rely on OPV to take advantage of transmission of poliovirus vaccine strains to unvaccinated persons in the population, lower cost, and ease of administration. In 2013, an infant aged 7 months who recently immigrated to the United States from India was referred to a hospital in San Antonio, Texas. The infant had fever, an enlarging skin lesion in the deltoid region with axillary lymphadenopathy, decreased activity, and inability to bear weight on the left leg, progressing to paralysis of the left leg over a 6-week period. Recognition of lymphopenia on complete blood count led to immune evaluation, which revealed the presence of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS), an inherited disorder. A history of OPV and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in India led to the diagnoses of VAPP and BCG-osis, which were confirmed microbiologically. This report demonstrates the importance of obtaining a comprehensive clinical history in a child who has recently immigrated to the United States, with recognition that differing vaccine practices in other countries might require additional consideration of potential etiologies. PMID:25144542
Full Text Available Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease.
Full Text Available Objective: This study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and its relationship with childhood anthropometric status in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Maternal and child anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard WHO methods. Child anthropometric Z scores were obtained from WHO Anthroplus while BMI of mothers were also determined. Totally, 262 mother-child pairs were recruited. Results: Mean maternal age and mean child age were 30.8 ± 6.3 yrs (15-47 yrs and 22.3 ± 18.7 months (3-72 months. Prevalence of maternal underweight, overweight and obesity was 4.2% (11/262, 29.4% (77/262 and 25.9% (68/262, respectively. Child overweight/obesity was 5.4% (14/262, severe under-nutrition 5.7% (15/262. Mean maternal BMI was higher in the older, more educated and higher socioeconomic status (SES. Child mean birth-weight, weight-for-age Z-score and BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ were higher among mothers with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . All large-for-age babies were in mothers with maternal BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Childhood over-nutrition was more common in maternal BMI of ≥25 kg/m 2 . Overall, BAZ was directly related with maternal BMI, maternal age and birth-weight, although it was inversely related with maternal BM I ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . Conclusion: Higher BMI is seen in educated and higher SES mothers and this impact on childhood anthropometry.
Park, Boyoung; Lee, Yeon-Kyeng; Cho, Lisa Y; Go, Un Yeong; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Choi, Bo-Youl; Lee, Moo-Sik; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong; Park, Sue K
This study compared interview and telephone surveys to select the better method for regularly estimating nationwide vaccination coverage rates in Korea. Interview surveys using multi-stage cluster sampling and telephone surveys using stratified random sampling were conducted. Nationwide coverage rates were estimated in subjects with vaccination cards in the interview survey. The interview survey relative to the telephone survey showed a higher response rate, lower missing rate, higher validity and a less difference in vaccination coverage rates between card owners and non-owners. Primary vaccination coverage rate was greater than 90% except for the fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis), the third dose of polio, and the third dose of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE). The DTaP4: Polio3: MMR1 fully vaccination rate was 62.0% and BCG1:HepB3:DTaP4:Polio3:MMR1 was 59.5%. For age-appropriate vaccination, the coverage rate was 50%-80%. We concluded that the interview survey was better than the telephone survey. These results can be applied to countries with incomplete registry and decreasing rates of landline telephone coverage due to increased cell phone usage and countries. Among mandatory vaccines, efforts to increase vaccination rate for the fourth dose of DTaP, the third dose of polio, JBE and regular vaccinations at recommended periods should be conducted in Korea. PMID:21655054
Propper, Carol; Rigg, John A.
This paper examines whether and how socio-economic status is associated with children’s behavioural development in today’s children. Using a large cohort of English children born in the early 1990s we find significant social inequalities in several dimensions of child behaviour at age 7. We examine whether these inequalities are associated with characteristics of the child’s early home environment and parental behaviours. These include the material quality of the child’s home, maternal mental...
Hoffmann, Sascha; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles
Background The aim of this study was to examine whether child-caregivers’, both parents and kindergarten teachers, health parameters (age, weight status, habitual physical activity score) are significantly associated with the risk of overweight in young children. Methods We assessed the individual body mass index standard deviation score in a regional cross-sectional health study and matched a representative sample of 434 kindergartners aged 3 to 6-years with their caregivers’ weight and habi...
Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household ...
Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E; Huang, Hui
Studies of the transition to adulthood in child welfare focus almost exclusively on youth in foster care. Yet, research indicates that maltreated children who remain in the home may display similar risks as compared with their peers in formal foster care settings. Utilizing administrative data from child welfare, juvenile justice and adult corrections, the current study fills a gap in the literature by analyzing justice outcomes for older adolescents involved with the child welfare system regardless of their placement status. We focus on both intact family cases and formal foster care placements. The diverse sample (11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 6% Native American, 9% multi-racial, 56% female) included open child welfare cases involving 17 year olds (n = 9874). Twenty-nine percent of adolescents were associated with a long term out of home placement and 62% were associated with an intact family case. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents associated with long term foster care placement were significantly less likely to experience a subsequent arrest as compared with adolescents associated with a long term intact family case. Males, African Americans and adolescents associated with neglect were also more likely to experience a subsequent arrest. Limited focus on the intact family population in child welfare represents a lost opportunity to support critical developmental gains and facilitate a smooth transition to adulthood. PMID:26014611
Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda
Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…
Tumwine James K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite provision of free childhood vaccinations, less than half of all Ugandan infants are fully vaccinated. This study compares women with some secondary schooling to those with only primary schooling with regard to their infants' vaccination status. Methods A community-based prospective cohort study conducted between January 2006 and May 2008 in which 696 pregnant women were followed up to 24 weeks post partum. Information was collected on the mothers' education and vaccination status of the infants. Results At 24 weeks, the following vaccinations had been received: bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG: 92%; polio-1: 91%; Diphteria-Pertussis-Tetanus-Hepatitis B-Haemophilus Influenza b (DPT-HB-Hib 3 and polio-3: 63%. About 51% of the infants were fully vaccinated (i.e., had received all the scheduled vaccinations: BCG, polio 0, polio 1, DPT-HB-Hib1, polio 2, DPT-HB-Hib 2, polio 3 and DPT-HB-Hib 3. Only 46% of the infants whose mothers' had 5-7 years of primary education had been fully vaccinated compared to 65% of the infants whose mothers' had some secondary education. Infants whose mothers had some secondary education were less likely to miss the DPT-HB-Hib-2 vaccine (RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8, Polio-2 (RR: 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7, polio-3 (RR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.7 and DPT-HB-Hib-3 (RR: 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4, 0.7. Other factors showing some association with a reduced risk of missed vaccinations were delivery at a health facility (RR = 0.8; 95%CI: 0.7, 1.0 and use of a mosquito net (RR: 0.8; 95%CI: 0.7, 1.0. Conclusion Infants whose mothers had a secondary education were at least 50% less likely to miss scheduled vaccinations compared to those whose mothers only had primary education. Strategies for childhood vaccinations should specifically target women with low formal education.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyzes family status of the child conceived by artificial reproduction technologies using the following treatments: homologues artificial insemination, heterologus artificial insemination (artificial insemination by donor, ovum donation, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. One specific situation of homologues artificial insemination is posthumous insemination, insemination after the death of the husband/partner. This procedure is allowed in, for instance, United Kingdom, but not allowed in France, Switzerland, and Italy. Considering genetics elements in this situation there is no doubt on fatherhood - father is a man whose sperm is used for insemination, regardless of the fact if frozen sperm or frozen embryo is used in the procedure. Nevertheless, until 2008 in United Kingdom, the husband/partner was not considered as legal father, because of the fact that the child was born after his death. Heterologous artificial insemination could be used in three different situations. First, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of different sexes. Second, when subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex and the third if a single woman is an only subject. Most recent procedure is the one in which subjects are spouses or unmarried partners of the same sex, specifically two women. This procedure is allowed in the United Kingdom and Sweden. In these legislatures, there is a rule that the woman who delivers the child is legal mother, and her spouse/partner is a second parent of the child. The most recent procedure of egg donation is a donation of only a part of an egg, mitochondrial DNA. In this case, there are in fact three genetic parents of the child: two genetic mothers and a father. Legally, the child has one mother (the woman who delivers a child and a father. One of potential outcomes of the recent research is the ability to create human embryo without any male genetic contribution - by
Alp, Handan; Tan, Hüseyin; Orbak, Zerrin
Bell's Palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral temporary paralysis of facial muscles resulting from seventh cranial nerve dysfunction. Presented here is a two-year old female patient with right peripheral facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers’ attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's Palsy, as a rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify motivational factors linked to child health status that affected the likelihood of parents’ allowing their child to participate in pediatric research. Methods Parents were invited to return their completed questionnaires anonymously to assess motivational factors and factors that might improve participation in pediatric research. Results Of 573 eligible parents, 261 returned the completed questionnaires. Of these, 126 were parents of healthy children (group 1, whereas 135 were parents of sick children who were divided into two groups according to the severity of their pathology, i.e., 99 ambulatory children (group 2 and 36 nonambulatory children (group 3. The main factor motivating participation in a pediatric clinical research study was “direct benefits for their child” (87.7%, 100%, and 100% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The other factors differed significantly between the three groups, depending on the child’s health status (all p 2 test, all p ≤ 0.04, depending on the child’s health status. The main factor was “a better understanding of the study and its regulation” for the healthy children and ambulatory sick children groups (31.2% and 82.1%, respectively, whereas this was the third factor for the nonambulatory sick children group (50%. Conclusions Innovative strategies should be developed based on a child’s health status to improve information provision when seeking a child’s participation in pediatric research. Parents would like to spend more time in discussions with investigators.
