Satterfield, James H.; And Others
Reported were results of the first year of a 3-year physiological study of the hyperkinetic child. The male subjects were 6 to 9 years of age, attending school, without sensory defects, 80 or above in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full Scale, off medication for 3 months prior to testing, and diagnosed as hyperactive.…
This study uses Nepalese data to estimate the impact of individual, household and cluster/community level variables on child labour and child schooling. The principal estimates are, then, compared with those from Bangladesh and Pakistan. The exercise is designed to identify effective policy instruments that could influence child labour and child schooling in South Asia. The results show that the impact of a variable on a child’s education/employment is, often, highly sensitive to the specific...
Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria
This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...
... NICHD Science Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) ... Sunsetted/For Reference Only The NICHD started the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), ...
Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William
This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…
Child labor is one of the problems that occur as a result of responses to the economic problems faced by vulnerable children. Keeping in view the theoretical background of existence of child labor across the world, the study analyzes the incidence of child labor from Rawalpindi city of Pakistan. It also empirically investigates the household demographics and incidence of child labor. The earning and participation functions were estimated for a sample of 150 children. All the coefficients and ...
Karunanithi, S.; M. Saravanakumar
Child labour in ancient India, existed in the form of child slaves. Under the Mughals a labour had no free will of his own. There was no difference between him and the commodities he produced. Children have always been used in economic activities. The child lies in the fact that child is the universe. As per Census 2011, the number of working children in the age group of 5-14 years has further reduced to 43.53 lakh. A Study on the Child Labour in Tamilnadu is computed by time series of least ...
Full Text Available Child labour in ancient India, existed in the form of child slaves. Under the Mughals a labour had no free will of his own. There was no difference between him and the commodities he produced. Children have always been used in economic activities. The child lies in the fact that child is the universe. As per Census 2011, the number of working children in the age group of 5-14 years has further reduced to 43.53 lakh. A Study on the Child Labour in Tamilnadu is computed by time series of least square method. “Children of today are the potential citizens of tomorrow”.
Arastoo Pezeshki; Farzad Rahmani; Hanieh Ebrahimi Bakhtavar; Sanaz Fekri
One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those broug...
Full Text Available One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those brought to the emergency department with trauma. In this report, we described a patient complained of dysphagia following a falling from a height and multiple epidural hematomas and final diagnosis of battered child syndrome.
Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F G
Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were hel...
Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...
Krafft, Caroline; Davis, Elizabeth E.; Tout, Kathryn
The purpose of this series is to summarize key findings and implications from the Maryland Child Care Choices study, a longitudinal survey of parents who were applying for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2011. Families in the Maryland Child Care Choices study had at least one child age six or younger and lived in one of the…
Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B
Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow
Skogheim, Thea Steen
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate potential associations of child temperament with child weight and breakfast habits. It was hypothesised that children with externalising temperament were more likely to be overweight/obese, and that externalising temperament was associated with not eating daily breakfast. Temperament was controlled for by various child and parental covariates. The sample consisted of 18,047 five-year-olds from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study...
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between different family characteristics and child abuse in city of Jarghooye located in province of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 50 people and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, family educational background and family size on child abuse. The results indicate that while there were some meaningful relationships between family income and family educational background, there was not any statistical evidence to believe on such relationship between family size and child abuse.
Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L
There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note
Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S
Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098
Jordans Mark JD; Komproe Ivan H; Tol Wietse A; Ndayisaba Aline; Nisabwe Theodora; Kohrt Brandon A
Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Pa...
Hyatt Raymond R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential
Full Text Available The prevalence of child abuse in the world is 47 per 1000. According to the Child Protective Service agency (CPS more than 3 million children were abused in the USA in 1998. There was 1.7% increase in comparison with 1996. The prevalence of child abuse in the USA is 15 per 1000. A crosssectional study was conducted in order to determine the frequency, and influential factors on child abuse among families in Tehran. A sample of 420 students was selected from secondary school girls in Tehran in 1999. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and the collected data were analysed through statistical tests such as X2 and other forms of descriptive tests. The findings of research showed that in terms of abnormal (unexpectedly bad behaviour, 28% of the sample were faced quarrelsome and bitted by their fathers. The mothers' reactions for similar behaviour were more or less the same: 34.9% quarrelsome and 7% bitting. Child abuse, physically and emotionally, has had significant relation with socioeconomic status of families as well as having interaction with mentally ill or addicted person(s among families. Mothers' employment, religious beliefs, and parents' educational attainments also demonstrated significant relations with child abuse. A statistically significant relationship has also been found between mothers' employment, addicted or mentally ill person among family members, and doubtful child sexual abuse.To prevent child abuse the following actions should be taken: Education of parents about children rights and how to treat their children. Establishment of centers to protect the children at risk. Education of young couples to take more reponsibility of having children.
Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben
Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325
Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D
Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...
Jordans Mark JD
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452 and never-recruited peers (N=191 who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06; immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07; and at present (T3; 2010. Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.
The National Child Development Study (NCDS) is one of Britain's birth cohort studies, surveying all the children born in U.K. in a week of March 1958 (a complete enumeration, not a sample). They have been re-interviewed several times over the past forty years: first, at the time ...
This curriculum guide was developed to help students gain a broader perspective about child labor and become more familiar with the issues, controversies, and debates that surround it. Three case studies are highlighted: (1) a street child in India; (2) child soldiers in Uganda; and (3) a migrant farm worker child in the United States. Each case…
... required, was executed after the birth of the child; (5) The child, as appropriate in light of his or her... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Background studies on the child and consents in... for Convention Accreditation and Approval Standards for Cases in Which A Child Is Emigrating from...
Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola
The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…
Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442
Dammert, Ana C.; Galdo, Jose C.
This study uses a nationally representative survey to analyze a key survey design decision in child labor measurement: self-reporting versus proxy interviewing. The child/proxy disagreement affects 20 percent of the sample, which translates into a 17.1 percentage point difference in the national rate of child labor by type of respondent. As a result, marginal effects from standard child labor supply functions show important child/proxy differences, particularly when the household experienced ...
Falconer Catherine; Park MinHae; Skow Áine; Black James; Sovio Ulla; Saxena Sonia; Kessel Anthony; Croker Helen; Morris Steve; Viner Russell; Kinra Sanjay
Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the N...
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Lord, Heather; Zigler, Edward
In secondary analyses of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data, multiple indicators of quality (caregiver wages and turnover; child/staff ratio; caregiver education and professionalism; positive caregiving) were compared between child care centers by sector…
Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.
The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…
PUBLISHED Background Ethnically, Ireland has diversified greatly over the last twelve years changing from a country of emigration to one of immigration. Blanchardstown, a western suburb of Dublin, is one of the most ethnically diverse areas, with the youngest population in Ireland. Aims and methods This study aimed to examine any differences in referrals, clinical diagnoses and administrative outcomes of immigrants and Irish children referred to Blanchardstown Child and Adolescent...
Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta
Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:24165457
Geers, A E
This case study reports results obtained from a young, profoundly deaf child, M, who was fitted with a single-channel vibrotactile device, the Tactaid I, at 29 months of age. Her progress in speech and language development was evaluated over a 14-month period. During this period, M learned to understand 101 words through lipreading and the Tactaid I, and to produce consistent approximations of 90 words. Her scores on language tests with hearing-impaired norms progressed from below average to above average for her age. M's scores on language tests with hearing norms also reflected significant progress, although she did not achieve normal language development. These results indicate that a single-channel vibrotactile aid may facilitate the acquisition of spoken language in a profoundly deaf child who is unable to benefit from a conventional hearing aid. PMID:3958992
Viviane de Bona
Full Text Available The research that led to this study aimed to understand the meaning attributed to childhood in a world fulfilled by information technologies, especially the digital ones. The article proposes the analysis of social representations shared by children 200 teachers from public schools in Recife-PE, in order to understand the social meaning of the word child, propagated and used as reference system to guide people in their relationships with this group of people. The data collection instruments used was tests of free association. W ith the support of Trideux software and the Content Analysis, the analyzes of associations were done. The results show some aspects that seem to perpetuate themselves in relation to definition of a child, such as playing, going to school and have good feelings. In relation to technology is evidenced playful dimension of these resources and training.
Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…
This paper analyses child labour participation and its key determinants using data sets from Peru and Pakistan. The results include tests of the `Luxury' and `Substitution' hypotheses that play key roles in recent studies on child labour and child schooling. The results reject both hypotheses in the context of child labour in Pakistan and suggest that income and related variables do not have the expected negative effect on children's work input. Rising wages of adult female labour in Pakistan...
Gornick, Janet C.; Jäntti, Markus
We draw on LIS' various resources to sketch a portrait of child poverty in upper-income countries. We first summarize past LIS-based scholarship on child poverty, highlighting studies that seek to explain cross-national variation in child poverty levels. Our empirical sections focus on child poverty in 13 upper-income countries. We begin with a descriptive overview of poverty among all households and among those with children, presenting multiple poverty measures (relative and absolute, pre- ...
In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment. PMID:26605558
Ahmed, Mian Aftab
Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.
Three devices for X-ray shielding of child's head are suggested; the first one is a protective attachment for shielding a child being in horizontal position on an X-ray table; the second one is a protective stand for shielding head and body at roentgenofraphy of upper extremities of a child sitting near the X-ray table; the third one is a prot ctive suspension for shielding the head of a child being in vertical position
Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.
This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.
Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer
The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725
Farmer Cristan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual
Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation of parents’, living in rural areas or urban areas and with children 5-6 years of age, difference in their attitudes towards children according to demographic characteristics and living conditions, rural and urban areas. The study group of the research includes 200 parents who have 5-6 years old children taking pre-school education. 100 of them live in rural areas and 100 of them live in the city center. Instruments of study are Personal Information Form and PARI (Family Life and Child-Rearing Attitude Scale. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were used for data analysis. According to findings, mothers are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than fathers. Parents living urban areas are more over-protective, more democratic and less disciplined than parents living rural areas. Moreover, parents living in extended families are more disciplined, less over-protective and less democratic egalitarian in terms of attitudes than parents live in nucleus families. As a result, educational status, gender, family type and location are predictors for parents’ child-rearing attitude. However, the variables of age and number of children do not contribute to the total variance significantly.
The purpose of this case study was to investigate what impact the child development associate (CDA) credential has on the performance of childcare providers in the 6 CDA competency areas. Each participant was interviewed using 9 open-ended questions regarding their experience. Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the effects…
Ekaterina V Putintseva
Full Text Available The relationship between maternal and child immunity has been actively studied in the context of complications during pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, and haploidentical transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and solid organs. Here, we have for the first time used high-throughput Illumina HiSeq sequencing to perform deep quantitative profiling of T-cell receptor (TCR repertoires for peripheral blood samples of three mothers and their six children. Advanced technology allowed accurate identification of 5х105–2х106 TCR beta clonotypes per individual. We performed comparative analysis of these TCR repertoires with the aim of revealing characteristic features that distinguish related mother-child pairs, such as relative TRBV segment usage frequency and relative overlap of TCR beta CDR3 repertoires. We show that thymic selection essentially and similarly shapes the initial output of the TCR recombination machinery in both related and unrelated pairs, with minor effect from inherited differences. The achieved depth of TCR profiling also allowed us to test the hypothesis that mature T cells transferred across the placenta during pregnancy can expand and persist as functional microchimeric clones in their new host, using characteristic TCR beta CDR3 variants as clonal identifiers.
Recently, we use X-ray inspection very frequently and take a X-ray picture by various technique in dental diagnosis. Patients in pedodontics usually do not appeal appropriately the symptom of their own disease because of their immaturness. For this reason, X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. Though the exposure dose became to social problem, it is demanded to play consideration to X-ray technique for children because of higher sensitivity than adult. But studies of the exposure dose are reported in medical field and few of them are about pedodontics. Therefore, distribution of exposure dose in the 6-film technique (intraoral technique) for children was surveyed by use of water phantom examining the reliability of TLD, the defect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested in part. 1. But first report is two dimension, so we examined the 6-films technique, the body view of mandible, the orthopantomography and the cephalography for Mix-DP (for child). The following results were obtained. 1. The 6-film technique showed the highest exposure dose at skin, eye and thyroid gland. 2. The exposure dose at thyroid gland by 6-film technique was 0.734 R. 3. The exposure dose at gonad was less 0.001 R. by all technique. 4. The exposure dose at child tended to higher than adult by all technique. (author)
Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie
Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed. PMID:25795014
Mathis, Cynthia Renee
This single case study provides a detailed description of a 7-year-old sexually abused childâ s sandplay, describes prominent themes in the childâ s sandplay, and concurrent family transitions and events. Included are reflections and meanings that the therapist attributed to the sandplay. Child-centered play therapy was the guiding theory for the therapy. Thirty-six consecutive therapy sessions are examined in this study. The therapy sessions were divided into three phases that were ti...
Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Radjack, Rahmeth; Sibeoni, Jordan; Moro, Marie Rose; Revah-Levy, Anne
International adoptions involve approximately 30000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interv...
Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Leonard, Tammy; Beron, Kurt; Murdoch, James
Background The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers’ behavior and individual child behavior. Methods The study neighborhood was a lo...
How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2010) we examined the year prevalence of child maltreatment in the general Dutch population, using sentinel reports, substantiated CPS reports, and high school students’ self-report. Ov...
Ambadekar Nitin N
Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.
O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio
Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and
Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.
The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…
Ro, Yeonsun Ellie; Cheatham, Gregory A.
Through case study methodology, this study examined how a second-generation bilingual child developed his two languages and associated literacies, the role of the parents' and child's goals as well as the family's daily effort to attain those goals, and the influences of environmental, social, and cultural factors. Based on sociocultural…
The incidence of child labour is still very high in many less developed countries. India with all her richness and wealth is not free from this problem .The absence of a process of equitable distribution of the fruits of development along with the existence of abject poverty among a large section of the people of the country often stand on the way to the reduction of child labour from the economy. In India, according to Census, 2001, there are about 1.26 crore child labourers. They constitute...
Child labour is seen in every corner of the street in India, they are everywhere, they are visible. It is a very complex socio -economic problem and it definitely will be a burden of the growth of India. There are many NGOs in India working together to abolish child labour, but without the full support from government, society and parents, it is a long way to go before success comes. [MVF
Gamlin, J. B.; Camacho; Ong, M; Hesketh, T
In this paper, we report on a study of the psychosocial effects of child domestic work (CDW) in six countries and the relevance of our findings to international legislation. Our results suggest that CDW is highly heterogeneous. While some young child domestic workers work long hours, suffer physical punishment and are at risk of psychosocial harm, others are able to attend school and benefit from good relationships with their employers and networks of support. Child domestic workers in India ...
Crone, Mathilde R; Zeijl, Elke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background About one third of all parents have concerns about their child’s psychosocial development. Agreement between child health professionals (CHPs) and parents about such concerns may improve treatment adherence and outcomes. This study investigates which child, parenting and/or environmental stressors are associated with (dis)agreement in concerns regarding psychosocial problems in children, in parent-CHP dyads. Methods During routine child health assessments, data were collected from ...
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee
Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…
Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…
Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.
Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…
Whitebook, Marcy; Howes, Carollee; Phillips, Deborah
In 1988, the National Child Care Staffing Study first gathered information on staffing and quality from a sample of child care centers in five metropolitan areas--Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Phoenix, and Seattle--and returned for updated information in 1992. In 1997, directors of the original sample of centers still in operation were contacted again…
Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…
Ostrov, Jamie M.; Bishop, Christa M.
This multiinformant and multimethod study (N = 47) investigated the link between the parent-child relationship system and the display of physical and relational aggression with peers at school during early childhood. Children (mean age = 43.54 months, SD = 8.02) were observed (80 min/child) during free play, and parents and teachers were asked to…
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.
Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…
Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting
This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…
Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.
Whether and how to regulate family child care has been a continuing policy dilemma facing child care advocates, policymakers, child care administrators, and child care regulators over the last 20 years. Insufficient attention has been given to what regulatory and/or non-regulatory methods might be used to ensure that all children, regardless of…
Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne Heyckendorff M.; Jensen, Camilla Bjørn;
Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years....
Full Text Available International adoptions involve approximately 30,000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from the analysis of the interviews were: the scene when the child is entrusted to the parents, the discovery of the child's body, and the first parent-child interaction. Within these three principal themes, several subthemes dealt with difficult experiences: moments of solitude and anxiety, shocking images of the children's living conditions, lack of preparation and of information about the child, poor health, parental reactions of rejection, worry about the child's body, aggressive reactions by the child, worry about the child's reactions, and contrast with the expected interaction. Thirty-two interviews included at least one of these subthemes. At the structural level of the discourse; the characteristics of 33 interviews are those described in the literature as significantly more frequent in traumatized than in non-traumatized subjects. These results raise questions about the consequences of difficult, possibly traumatic experiences, at the moment of meeting the child, and they underline the need for work on preparation and prevention before the parents leave on their journey.
Thea Steen Skogheim
Full Text Available This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored.
Full Text Available This case can be placed in a neurologic classification. The patient is a child with learning disability in school activities. He was first referred to an audiological clinic because of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD. His mother has noticed several hearing problems and this led us to the evaluations for his central auditory processing disorder. He has problems in hearing speech in noise and speech processing and need his friends repeat words during communication. no vestibular disorder was noticed nor any localization problem. The child has a good progress in school and only suffered problems in reading tasks. Intelligence quotient(IQ was also normal.
Nimbarte Sanjay; Wagh V V; Selokar Deepak
Children under fourteen constitute around 3.6% of the total labour force in India. The objective of the present study was to study the socio-economic determinants and to assess the working conditionsof child labourer in the small town Seloo area in Wardha district. The child labourers were interviewed in their work places using a predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was collected andanalyzed using epi_info 6.04d. A total of 150 child labourers participated in the study. The male/ fe...
Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the status of Achievement motivationamong child labour and regular school going student.. The sample consist of 100 subject50 child labour 50 regular school going students. Total sample select in to the nationalChild labour project from Jalna dist. in Maharashtra. The subject selected in the samplewas in the age group of 09 to 16 who are living in urban areas only. StandardizedPsychological Tools was used for data collection that is Achievement motivations Scale.After done of scoring data were treated as two way analysis. The results indicate thatchild labour and regular school going students thus differ from each other significantlyon the Achievement motivation. According to mean values the regular school goingchildren having high Achievement motivation than the child labour. The 'F' ratiosindicate that there is significant difference between male and female of both child labourand school going students on Achievement motivation.
Roosa, Mark W.; Deng, Shiying; Nair, Rajni L.; Lockhart Burrell, Ginger
Most family scholars take the concept of poverty for granted. The variety of ways people have chosen to define and measure this concept, however, often makes it difficult to interpret or compare research results. We review and critique the ways that poverty has been measured in the family and child literatures as well as the measures that have…
Bustinza Amaya; Santiago Maria J; Sánchez César; Mencía Santiago; López-Herce Jesús; Vigil Dolores
Abstract Background Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. Methods A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN). The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolera...