Fang, Yuan; Liu, Man-Qing; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan
Most adverse events (AEs) during the immunization of rabies vaccine were slight, there was little information about the allergic reaction induced by rabies vaccines and had to stop or change the immunization program. Here, we reported a case that a 4-year-old boy had category II exposure to rabies and showed severe allergic reaction after being immunized with lyophilized purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). After the anti-allergy therapy with hormone, allergy testing indicated medium allergy to egg and milk, and implied the allergic reaction most likely associated with animal-sourced gelatin in lyophilized PVRV. Therefore, a new immunization program with liquid PVRV without stabilizers under the Zegrab regimen (2-1-1) was enrolled at day 7 post-exposure. Although lower than the levels of normal vaccines co-existing in the market, but also implied the necessary for doctors to fully understand the allergies history of patients prior to immunize rabies vaccine. PMID:26900624
Mendiola, Jennifer; Do-Reynoso, Van; Gonzalez, Mariaelena
First generation Latinos often have better health behaviors and outcomes than second and third generation Latinos. This study examined the correlates of seasonal influenza vaccinations among Mexican-identified (Mexican) adults, who make up the largest Latino subgroup in California. A sample of Mexican adults (N = 7493) from the 2011-12 California Interview Health Survey was used to compare the odds of first, second, and third generation Mexicans receiving influenza vaccinations in the past year. We performed a logistic regression taking into account socio-demographic characteristics, health status, and access to care. We repeated the analysis after stratifying for nativity, and then age. Being a second (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, confidence interval (CI): 0.59, 0.92) and third generation or higher (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.51, 0.86) Mexican was associated with lower odds of getting an influenza vaccination compared to first generation Mexicans. Having a chronic disease, and access to care was associated with higher odds of vaccination, while lower age was associated with lower odds of vaccination among both US-, and foreign-born Mexicans. Given that the majority of Mexicans in California are US-born, the fact that being second- and third-generation Mexicans was associated with lower influenza vaccination rates is of significant concern. PMID:26844182
Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F
We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza. PMID:26027483
The only commercially available irradiated anti-parasite vaccine is Dictol, the anti-Dictyocaulus viviparus vaccine, which is still being widely used in cattle 20 years after its introduction. Several other similar helminth vaccines which showed promise early in their development or use have now been abandoned for reasons both scientific and commercial. Nevertheless, there is still active interest in the development of irradiated vaccines for fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, as recent field trials have shown that irradiated metacercarial and schistosomular vaccines are effective against F. hepatica and S. bovis in cattle. There are no commercially available irradiated vaccines against protozoal diseases. Although experiments showed that irradiated vaccines were effective against Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva in cattle, interest in these has waned as other forms of live vaccines have been introduced. Vaccination against African trypanosomiasis remains an intractable problem, because of the multiplicity of naturally occurring antigenically distinct strains. (author)
Full Text Available Background Since the protection time by hepatitis B (HB vaccination is unclear, the strategy of immunization of junior students who previously received hepatitis vaccine is controversial. Objectives This study aimed to determine the status of immunity to hepatitis B in junior medical, nursing and obstetrics students with different hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination patterns. Patients and Methods In an analytical cross-sectional study, 255 junior medical sciences students were tested for quantitative antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs. The proportion of protective immunity was compared in different vaccination patterns. Results Vaccination coverage rates were 74.1%. About half the participants didn’t show serological evidence of protective immunity; 68.9% had their last shot more than 10 years ago and 30.4% had a vaccination history of five years or less (P < 0.001. Geometric mean level of anti-HBs titer among students, who had received a primary series vaccine at birth, was signiﬁcantly lower than students who had started vaccination at an older age (P < 0.001. Also, analysis of variance for geometric mean of anti-HBs titer showed significant differences between groups based on injection time from the last shot (P < 0.001 (post hoc comparisons resulted in a P value of < 0.001 for birth versus < 5 year group, and P < 0.001 for the 5 to 10 year group. The lowest rate of non-protective level belonged to participants with complete three doses and a booster additional shot (27.1%. The final model for independent predictors of anti-HBs positive status was made by a binary logistic regression analysis. The model included presence of a booster dose, injection time from last shot, and discipline of study. Conclusions This study shows lower anti-HBs among students who were vaccinated at infancy compared to those vaccinated at older childhood or adolescence. Also, subsequent measurement of anti-HBs level at the time of entrance to
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are a target group for receipt of influenza vaccine because there appears to be an elevated mortality and morbidity rate associated with influenza virus infection in pregnant women. The goal of this study is to determine the factors affecting the decisions of pregnant women in Turkey to be vaccinated or not for 2009 H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 314 of 522 (60.2% pregnant women who attended to the antenatal clinics of the Medical Faculty of Kahramanmaras Sutcuimam University's Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between December 23, 2009, and February 1, 2010. We developed a 48-question survey which was completed in a face-to-face interview at the clinic with each pregnant woman. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the 314 pregnant women, 27.4% were in the first trimester, 33.8% were in the second trimester, and 38.8% were in the third trimester. Twenty-eight pregnant women (8.9% got vaccinated. Of all the women interviewed, 68.5% stated that they were comfortable with their decisions about the vaccine, 7.3% stated they were not comfortable, and 24.2% stated that they were hesitant about their decisions. The probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was 3.46 times higher among working women than housewives, 1.85 times higher among women who have a child than those who do not, and 1.29 times higher among women with a high-school education or higher than those with only a secondary-school education and below. Correct knowledge about the minimal risks associated with receipt of influenza vaccine were associated with a significant increase in the probability of receiving the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of pregnant women in the study group who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccine was very low (8.9% and two-thirds of them stated that they were comfortable with their decisions concerning the vaccine. Our results may have implications for public health measures to increase the currently low
Bradley, Lucas; Bahgat, Diaa; Sharp, Gregory; Willis, Erin; Ocal, Eylem; Albert, Gregory; Serletis, Demitre
We report here the unusual case of an 8-year-old child with left hemispheric focal epilepsy secondary to a perinatal infarction who presented with new onset absence seizures and eventual nonconvulsive status epilepticus that was refractory to medical management. Following review at our multidisciplinary Epilepsy Surgery conference, the patient underwent disconnective surgical hemispherotomy with immediate cessation of his seizures; and has remained seizure-free at 4 months following surgery. In this context, we present here an overview of hemispherectomy and related procedures, including peri-insular disconnective hemispherotomy, and we discuss the efficacy of surgery for challenging hemispheric epilepsies. PMID:26552284
Krisztina Mártha I.; Sorana Roșu; Réka Gyergyay; Katalin Vikárius
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years) and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT), oral hygiene, dental malposition and...