As we know, the extreme exploitation of child labour is prevalent in whole India including hill areas of the state of Uttarakhand. In this article an attempt has been made to find out the real position of child labour after doing an empirical study in five districts of Uttarakhand i.e Dehradun, Haridwar, Ruderpur, Ramnagar, Nainital. In this study, 100 parents and 100 employer of the child labour have been interviewed in the year 2013 and the result is shown through the graph and the tables.
Fekadu Wolde-Giorgis, Daniel
Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...
Full Text Available Children under fourteen constitute around 3.6% of the total labour force in India. The objective of the present study was to study the socio-economic determinants and to assess the working conditionsof child labourer in the small town Seloo area in Wardha district. The child labourers were interviewed in their work places using a predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was collected andanalyzed using epi_info 6.04d. A total of 150 child labourers participated in the study. The male/ female ratio was 1:1.77. Child labour was most prevalent (80% among 11-13 year age group.Child labour increases with decreasing parental socio-economic status. A little less than half (46.7% of the child labourers had to work for more than 6 hours a day. Average duration of work as 6.1days per week. There is need to protect children from child labour specially girl children. It is advocated that reduction in family size is condusive to promote economic empowerment/education.
MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.
Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…
Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.
Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abu
Lisa Hartling; Hamm, Michele P.; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Dryden, Donna M.; Ben Vandermeer
OBJECTIVE: To quantify bias related to specific methodological characteristics in child-relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DESIGN: Meta-epidemiological study. DATA SOURCES: We identified systematic reviews containing a meta-analysis with 10-40 RCTs that were relevant to child health in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently assessed RCTs using items in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and other study factors. We used meta-epidemiolog...
Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee
Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...
Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw
Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…
Chiyori Haga; Shizuyo Takagi; Satoko Nakagomi
Objective: This study attempts to understand child care providers’ perceptions of remarkable children’s lifestyles and discusses potentially successful strategies of cooperation among child care providers, parents, and health professionals for health promotion and the prevention of obesity in preschool children. Methods: We conducted 6 focus group discussions consisting of 34 child care providers employed by private and public child care centers, and a public kindergarten in Yamanashi Prefect...
Full Text Available Background: Children signify eternal optimism in the human being and provide potential for the development. Every nation whether developed or developing, links its future with the status of child. An understanding of the physical, social and behavioral factors is conducive to assess the current situation and vulnerability of any child. To ensure the utmost level of health and safety of a child, we need to have an insight of the violation of child rights. We conducted this study to assess and measure the breaches in child rights. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children between 10 to 18 years of age in one of the field practice areas of Community Medicine department, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results: More than 90% of the children were born in the hospital settings, fully vaccinated and living with their parents. Of these, 60% of the children reported to have some kind of illness in the past one year, and majority of them approached healthcare facility for that the treatment. Of these, 26% of them had low birth weight (LBW and 68% had body mass index (BMI <18.5. About 93% of the children were enrolled in either government or private school and out of them, 54% complained of the burden of either homework or tuition. Of these, 6.5% children were school dropouts and all of them were girls; 4% of them were child labors. Conclusion: The study indicated positive findings in the areas of child survival, development and to some extent, in the domain of right to participation, though there were poor environmental conditions and recreational activities. Prevalence of malnutrition and child labor was also high. Study results highlighted the need for adequate services in these areas.
Filicide, the killing of a child by a parent, is the focus of this meta-study. In the United States, the total number of nonaccidental deaths of children at the hands of a parent is unknown. Five children a day under the age of five die from fatal abuse and neglect (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1995). This number is a…
Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Pilkington, Paul; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma
Background In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with mothers, school students and community health volunteers from urban and rural parts of Makwanpur district in Nepal. FGDs...
Jørn Olsen; Chun Sen Wu; Peter Laurberg; Stine Linding Andersen
Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diag...
Garfield, Craig F.; Chung, Paul J
Objective.—To examine and compare nonmarried and married fathers’ expectations of their child care responsibilities soon after their child’s birth. Methods.—Individual semistructured qualitative interviews supplemented by quantitative surveys were conducted with 75 father recruited as a subset of the national Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which randomly sampled 4900 nonmarried and married couples at the time of their child’s birth. Interviews were conducted early in inf...
Sener, Mustafa Talip; Anci, Yuksel; Dursun, Onur Burak
The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of victims, parents, and accused or suspected child abusers, and to evaluate the conditions that constitute the risk factors for children falling victim to sexual abuse in Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Personal data files of 63 victims of child sexual abuse were analyzed and compared with 201 individuals in a control group. The childrens age, gender, educational level, number of siblings, and the nature of the ...
Palmstierna, Peder; Sepa, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Johnny
Aim: To gather normative data on parent-reported child sleep and investigate what influences it. Methods: Subjective sleep report data on night wakings, sleep quality, bedtime and risetime were gathered from parents of around 10 000 children from birth to age 5 in a cohort questionnaire study. The data were analysed for trends, and sleep measures were compared with background factors such as child temperament, foreign origin, family situation, parents age and education and night feedings. Res...
Isma Gabriella E; Bramhagen Ann-Cathrine; Ahlstrom Gerd; Östman Margareta; Dykes Anna-Karin
Abstract Background Registered Sick Children’s Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. Method A q...
Rahul C. Bedre; Giri, Purushottam A; Mangala M. Bote
Background: India a vast country has left behind a number of stigmas and prejudices to move ahead as one nation. Still in a number of states, villages, cities and towns, gender bias is persistent leading to female discrimination. Objective: To study the difference in child rearing practices based on sex of child among married women of reproductive age group in urban slum of Mumbai. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 married women of reproductive ag...
Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J
Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions. PMID:27352882
Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...
Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda
Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability. PMID:26887648
Sumit Dutt Bhardwaj, Babusaheb Nagargoje, Ashok Jadhao, Jyoti Khadse
Objectives: To find the Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in the urban slum and elite area of Nagpur and also to compare child sex ratio according to birth order and sex of previous born child. Methods: Study involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban slum and elite area of Nagpur. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order, sex and information regarding any abortions was noted. . Results: CSR was 934 females per 1000 males ...
Sumit Dutt Bhardwaj, Babusaheb Nagargoje, Ashok Jadhao, Jyoti Khadse
Full Text Available Objectives: To find the Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban slum and elite area of Nagpur and also to compare child sex ratio according to birth order and sex of previous born child. Methods: Study involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban slum and elite area of Nagpur. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order, sex and information regarding any abortions was noted. . Results: CSR was 934 females per 1000 males combined for both areas. CSR was significantly low (P<0.05 in elite area (904 females per 1000 males compared to slum area (964 females per 1000 males. In elite area, when first-born child was female, in second birth order number of males was significantly higher than females (P<0.05. There was significant difference between number of males and females of second birth order, when first-born child was male compared to when it was female (P<0.001. Conclusion: There is missing of girl child form the second and subsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female, which is more evident in elite area.
Patients in pedodontics usually do not appeal appropriately the symptom of their own disease because of their immaturness. For this reason X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. It is considered that radiation injury for children is generally more severe than that for adults under the same exposure dose. Therefore it is necessary to detect the effective minimum exposure dose as accurately as possible for protection. The exposure dose was surveyed by use of TLD combined with the 6-films technique for children (child intraoral technique) currently used in the dental clinic. Firstry the reliability of TLD, the effect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested. Secondly the distribution of exposure dose in the intraoral technique for children was examined by water phantom. The following results were obtained. 1. It was necessary to select the stabilized TLD as the measuring values were comparatively scattered. 2. Measuring of the effect of scattered rays showed that it was the least in use of Pb, value of which was 101 for air dose 100. This indicated that Pb was the best for scatter protection. 3. For the indicator dependence it was unnecessary to adjust the glancing angle in case it was below 60 degrees. 4. TLD showed a stable result even in the increased time of exposure, and at the same time there was no error with the electric timer. 5. The result of the basic experiment of water phantom required further investigation as to the overlapped exposure in treatment of child patients with much smaller dental arches where the irradiation field was bigger than in that of adult patients with larger dental arches. (author)
Theories furthering understanding of the effects of child rearing practices on psychiatric disturbance are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to family dynamics, the double-bind hypothesis, and the development of schizophrenia and related border line syndromes that lead to psychotic phenomena. The issue of child rearing practices is…
Onur Burak Dursun
Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.
Davis, Jessica; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Luchters, Stanley; Simon, David; Holmes, Wendy
Background The importance of involving men in reproductive, maternal and child health programs is increasingly recognised globally. In the Pacific region, most maternal and child health services do not actively engage expectant fathers and fathers of young children and few studies have been conducted on the challenges, benefits and opportunities for involving fathers. This study explores the attitudes and beliefs of maternal and child health policymakers and practitioners regarding the benefi...
Blair, Faye; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John
Children who witness the abuse of their mother by an intimate partner suffer negative effects on behavioral functioning. In this study, 300 abused women seeking services for abuse were interviewed regarding how often their child had witnessed the abuse. Baseline data for this study found that boys who witnessed abuse had externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems comparable to boys in clinical treatment. Girls did not display clinically significant behaviors. For evidence-based programs to interrupt the effect of witness to violence on children, empirical data that are gender-specific are needed. Findings support the need to screen mothers for abuse during well-child visits and offer education to all mothers on the possible effects of child witness to violence in the home. PMID:26281272
Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe;
BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after...... significantly increased relative risk of breast carcinoma, alcohol-related malignancies, virus/immune-related malignancies, or hormone-related malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggest that the death of a child was associated with a slightly increased overall cancer risk in mothers and that the...
Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.
This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…
Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.
Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J.
Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Ojanuga, Durrenda Nash
Pilot study reports on use of children as street beggars in Kaduna, Nigeria. Begging usually occurs because children's parents are poor, disabled. Children may also be handicapped. Other child beggars are poor boys studying with Koranic mallams; children must provide own food and money for lessons by begging. Measures to assist beggar children are…
Evans, Alan L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate personality characteristics of child abusers, utilizing the results of the Melnick-Hurley (1969) study. Subjects were 40 mothers receiving Aid to Dependent Children in Ingham County, Michigan. Each of the 20 "abusive" mothers had abused at least one of her children within six months prior to testing. To…
Cheit, Ross E.
Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…
Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa
Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…
Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho
Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147
Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Sharma, Chinmayi; Malone, Patrick S; Woodlief, Darren; Dodge, Kenneth A; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura
Two key tasks facing parents across cultures are managing children's behaviors (and misbehaviors) and conveying love and affection. Previous research has found that corporal punishment generally is related to worse child adjustment, whereas parental warmth is related to better child adjustment. This study examined whether the association between corporal punishment and child adjustment problems (anxiety and aggression) is moderated by maternal warmth in a diverse set of countries that vary in a number of sociodemographic and psychological ways. Interviews were conducted with 7- to 10-year-old children (N = 1,196; 51% girls) and their mothers in 8 countries: China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted 1 and 2 years later. Corporal punishment was related to increases, and maternal warmth was related to decreases, in children's anxiety and aggression over time; however, these associations varied somewhat across groups. Maternal warmth moderated the effect of corporal punishment in some countries, with increases in anxiety over time for children whose mothers were high in both warmth and corporal punishment. The findings illustrate the overall association between corporal punishment and child anxiety and aggression as well as patterns specific to particular countries. Results suggest that clinicians across countries should advise parents against using corporal punishment, even in the context of parent-child relationships that are otherwise warm, and should assist parents in finding other ways to manage children's behaviors. PMID:24885184
Houston, Ann Jespersen
This paper reviews the literature on attachment, presents a study of child-teacher attachment, and discusses child-teacher attachment as a secondary relationship influenced by the prototype bonding between mother and child. The literature review traces the development of psychoanalytic thought regarding the mother-child relationship and examines…
Full Text Available Little is known about the childhood obesity prevention and treatment practices of Maternal and Child Health services (Posyandu in Indonesia or in other countries. The present study aims to assess the association of the availability of Posyandu with overweight and obesity in children of different household wealth levels. This was a secondary analysis of data collected in the 2013 Riskesdas (or Basic Health Research survey, a cross-sectional study, representative population-based data. Height and weight, the availability of Posyandu, and basic characteristics of the study population were collected from parents with children aged 0 to 5 years (n = 63,237. Non-availability of Posyandu significantly raised the odds of being obese (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06–1.21 and did not show a significant relationship in the odds for overweight (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.93–1.07. This relationship persisted after a full adjustment (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25 and OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.96–1.13, respectively. There was effect modification by household wealth, which was stronger for obese children. The availability of Posyandu has a protective association with childhood obesity in Indonesia. Posyandu services are well placed to play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment in early life.
Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo;
a child who had died (exposed cohort), and 293745 controls--ie, parents whose children were alive, and whose family structure matched that of the exposed cohort. Natural deaths were defined with ICD8 codes 0000-7969 and ICD10 codes A00-R99, and unnatural deaths with codes 8000-9999 and V01-Y98. We used......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who had...... Cox's proportional-hazards regression models to assess the mortality rate of parents up to 18 years after bereavement. FINDINGS: We observed an increased overall mortality rate in mothers whose child had died (hazards ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64; p
Full Text Available When the issue of welfare is addressed in Sweden analysis is usually focused on the national level, in a smaller number of cases on the local level, but rarely on the regional level. Studies on poverty are no exception. The aim of this paper is to analyse child poverty in Sweden, from a regional perspective, in 1990 and 2010. A multivariate cross-section OLS regression model is used to estimate regional factors causing child poverty. Regional macro data is used. The findings indicate that old industrial regions experience greater child poverty. The statistical analysis shows that when the share of foreign-born individuals increases in the regional population, so does the regional share of children living on social assistance. Higher incomes lower the regional share of children living on social assistance.
Yogita P Pandya; Bhanderi, Dinesh J.
Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years) because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i) To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii) To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii) To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications...
Kaikkonen Kaisu M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.
Barone, Lavinia; Del Giudice, Marco; Fossati, Andrea; Manaresi, Francesca; Perinetti, Barbara Actis; Colle, Livia; Veglia, Fabio
The paper describes a multicentre study of the psychometric properties of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task in a sample of 230 Italian children aged 4 to 8 years. The task's internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were investigated; in addition, multiple discriminant analysis was used to explore the contribution of individual…
S. Song; J. de Jong; R. O'Hara; C. Koopman
Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the o
Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives
Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl
We explore the effect of bullying at school on the educational attainment of a sample of individuals drawn from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). Our empirical findings suggest that school bullying has an adverse effect on human capital accumulation both at and beyond school. Moreover, the impact of bullying on educational…
Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer
This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…
Shull, Jennifer; Deitz, Jean; Billingsley, Felix; Wendel, Sue; Kartin, Deborah
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use single-subject research methods, combined with social validation procedures, as part of an evaluation/intervention process exploring the effects of adapted switch-operated devices on self-initiated behaviors of a 6-year-old child with profound multiple disabilities. Method: A…
Focuses on a study of adults who were part of the child migration era in the early twentieth century United Kingdom. Argues former effects on migrant children have had a negative influence in terms of personal and cultural identity. Notes suspected physical and sexual abuse of some migrant children. (KDR)
Thurber, Christopher A.
Summaries of four studies in child psychology reveal that children's attachment to caregivers depends on physical contact more than food; secure attachment to loving caregivers provides a base from which children explore and learn; children's separation behaviors reveal much about their attachment relationship; and children are born with traits…
Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…
In 2002 Save the Children UK carried out a study of child poverty in Uganda, as part of the on-going Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Programme. Using participants from all regions of the country, the researchers asked children about their perceptions of poverty and anti-poverty strategies, as well as questioning adult key informants about…
Roberts, Kathryn L.
This study examined the effectiveness of a series of workshops and at-home activities designed to teach parents to integrate comprehension strategy instruction into read-alouds with their pre-kindergarten-aged children. Twenty parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to condition and parents in the experimental (workshop) condition were taught to…
The author investigates the condition of a public school's arts education program under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and obtains teachers' perspectives on their experiences under the federal policy. The author used qualitative and quantitative approaches to conduct a case study of an Ohio public school district. The data collected revealed…
Hammen, Constance; And Others
Examined temporal associations of diagnoses in mothers and children in 3-year longitudinal study of unipolar, bipolar, and comparison women and their 8- to 16-year-old children. Found significant temporal association between mother and child diagnoses, especially in unipolar families, and most children who experienced major depressive episode did…
Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…
Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.
We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…
McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Thompson, Richard; Graham, J. Christopher; Hawley, Kristin M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Browne, Dorothy; Kotch, Jonathan B.
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the relationship of caregiver network support on caregiver and child mental health need, as well as child mental health service use among 1075 8-year-old children participating in the LONGSCAN study. The final model showed acceptable fit (χ2 = 301.476, df = 136, p
Mohammad Reza Iravani; Shahram Basity; Faezeh Taghipour; AllahyarArabmomeni; HajarJannesari
Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are r...
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K
This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa. PMID:26349744
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Child abuse is one of the most important issues in any society and any action to detect influencing factors could help take possible actions on its prevention. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the impact of family income, occupation, size, age, education and drug addiction on growth of child abuse. The study uses a sample of 450 female students who were enrolled on guided schools in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study chooses 5 classes and in each school and 10 students are randomly selected. A questionnaire is designed and distributed among the sample people, which is categorized in four groups of physical, sexual, emotional and neglect child abuse. The results are analyzed using different tests including Pearson correlation test, Chi-Square, etc. to test different hypotheses. The results of our survey indicate that there are some meaningful relationships between different family characteristics including age, occupation, family size, educational background, and drug-addiction and child abuse. However, our survey does not provide any evidence to believe there is any relationship between home status and child abuse risk.
Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma
Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding. Nutrition education on optimum complementary feeding and birth spacing strategies should intensify. PMID:27386106
Bolar, Cassandra L.; Hernandez, Natalie; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin; Ferguson, Aneeqah S.; Rollins, Latrice; Wrenn, Glenda; Okafor, Martha; Collins, David; Clem, Thomas
Background Among children, there are substantial ethno-racial minority disparities across a broad range of health-related behaviors, experiences, and outcomes. Addressing these disparities is important, as childhood and adolescence establish health trajectories that extend throughout life. Methods The current study employed a community-based participatory research approach to gain community insight on child health priorities and to frame an intervention aimed at improving the health of minority children. Eight focus groups were conducted among seventy-five African American parents in a Southeastern city. The current study was guided by an ecological theoretical framework. Results Although the focus of this investigation was on community identification of child health priorities, participants cited, as root determinants, contextual factors, which included lack of healthy food options, lack of spaces for physical activity, and community violence. These co-occurring factors were related to limited engagement in outdoor activities and physical activity, increased obesity, and poor mental health and coping. Poor parenting was cited as the most substantial barrier to improving child health outcomes, and quality parenting was identified as the most important issue to address for community programs focused on promoting the health and success of children. For improving health outcomes for children in their neighborhoods, establishment of positive social capital and constructive activities were also cited. Conclusions These results reinforce social determinants of health as influences on child health outcomes and describe how community engagement can address potential solutions through interventions that resonate with program participants. PMID:27275021
Heidari, Tooba; Ziaei, Saeideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa
In different cultures, pregnancy, birth and motherhood are perceived as spiritual events through their miraculous processes and create an ideal context for spiritual enrichment. However, studies on spirituality and birth are at very early stages. The purpose of this study was to understand the facilitators and barriers of the unborn child spiritual care in Iranian women. Twenty-two mothers with live pregnancy experience who were willing and able to share their life stories were selected purposefully in Tehran (Iran) from May 2012 to April 2013. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 27 interviews. Active and passive acquisition of information, inner inspirational messages, receiving effective support from the people around as well as modeling of self and significant others created "powerful leverages" to accelerate mother for caring her unborn child. "Counter-currents" in the form of unsuitable physical conditions during pregnancy, poor economic and social conditions, unsuitable psychological and cognitive conditions and finally understanding unsuitable ideological conditions of the self and care giver were identified as barriers. Iranian cultural and religious perspective on the unborn child physical and mental influence from mother has an important role in mother's self-care behaviors during pregnancy. It seems that using interdisciplinary professionals' skills based on understanding facilitators and barriers of mother care of the unborn child can lead to providing comprehensive prenatal care according to mothers' cultural, religious and social context. PMID:25560343
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were
Owe, Katrine M.; Nystad, Wenche; Bø, Kari
The aims of this study were to describe the level of exercise during pregnancy and to assess factors associated with regular exercise. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 34 508 pregnancies were included in the present study. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 30, and analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with ...