Lamontagne, J F; Engle, P L; Zeitlin, M F
Relationships among women's employment, child care strategies, and nutritional status of children 12-18 months of age were examined in 80 Nicaraguan households sampled by randomized block design in 10 low income urban communities. Multiple regression analyses showed that children of employed mothers (56%) fared better in weight/height than those whose mothers were not employed, with and without controlling for socioeconomic status and maternal education, paternal financial support, child care adequacy, and sex and age of the child. Children with inadequate alternate child care (care by a preteen or care at the work place) had lower height for age, even controlling for the same variables and for maternal employment. Differences in 10 caregiving behaviors between families as a function of work status of the mother and adequacy of child care were examined. In families with working mothers, caregivers were less likely to be observed washing their hands, suggesting that the positive associations of work for earnings might be due to income rather than improved care. Inadequate care was associated with less food variety, less use of health care, and marginally less hand-washing. Inadequate child care, which tends to be associated with informal work, nuclear families and poverty, should be a concern for child welfare. PMID:9460821
Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens
-specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown...
Heaton, Tim B
This research tests the hypothesis that change over time in women's status leads to improvements in their children's health. Specifically, we examine whether change in resources and empowerment in mother's roles as biological mothers, caregivers, and providers and social contexts that promote the rights and representation of and investment in women are associated with better nutritional status and survival of young children. Analysis is based on a broad sample of countries (n = 28), with data at two or more points in time to enable examination of change. Key indicators of child health show improvement in the last 13 years in developing nations. Much of this improvement--90 percent of the increase in nutritional status and 47 percent of the reduction in mortality--is associated with improving status of women. Increased maternal education, control over reproduction, freedom from violence, access to health care, legislation and enforcement of women's rights, greater political representation, equality in the education system, and lower maternal mortality are improving children's health. These results imply that further advancement of women's position in society would be beneficial. PMID:26652680
Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R
Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-γ were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production. PMID:23465765
Lowery, Kamilan Aurielle
While limited health literacy has been associated with poorer health decisions and poorer health outcomes, there remains a gap in the literature related to the influence of health literacy on weight and weight-related behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of child and parent health literacy status on childs body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors, within an adapted evidence-based family-based childhood obesity intervention, iChoose, implemented in the medical...
Abdul Sattar Khan; Maisa Al-Sweilem; Zekeriya Akturk
Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) livi...
Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario;
BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rura...
Riedmann, Eva M
Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology
Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;
OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in...... MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age < 37 weeks) completed an ASQ at 6 and 22 months. Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS: The...... -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....
Denisenkova N.S.,; Vyrotskova V.V.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls) aged 5-7 years, attending prep...
... cancer or certain diseases, or who are taking drugs that lower the body's ability to resist infection. If your child has had a serious reaction to the first shot in a series of shots, your family doctor will probably talk with you about the pros and cons of giving him or her the rest of ...
Jensen, Kristoffer J.; Ndure, Jorjoh; Plebanski, Magdalena; Flanagan, Katie L.
WHO recommends high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) to children from 6 months to 5 years of age in low-income countries, in order to prevent and treat vitamin A deficiency-associated morbidity and mortality. The current policy does not discriminate this recommendation either by sex or vaccination status of the child. There is accumulating evidence that the effects of VAS on morbidity, mortality and immunological parameters depend on concomitant vaccination status. Moreover, these interac...
Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although child undernutrition and stunting has been decreasing worldwide while obesity rates increase, these extreme conditions might coexist in families from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between maternal and child anthropometric indicators using a population representative sample. METHODS: 4,258 non-pregnant women and their children 2. RESULTS: HAZ was positively associated with maternal height and WC in a linear fashion. After adjustment, for sociodemographic characteristics, children whose mothers' height was<145 cm had 1.2 lower HAZ than children whose mothers were ≥160 cm tall (p-trend<0.0001. After further adjustment for maternal height and maternal BMI, children of mothers with a waist circumference ≥88 cm had 0.3 higher HAZ than those of mothers with WC<80 cm (p-trend<0.01. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI for stunting by the categories of maternal height (<145, 145-149, 150-154, 155-159 and ≥160 cm were, respectively, 2.95 (1.51;5.77, 2.29 (1.33;3.93, 1.09 (0.63;1.87, and 0.89 (0.45;1.77, (p-trend = 0.001. BAZ was positively associated with maternal BMI and WC. CONCLUSION: We observed a strong, positive association of maternal and child nutritional status. Mothers of low stature had children with lower stature, mothers with central obesity had taller children, and mothers with overall or abdominal obesity had children with higher BAZ.
Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva
As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188
Lewis, Ione R.
Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…
Alderson, Mark R
Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children, particularly in the developing world. Vaccines are a critical strategy for protecting children from pneumococcal disease and licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are having a significant impact on invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia throughout the world. Currently available PCVs do not, however, cover all pneumococcal serotypes and are complicated and relatively expensive to manufacture. While new PCV development is focused on either higher valency or more inherent affordability for developing countries, new vaccines are needed that offer serotype-independent protection. Vaccines containing proteins that are common to all pneumococcal serotypes could provide broad protection to children worldwide. Protein subunit and whole cell vaccines have advanced into Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials but face considerable challenges before they can become licensed and widely distributed. PMID:27083428
Mikkelsen, Marianne; Bukh, Jens
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 170 million people worldwide. Acute HCV infection is often asymptomatic, but many infected individuals develop persistent infections that may lead to development of end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma....... Thus, an HCV vaccine that could significantly lower the chronicity rate would have a major impact on the disease burden. Unfortunately, HCV is a highly mutable virus, and escape mutations can undermine vaccine-induced virus-specific immunity. Also, HCV exists as multiple genotypes, and so genotype......-specific vaccines might be required to achieve broad protection. Finally, vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model and cell culture systems, but these are currently being established. Despite these obstacles, several vaccine candidates tested in the chimpanzee HCV model have shown...
Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.
Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M
It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621
Moriyon, I. (Ignacio); Grillo, M.J. (María Jesús); Monreal, D.; Gonzalez-fernandez, D.; Marin, C.M.; Lopez-Goñi, I. (Ignacio); Mainar, R. (Raúl); Moreno, E.; Blasco, J.M. (José)
International audience - Brucellosis control and eradication requires serological tests and vaccines. Effective classical vaccines (S19 in cattle and Rev 1 in small ruminants), however, induce antibodies to the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide which may be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from infection and may thus complicate diagnosis. Rough attenuated mutants lack the O-polysaccharide and would solve this problem if eliciting protective immunity; the empirically o...
Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon
Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847
Yoshikazu Nakayama; Atsushi Aruga
Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing he...
Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p valuesage∗green space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.
Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of "children left behind". The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6-59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313
Full Text Available Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families.
Jayatissa, Renuka; Wickramage, Kolitha
Despite an increasing trend in labour migration and economic dependence on foreign migrant workers in Sri Lanka, very little is known about the child care and nutritional status of “children left behind”. The aim of this study was to examine the factors influencing the nutritional status and care practices of children left behind. A sample of 321 children, 6–59 months old of international migrant workers from a cross-sectional nationally represented study were included. Care practices were assessed using ten caregiving behaviours on personal hygiene, feeding, and use of health services. Results revealed the prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight to be 11.6, 18.2 and 24.0 percent, respectively. Father being a migrant worker has a positive effect on childcare practices and birthweight of the child. This study indicates that undernutrition remains a major concern, particularly in the poorest households where the mother is a migrant worker, also each additional 100 g increase in the birthweight of a child in a migrant household, decreases the probability of being wasted, stunted and underweight by 6%, 8% and 23% respectively. In depth study is needed to understand how labour migration affects household level outcomes related to child nutrition and childcare in order to build skills and capacities of migrant families. PMID:26891313
Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...
McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L
Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415
FOTSO, JEAN CHRISTOPHE; Madise, Nyovani; BASCHIERI Angela; Cleland, John; Zulu, Eliya; Mutua, Martin Kavao; Essendi, Hildah
This paper uses longitudinal data from two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya to examine patterns of child growth and how these are affected by four different dimensions of poverty at the household level namely, expenditures poverty, assets poverty, food poverty, and subjective poverty. The descriptive results show a grim picture, with the prevalence of overall stunting reaching nearly 60% in the age group 15–17 months and remaining almost constant thereafter. There is a strong associatio...
Vreeman, Rachel C.; Winstone M Nyandiko; Ayaya, Samwel O.; Walumbe, Eunice G.; Marrero, David G.; Inui, Thomas S
In resource-limited settings, beliefs about disclosing a child's HIV status and the subsequent impacts of disclosure have not been well studied. We sought to describe how parents and guardians of HIV-infected children view the impact of disclosing a child's HIV status, particularly for children's antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. A qualitative study was conducted using involving focus groups and interviews with parents and guardians of HIV-infected children receiving ART in western Keny...
Santibanez, Tammy A.; Zimmerman, Richard Kent; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Katz Jewell, Ilene; Bardella, Inis J.
BACKGROUND Barriers to adult immunizations persist as current rates for pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) receipt among eligible adults remain below national goals. This study investigated potential barriers to patients receiving the PPV, including predisposing, enabling, environmental and reinforcing factors among physicians from a variety of practice and geographic settings.
Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L
Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions. PMID:26009204
Hanson Ann M; McCarty Maribet C; Goodman Mike; Mullooly John P; Wei Feifei; Crane Bradley; Nordin James D
Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilizat...
Full Text Available A serum survey was conducted to determine the immune status of children 2 months to 6 Years old to polio virus type I, II and III related to the history of oral polio vaccination in Fashapouye (A rural area in the south of Teheran. 566 serum samples were obtained from children in 9 different villages and microneutra lization test was performed on 1;10 dilution of these sera. The study revealed that 62 per cent had received three or more doses of vaccine, 8.3 per cent two doses, 13 per cent one dose 5.6 per cent were not vaccinated. On the entire study group prevalence of immunity (serum titer 1; 10 irrespective to the history of vaccination was 90, 94 and 86 per cent for polio I, II and III respectively. The highest rate of unvaccinated and nonimmune children was in 2 to 6 months old group. The percentage of children lacking antibody to polio, I, II and III in nonvaccinated is 41, 25 and 34 percent respectively and these rates decrease in vaccinated children to reach the level of 6, 2 and 10 percent in those who have received three or more doses of vaccine. Over all results suggest that an adequate response to oral polio vaccination is observed in this rural region but an increased effort must be made for covering a higher percentage of children in all age groups especially in 2 months to one year old.
Krisztina Mártha I.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT, oral hygiene, dental malposition and malocclusion, Aesthetic Component of Index of Treatment Need (AC-IOTN. Consent of the parents was obtained. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: The optimal score of CPQ evaluation is 96 and the maximum score achieved was 93, the minimum was 43. 78.10 average score can be graded as medium. As the data points out, most of the children and their parents have a medium knowledge and self-perception. The clinical examination underline the main problems: dental caries (62%, occlusal coloration (23%, dental malposition (17%, rooftop deep bite (14%, dental rotation and crowding (12%, dental plaque and tartar (10%. As far as the AC-IOTN is concerned, 48 of 69 children have no need for treatment, 18 have a high need for treatment, and 3 have a moderate need for treatment. Conclusions: Overall, the children and their parents have a poor oral health knowledge, which is reflected in the medium level of the achieved CPQ scores, in the clinical examination and can be associated with high levels of dental caries and malocclusion
Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.
We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...
Ettarh Remare R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations
Rupprecht, Charles E; Nagarajan, Thirumeni; Ertl, Hildegund
Rabies is a neglected viral zoonosis with the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. Pasteur's historical accomplishments during the late 19(th) century began the process of human vaccine development, continuing to evolve into the 21(st) century. Over the past 35 years, great improvements occurred in the production of potent tissue culture vaccines and the gradual removal from the market of unsafe nerve tissue products. Timely and appropriate administration of modern biologics virtually assures survivorship, even after severe exposures. Nevertheless, in the developing world, if not provided for free nationally, the cost of a single course of human prophylaxis exceeds the average monthly wage of the common worker. Beyond traditional approaches, recombinant, sub-unit and other novel methods are underway to improve the availability of safe, effective and more affordable rabies biologics. PMID:26796599
Fuche, Fabien J; Sow, Ousmane; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS; i.e., Salmonella enterica organisms that do not cause typhoid or paratyphoid) are responsible for 94 million infections and 155,000 deaths worldwide annually, 86% of which are estimated to be foodborne. Although more than 50 serogroups and 2,600 serovars have been described, not all Salmonella serovars cause disease in humans and animals. Efforts are being made to develop NTS vaccines, with most approaches eliciting protection against serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis (serogroups B [O:4] and D [O:9], respectively), as they are widely considered the most prevalent. Here, we show that serogroup C (O:6,7, O:6,8, or O:8 epitopes) is the most common serogroup in the United States, and the prevalence of serovars from this serogroup has been increasing in Europe and the United States over the last decade. They are also the most commonly isolated serovars from healthy cattle and poultry, indicating the underlying importance of surveillance in animals. Four out of the 10 most lethal serovars in the United States are serogroup C, and reports from African countries suggest that strains within this serogroup are highly antibiotic resistant. Serogroup C consists of highly diverse organisms among which 37 serovars account for the majority of human cases, compared to 17 and 11 serovars for serogroups B and D, respectively. Despite these concerning data, no human vaccines targeting serogroup C NTS are available, and animal vaccines are in limited use. Here, we describe the underestimated burden represented by serogroup C NTS, as well as a discussion of vaccines that target these pathogens. PMID:27413069
J.B. Krikken; A.J. van Wijk; J.M. ten Cate; J.S.J. Veerkamp
Objective: Treating children can be difficult for both dentist and child. In some cases treatment fails and those children are referred to a specialist paediatric dentist. Different factors can be put forward for referral of children, such as factors relating to the child, dentist and parent. Possib
Meurice Francois P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it
Torres, D Diego
In a model of moderated mediation using matched data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Children and Young Adults, I test (1) whether family socioeconomic status (SES) mediates the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship and (2) the extent to which this mediating impact is dependent on the level of maternal intelligence. Results reveal that the mediating impact of SES on the maternal intelligence-child cognitive outcomes relationship varies as a function of the level of maternal intelligence. The positive effect of higher SES on children's academic ability decreases as the cognitive ability of mothers increases, such that children in low IQ households benefit most from higher SES, while children in high IQ households benefit somewhat less. PMID:24215257
Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.
Full Text Available Our article questions the assumption that stranger anxiety develops universally in children; thereby our study is rooted in a long tradition in psychological anthropology of testing the universality of theories formulated in Western society. We argue that the infant's behavior towards strangers is the product of socialization processes that represent adaptations to cultural contexts. Our study investigates the ethnotheory of childrearing and the development of stranger anxiety in a Cameroonian community of traditional Nso farmers. The participants of the study were 29 Cameroonian Nso mothers with one-year old children. Using a multi-method approach, we demonstrate that Nso mothers value inexpressive infants that adjust easily to others. Accordingly, a considerably large number of one-year old Nso infants showed no stranger anxiety when encountered by a stranger. Maternal social status and her social support system proved crucial to successful implementation of the socialization goal of a calm child. Our data support the view that child behavior is a product of culturally constructed experiences of daily life. The acknowledgement of the cultural construction of stranger anxiety carries implications for developmental theories, especially for attachment theory, which relies on the universality of stranger anxiety in their most acclaimed paradigm, the Strange Situation.