Full Text Available The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC, conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC, which follows a nationally representative sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity. OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary to expectations derived from the male vulnerability and differential reactivity models, the IPC-conduct problems association was stronger among girls than among boys. In general, IPC predicted a number of outcomes among girls but did not predict any among boys. These findings suggest that it is important in both academic and professional work to consider that the impact of IPC on boys and girls may vary depending on the nature of the conflict and the type of families affected by it. Furthermore, while IPC may not have a direct impact over time, its effects may continue to be felt through other elements of the family system, such as the parent-child relationship.
Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz
Objective: To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Methods: Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Results: Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Conclusion: Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families’ engagement in treatment. PMID:27375732
High stakes accountability has intensified the marginalization of social studies in public schools. A popular response to the dilemma between raising achievement in English Language Arts and preserving social studies is to integrate the two subjects. This qualitative case study analyzes instruction in a fifth grade urban classroom where the…
Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel
This study analyses the case of a gifted child (9;6 year) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had a particularly high verbal IQ (146) and a specific cognitive, linguistic, and metalinguistic profile. A description of some salient behavioral characteristics of the child is provided. A metalinguistic ability test assessing metagrammatical,…
Kwon, Jeong Yoon
The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…
Manders, Jeanette E.; Stoneman, Zolinda
Objective: The study used a series of vignettes to investigate how the presence of three disabilities (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, emotional/behavioral disabilities) affects the processes and outcomes of child abuse investigations at two levels of child injury severity (moderate, severe). Method: Seventy-five CPS case workers…
Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…
Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari
Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…
Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes
Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.
Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case chara
Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes
Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David
Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case charac
Rahul C. Bedre
Full Text Available Background: India a vast country has left behind a number of stigmas and prejudices to move ahead as one nation. Still in a number of states, villages, cities and towns, gender bias is persistent leading to female discrimination. Objective: To study the difference in child rearing practices based on sex of child among married women of reproductive age group in urban slum of Mumbai. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 married women of reproductive age group during a period of Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2008 at Shivajinagar urban health centre, which is field practice area of T. N. medical college, Mumbai. Participants were selected by systematic random sampling in an urban slum of Mumbai, Maharashtra. Results: In present study, a total of 900 married women with their children below five year are 1158 (male: 632 and female: 526 were analyzed. There was statistically significant difference between child rearing practices like breast feeding initiation, complimentary feeding, immunization status, nutritional status, and treatment seeking behavior. Conclusion: The findings in the present study confirm that sex based difference in child rearing practices persist in urban slum area of Mumbai. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 105-109
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…
Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J
ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for brain function and development. We examined whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy affects risk of autistic traits in childhood. Within the Generation R cohort, we measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3:ω-6 ratio in midpregnancy (Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 2001-2005). Child autistic traits at 6 years were assessed by using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form in 4,624 children. A lower maternal ω-3:ω-6 ratio during pregnancy was associated with more autistic traits in the offspring (β = -0.008, 95% confidence interval: -0.016, -0.001). In particular, a higher total ω-6 and linoleic acid status were associated with more autistic traits (all P's < 0.05). Associations were independent of child intelligence, suggesting that the fatty acid distribution specifically affects the development of autistic traits in addition to general neurodevelopment. Maternal plasma ω-3 status was not associated with child autistic traits and, consistently, neither was prenatal dietary fish intake. Our study shows that a lower prenatal ω-3:ω-6 ratio is associated with more child autistic traits, which is largely accounted for by higher ω-6 instead of lower ω-3 status. These results suggest a biological pathway between maternal fatty acid intake during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. PMID:27052119
Anandalakshmy, S., Comp.
This report describes a nationwide study of female children and the family in rural India. The objectives of the study were to generate data on the situation of female children; to identify the major problems related to their status; to start a series of programs to help remedy those shortcomings; and to assist communities, and women in…
Celik, I; M. Halmatov; H. Saricam
The aim of this study is the investigation of parents’, living in rural areas or urban areas and with children 5-6 years of age, difference in their attitudes towards children according to demographic characteristics and living conditions, rural and urban areas. The study group of the research includes 200 parents who have 5-6 years old children taking pre-school education. 100 of them live in rural areas and 100 of them live in the city center. Instruments of study are Personal Information F...
This study explores the factors which shaped the local maternal and child welfare services of the inter-war period. It draws on research from local authority minute books, local newspapers, and from mothers themselves. It shows the strong influences exerted by the complex interplay of geographical, economic, political and cultural factors in determining the shape of services in the four very different localities studied here. The services were very different in the different localities, in tw...
G.M. Conceição; Miraglia, S G; Kishi, H S; Saldiva, P H; Singer, J. M.
Although most available evidence relating air pollution and mortality was obtained for adults, pollution has been also associated with increased mortality in children, but in a significantly smaller number of studies. This study was designed to evaluate the association between child mortality and air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. Daily records of mortality due to respiratory diseases for children under 5 years of age were obtained from the municipal mortality ...
Beatrice Castelli; Fiorella Festa; Maria Angela Di Sanzo; Andrea Guala; Alberto Pellai
Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending se...
Pretlow, Robert A.; Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %...
Kaikkonen Kaisu M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka M; Vanhala Marja L; Laitinen Jaana H; Korpelainen Raija I
Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight statu...
Self-Brown, Shannon; Anderson, Page; Edwards, Shannan; McGill, Tia
Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM) is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response...
Self-Brown, Shannon; Anderson, Page; Edwards, Shannan; McGill, Tia
Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM) is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response...
The aim of this thesis was to increase our understanding and knowledge of the relation between children's two social worlds, that of parents and that of peers. This dissertation contains a number of articles reporting on the relation between perceived security, self-representation, and dyadic child-
O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan.
Professionals involved in working with victims or perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) require a basic understanding of the nature of this problem in our society. The purpose of this article is to aid such an understanding from an Irish perspective by attempting a synthesis of two excellent and comprehensive research studies. Although these studies first appeared in the literature some time ago their findings remain relevant and in need of dissemination. peer-reviewed
The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help or ...... child's transfer to and from the PICU. Critical care nurses have to discuss the policy of family-centred care.......The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help or...... death for the parents. The back transfer was experienced as joy and despair. The parents had confidence in most nurses, and they were kind, helpful, informative and capable. Less capable and distressed nurses made the parents feel uncomfortale and insecure. Parents need help and support during their...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound knowledge about child growth, development, health, and disease in contemporary children and adolescents is still rare. Epidemiological studies together with new powerful research technologies present exciting opportunities to the elucidation of risk factor-outcome associations with potentially major consequences for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aim To conduct a unique prospective longitudinal cohort study in order to assess how environmental, metabolic and genetic factors affect growth, development and health from fetal life to adulthood. Methods The ‘Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Child Study’ focuses on two main research objectives: (1 monitoring of normal growth, development and health; (2 non-communicable diseases such as childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, atopy and mental health problems. Detailed assessments will be conducted alongside long-term storage of biological samples in 2,000 pregnant women and more than 10,000 children and their families. Results Close coordination and engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the LIFE Child study successfully established procedures and systems for balancing many competing study and ethical needs. Full participant recruitment and complete data collection started in July 2011. Early data indicate a high acceptance rate of the study program, successful recruitment strategies and the establishment of a representative cohort for the population of Leipzig. A series of subprojects are ongoing, and analyses and publications are on their way. Discussion This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of the new prospective longitudinal cohort study LIFE Child. Given the recognized need for long-term data on adverse effects on health and protective factors, our study data collection should provide magnificent opportunities to examine complex interactions that govern the emergence of non-communicable diseases.
Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody
This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…
Tuck Seng Cheng
Full Text Available Inaccurate parental perception of their child's weight status is commonly reported in Western countries. It is unclear whether similar misperception exists in Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Singaporean mothers to accurately describe their three-year-old child's weight status verbally and visually.At three years post-delivery, weight and height of the children were measured. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and converted into actual weight status using International Obesity Task Force criteria. The mothers were blinded to their child's measurements and asked to verbally and visually describe what they perceived was their child's actual weight status. Agreement between actual and described weight status was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic (κ.Of 1237 recruited participants, 66.4% (n = 821 with complete data on mothers' verbal and visual perceptions and children's anthropometric measurements were analysed. Nearly thirty percent of the mothers were unable to describe their child's weight status accurately. In verbal description, 17.9% under-estimated and 11.8% over-estimated their child's weight status. In visual description, 10.4% under-estimated and 19.6% over-estimated their child's weight status. Many mothers of underweight children over-estimated (verbal 51.6%; visual 88.8%, and many mothers of overweight and obese children under-estimated (verbal 82.6%; visual 73.9%, their child's weight status. In contrast, significantly fewer mothers of normal-weight children were inaccurate (verbal 16.8%; visual 8.8%. Birth order (p<0.001, maternal (p = 0.004 and child's weight status (p<0.001 were associated with consistently inaccurate verbal and visual descriptions.Singaporean mothers, especially those of underweight and overweight children, may not be able to perceive their young child's weight status accurately. To facilitate prevention of childhood obesity, educating parents and caregivers about their child
Farmer Cristan A; Arnold L Eugene; Bukstein Oscar G; Findling Robert L; Gadow Kenneth D; Li Xiaobai; Butter Eric M; Aman Michael G
Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug) and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies) timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatmen...
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric dis...
Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sariyer, Görkem; Aydin, Fulya; Cankarde, Sinem; Kandemirci, Birsu
Child abuse and neglect (CAN), and dropping out of school have long been recognized as pervasive social problems globally, and Turkey is no exception. This study aims to explore the prevalence and incidence of CAN in children who drop out of school of Turkey, using the ISPCAN Child abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version, which is an appropriate tool for multinational comparisons. Data from a convenience sample of children who drop out of school age 11, 13, and 16 from Izmir were collected either by interviews or by self-completion. The results show that, compared to children who do not drop out of school, children who drop out of school have higher rates of psychological and physical abuse and neglect within the family. This study not only highlights the need for preventive laws for CAN and dropping out of school, but also points to direction for future research. PMID:27331866
A study to assess the effectiveness of planned health teaching programme using child-to –child approach on knowledge of selected first aid measures among school children in selected schools at Dharapuram in Tamil Nadu, India
Full Text Available “All citizens – All health workers” Everyone, even the children also have responsible to involve in health services & act as change agents for health promotion. The study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching programme using child-to-child approach on knowledge of selected first aid measures in children. The aim of the study to assess effectiveness of planned health teaching programme on selected first aid measures among school children using child-to-child approach. Quasi experimental design was adopted. The present study was conducted at Dharapuram in Erode district, Tamil Nadu India. The samples were 200 selected by simple random sampling method. The results showed that (‘Z’ value =1.96 mean pre and post-tests value were 10.26 and 21.55. The study concluded that about 68.5percent of students gained adequate knowledge after teaching programme using child-to-child approach.
This thesis is a socio-legal study of police and prosecutorial decision-making in the context of special measures support for child witnesses in criminal proceedings. It presents the findings of an empirical research project conducted with the Crown Prosecution Service which examined the implementation of Part II of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. Under that Act children may be assisted to testify in criminal proceedings though any feasible combination of: video-recorded evi...
Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries ...
Apurva Jagdish Gujarathi; Santosh M Sholapurmath; Praveenkumar S Mandroli; Deepa B Benni
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the remineralizing potential of commercially available low fluoride child formula dentifrice on primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Total 30 primary teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial carious lesions of approximately 100 μm depth, and then cut longitudinally into 30 sections of 100-150 μm thickness and randomly assigned to three groups. Sections were treated with dentifrices containing Colgate ® ...
The paper presents results from a combined production and comprehension study addressing some of the factors which guide the establishment of intersentential pronominal reference in child and adult Bulgarian. We investigate the time course and different stages in the acquisition of null, personal and demonstrative pro-nouns and their specific anaphoric functions. We target possible age-induced changes in the salience hierarchy of referent features such as animacy and grammatical role. Followi...
Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) throug...
Cuenya, Lucas; Sánchez, Norma Inés
The principal aim of this study was to provide a current description of the child and teenager maltreatment phenomenon in the Buenos Aires Province. The sample was composed by 5341 cases of children and teenagers from 0 to 20 years old, whose were treated in 2010 for having been victims of maltreatment. Physical maltreatment was the most frequent one. The girls presented major proportion of sexual abuse, whereas boys registered major proportions of negligence, physical maltreatment and desert...
Jagadish Cacodcar; Anagha Dubhashi; Shilpa Joglekar
Aim: To assess the traditional child rearing practices among rural Goan mothers and the various socio demographic factors influencing these practices. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 307 rural mothers with children < 2 years in two rural areas under rural health and training centre Mandur located 16 kilometres from Panaji Goa, through house to house visits and oral interviews. Analysis of collected data was done using Microsoft Exc...
Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay
Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…
Ledoux, M H
Through the case study of a psychotic girl, we have tried to outline the psychotic mechanisms involved in this mental functioning. Anxieties of an autistic type have been found, as well as anxieties of a more psychotic type (i.e. symbiotic and schizophrenic). Characteristics of this psychotic functioning were: omnipotence, primitive identification mechanisms, fragmenting separation anxiety, search for sameness and for a low of identical repetition, difficulties in accessing to symbolism. Difficulties in defusion from the symbiotic object and the potential role played by this object in the difficulties are noteworthy. But it is not possible to conceptualize them in terms of direct causal relationship, because the object has also a counterphobic function and compensates for the void of subject as well as for the dissolution of the self. Also present is a schizoparanoïd aspect, with a temptation to cuddle inside the object. The sudden breaking through of informations or requirements from reality provokes surprise, panic reactions and retirement from the objectal world. Otherness triggers psychic pain and vacillation of symbiotic bounds. Thus the avoidance of, and retirement from, reality and the recourse to delusional thinking, especially when attempts to controlling with a rigid system are failing and deceiving. Threats of intrusion and loss of control are experienced as a threat of fragmentation and dissolution of the psyche. Far less threatening to the subject's internal balance is the policy of rigidly maintaining sameness and cuddling inside the object. PMID:7689733
Isma Gabriella E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Registered Sick Children’s Nurses and District Nurses employed at Child Health Care centres are in a position to help prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Prevention of this challenging public health threat could be improved through having a better understanding of how this group of nurses perceives childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the conceptions of childhood overweight, including obesity, among nurses working in Child Health Care. Method A qualitative study using a phenomenographic approach, based on open-ended interviews with 18 Child Health Care nurses (CHC-nurses strategically selected from 17 Child Health Care Centres in the southern part of Sweden. Results Four categories of description emerged from the data: Perception of childhood overweight changes, Overweight in younger children a neglected concern, Overweight a delicate issue and Importance of family lifestyle. The participating CHC-nurses conceived overweight in children, primarily obesity in children to be an extensive and serious problem which affects children, families and the surrounding society. Overweight in children was further perceived as a consequence of their parent’s lifestyle and their awareness of the problem, which was considered by the CHC-nurses as a sensitive and a provoking issue. It was also perceived that overweight in children is not taken seriously during the pre-school period and that concerns regarding overweight in younger children were mainly about the appearance and not the health of the child. The CHC-nurses perceived that the proportion of overweight children has increased, which Swedish society and the CHC-nurses have adapted to. This adaptation makes it difficult for CHC-nurses to define those children who are overweight. Conclusion CHC-nurses provide a comprehensive and complex picture of childhood overweight, which includes several difficulties dealing with this issue. Attention to CHC
Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Matrouk, Reema; Al Nawaiseh, Maram
The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan, distinguishing between the impact on working school children, nonworking school children and working and nonschooled children. More than 351 million children across the world work. Emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems in working children are a considerable public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in this study. All data were collected in 2010. A total of 4008 children aged six to 16 years were interviewed. Of these, 2093 (52.2%) were nonworking school children, 896 (22.4%) working school children, and 1019 (25.4%) working and nonschooled children. Working school children reported psychosocial problems more often than working and nonschooled children. Child labour has a negative impact on children's psychosocial health and development. These findings indicate that psychoeducational support and problem-solving programs help children to cope better with the consequences of their work and study. More effort is needed to reduce children's involvement in labour. Understanding the impact of work on child mental and social health is essential to inform policy and future research as well as to improve the lives of children. PMID:23586366
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5% for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2% for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8% reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5% and ambulatory (58.1% children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02-44.38 though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect.
Kruijsen-Terpstra, A J A; Ketelaar, M; Boeije, H; Jongmans, M J; Gorter, J W; Verheijden, J; Lindeman, E; Verschuren, O
Understanding the experiences of parents with their child's intervention might help meet the needs of parents and, subsequently get them engaged in their child's intervention. As parents' early beliefs regarding their child's intervention has consequences for treatment participation, it is important to understand these parental perspectives. The aim of this mixed studies review was to give an overview of the experiences and related factors of parents of young children (0-5 years of age) with cerebral palsy in relation to the physical and/or occupational therapy of their child in a rehabilitation setting. The literature was searched systematically for qualitative and quantitative studies published between January 1990 and July 2011. Inclusion criteria were (1) the study population consisted of parents of children with cerebral palsy, with at least 25% of children under the age of five; (2) children had received physical and/or occupational therapy in a rehabilitation setting; and (3) the experiences of the parents with their child's therapy were addressed. Data were synthesized with the framework synthesis method resulting in a conceptual framework describing the factors that are related to the parents' experiences with their child's interventions. A total of 13 studies (eight qualitative and five quantitative) were included and evaluated. Parents expressed various aspects in context, process and outcomes when asked about their experiences with their child's intervention. They had different needs over time and needed time to build a collaborative relationship with their child's therapists. The proposed framework acknowledges the various aspects in context, process and outcomes that parents reported when asked about their experiences. Knowing this, the importance of the broader context of the child in a family should be acknowledged; realizing the impact that the demands of daily life, supports and resources provided to parents, attitudes in the community and culture
国外儿童语言研究源于儿童心理研究，历经了心理学、语言学双重取向的研究和儿童语言研究的独立学科等过程。期间的研究成果丰富，揭示了儿童语言词汇、语法、语义、语用习得和发展的特点。%Studies on child language abroad originated from child psychological study, going through double - oriented objects of psychological and linguistic study, abundant research achievements involve in the fields and an independent discipline of child language study. The of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, revealing the specialties and features of child language acquisition and development.