Full Text Available Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237. Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21 and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07. This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively. There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
Background. Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in many developing countries, yet we have little understanding of preventive strategies for effective coping in these circumstances. Education has been recently highlighted as key to reduce the societal impacts of extreme weather events under climate change, but there is a lack of studies assessing to what extent parental education may prevent post-flood child undernutrition. Methods and Materials. One year after large floods in 2008, we conducted a two-stage cluster population-based survey of 6-59 months children inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), and collected anthropometric measurements on children along with child, parental and household level variables through face-to-face interviews. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we examined separately the effect of maternal and paternal education and other risk factors (mainly income, socio-demographic, and child and mother variables) on stunting and wasting in children from households inhabiting recurrently flooded communities (2006 and 2008; n = 299). As a comparison, separate analyses on children in non-flooded communities were carried out (n = 385). All analyses were adjusted by income as additional robustness check. Results. Overall, fathers with at least completed middle education (up to 14 years of age and compulsory in India) had an advantage in protecting their children from child wasting and stunting. For child stunting, the clearest result was a 100-200% lower prevalence associated with at least paternal secondary schooling (compared to no schooling) in flooded-areas. Again, only in flooded communities, an increase in per capita annual household income of 1,000 rupees was associated to a 4.7-4.9% lower prevalence of child stunting. For child wasting in flooded areas, delayed motherhood was associated to better nutritional outcomes (3.4% lower prevalence per
... younger than 3 months of age. 4. Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) Signs and symptoms can include fever, headache, stiff ... be recommended for travel to certain countries. Hib ( Haemophilus influenzae type b) 3 or 4 2 months, 4 months, (6 ...
Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter;
BACKGROUND: The effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth on subsequent vitamin A status has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of 50,000 IU vitamin A administered with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status in both sexes. DESIGN: Within a randomized...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...... interval (P = 0.009), particularly in girls (P for interaction = 0.01) and in vitamin A recipients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, VAS at birth had no effect on vitamin A status. However VAS may temporarily improve vitamin A status in the subgroup of children of noneducated mothers. In vitamin A...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.
Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Jensen, Camilla B; Strøm, Marin; Cohen, Arieh; Nielsen, Nina O; Olsen, Sjurdur F
national registry extracts. We used multivariable log-binomial models to quantify risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Plasma 25(OH)D was examined in a stability analysis. RESULTS: Median (IQR) vitamin D prediction score was 58.7 (49.2-69.0) nmol/l. In main analysis, there was no association between vitamin D......BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be a risk factor for child allergic disease. However, less is known about disease risk across different levels of vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relation between a maternal vitamin D prediction score and child allergic disease....... METHODS: A total of 32,456 pregnant women were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2003) and had data on a validated vitamin D prediction score based on 1497 mid-pregnancy plasma 25(OH)D samples. Child allergic disease was assessed at 18 months and at 7 years using questionnaire data and...
Janet Junqing Chu; Mobarak Hossain Khan; Jahn, Heiko J.; Alexander Kraemer
Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ ...
WHO has released prescriptive child growth standards for, among others, BMI-for-age (BMI-FA), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age, and weight velocity. The ability of these indices to predict child mortality remains understudied, although growth velocity prognostic value underlies current growth monitoring programs. The study aims were first to assess, in children under 2, the independent and combined ability of these indices and of stunting to predict all-cause mortality within 3 mo, and second, the comparative abilities of weight-for-length (WFL) and BMI-FA to predict short-term (<3 mo) mortality. We used anthropometry and survival data from 2402 children aged between 0 and 24 mo in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo with high malnutrition and mortality rates and limited nutritional rehabilitation. Analyses used Cox proportional hazard models and receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate analysis and age-adjusted analysis showed predictive ability of all indices. Multivariate analysis without age adjustment showed that only very low weight velocity [HR = 3.82 (95%CI = 1.91, 7.63); P < 0.001] was independently predictive. With age adjustment, very low weight velocity [HR = 3.61 (95%CI = 1.80, 7.25); P < 0.001] was again solely retained as an independent predictor. There was no evidence for a difference in predictive ability between WFL and BMI-FA. This paper shows the value of attained BMI-FA, a marker of wasting status, and recent weight velocity, a marker of the wasting process, in predicting child death using the WHO child growth standards. WFL and BMI-FA appear equivalent as predictors.
Madhanmohan, M.; Nagendrakumar, S. B.; Santhakumar, P.; Thiagarajan, D.; Lakshmi Narasu, M.; Srinivasan, V. A.
The relationship of Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus antigen payload and number of dose of vaccine conferring protection against virus challenge in goats was studied. Goats vaccinated with oil adjuvant Foot-and-Mouth Disease vaccines containing different antigen payloads with or without booster resisted virulent challenge at 21 days post-vaccination or 7 days after booster respectively. However, localized sub-clinical infection was observed in two vaccinated goats on 35 days post-challenge. RNA c...
Vagnozzi, Ariel; Riblet, Sylva; Zavala, Guillermo; Ecco, Roselene; Afonso, Claudio L; García, Maricarmen
Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly contagious disease of chickens responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by Gallid herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1) commonly known as the infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Although characterized by their potential to regain virulence, chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines are the most effective vaccines against laryngotracheitis as they significantly reduce the replication of challenge virus in the trachea and conjunctiva. Knowledge on the nature of protective immunity elicited by CEO vaccines is very limited. Therefore, elucidating the origin of the immune responses elicited by CEO vaccination is relevant for development of safer control strategies. In this study the transcription levels of key host immune genes (IFN-γ, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18) and viral genes (ICP4, ICP27, UL46, UL49), as well as viral genome loads in trachea were quantified at 6 and 12 hours post-challenge of CEO vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens. Immediately after challenge a significant increase in IFN-γ gene expression was followed by a significant reduction in viral replication. In contrast to the rapid induction of IFN-γ, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and type I IFN β was either slightly reduced or remained at basal levels. These suggest that the former cytokines may not play important roles during immediate early responses induced by ILTV challenge in either vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Overall, these results suggest that the rapid expression of IFN-γ may induce pathways of antiviral responses necessary for blocking early virus replication. PMID:26926298
September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa
Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…
Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia; Donato, Katharine M.; Thompson-Colon, Theresa; Stainback, Melissa
This article presents the results of new data collection in Mexico about the relationship between child well-being and social networks. Two research questions guide the analysis. First, under what conditions do networks generate greater (lesser) support? Second, what kinds of networks are associated with healthier children? We explore the health…
Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.
The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…
Sana Sadiq Sheikh
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the factors associated with retaining the vaccination card among care takers of 12-59 months old children in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in Karachi. Households were randomly selected throughout a multistage cluster sampling technique. Data was collected for 504 children of 12- 59 months of age. Questionnaire was administered to caretakers to gather information regarding the children’s vaccination status, socio-demographic characteristics and reviewing their vaccination cards. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 19 using logistic regression. Results: Among 462 vaccinated children, caretakers of 33% provided vaccination cards. Odds of card retention decrease if the caretaker has a large household i.e., >5 people sharing one room (AOR 0.277, 95% CI: 0.096, 0.797 and if the child is of four to five years of age (AOR 0.544, 95% CI: 0.305, 0.970. Gender of the child, and the caretaker’s education and access to electronic media were not significant predictors of vaccination card retention in our study. Conclusion: Our study showed that vaccination card retention for children 12-59 months of age was low (33% in Karachi. There is a need to educate caretakers of young children regarding the importance of keeping vaccination card and to disseminate this information through healthcare providers. Improving vaccination card retention is one of the key measures which will help towards accurately estimating coverage and to inform health policy decisions.
Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd
Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522
Solé-Navais, Pol; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Murphy, Michelle M
Periconception supplementation with folic acid is recommended until 12 gestational weeks to prevent neural tube defects. Doses of folic acid contained in supplements and timing and length of use during pregnancy vary. The effects of status in periconception and pregnancy folate, cobalamin, betaine and their interactions on one carbon metabolism (1C), as well as the global effect of 1C on foetal growth and pregnancy outcome, are reviewed. Results from prospective studies are reviewed. Cessation of folic acid supplement use after the first trimester is associated with a sharp drop in plasma folate status and enhanced conversion of betaine to dimethylglycine. Dimethylglycine production is also higher in mothers with low folate status than in those with normal-high folate status. The effects of high doses of folic acid on one carbon metabolism in mothers with low early pregnancy cobalamin status and on foetal growth are also reviewed. Several studies report that moderately elevated early pregnancy fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is inversely associated with birth weight and a predictor of intrauterine growth retardation. There is also evidence for increased risk of preterm birth when maternal folate status is low. PMID:26700149
王忠良; 王蓓; 鲁义善; 吴灶和
Aquaculture vaccines not only boost immunity of aquatic animals and prevent aquaculture diseases, but also reduce the use of drugs, lower the cost of aquaculture reproduction and solve problems of food safety and environment pollutions caused by drug residues, and finally lead aquaculture to develop in the green and sustainable direction. As thus, aquaculture vaccines become one of the research hotspots in the diseases control for aquatic animals. In this paper, the history of vaccine development, vaccine types, and vaccine delivery methods are summarized. The status and trend of key technologies in aquaculture vaccines are introduced.%水产疫苗不仅能够增强水产动物的免疫力，预防水产病害发生，还能减少各类药物的使用，降低生殖生产成本，解决各种药物残留带来的食品安全和环境污染等问题，使水产养殖业向绿色、可持续方向发展。因此，水产疫苗已成为水产动物病害防治领域的研究热点。综述了水产疫苗的发展历程、水产疫苗种类与接种方式，并介绍了水产疫苗关键技术发展现状与趋势。
Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their
Fleurat, Michelle R; Zaia, Brita E
We report a case of altered mental status in a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department after presumed head trauma. A computed tomography head was conducted and its findings were normal, and the boy was discharged home. He returned the next day with persistent altered mental status and was found to have an abnormal MR brain suggestive of embolic strokes. An echocardiogram revealed a large atrial mass that was later confirmed by pathology to be an atrial myxoma. This is a unique and, to our knowledge, unreported presentation of a known but rare disease process in a pediatric patient. PMID:27253357
Andersen, Anne Helene; Hansen, Lars Kjærsgaard
A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology.......A 13-year-old boy developed seizures and intractable status epilepticus a week after having had a sore throat. Ketogenic diet possibly had some effect. Antibodies to calmodulin dependent protein kinase II were found and could possibly suggest an immunologic aetiology....
The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.
目的：分析儿童安全预防接种护理的实施效果。方法选取200例接受预防接种儿童，随机分为对照组（100例）与研究组（100例），对照组采取常规免疫接种，研究组采取安全预防接种护理，对比两组护理效果。结果研究组家长满意度、知晓率分别为98.00%（98/100）、92.00%（92/100），对照组分别为89.00%（89/100）、81.00%（81/100），研究组高于对照组（P＜0.05）。研究组儿童配合率、疫苗接种率分别为80.00%（80/100）、96.00%（96/100），对照组分别为67.00%（67/100）、88.00%（88/100），研究组高于对照组（P＜0.05）。结论采取儿童安全预防接种护理能提高儿童配合度与接种率。%ObjectiveTo analysis effect of safety nursing inoculation against child.Methods Chose 200 patients who underwent vaccination of children,were randomly divided into control group(100)and(100)study group,control group adopted routine immunization and vaccination team take safety nursing,nursing effect compared to two groups.ResultsThe team parents satisfaction and witting rate were 98.00% and 98.00% respectively,the control group were 89.00%,81.00%,the team was higher than the control group(P<0.05). Group children matching rate,vaccination rates were 80.00%,96.00%,the control group were 67.00%,88.00%,the team was higher than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Take vaccinating children against safety nursing can improve children's cooperation degree and coverage.
Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...
Full Text Available Taisun Hyun,1 Suguna Badiga,2 Han Byul Jang,1 Young-Hee Han,1 Chandrika J Piyathilake21Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea; 2Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Even though several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects, FA fortification has been a topic of intense debate due to the possible adverse effects of higher folate status on several health conditions. Several countries, including Korea, have been indecisive as to whether fortification is warranted or not. It is therefore helpful for these countries to compare folate concentrations in their populations with populations exposed to mandatory FA fortification.Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the distribution of circulating concentrations of folate in Korea and the United States (US at different time points.Methods: The Korean study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in 1999 and in 2009. The US study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in the post FA fortification era (2005 and 2009. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations were measured using the Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay.Results: The percentage of US women with neural tube defect-protective levels of RBC folate was significantly higher compared to Korean women in 1999 and 2009. However, in 2009, when FA supplements became readily available for Koreans, 50% of Korean women in the study achieved the neural tube defect-protective level of RBC folate; 11% of them demonstrating supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate. Even though FA fortification in the US resulted in more than 80of women achieving >400 ng/mL of RBC folate by 2009, nearly 50% also demonstrated having supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate, which prompted some researchers to
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter
Disadvantaged family socioeconomic status (SES) is often assumed to diminish parent training program effectiveness. In examining effects of SES, influences of initial problem severity have been largely ignored. In the present meta-analysis, we examined (a) whether there is a differential influence of SES on parent training effectiveness at…
Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H
Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890
Nordang, Sunniva; Shoo, Tiransia; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Kinabo, Joyce; Wandel, Margareta
Some progress has been achieved in reducing the prevalence of undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Tanzania. In the Rukwa region (2010), the level of stunted and underweight children was 50·4 and 13·5 %, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, feeding practices and risk factors of undernutrition in a rural village in the Rukwa region, as well as to discuss the results in light of a similar study conducted in 1987/1988. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 households with children under 5 years of age. Data were obtained from the child's main caretaker and the household head, using a structured questionnaire and a 24 h dietary recall. Children's length/height and weight were measured. The prevalence of stunting and underweight was found to be 63·8 and 33·6 % (Z-scorepractices were not in line with WHO recommendations. Women working in farms, food shortage, dry-season cultivation and diseases partly explain the children's poor nutritional status. PMID:26435007
... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...
Lioret, S.; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, J. L.; Charles, M. A.
Objective: (1) To assess the prevalence of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity in France; (2) to examine how physical activity and sedentary behaviour are involved in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW, while taking into account total energy intake. Design and subjects: Representative sample of French children aged 3-14 years (n=1016) taken from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French INCA (Enquete Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) food consum...
Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Wagner, Nicholas; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh-intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development. PMID:27427804
Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel
Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. PMID:24816322
Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M
This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. PMID:24958453
Full Text Available Dear Egon!br God bless you on your 95th Birthday! May you complete 100 years.br Being submitted in your honor is a brief article on my continuing work to make available a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy in women without blocking ovulation, her normal production of sex steroid hormones and retaining her regular menstrual cycles and bleeding profiles.br The vaccine is directed at the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, which emerges following fertilization of the egg . Healthy, non-pregnant women do not make it, the basis on which its detection in serum or urine serves as a reliable test for diagnosis of pregnancy. It plays a critical role in implantation of the embryo & thereby to the onset of pregnancy. The purpose of the vaccine is to generate bioeffective antibodies neutralizing hCG & thereby prevent the onset of pregnancy.br As you can imagine, the making of a workable vaccine, competent to make antibodies against a tolerant molecule to the womans immune system (she literally bathes in hCG during pregnancy was not simple. What was also demanded was high immunogenicity of the vaccine to make fairly high titres of antibodies to counteract the large amount of hCG made in early pregnancy. At each stage, it required testing in humans and before that could be done, appropriate toxicology studies & approval of Regulatory and Ethics Committees was needed each taking its time. Eventually the vaccine has to be amenable to industrial production to reach the public, hence a recombinant vaccine had to be developed. Given below is a brief write-up on the evolution of the vaccine against the human chorionic gonadotropin.br Yours, Pran
Mendiola, Jennifer; Do-Reynoso, Van; Gonzalez, Mariaelena
First generation Latinos often have better health behaviors and outcomes than second and third generation Latinos. This study examined the correlates of seasonal influenza vaccinations among Mexican-identified (Mexican) adults, who make up the largest Latino subgroup in California. A sample of Mexican adults (N = 7493) from the 2011–12 California Interview Health Survey was used to compare the odds of first, second, and third generation Mexicans receiving influenza vaccinations in the past ye...
Cysticercosis cellulosae is one type of zoonosis seriously endangering human health.It' s mainly prevalent in central Africa,southern Africa,Latin America,eastern Asia and southern Asia.It recently becomes highlight to control this disease by use of vaccines.The review outlined the status in the research of the encoding gene,DNA vaccine and protein vaccine of TSOL18 of Taenia solium.%猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.该文对TSOL18的编码基因、DNA疫苗和蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.
Full Text Available Background: Tamil Nadu comes under group I high-prevalence state, with <1% prevalence of HIV infection in ante-natal women but above 5% prevalence in high-risk group. One of the ways to control HIV/AIDS in India is through prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT, the success of which lies in the utilization of services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore the status of utilization of PPTCT services by rural HIV-positive mothers, in the Gingee Block of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. All the mothers who tested positive between June 2006 and May 2010 were interviewed in-depth using an interview guide. Results: There were 21 HIV-positive mothers during this period, 19 of whom gave consent for the study. Thirteen out of 19 mothers (68% received Nevirapine prophylaxis, while 15 out of 20 infants born to these mothers (75% received Nevirapine syrup. During the study period, it was found that 61% of the mothers were not compliant to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Conclusion: Poor access to the ART centers was reflected in majority of the cases (79%. There is a pressing need to improve access to quality PPTCT services especially during the intranatal period.
Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J
Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. PMID:27589048
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540
Finkel, Leslie; Piantino, Juan; Goldstein, Joshua; Wainwright, Mark S
The risk factors for cerebral sinus venous thrombosis include dehydration, infection, and anemia. The clinical presentation in children of venous strokes associated with cerebral venous thrombosis is variable and may include seizures. Acute management should focus on the treatment of the primary cause and anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy if needed. Early recognition and targeted treatment is important because survivors are at increased risk for long-term neurologic complications. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with status epilepticus and was subsequently found to have a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the transverse and sigmoid sinus, with venous infarction in the temporal lobe. Laboratory results were significant for a microcytic anemia caused by excessive milk intake. Although iron deficiency anemia is a common pediatric disorder, this uncommon presentation demonstrates the potential for neurologic complications secondary to anemia, as well as the need for a high index of suspicion in order to identify venous stroke as a cause in children who present to the emergency department with seizures. PMID:25513978
Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.
Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...
Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms "enterovirus 71" and "epidemiology" or "pathogenesis" or "molecular epidemiology" or "vaccine" in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. PMID:27618078
Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe
diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...
Objectives: participants will understand the current status of veterinary tuberculosis (TB) vaccine research for cattle and wildlife and their potential applications for development of human TB vaccines. Vaccines are lacking for many chronic intracellular pathogens requiring cell-mediated immunity ...
Hanson Ann M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the utility of immunization registries in identifying vaccine refusals among children. Among refusers, we studied their socioeconomic characteristics and health care utilization patterns. Methods Medical records were reviewed to validate refusal status in the immunization registries of two health plans. Racial, education, and income characteristics of children claiming refusal were collected based on the census tract of each child. Health care utilization was identified using both electronic medical record and insurance claims. Within the immunization registries of two HMOs in the study, some providers use refusal and medical contraindication interchangeably, and some providers tend to always use "ever refusal." Therefore, we combined medical contraindication and refusal together and treated them all as "refusal" in this study. Results The immunization registry, compared to chart review, had negative predictive values of 85–92% and 90–97% for 2- and 6-year olds, and positive predictive values of only 52–74% and 59–62% to identify vaccine refusals. Refusers were more likely to reside in well-educated, higher income areas than non-refusers. Refusers had not opted out of health care system and continued, although less frequently for the age 2 and under group, to use services. Conclusion Without enhancements to immunization registries, identifying children with immunization refusal would be time consuming. Since communities where refusers live are well educated, interventions should target these communities to communicate vaccine adverse events and consequences of vaccine preventable diseases.
Neece, C.; Baker, B.
Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…
猪囊尾蚴病是一种严重危害人类健康的人兽共患寄生虫病,主要流行于中非、南非、拉丁美洲、东亚和南亚等地区.采用疫苗防治该病是当前研究的热点.本文对45W蛋白的起源、编码基因和45W蛋白疫苗等方面的研究现状进行了综述.%Cysticercosis cellulosae is a type of zoonosis that serious endangers human health and that is prevalent mainly in central and southern Africa, Latin America, and East and Southern Asia. Attention has focused on using a vaccine to control this disease. This review outlines the status of research on the origins of the 45W protein of Taenia solium, the gene that codes for it, and 45W protein vaccines.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Methods Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national household surveys, data for 18 Arab countries were available for analysis. In addition to infant and child mortality, child health was measured by nutritional status, vaccination, and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. Within-country disparities in child health by gender, residence (urban/rural and maternal educational level were described. Child health was also analyzed by macro measures of development, including per capita GDP (PPP, female literacy rates, urban population and doctors per 100,000 people. Results Gender disparities in child health using the above indicators were less evident, with most showing clear female advantage. With the exception of infant and child survival, gender disparities demonstrated a female advantage, as well as a large urban advantage and an overall advantage for mothers with secondary education. Surprisingly, the countries' rankings with respect to disparities were not associated with various macro measures of development. Conclusion The tenacity of pervasive intra-country socioeconomic disparities in child health calls for attention by policy makers and health practitioners.
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...
Babalola, Stella; Lawan, Umar
This study examines the predictors of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization status among infants in northern Nigeria using a behavioral-ecological model. The findings show only 37.3 percent of the children had received BCG vaccine, and reveal that BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria is influenced by multiple layers of factors, including child's characteristics, parental or household factors, community characteristics, vaccine supply and the policy environment. At the child's level, place of birth and ownership of an immunization card are the two most significant predictors. The parental and household predictors of BCG immunization status include maternal use of antenatal care, maternal knowledge about immunization, maternal exposure to child health information, social influence and paternal approval of immunization. Both the regularity of vaccine supply to the health facility and the state of residence are associated independently with BCG immunization status. These findings stress the need for interventions at multiple levels in order to increase BCG immunization status. PMID:19240190
Rosemeire Cobo Zanella
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib nasopharyngeal (NP colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%. NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558 and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379 and 53.9% (636/1,179, respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558 of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379 and 0.4% (5/1,179 among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099 and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608 compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491. The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine.
Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Andrade, Ana Lúcia; Ogassavara, Cinthya Terumi; Fiório, Cleiton Eduardo; Brandão, Angela Pires; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina; Sato, Helena; Liphaus, Bernadete; Nerger, Maria Lígia; Conde, Monica; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine. PMID:26517654
Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.
Two case reports are presented where parental care and authority is in conflict and stands against the prosperity of a child. Problems, practical and legal aspects and current perspectives in Germany are discussed in detail. PMID:10978665
Imami, Ledina; Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Lupro, Toni H.; Slatcher, Richard B.
Objective Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent–child interactions. Methods 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10–17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive ...
Alcala, Hector Ernesto
Recent research has linked experiences of child abuse to cancer later in life. However much of the available research has failed to look at the independent effects of child abuse types (i.e. physical, sexual and emotional abuse) and does not attempt to test potential reasons for this association. To address these shortcomings, the purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of three health behaviors (i.e. smoking, overweight or obesity and alcohol drinking) and two measures of so...
BACKGROUND The paper engages in the ongoing debate regarding the determinants of child nutrition in developing countries and stresses the potential contribution of the education of household members other than the child's parents. OBJECTIVE The aim of the paper is threefold: (1) to verify whether there is evidence of the key role of parents' education for children's nutrition; (2) to explore the possible presence of the externalities generated by the literacy of household membe...
Full Text Available The present article reports a case involving an immunocompetent, previously well child who, despite two previous doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, developed severe flaccid paralysis consistent with polio after receiving oral polio vaccine.
Desai, S.; Diener, T; BJ-K Tan; NJ Lowry; C Talukdar; WM Chrusch; Wiebe, S
The present article reports a case involving an immunocompetent, previously well child who, despite two previous doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, developed severe flaccid paralysis consistent with polio after receiving oral polio vaccine.
Zweig, Stephen E
Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766
寄生虫病是一种呈世界性分布、种类繁多、危害严重的重要疾病.目前防治寄生虫病的方法主要是健康教育、化疗、环境改造等综合防治措施相结合,其中抗寄生虫药一直是主要的防治手段.然而,随着耐药性和人类健康等问题的出现,寄生虫疫苗的研制已成为控制寄生虫病综合防治措施的重要补充手段.用不同的方法接种寄生虫疫苗,其保护效果不尽相同.该文就几种常见的寄生虫疫苗免疫途径研究现状作一综述.%Parasitosis is a group of important,worldwide,various,and dangerous diseases.Right now,the methods for prevention and control of parasitic diseases are the combining measures mainly including health education,chemotherapy,and environmental reconstruction and so on.Antiparasitic agents are always the main prevention and control methods.However,the development of the parasite vaccines has become effective and economic means of control of parasitic diseases,with the emergence of drug-resistance and human health problems.The protective effects against the parasites is different with different immunization methods.This review reported the research status of immunization route of several common parasite vaccines.
A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.
... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to unprotected contacts. Who needs this vaccine and when? Side Effects Excerpt from Vaccine Information Statement A Polio-Free ...
... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...
Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case
Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)
Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy
Mugwaneza, Placidie; Umutoni, Nadine Wa Shema; Ruton, Hinda; Rukundo, Alphonse; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Bizimana, Jean de Dieu; Tsague, Landry; Wagner, Claire M.; Nyankesha, Elévanie; Muita, Jane; Mutabazi, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Binagwaho, Agnes
Introduction We sought to compare risk of death among children aged under-2 years born to HIV positive mother (HIV-exposed) and to HIV negative mother (HIV non-exposed), and identify determinants of under-2 mortality among the two groups in Rwanda. Methods In a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design, we selected mother-child pairs using national Antenatal Care (ANC) registers. Household interview with each mother was conducted to capture socio-demographic data and information related t...
Lee, H-S; Duffey, K J; Kim, C-i; Popkin, B M
Objective: Parental obesity has been identified as a predominant risk factor for childhood overweight and obesity. We investigated the relationship between parent and child obesity in South Korea, particularly linked with varying family structures. Subjects and methods: Data for households with children aged 2–18 years were taken from the pooled data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007–2010 conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevent...
Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249
de Martino, Maurizio
Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346
Maurizio de Martino
Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.
胡月; 龚磊; 陈福宽; 孙大勤; 王萱萱; 董昀球; 康琦; 陈家应
目的:了解农村地区儿童保健系统管理和预防接种情况.方法:采取多阶段分层随机抽样方法,通过自行设计的儿童系统管理保健情况和预防接种情况调查表对抽取的样本入户进行定量调查.结果:有45名儿童的母亲在产后有医务人员到家中访视,占91.8％,2人未接受产后访视,还有2人记不清,各占4.1％.平均访视次数为3.2次.产后访视主要由村卫生室医生进行,占88.9％,乡镇卫生院医生访视占8.9％,市县妇幼保健所医生访视占2.2％.97.8％的产后访视在村卫生室和乡镇卫生院进行;受访儿童建卡率100.0％,绝大部分按时接种疫苗.接种中,有97.3％的医务人员告知了孩子家长所接种疫苗的品种、作用原理、禁忌证、不良反应及注意事项,有1.8％的医务人员未告知,还有0.9％的家长不知道医务人员是否告知.结论:调查地区儿童保健管理较系统和全面,预防接种工作开展较好,但仍需要提高乡、村两级医疗机构的应急反应能力与医疗水平.%Objective; To understand child health care system management and vaccination situations in rural area. Methods; Multistage stratified random sampling method and a self - designed questionnaire were used to survey the respondents quantitatively. Results: The mothers of 45 children were visited by medical workers after delivery, accounting for 91. 8% ; two mothers didnt receive postpartum visit, accounting for 4. 1% ; and two mothers couldnt remember the situation, accounting for 4. 1%. The mean times of postpartum visit was 3. 2 times. Postpartum visit was conducted by medical workers from village clinics (88. 9% ) , township hospitals (8. 9% ) , and maternal and child health institutions at city/county level (2. 2% ) . 97. 8% of postpartum visit was carried out in village clinics and township hospitals ; 100. 0% of the children established cards, most of the children vaccinated regularly. In the course of vaccination
Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L
Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060
Luciana Rodrigues Vieira Batista
Full Text Available A relação entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal ainda não está bem esclarecida, apresentando, muitas vezes, versões controversas e conhecimento limitado. Existe certa concordância de que a alimentação e, conseqüentemente, o estado nutricional, possam exercer certa influência sobre a condição bucal imediata e futura da criança. O objetivo desta comunicação é apresentar possíveis relações entre alimentação, estado nutricional e a condição bucal da criança. O estado nutricional pode afetar os dentes durante o seu período de formação e após a erupção na cavidade bucal. Os efeitos sistêmicos provenientes da nutrição podem alterar o desenvolvimento dos dentes, a quantidade e a qualidade da saliva, assim como os efeitos externos também podem determinar uma maior prevalência de cárie dentária, uma vez que tanto a quantidade de sacarose ingerida, quanto a freqüência de ingestão são importantes fatores envolvidos em sua etiologia. As reflexões deste trabalho sugerem a necessidade de ações interdisciplinares para obtenção de resultados na prevenção e no tratamento das doenças bucais.The relationship among food, nutritional status and oral condition is not yet well established, many times presenting controversial versions and limited knowledge. There seems to be an agreement that eating, and consequently, the nutritional status, may have a certain amount of influence over present and future oral conditions of the child. The objective of this communication is to discuss possible relations among food, nutritional status and oral condition in the child. Nutritional status may affect the teeth during their formation period and after eruption in the oral cavity. Systemic effects of nutrition may alter the development of teeth, quantity and quality of saliva, and the external effect may also determine a bigger prevalence of dental cavities, since both the quantity and the frequency of
Rippe, Ralph C A; Noppe, Gerard; Windhorst, Dafna A; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; van den Akker, Erica L T
The aim of this study was to examine associations of SES and ethnicity with hair cortisol and cortisone and to identify potential child and family characteristics that can assist in choosing covariates and potential confounders for analyses involving hair cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Hair samples were collected in 2484 6-year-old children from the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Measurements for cortisol and cortisone were used as the outcome in regression analyses. Predictors were SES, ethnicity, hair color and child characteristics such as birthweight, gestational age at birth, BMI, disease, allergy, and medication use. Lower family income, more children to be supported by this income, higher BMI and darker hair color were associated with higher hair cortisol and cortisone levels. Boys also showed higher levels. Ethnicity (Dutch and North European descent) was related to lower levels. High amounts of sun in the month of hair collection was related to higher levels of cortisone only. More recent hair washing was related to lower levels of cortisol and cortisone. Gestational age at birth, birth weight, age, medication use, hair washing frequency, educational level of the mother, marital status of the mother, disease and allergy were not associated with cortisol or cortisone levels. Our results serve as a starting point for choosing covariates and confounders in studies of substantive predictors or outcomes. Gender, BMI, income, the number of persons in a household, ethnicity, hair color and recency of hair washing are strongly suggested to take into account. PMID:26773401
Full Text Available Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC. We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602 and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756 that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and child's IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8; after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4. Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6. The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted.
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...
Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina
Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200