This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify bias related to specific methodological characteristics in child-relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. DESIGN: Meta-epidemiological study. DATA SOURCES: We identified systematic reviews containing a meta-analysis with 10-40 RCTs that were relevant to child health in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently assessed RCTs using items in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and other study factors. We used meta-epidemiological methods to assess for differences in effect estimates between studies classified as high/unclear vs. low risk of bias. RESULTS: We included 287 RCTs from 17 meta-analyses. The proportion of studies at high/unclear risk of bias was: 79% sequence generation, 83% allocation concealment, 67% blinding of participants, 47% blinding of outcome assessment, 49% incomplete outcome data, 32% selective outcome reporting, 44% other sources of bias, 97% overall risk of bias, 56% funding, 35% baseline imbalance, 13% blocked randomization in unblinded trials, and 1% early stopping for benefit. We found no significant differences in effect estimates for studies that were high/unclear vs. low risk of bias for any of the risk of bias domains, overall risk of bias, or other study factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found no differences in effect estimates between studies based on risk of bias. A potential explanation is the number of trials included, in particular the small number of studies with low risk of bias. Until further evidence is available, reviewers should not exclude RCTs from systematic reviews and meta-analyses based solely on risk of bias particularly in the area of child health.
Seo, M H; Hong, M S
This study reviews the relationship between family patterns and psychological aspects of the mother-child relationship. As the population increase in Korea will reach 50 million in 2020, population policy must deal with population quality. The data come from 118 5th and 6th grade students and their mothers. Survey results shows that the number of children and the family type are related to mothers' child rearing attitudes. Mothers in nuclear families tended to be warmer and freer towards their children than others. Family type was not related to the self-esteem of children, and the number of siblings showed a weak relationship. Children with siblings have stronger self-esteem. Birth order and younger sibling spacing had a stronger relationship with self-esteem. First borns and those who had younger siblings within a 2-year interval had the weakest self-esteem. Since families are becoming smaller, child quality is becoming more important. Not only family size but also family type, birth order, and spacing need to be considered for the psychological well-being of the population. PMID:12342280
Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have found deleterious effects of inbreeding on childhood and pre-reproductive mortality, one question remains inadequately addressed: Dose inbreeding lead to increased childhood mortality rates in countries with high level of consanguinity? Methods: To evaluate the public health impact of inbreeding on offspring mortality, the association between mean of inbreeding coefficient (α and sex specific child and adult mortality rates in 24 countries from Asia and Africa was analyzed. Results: Statistical analysis showed that countries with relatively higher rates of consanguineous marriages have higher mortality rates than the countries with lower consanguinity rates. Also, countries with relatively higher GDP per capita have lower mortality rates. After controlling the GDP per capita, significant positive correlations between α and child (Female: r=0.4355, df=21, P=0.038; Male: r=0.3991, df=21, P=0.059 mortality rates were observed. There was no significant correlation between α and adult (Female: r=0.2977, df=21, P=0.168; Male: r=0.2207, df=21, P=0.312 mortality rates, after controlling for GDP per capita. Conclusion: It is concluded that consanguinity influences child deaths rate independent of the GDP per capita and that a large proportion of deaths could be attributed to inbreeding in several countries due to high frequencies of consanguinity.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.
Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success. PMID:21161771
Klahr, Ashlea M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra
A handful of prior adoption studies have confirmed that the cross-sectional relationship between child conduct problems and parent/child conflict is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, as the direction of causation between parenting and delinquency remains unclear, this relationship could be better explained by the adolescent's propensity to elicit conflictive parenting, a phenomenon referred to as an evocative gene-environment correlation. The current study thus exami...
Heinrich Hartmut; Brandeis Daniel; Banaschewski Tobias; Albrecht Björn; Rothenberger Aribert
Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a gr...
Albrecht, B.; Banaschewski, T; Brandeis, D.; Heinrich, H.; Rothenberger, A.
BACKGROUND: Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of n...
Dada Mobolaji U; Okewole Niran O; Ogun Oluyemi C; Bello-Mojeed Mashudat A
Abstract Background Definitions of burden of care stress the effect of the patient's mental illness on the family. There are generally very few studies in this environment on caregiver burden in child/adolescent mental ill-health. This study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics that are associated with caregiver burden. Method Caregivers of patients attending the Child and Adolescent Clinic of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos [n = 155] were consecutively recruited...
Mobolaji U Dada; Okewole, Niran O; Ogun, Oluyemi C; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A.
Background Definitions of burden of care stress the effect of the patient's mental illness on the family. There are generally very few studies in this environment on caregiver burden in child/adolescent mental ill-health. This study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics that are associated with caregiver burden. Method Caregivers of patients attending the Child and Adolescent Clinic of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Yaba, Lagos [n = 155] were consecutively recruited over a o...
DeRoo, Lisa A.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the ...
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...
Augendra Bhukuth; Jérôme Ballet
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight that child labour is complementary to adult labour in the brick kiln industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents a case study of bonded labourers in the brick kiln industry of Southeast India. Findings – The paper finds that child labour is used by parents in the moulding process in order to avoid falling into debt bondage. In this industry, brick making is organized as a home-based enterprise. Thus, child labour increases the...
Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that manifests as impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if Zen Shiatsu can reduce short- and long-term stress levels in a child with ASD. Methods This is a longitudinal case study of a seven-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism who was given 20-min Zen Shiatsu sessions weekly for six consecutive weeks. Using a five-point stress scale des...
de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marrianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.
To investigate the effects of child-caregiver ratio on the quality of caregiver-child interaction in child-care centers, 217 caregivers (ages 18-56 years) from 64 child care centers were observed during two structured play episodes: one with a group of three children and one with a group of 5 children. As predicted, a child-caregiver ratio of 3:1…
Hunter, R S; Kilstrom, N; Kraybill, E N; Loda, F
Families of premature and ill newborns admitted to a regional newborn intensive care unit were studied prospectively to assess the incidence of reported child abuse and neglect. Of the 255 infants discharged to their parents, ten were subsequently reported as victims of maltreatment during the first year of life. The high incidence of maltreatment (3.9%) in these premature and ill newborns supports the findings of retrospective studies that there is an increased risk of maltreatment in these special infants. Thirteen family psychosocial characteristics, assessed by admission interview, showed significant association with later maltreatment. These family characteristics included social isolation, a family history of child abuse and neglect, serious marital problems, inadequate child care arrangements, apathetic and dependent personality styles, and inadequate child spacing. Maltreated infants were less mature at birth and had more congenital defects than their nursery mates. There was also less family-infant contact during the prolonged nursery hospitalization in families in which maltreatment eventually occurred. PMID:662488
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11
Castelli, Beatrice; Festa, Fiorella; Di Sanzo, Maria Angela; Guala, Andrea; Pellai, Alberto
Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria), using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated), the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese) and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria). In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials. PMID:26429122
Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.
Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta
Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...
Hunter, Eric J.; Halpern, Angela E.; Spielman, Jennifer L.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate how a child's fundamental frequency (F0) and estimated voice level (dB SPL) change in distinct speaking environments. Method: A child age 5;7 (years;months) wore a National Center for Voice and Speech voice dosimeter for 4 days. The 2 parameters measured were F0 and dB SPL. During analysis, the F0…
Weiss, Jennifer; Makonnen, Raphael; Sula, Delphin
Background Community-based strategies that foster frequent contact between caregivers of children under five and provide credible sources of health information are essential to improve child survival. Care Groups are a community-based implementation strategy for the delivery of social and behavior change interventions. This study assessed if supervision of Care Group activities by Ministry of Health (MOH) personnel could achieve the same child health outcomes as supervision provided by specia...
Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the p...
Dr. Runumi Devi
In India, child labour is a common social problem throughout the country. Child labour stands as a bar of human development in terms of curtail of child’s rights & freedom, education, health care and equal psycho-social status in comparison to the non-labourer child under the lap of parental care, love and affection. Many legal protection help the domestic girl child from economic exploitation ,from formal education and over all psycho- socia...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM parents have full responsibility for the diabetes-management of their child (e.g. blood glucose monitoring, and administering insulin. Behavioral tasks in childhood, such as developing autonomy, and oppositional behavior (e.g. refusing food may interfere with the diabetes-management to achieve an optimal blood glucose control. Furthermore, higher blood glucose levels are related to more behavioral problems. So parents might need to negotiate with their child on the diabetes-management to avoid this direct negative effect. This interference, the negotiations, and the parent's responsibility for diabetes may negatively affect the quality of parent-child interaction. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about the quality of interaction between parents and young children with T1DM, and the possible impact this may have on glycemic control and psychosocial functioning of the child. While widely used global parent-child interaction observational methods are available, there is a need for an observational tool specifically tailored to the interaction patterns of parents and children with T1DM. The main aim of this study is to construct a disease-specific observational method to assess diabetes-specific parent-child interaction. Additional aim is to explore whether the quality of parent-child interactions is associated with the glycemic control, and psychosocial functioning (resilience, behavioral problems, and quality of life. Methods/Design First, we will examine which situations are most suitable for observing diabetes-specific interactions. Then, these situations will be video-taped in a pilot study (N = 15. Observed behaviors are described into rating scales, with each scale describing characteristics of parent-child interactional behaviors. Next, we apply the observational tool on a larger scale for further evaluation of the instrument (N = 120. The parents are asked
Alisic, Eva; Jongmans, Marian J; van Wesel, Floryt; Kleber, Rolf J
Many children are exposed to traumatic events, with potentially serious psychological and developmental consequences. Therefore, understanding development of long-term posttraumatic stress in children is essential. We aimed to contribute to child trauma theory by focusing on theory use and theory validation in longitudinal studies. Forty studies measuring short-term predictors and long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms were identified and coded for theoretical grounding, sample characteristics, and correlational effect sizes. Explicit theoretical frameworks were present in a minority of the studies. Important predictors of long-term posttraumatic stress were symptoms of acute and short-term posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and parental posttraumatic stress. Female gender, injury severity, duration of hospitalization, and elevated heart rate shortly after hospitalization yielded small effect sizes. Age, minority status, and socioeconomic status were not significantly related to long-term posttraumatic stress reactions. Since many other variables were not studied frequently enough to compute effect sizes, existing theoretical frameworks could only be partially confirmed or falsified. Child trauma theory-building can be facilitated by development of encouraging journal policies, the use of comparable methods, and more intense collaboration. PMID:21501581
Yogita P Pandya
Full Text Available Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications of CM. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ardi village of Anand district. Materials and Methods: All the married women of the village were surveyed to find out the prevalence of CM. For collection of other relevant information, only those women having a married life of less than 10years were interviewed using semicoded and pretested questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, ratios, χ2 test, and Fisher′s exact test. Results: The prevalence of CM was found to be 71.5%. Caste and spouse′s education were revealed as important determinants for CM. CM was found to be significantly associated with mother′s age at birth of first child, delayed antenatal care (ANC, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW, health problems in new born baby, faulty feeding practices, lack of knowledge regarding family welfare methods, and health implications of CM. Conclusion: Exceptionally high prevalence of CM in rural community and its serious health consequences warrant stricter enforcement of legislation, better educational opportunities for girls, and easy access to quality health services.
Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.
Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Hibbeln, Joseph; Emond, Alan; Taylor, Caroline M
Introduction There is evidence that high levels of mercury exposure to the pregnant woman can result in damage to the brain of the developing fetus. However there is uncertainty as to whether lower levels of the metal have adverse effects on the development of the infant and whether components of fish consumption and/or the selenium status of the woman is protective. Methods In this study we analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 2875–3264) to determine whether levels of total blood mercury of pregnant women collected in the first half of pregnancy are associated with the development of the offspring at ages 6, 18, 30 and 42 months. The developmental measures used maternal self-reported scales for individual types of development (fine and gross motor, social and communication skills) and total scores. Multiple and logistic regression analyses treated the outcomes both as continuous and as suboptimal (the lowest 15th centile). The statistical analyses first examined the association of prenatal mercury exposure with these developmental endpoints and then adjusted each for a number of social and maternal lifestyle factors; finally this model was adjusted for the blood selenium level. Results Total maternal prenatal blood mercury and selenium ranged from 0.17 to 12.76 and 17.0 to 324 μg/L respectively. We found no evidence to suggest that prenatal levels of maternal blood mercury were associated with adverse development of the child, even when the mother had consumed no fish during pregnancy. In general, the higher the mercury level the more advanced the development of the child within the range of exposure studied. For example, the fully adjusted effect sizes for total development at 6 and 42 months were +0.51 [95%CI +0.05, +1.00] and +0.43 [95%CI +0.08, +0.78] points per SD of mercury. For the risk of suboptimal development the ORs at these ages were 0.90 [95%CI 0.80, 1.02] and 0.88 [95%CI 0.77, 1.02]. In regard to
Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Blanco-Arana, María C; Bárcena-Martín, Elena
This paper examines the effects of growth and recession periods on child mortality in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) during the period 1990-2010. We provide empirical evidence of uneven effects of variations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita on the evolution of child mortality rate in periods of economic recession and expansion. A decrease in GDP per capita entails a significant rise in child mortality rates, whereas an increase does not affect child mortality significantly. In this context, official development assistance seems to play a crucial role in counteracting the increment in child mortality rates in recession periods, at least in those LDCs receiving greater aid. PMID:26998938
CHEN, WEN-HAO; Corak, Miles
This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state i...
Corbetta, L K; Danhauer, J L; Prutting, C A
This study describes the development of the auditory, cognitive, linguistic, and social domains of a child deafened by meningitis at 20 months of age. He received a 3M/House cochlear implant at 27 months and is believed to be the youngest child to receive a cochlear implant. He was seen for intervention emphasizing audiometric conditioning and testing and language (speech and sign) stimulation for a period of 2:9 years (6 months pre-implant to 2:3 years post-implant). Videotapes of intervention; interviews with parents, teachers, and clinicians; test results; and medical and clinical reports were documented from pre-implant to two years post-implantation. The child regressed in all areas evaluated following his illness and subsequent deafness and cochlear implantation. At about one year after implantation, his social and cognitive skills began to improve. By two years after implantation (chronological age (CA) = 4:6), his abilities in all areas except auditory reception and speech had progressed to about the 4:0 age level. He communicates primarily through signs and seems to derive environmental sound and speech duration cues from the implant. Although it is difficult to separate the effects of the implant from maturational factors, he now willingly uses the implant simultaneously with his hearing aid on the non-implanted ear every day and seems to be functioning well with them. He responds inconsistently to his name when called, and consistently provides appropriate signed responses to questions. His imitative skills are improving; he can discriminate one- vs two-syllable words; and produces limited spontaneous speech. His cognitive and social abilities are at least age-appropriate and he signs 3- and 4-word combinations. PMID:2262291
This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...
... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...
Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)
Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder primarily affecting females. One of its most disabling features is the severe and rapid progression of scoliosis. So far, only surgical intervention has succeeded in reversing the development of scoliosis in Rett syndrome.The present study describes a new management approach implemented with a girl with Rett syndrome. The core of the management regime was intensive: asymmetrical activation of trunk muscles through equilibrium reactions. The X-rays accompanying the article (evaluated by four experienced orthopedic surgeons blinded to the intervention process suggested that the intervention was successful in reversing the progress of the scoliosis for the above-mentioned child. Discontinuation of treatment led to severe and rapid deterioration of the spinal curve.Due to the fact that this was a case study, generalization is limited, but we suggest further investigation and studies with this method.
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the two eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, work- and middle-class families. On three occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the two siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers relative to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior relative to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers. PMID:22775198
Naidu, Thirusha; Behari, Sheethal
In this paper we present a single case study of a clinical approach that addresses the needs of parents and their children in psychotherapy. The approach begins by addressing the child's and parent's concerns separately at first by establishing strong therapeutic alliances with each, and then proceeds to address the concerns of the parent-child dyad. The basic premise is that the therapeutic alliance is the central element to successful outcomes in psychotherapy. The nature of alliance-building and its associated methods and techniques have been extensively considered for adult therapy. However, there is considerably less written on the therapeutic alliance with children and adolescents in the context of family interventions. We briefly examine some theoretical dimensions and applications of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy with children/adolescents and their parents. A three-phase alliance-building psychotherapy strategy, founded on the idea that each therapeutic relationship warrants an effective working alliance, is proposed. The case of a single mother and her adolescent daughter is employed to illustrate the strategy. PMID:25859699
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the 2 eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, working- and middle-class families. On 3 occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the 2 siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers in relation to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior in relation to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers. PMID:22775198
Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.
Hobson, Jessica A; Tarver, Laura; Beurkens, Nicole; Peter Hobson, R
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between severity of children's autism and qualities of parent-child interaction. We studied these variables at two points of time in children receiving a treatment that has a focus on social engagement, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI; Gutstein 2009). Participants were 18 parent-child dyads where the child (16 boys, 2 girls) had a diagnosis of autism and was between the ages of 2 and 12 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed at baseline and later in treatment using the autism severity metric of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS; Gotham et al. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 693-705 2009). Although the ADOS was designed as a diagnostic measure, ADOS calibrated severity scores (CSS) are increasingly used as one index of change (e.g., Locke et al. Autism, 18, 370-375 2014). Videotapes of parent-child interaction at baseline and later in treatment were rated by independent coders, for a) overall qualities of interpersonal relatedness using the Dyadic Coding Scales (DCS; Humber and Moss The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 128-141 2005), and b) second-by-second parent-child Co-Regulation and Intersubjective Engagement (processes targeted by the treatment approach of RDI). Severity of autism was correlated with lower quality of parent-child interaction. Ratings on each of these variables changed over the course of treatment, and there was evidence that improvement was specifically related to the quality of parent-child interaction at baseline. PMID:26298470
Rogers, Annie G
In this paper, I lay out a blueprint for a child analysis, stipulating the terms and ethics of the Lacanian field of psychoanalysis, the position of the analyst in that field, and the invitation to the child to discover a space for desire in the work of play. Drawing on the grounding work of Freud, Lacan, Dolto, Lefort, Mannoni, and Mathelin, I describe the mainsprings of the psychoanalytic clinic with the child. I then offer a child case and its trajectory from the development of a phobia to a symptom, and show how the primal scene fantasy and its articulation can open a space for desire in a child's play. What is particular to this work of playing is the emergence of signifiers that chain across generations, and move into new metaphors that foreground the Real of the child's experience and desire. PMID:26485483
Combating child poverty and improving child well-being have become key issues on the policy agenda of the EU and Member States. The main aims of the report, Child Poverty and Child Well-being in the European Union, were to: * identify the main determinants of child poverty and social exclusion in Europe and across the Member States * provide an overview and assess the effectiveness of existing policies on income support and access to the labour market and enabling services of parents * define...
Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos
This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...
Gigante Luciana P; Béria Jorge U.; Palazzo Lilian S; Bassani Diego G; Figueiredo Andréia CL; Aerts Denise RGC; Raymann Beatriz CW
Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionna...