Sample records for child language

  1. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Article Omission across Child Languages

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia


    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  3. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda


    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  4. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa


    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…




    Full Text Available Language development is the crucial part of the human cognitive nature, understanding language development is important aspect to understand the base and to recall its various components of linguistics. Language development is a process starting early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Scholars share the conviction that key aspects of personality and ability including linguistic and communication ability, are formulated in the earliest stages of life. But they are divided on the role of human intuition on one hand and heredity or environment has in childhood development of knowledge, aptitude and skill. Equally they are divided on how skills emerge and develop. A number of different theories have been advanced that are meant to explain language acquisition. This paper therefore examines the acquisition and theories based on the language development.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Sexual Abuse URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Child Agency and Language Policy in Transnational Families

    Fogle, Lyn W.; King, Kendall A.


    Study of family language policy unites research in child language acquisition and language policy to better understand how parents’ language decisions, practices and beliefs influence child outcomes (King, Fogle & Logan-Terry, 2008). Thus far, this work has focused on how family language policy shapes children’s language competencies, formal school success (e.g., Snow, 1990), and the future status of minority languages (e.g., Fishman, 1991), with less attention to children’s active roles in s...

  8. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language

    Duffield, Nigel


    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  9. The child, language and literature

    Williams, Elin (Elin Elizabeth)


    This thesis aims not only to set Proust's treatment of childhood in the context of his work as a whole, but also to set that work in the context of contemporary writing about childhood. Chapter 1 reveals the existence of a fashion in Proust's time for literature devoted to childhood. This genre has a tendency towards technical innovation, despite repetition of the same subject matter, or 'myths'. One particularly important myth, that of the 'child-artist', is seen to be inf...

  10. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E


    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  11. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida


    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting. PMID:27111267

  12. The Child with Delayed Language: Assessment and Management

    Tervo, Raymond C.; Kinney, Cheryl A.


    Speech and language disorders are the most common developmental problems among preschool children. Early detection and remediation of delayed language development are important in helping the child establish appropriate social behavior and acquire additional information about the world through the use of language.

  13. Deserted Island or a Child's First Language Forgetting.

    Isurin, Ludmila


    Reports on a longitudinal study that examines first language vocabulary decline in a child whose native language input effectively ceased after her immersion in a second language environment. The subject was a Russian girl adopted by an American family and brought to the United States, completely isolated from any contact with Russian. (Author/VWL)

  14. Language Development in the Pre-School Child.

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This brief overview of child language acquisition begins with a discussion of the affective and cognitive dimensions of the transition period from babbling to speech. Three theories of language acquisition--reinforcement theory, social learning theory, and "innate mechanism" theory--are reviewed. Several theories of the function of language,…


    Renee Chong


    This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.

  16. Language competence in forensic interviews for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Fontes, Lisa A; Tishelman, Amy C


    Forensic interviews with children for suspected child sexual abuse require meeting children "where they are" in terms of their developmental level, readiness to disclose, culture, and language. The field lacks research indicating how to accommodate children's diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This article focuses on language competence, defined here as the ability of an organization and its personnel (in this case, Child Advocacy Centers and forensic interviewers) to communicate effectively with clients regardless of their preferred language(s). In this qualitative study, 39 U.S. child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center directors discussed their experiences, practices, and opinions regarding interviews with children and families who are not native speakers of English. Topics include the importance of interviewing children in their preferred language, problems in interpreted interviews, bilingual interviews, and current and recommended procedures. Recommendations for practice and further research are included. PMID:27348799

  17. Evaluation of the child with delayed speech or language.

    Coplan, J


    Because of the relative frequency of speech/language delay, all infants and preschool children should undergo routine language screening as part of health care maintenance. Diagnostic evaluation of the child with speech or language delay should answer the following questions: What is the child's descriptive diagnosis (eg, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, DLD, etc.)? What is the child's etiologic diagnosis (eg, congenital viral infection, single gene disorder, birth asphyxia, etc.)? What is the appropriate intervention strategy (amplification, orally based speech therapy, total communication, "infant stimulation" program, etc.)? What is this child's long-term prognosis, to the extent that this is knowable? All children with speech or language delay should undergo formal audiologic testing, regardless of how well the child seems to hear in an office setting, and regardless of whether other disabilities are present which might independently explain the speech/language delay. Evaluation by a psychologist, a speech/language pathologist, or both should follow, with referral to an appropriate intervention program based upon the results of formal developmental testing. Additional medical evaluation (eg, CAT scan, EEG, karyotype), and genetic counseling must be determined on a case-by-case basis. Long-term follow-up should include an awareness that speech or language delay during the preschool years often signifies long-term developmental difficulties, warranting close follow-up of such children as they advance through the school age years. PMID:4000735

  18. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.


    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The cur...

  19. Language Maintenance in a Multilingual Family: Informal Heritage Language Lessons in Parent-Child Interactions

    Kheirkhah, Mina; Cekaite, Asta


    The present study explores language socialization patterns in a Persian-Kurdish family in Sweden and examines how "one-parent, one-language" family language policies are instantiated and negotiated in parent-child interactions. The data consist of video-recordings and ethnographic observations of family interactions, as well as…

  20. Relationship between Maternal Language Parameters and the Child's Language Competency and Developmental Condition.

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Maternal language directed to 21 nonhandicapped, 21 Down syndrome, and 19 language impaired preschool children was examined. The three groups (all Caucasian and middle-class) were matched in mean length of utterance (MLU) and in developmental skills as measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mother-child language interaction was…

  1. Language Competence in Movement: A Child's Perspective

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup


    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus is shifted from viewing the individual's language…

  2. Language Maintenance and the Deaf Child

    Willoughby, Louisa


    For all families with deaf children, choosing communication methods is a complex and evolving business. This process is particularly complex for migrant background families, who must not only negotiate the role that speaking or signing will play in their communication practices, but also which spoken language(s) will be used--that of the host…

  3. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary


    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  4. Caught in the Middle: Child Language Brokering as a Form of Unrecognised Language Service

    Antonini, Rachele


    This paper will present the findings of a wide-scale research aimed at studying the phenomenon of Child Language Brokering (henceforth CLB) in Italy. After providing a description of recent immigration patterns and the provision of language services in Italy, and an overview of current research in this field, this study will discuss narrative data…

  5. Towards the Reconfiguration of Language Education for the Nigerian Child

    Boniface Igbeneghu


    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the extant language policies, with particular regard to the Nigerian Child. We take a profound look at the  National Policy on Education 1977, the UNICEF Annual Report 1995, the National Policy on Education 1998, the National Policy on Education 2004, the National Policy for Integrated Early Childhood Development in Nigeria 2007, the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, the Nigeria Millennium Development Goals Report 2010, etc. We seek to appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these policies in order to determine the extent to which they are beneficial to the Nigerian child in the context of plurilingualism and globalization. This appraisal is done employing a tridimensional framework: hindsight, insight and foresight perspectives. We argue for the reconfiguration of language education aimed at functional plurilingualism for the Nigerian child. Recommendations are made in view of enhancing the prospects of functional plurilingualism for every Nigerian child, who will consequently be competent to contribute meaningfully towards the development of Nigeria in particular and mankind in general.Keywords: Nigerian child, National Policy on Education, language education, Millennium Development Goals, functional plurilingualism

  6. Helping the Child in the Conquest of the Written Language

    Joosten, A. M.


    A. M. Joosten writes from his deep and long classroom experience of the many activities to use with the movable alphabet for solidifying language skills. He is always sensitive to situations where a child may have come late to the House of Children and therefore might need incentives to engage with the materials. This valuable information is for…

  7. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपा ... rehausseurs - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Child Safety Checklist हिन्दी (Hindi) ...

  8. Prospective Relations between Maternal Autonomy Support and Child Executive Functioning: Investigating the Mediating Role of Child Language Ability

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie


    Although emerging evidence suggests that parental behavior is related to the development of child executive functioning (EF), the mechanisms through which parenting affects child EF have yet to be investigated. The goal of this study was to examine the potential mediating role of child language in the prospective relation between maternal autonomy…

  9. Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

    Schwab, Jessica F; Lew-Williams, Casey


    Young children's language experiences and language outcomes are highly variable. Research in recent decades has focused on understanding the extent to which family socioeconomic status (SES) relates to parents' language input to their children and, subsequently, children's language learning. Here, we first review research demonstrating differences in the quantity and quality of language that children hear across low-, mid-, and high-SES groups, but also-and perhaps more importantly-research showing that differences in input and learning also exist within SES groups. Second, in order to better understand the defining features of 'high-quality' input, we highlight findings from laboratory studies examining specific characteristics of the sounds, words, sentences, and social contexts of child-directed speech (CDS) that influence children's learning. Finally, after narrowing in on these particular features of CDS, we broaden our discussion by considering family and community factors that may constrain parents' ability to participate in high-quality interactions with their young children. A unification of research on SES and CDS will facilitate a more complete understanding of the specific means by which input shapes learning, as well as generate ideas for crafting policies and programs designed to promote children's language outcomes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:264-275. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27196418

  10. The Language Development of a Deaf Child with a Cochlear Implant

    Mouvet, Kimberley; Matthijs, Liesbeth; Loots, Gerrit; Taverniers, Miriam; Van Herreweghe, Mieke


    Hearing parents of deaf or partially deaf infants are confronted with the complex question of communication with their child. This question is complicated further by conflicting advice on how to address the child: in spoken language only, in spoken language supported by signs, or in signed language. This paper studies the linguistic environment…

  11. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Urška Fekonja


    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  12. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola


    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  13. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee


    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...

  14. Mother and preschool teacher as assessors of the child's language competence

    Urška Fekonja Peklaj


    Full Text Available Many researchers include child's parents as assessors of his/her language development as the results of many studies suggest their assessments to be valid and reliable measures of child's language competence. In the longitudinal study, presented in this paper, we examined whether child's mother and his/her preschool teacher can provide a valid estimation of child's language development. The sample included 80 Slovenian children from different preschool institutions, aged 3;1 years at first and 4;1 years at second assessment. Children's language competence was assessed individually, directly by the testators using Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test and indirectly by mothers and preschool teachers using the Child's Language Competence Questionnaire for Parents and Preschool Teachers. The achieved results showed that the estimates given by mothers and preschool teachers represent valid measures of child's language competence but not stable in time. The estimations given by mothers and preschool teachers explain a small share in variability of children's achievements on the Language Development Scale and Storytelling Test.

  15. Language Delays and Child Depressive Symptoms: the Role of Early Stimulation in the Home.

    Herman, Keith C; Cohen, Daniel; Owens, Sarah; Latimore, Tracey; Reinke, Wendy M; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne


    The present study investigated the role of early stimulation in the home and child language delays in the emergence of depressive symptoms. Data were from a longitudinal study of at-risk children in Hawaii (n = 587). Low learning stimulation in the home at age 3 and language delays in first grade both significantly increased risk for child depressive symptoms in third grade. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized path models from home learning environment at age 3 to depressive symptoms in third grade controlling for a host of correlated constructs (maternal depression, child temperament, and child internalizing symptoms). Total language skills in the first grade mediated the effect of home learning environment on depressive symptoms. The study and findings fit well with a nurturing environment perspective. Implications for understanding the etiology of child depression and for designing interventions and prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:27178009

  16. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne


    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  17. Child Physical Abuse: The Relevance of Language and Social Interaction Research.

    Wilson, Steven R.


    Proposes that language and social interaction (LSI) scholars can contribute to interdisciplinary efforts aimed at understanding and responding to child physical abuse. Discusses reasons why LSI scholars might shy away from such study and considers links between face-to-face family interaction and child physical abuse, demonstrating the relevance…

  18. Police officers' use of emotional language during child sexual abuse investigations

    Oxburgh, Gavin; WILLIAMSON, T; Ost, James


    This paper examined the use of emotional language by police officers that interview child victims as well as suspects during sexual offence investigations. It was hypothesised that officers who interviewed child victims prior to questioning suspects would use more emotional utterances during interviews with the suspect than those who had not interviewed the child victims. In addition, it was also hypothesised that the number of emotional utterances used would vary as a function of the gender ...

  19. Enhanced Plasticity in Spoken Language Acquisition for Child Learners: Evidence from Phonetic Training Studies in Child and Adult Learners of English

    Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria; Ylinen, Sari


    Speech sounds that contain multiple phonetic cues are often difficult for foreign-language learners, especially if certain cues are weighted differently in the foreign and native languages. Greek adult and child speakers of English were studied to determine the effect of native language on second-language (L2) cue weighting and, in particular, to…

  20. Constraints on Parameter Setting: A Grammatical Analysis of Some Acquisition Stages in German Child Language.

    Clahsen, Harald


    Argues that to improve the parameter model as a theory of language acquisition it has to be constrained in several ways. Results on the acquisition of subject-verb agreement, verb placement, empty subjects, and negation in German child language are presented. (55 references) (JL)

  1. English Language Learners and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

    Tran, Thu Hoang


    This literature review looks at the impacts of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on English language learners (ELLs), educators and schools. A brief overview of the current state of English as a second language teaching for adult learners will first be described. Then the importance of the enactment of the NCLB of 2001 is mentioned. Both…

  2. A Procedure for Directing a Sign-Language Theatre Production for a Child Audience.

    Allen, Darlene Kaye

    This paper sets forth step-by-step procedures which novice sign-language theatre directors can use as a guide for their first sign-language theatre experiences. Since the procedures were developed during the production of a play for a mixed adult and child audience, it is assumed that the general guidelines set forth are applicable to a production…

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Language Delayed Children: A Clinical Investigation

    Falkus, Gila; Tilley, Ciara; Thomas, Catherine; Hockey, Hannah; Kennedy, Anna; Arnold, Tina; Thorburn, Blair; Jones, Katie; Patel, Bhavika; Pimenta, Claire; Shah, Rena; Tweedie, Fiona; O'Brien, Felicity; Leahy, Ruth; Pring, Tim


    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is widely used by speech and language therapists to improve the interactions between children with delayed language development and their parents/carers. Despite favourable reports of the therapy from clinicians, little evidence of its effectiveness is available. We investigated the effects of PCIT as…

  4. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona


    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  5. The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah


    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to identify factors that promote their development among high-risk groups. This preliminary study explored two potential factors that may be related to language skills in 56 low SES mother-child dyads (children aged 2; 8-4; 10), namely child temperament and parenting stress. Results showed that child temperament and parenting stress were related to children's oral language skills. Child temperament characteristics that would likely aid social interaction were related to narrative ability and children rated high on emotionality had poorer receptive vocabulary skills. Parenting stress was related to children's receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible mediating role of parent-child interactions in children's oral language skill development, and future directions for family intervention are discussed. PMID:18838014

  6. Teaching to the Test: How No Child Left Behind Impacts Language Policy, Curriculum, and Instruction for English Language Learners

    Menken, Kate


    In the wake of the federal No Child Left Behind legislation, standardized tests have become increasingly high-stakes. Yet English language learners (ELLs) typically score far below native English speakers, creating pressure to "teach to the test." This article shares findings from an intensive year long study in 10 New York City high schools,…

  7. Parent-Child Reading in English as a Second Language: Effects on Language and Literacy Development of Chinese Kindergarteners

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him


    This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent-child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of…

  8. Anaphora and Relativization in Child Second Language Acquisition.

    Flanigan, Beverly Olson


    Examined the development of control over anaphoric reference and relativization by 23 elementary school students learning English as a Second Language (ESL) in a pull-out classroom employing little overt grammar instruction. Results found that second language exposure and proficiency level, rather that age or first language background, had more…

  9. Comprehensible Output: A Lesson from a Child Acquiring a First Language

    Patuan Raja


    The present article is intended to examine what a child acquiring a first language did when he encountered communication block in his interaction with others. More specifically, it examine linguistic output modification attempted by the child when he was not successful in getting his meaning across or in achieving his intended goal. The corpus data, in the form of cards containing naturally occurring utterances together with the context which were collected for one year, starting at age 1;6 a...

  10. Promoting Social Communication in a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.


    Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…

  11. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children

    Public Health Agency


    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties).

  12. Language Brokering in Latino Families: Direct Observations of Brokering Patterns, Parent-Child Interactions, and Relationship Quality

    Straits, Kee J. E.


    With the growing percentage of immigrant families in the USA, language transition is a common immigrant experience and can occur rapidly from generation to generation within a family. Child language brokering appears to occur within minority language families as one way of negotiating language and cultural differences; however, the phenomenon of children translating or mediating language interactions for parents has previously been hypothesized to contribute to negative outcomes for children,...

  13. African languages, linguistics, child speech and speech pathology – the connection

    Sandile Gxilishe


    Full Text Available This article deals with the need for the incorporation of the study of child language in the field of African Linguistics. It gives an overview of some of the studies conducted in the area of acquisition of Xhosa with a view to developing norms for the development of Xhosa amongst monolingual Xhosa-speaking children. This is useful in the diagnosis of speech and language disorders using criterion referenced measures. The developmental data may be used in the development of culturally appropriate standardised assessment measures: which are severely lacking for the indigenous languages of South Africa.

  14. Parent-Child Book Reading: Using Home Literacy Units to Foster Language Development in Children who are DHH

    Fryer, Sydney


    Children who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) often experience delays in language and literacy, making rich language opportunities with parents in the home very important (Lederberg, Schick, & Spencer, 2013). Parent-child book reading promotes language and vocabulary development in children through word-object associations and expanding vocabulary (Farrant & Zubrick, 2012). Additionally, parent-child book reading is enhanced when parents are taught how to use engaging book reading technique...

  15. High-Stakes Math Tests: How "No Child Left Behind" Leaves Newcomer English Language Learners behind

    Wright, Wayne E.; Li, Xiaoshi


    The "No Child Left Behind Act" establishes federal education policy for the United States, with a heavy focus on accountability through high-stakes testing. Provisions specific to English language learners (ELLs) include the mandate for their inclusion in state math tests, even for newcomer students enrolled for less than one year. Most ELLs take…

  16. Language, Education and the Rights of the Child

    D'souza, Jean


    In this paper, the author aims to explore the connections between the right to basic education through the medium of the mother tongue and the right to education. She concentrates on child labor in India in general, and in Maharashtra, a state in Western India, in particular. She draws her data mainly from Pune (population 3,000,000), one of the…

  17. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    Cho, Hyonsuk


    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  18. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian


    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  19. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    McMenamin, Jerry


    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  20. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne


    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  1. Home environment as a predictor of child's language: A mediating role of family literacy activities and symbolic play

    Urška Fekonja-Peklaj


    Full Text Available In our study, we explored the ways in which SES-related factors of family environment affect child's language across toddlerhood and early childhood. We proposed a mediational path model in which we presumed that family literacy activities and parental encouragement of symbolic play acted as mediating variables, mediating the effect of parental education, family possessions and parent-to-child speech on child's language. The sample included 99 families with children, aged from 1 to 6 years. The data were collected in the family home, mostly via direct observation and by using a semi-structured interview with parents. The findings suggest that high-SES parents and parents who used a more complex and supportive speech, more frequently involved their children in different literacy activities. The effect of the parent-to-child speech on child's language proved to be mediated by parental use of mental transformations during symbolic play with a child.

  2. Grammatical Processing of Spoken Language in Child and Adult Language Learners

    Felser, Claudia; Clahsen, Harald


    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated auditory language processing in children and late second-language (L2) learners using online methods such as event-related potentials (ERPs), eye-movement monitoring, or the cross-modal priming paradigm. Two grammatical phenomena are examined in detail, children's and…

  3. Genome-wide association analyses of child genotype effects and parent-of-origin effects in specific language impairment

    Nudel, R; Simpson, N.; Baird, G; O’Hare, A; Conti-Ramsden, G; Bolton, P.; Hennessy, E.; The SLli consortium,; Ring, S; G. Smith; Francks, C.; Paracchini, S.; Monaco, A.; Fisher, S.; Newbury, D.


    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects linguistic abilities when development is otherwise normal. We report the results of a genome-wide association study of SLI which included parent-of-origin effects and child genotype effects and used 278 families of language-impaired children. The child genotype effects analysis did not identify significant associations. We found genome-wide significant paternal parent-of-origin effects on chromosome 14q12 (P = 3....

  4. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  5. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian


    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  6. Review of studies on child language abroad%国外儿童语言研究综述



    国外儿童语言研究源于儿童心理研究,历经了心理学、语言学双重取向的研究和儿童语言研究的独立学科等过程。期间的研究成果丰富,揭示了儿童语言词汇、语法、语义、语用习得和发展的特点。%Studies on child language abroad originated from child psychological study, going through double - oriented objects of psychological and linguistic study, abundant research achievements involve in the fields and an independent discipline of child language study. The of lexis, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, revealing the specialties and features of child language acquisition and development.

  7. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Dias Tânia


    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  8. Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.

    Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T


    Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status. PMID:23260730

  9. Building Languages

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  10. Preschool Language Disorder

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  11. Questions You May Want to Ask Your Child's Speech-Language Pathologist = Preguntas que usted le podria hacer al patologo del habla y el lenguaje de su hijo

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007


    This accordion style pamphlet, dual sided with English and Spanish text, suggests questions for parents to ask their Speech-Language Pathologist and speech and language therapy services for their children. Sample questions include: How will I participate in my child's therapy sessions? How do you decide how much time my child will spend on speech…

  12. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke


    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills. PMID:25300194

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program in Relation to Children's Language and Parenting Stress

    Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele


    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…

  14. The home literacy environment: exploring how media and parent-child interactions are associated with children’s language production

    K.G. Liebeskind; J. Piotrowski; M.A. Lapierre; D.L. Linebarger


    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's l

  15. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia


    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  16. No Child Left Behind in Art Education Policy: A Review of Key Recommendations for Arts Language Revisions

    Grey, Anne C.


    From bipartisan origins and a laudable intent, the No Child Left Behind (Act) of 2001 has profoundly altered the condition of art education. A historical vantage point and review of literature reveals the current status of pending arts language revisions to the NCLB Act, as well as a pressing need to examine the key recommendations and to consider…

  17. An investigation into the effectiveness of using child created video in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish primary school

    Cahill, Cormac


    non-peer-reviewed This thesis looks at the use of child created video as an aid in the learning and retention of the Irish language in an Irish Primary School. It also investigated the effect of using these child created videos on the motivation of children to learn the Irish language. The methodology used in this research utilised a Task Based Language Learning and Teaching model. The study found that the use of child created video was beneficial to children enabling them to deve...

  18. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.


    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  19. Affordances for Language Awareness in a Middle School Transitional Classroom: Multi-Competent L1/L2 Users Under No Child Left Behind

    Gage-Serio, Ondine Angelique


    This dissertation examines affordances for Language Awareness within a classroom serving English learners in a coastal California middle school under the policy context of No Child Left Behind. As an ecologically inspired account, this study contributes to understanding how students use and learn language in classroom settings. Affordances for Language Awareness represent possibilities available to students for accessing relevant information to make meaning of language within a classroom. Af...

  20. Brief Report: Parental Child-Directed Speech as a Predictor of Receptive Language in Children with Autism Symptomatology

    Perryman, Twyla Y.; Carter, Alice S.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Ivanescu, Andrada E.; YODER, PAUL J.


    Facilitative linguistic input directly connected to children’s interest and focus of attention has become a recommended component of interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This longitudinal correlational study used two assessment time points and examined the association between parental undemanding topic-continuing talk related to the child’s attentional focus (i.e., follow-in comments) and later receptive language for 37 parent–child dyads with their young (mea...

  1. Input and uptake at 7 months predicts toddler vocabulary: the role of child-directed speech and infant processing skills in language development.

    Newman, Rochelle S; Rowe, Meredith L; Bernstein Ratner, Nan


    Both the input directed to the child, and the child's ability to process that input, are likely to impact the child's language acquisition. We explore how these factors inter-relate by tracking the relationships among: (a) lexical properties of maternal child-directed speech to prelinguistic (7-month-old) infants (N = 121); (b) these infants' abilities to segment lexical targets from conversational child-directed utterances in an experimental paradigm; and (c) the children's vocabulary outcomes at age 2;0. Both repetitiveness in maternal input and the child's speech segmentation skills at age 0;7 predicted language outcomes at 2;0; moreover, while these factors were somewhat inter-related, they each had independent effects on toddler vocabulary skill, and there was no interaction between the two. PMID:26300377

  2. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M


    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential. PMID:26484621

  3. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa


    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  4. The Home Literacy Environment: Exploring How Media and Parent-Child Interactions Are Associated with Children's Language Production

    Liebeskind, Kara G.; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Lapierre, Matthew A.; Linebarger, Deborah L.


    Children who start school with strong language skills initiate a trajectory of academic success, while children with weaker skills are likely to struggle. Research has demonstrated that media and parent-child interactions, both characteristics of the home literacy environment, influence children's language skills. Using a national sample of…

  5. The Hanen Program for Early Childhood Educators: Inservice Training for Child Care Providers on How to Facilitate Children's Social, Language, and Literacy Development.

    Weitzman, Elaine


    The Hanen Program for Early Childhood Educators provides caregivers in child care centers with on-site training in facilitating children's social, language, and literacy development. The program is conducted by a speech-language pathologist and consists of seven group training sessions and six individual videotaping sessions with feedback. A case…

  6. From Form to Dysfunction? Disconnect within Language Planning Policy of No Child Left Behind

    Yabroff, Sarah


    The following textual study aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of current second language policy and legislation within the United States education system, and argue for the benefits of pro bilingual education legislation in regards to the science of second language acquisition. Highlighting the disconnect between language planning and policy and the reality of how language instruction and acquisition actually functions, the following study analyses the current language in education ...

  7. Home Literacy & Child Language Development. The Importance of Children's Literature and Poetry

    Arna Sigríður Ásgeirsdóttir 1987


    The prerequisites of language acquisition and language development remain disputed in the field of language studies. Most children go from uttering their first words in their first years, to fluent readers and writers of their native language, which usually occurs at school entry. However, it is viewed that language skills begin to develop in children's first years, when the home is the main environment in which they thrive. Therefore, the effects of home literacy activities, such as storyboo...

  8. Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen and the Child Development Inventory Social Subscale as a possible autism screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Carr, Jason; Xu, Dongxin; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine


    The Language ENvironment Analysis Language and Autism Screen (LLAS) is an automated vocal production analysis that has been shown to be a valid screener for autism in hearing children between the ages of 24 to 48 months of age. Although there is reportedly a higher incidence of autism among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, the diagnosis of autism is usually later than that in children with hearing. None of the traditional screening instruments have been used with children with hearing loss. Data about the utility of LLAS with children who are deaf or hard of hearing will be presented and discussed. Though more data will be needed, an LLAS at-risk flag in conjunction with the Social Quotient from the Child Development Inventory holds significant promise for a screen for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:25321851

  9. The behavior of secondary consonant clusters in Swiss French child language

    Helene N. Andreassen


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper aims to determine the behavior of secondary clusters in Swiss French child language and, in doing so, provide a first step towards the identification of the order of acquisition of primary and secondary clusters. The data first of all reveal that the variant with schwa is in a global fashion preferred to the variant without schwa, and this regardless of the child’s mastery of primary clusters. The data further reveal that the occasional production of the non-preferred variant without schwa entails modifications of the secondary cluster in conformity with the child’s relative mastery of consonant sequencing. While secondary clusters pattern with primary clusters when it comes to repair strategies such as gliding and realization of an interconsonantal reduced vowel, they diverge from the latter when it comes to cluster reduction: there is a general preference for the preservation of C2, irrespective of the sonority profile of the cluster.

  10. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.


    expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed in......In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... accordance with 8 main categories of ICD-10. Language disorders were most often found to be comorbid with conduct disorders, and the comorbidity was most frequent in the adolescent group. Boys had significantly more conduct disorders than girls, and girls had significantly more emotional disorders than boys...

  11. The Relationship of Parenting Stress and Child Temperament to Language Development among Economically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    Noel, Melanie; Peterson, Carole; Jesso, Beulah


    Oral language skills in the preschool years are predictive of children's later reading success and literacy acquisition, and among these language skills, vocabulary and narrative ability play important roles. Children from low socioeconomic families face risks to their language development and because of threats to these skills it is important to…

  12. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.


    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  13. Immune and genetic mechanism of hepatitis C virus persistence after mother-to-child transmission (Review of English language publications

    Yu. V. Lobzin


    Full Text Available Chronic viral hepatitis C is one of the major health challenges in the present decade. Every year about 3–4 million of newly infected patients added to reservoir of infection that according to the experts estimates contain more than 170 million of individuals. After introduction of the routine blood products screening for hepatitis C virus, mother-to-child transmission became the major source of hepatitis C infection in childhood. This review represent the modern understanding of the genetic and immune mechanism of hepatitis C virus persistence after mother-to-child transmission, development of innate chronic hepatitis C, current practices and perspectives for its prevention presented in English language sources of scientific information.

  14. Learning and Language: Educarer-Child Interactions in Singapore Infant-Care Settings

    Lim, Cynthia; Lim, Sirene May-Yin


    While there has been extensive research exploring the quality of caregiver-child interactions in programmes for preschool children, comparatively less international research has explored the nature of caregiver-child interactions in centre-based infant-care programmes. Nine caregivers in six Singapore infant-care settings were observed and…

  15. A New Language for Child Psychotherapy: A Response to Jerald Kay

    Clark, James J.; Borden, William


    Jerald Kay's article in this issue reviews important research in the areas of adult psychotherapy and neuroscience, and their implications for child psychotherapy. We respond by exploring some of the strengths and limitations of these lines of research and their implications for child psychotherapy development and research. The paper closes with…

  16. Structural and Lexical Case in Child German: Evidence from Language-Impaired and Typically Developing Children

    Eisenbeiss, Sonja; Bartke, Susanne; Clahsen, Harald


    In this study, we examined the system of case marking in two groups of German speaking children, 5 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 5 typically developing (TD) children matched to the children with SLI on a general measure of language development. The data from both groups demonstrate high accuracy scores for structural case…

  17. A Nonverbal Intervention for the Severely Language Disordered Young Child: An Intensive Approach.

    Fraser, Diane Lynch

    Designing therapeutic approaches for language-disordered young children calls for the coordination of communication skills across the three developmental pathways: motor, social-emotional, and language-cognitive. The case study presented in this document examines the effectiveness of a dance-movement therapy intervention conducted over a 2-year…

  18. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth


    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  19. Language

    Sanden, Guro Refsum


    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation of a...... company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  20. Language disorder - children

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: preschool language disorders. Available at Accessed June 24, 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development ...

  1. Bridging the Gap Between Speech and Language: Using Multimodal Treatment in a Child With Apraxia.

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Pitterle, Kathleen; Kurtz, Marie; Nakhla, Mark; Todorow, Carlyn


    Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurologic speech sound disorder in which children have difficulty constructing words and sounds due to poor motor planning and coordination of the articulators required for speech sound production. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy strongly suspected to have childhood apraxia of speech at 18 months of age who used multimodal communication to facilitate language development throughout his work with a speech language pathologist. In 18 months of an intensive structured program, he exhibited atypical rapid improvement, progressing from having no intelligible speech to achieving age-appropriate articulation. We suspect that early introduction of sign language by family proved to be a highly effective form of language development, that when coupled with intensive oro-motor and speech sound therapy, resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms. PMID:27492818

  2. When a Bilingual Child Describes Living Things: An Analysis of Conceptual Understandings from a Language Perspective

    Salleh, Romaizah; Venville, Grady J.; Treagust, David F.


    With increasing numbers of students learning science through a second language in many school contexts, there is a need for research to focus on the impact language has on students’ understanding of science concepts. Like other countries, Brunei has adopted a bilingual system of education that incorporates two languages in imparting its curriculum. For the first three years of school, Brunei children are taught in Malay and then for the remainder of their education, instruction is in English. This research is concerned with the influence that this bilingual education system has on children’s learning of science. The purpose was to document the patterns of Brunei students’ developing understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things and examine the impact in the change in language as the medium of instruction. A cross-sectional case study design was used in one primary school. Data collection included an interview ( n = 75), which consisted of forced-response and semi-structured interview questions, a categorisation task and classroom observation. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that the transition from Malay to English as the language of instruction from Primary 4 onwards restricted the students’ ability to express their understandings about living things, to discuss related scientific concepts and to interpret and analyse scientific questions. From a social constructivist perspective these language factors will potentially impact on the students’ cognitive development by limiting the expected growth of the students’ understandings of the concepts of living and non-living things.

  3. The effectiveness of semantic aspect of language on reading comprehension in a 4-year-old child with autistic spectrum disorder and hyperlexia

    Atusa Rabiee


    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary increase reading comprehension of written words.

  4. No Child Left with Crayons: The Imperative of Arts-Based Education and Research with Language "Minority" and Other Minoritized Communities

    Chappell, Sharon Verner; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa


    Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, public discourse on "failing schools" as measured by high-stakes standardized tests has disproportionately affected students from minoritized communities (such as language, race, class, dis/ability), emphasizing climates of assessment at the expense of broader, more democratic, and…

  5. Repetition and Turn-Allocation in the Non-Native Acquisition of Discourse. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12.

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah; Gracey, Cheryl

    A study of non-native children's acquisition of communicative competence examined the child's construction of rules of conversation in the second language. The linguistic devices that children use to link up their utterances with those of another speaker, i.e., cohesion-creating devices that create textual unity, were focused upon. Repetition, one…

  6. Exploring Early Years Educators' Ownership of Language and Communication Knowledge and Skills: A Review of Key Policy and Initial Reflections on "Every Child a Talker" and Its Implementation

    McLeod, Naomi


    This article examines four significant policy documents that have informed the Department for Children School and Families (DCSF)' s "Every Child a Talker" (ECaT). The analysis focuses on where the ownership of knowledge in relation to communication and language lies as part of policy implementation and training processes. The article then…

  7. Predictors of Maternal Language to Infants during a Picture Book Task in the Home: Family SES, Child Characteristics and the Parenting Environment

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha


    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants. 1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority…

  8. Teaching Reading and Writing in Local Language Using the Child-Centred Pedagogy in Uganda

    Akello, Dora Lucy; Timmerman, Greetje; Namusisi, Speranza


    Uganda introduced the use of mother tongue as medium of instruction in primary schools in 2007. This was meant to promote interaction and participation in the learning process and improve children's proficiency in reading and writing. Drawing elements of interaction and participation from the socio-cultural theory, the child-centred pedagogy was…

  9. Comparing MOSAIC and the variational learning model of the optional infinitive stage in early child language

    Freudenthal, D; Pine, J M; Gobet, F.


    This paper compares MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model (VLM) in terms of their ability to explain the level of finiteness marking in early child Dutch, English, Spanish, German and French. It is shown that both models are successful in explaining cross-linguistic variation in rates of Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, although both models underestimate the error rate in English. A second set of analyses shows strong lexical effects in the pattern of errors ac...

  10. Predicting Language Outcomes for Children Learning Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Child and Environmental Factors

    Brady, Nancy C.; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Fleming, Kandace; Matthews, Kris


    Purpose: To investigate a model of language development for nonverbal preschool-age children learning to communicate with augmentative or alternative communication. Method: Ninety-three preschool children with intellectual disabilities were assessed at Time 1, and 82 of these children were assessed 1 year later, at Time 2. The outcome variable was…

  11. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.


    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  12. Sources of Difficulty in the Young Child's Understanding of Metaphorical Language.

    Vosniadou, Stella; And Others


    Reports three experiments which examined preschool, first-grade, and third-grade children's understanding of metaphorical language. Subjects acted out short stories which ended in metaphorical sentences by using toys. Predictability of the story endings and the complexity of the metaphorical sentences are found to affect metaphor comprehension.…

  13. Promoting Language and Literacy Development through Parent-Child Reading in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine


    Evaluated Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children's literacy development through dialogic reading, typical reading, and control groups. Found that early literacy-related activities in the home have strong effects on literacy growth and language development in Chinese. Concluded that success of the dialogic reading technique contributes to the goal…

  14. Relations among Home Literacy Environment, Child Characteristics and Print Knowledge for Preschool Children with Language Impairment

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.


    To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…

  15. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development.

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  16. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha


    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population. PMID:27058928

  17. Using conversation analysis to study prosodic problems in a child with language impairment

    Samuelsson, Christina


    Prosody carries a lot of information relevant for our understanding of spoken messages. In addition, prosody plays an important role in signalling attitudes and emotions. Prosodic features also constitute an important resource that participants use to achieve mutual understanding in interaction. The aim of this study was to point to possible recurring patterns in the prosodic structure of language testing activities. A further aim was to discuss similarities between English and Swedish in the...




    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  19. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  20. Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K.


    Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American (n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American (n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers’ externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems. PMID:25419443

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the child perceptions questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14) for the peruvian spanish language

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Saul Martins PAIVA; Castillo, Jorge-Luis; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse


    Objectives: Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) instruments, such as the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14), are broadly used in oral health surveys around the world. However, there is a lack of these instruments in Spanish language limiting the comparison of OHRQoL outcomes among countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of the present study was to cross-culturally adapt the CPQ11-14 to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. Materia...

  2. [Deficit of language comprehension in a child with semantic-pragmatic disorder--dissociation between the phonemic and semantic processing abilities].

    Haruhara, N; Uno, A; Kaga, M; Matsuda, H; Kaneko, M


    We studied the language comprehension deficit of a 11-year-old child with a semantic-pragmatic disorder. We used an original test battery using abstract nouns common to the tasks of repetition, reading aloud, auditory comprehension and comprehension of written words. Although he could repeat and read aloud words as good as normal controls, he could not choose correct pictures from semantically or phonemically resembling pictures by listening to or reading target words. This test demonstrated the dissociation between his phonemic and semantic processing abilities. An examination of the cerebral blood flow with SPECT suggested that the dysfunction of the left temporal lobe caused the deficit in language comprehension. PMID:10429489

  3. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Katherine Anne; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S


    the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire is intended to measure burden of headache in large populations and there......Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into...... Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children...

  4. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni


    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  5. The Role of Oral Language Revisited: A Comment on the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2005)

    Bracken, Stacey Storch


    This article comments on the discussion of S. A. Storch and G. J. Whitehurst's literacy development model in the article by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Early Child Care Research Network (ECCRN). Specifically, this comment focuses on concerns raised by the NICHD ECCRN that Storch and Whitehurst's model does…

  6. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    Hugo Peyre


    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory, and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory. Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years.

  7. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Forhan, Anne; Charles, Marie-Aline; De Agostini, Maria; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck


    Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory), and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory). Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years. PMID:24749012

  8. Simplified and Expanded Input in a Focused Stimulation Program for a Child with Expressive Language Delay (ELD)

    Wolfe, Donna L.; Heilmann, John


    There is considerable debate regarding the simplification of adults' language when talking to young children with expressive language delays (ELD). While simplified input, also called telegraphic speech, is used by many parents and clinicians working with young children, its use has been discouraged in much of the clinical literature. In addition…

  9. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  10. if language learning easy



    " Learning a language is as easy as ABC. Even a child can do it. " Most stu-dents who are learning a foreign language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a foreign language, eg. English,is a very difficult task. They need thousands of hours to study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every language learner.

  11. Predicting behavior problems in deaf and hearing children: The influences of language, attention, and parent–child communication

    Barker, David H; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Fink, Nancy E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Tobey, Emily A.; Niparko, John K.


    The development of language and communication may play an important role in the emergence of behavioral problems in young children, but they are rarely included in predictive models of behavioral development. In this study, cross-sectional relationships between language, attention, and behavior problems were examined using parent report, videotaped observations, and performance measures in a sample of 116 severely and profoundly deaf and 69 normally hearing children ages 1.5 to 5 years. Secon...

  12. Noun and Verb Production in Maternal and Child Language: Continuity, Stability, and Prediction across the Second Year of Life

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.


    The present study examined continuity/discontinuity and stability/instability of noun and verb production measures in 30 child-mother dyads observed at 16 and 20 months, and predictive relations with the acquisition of nouns and verbs at 24 months. Children exhibited significant discontinuity and robust stability in the frequency of nouns and…

  13. Parent education project. III: Increasing affection and responsivity in developmentally handicapped mothers: component analysis, generalization, and effects on child language.

    Feldman, M. A.; Case, L; Rincover, A; Towns, F; Betel, J


    We evaluated the effects of a parent training program consisting of verbal instruction, modeling, and feedback on the affection and responsivity of 3 developmentally handicapped mothers towards their children. The results indicated the following: First, the training package increased maternal physical affection, praise, and imitation of child vocalizations. These parenting skills increased to levels found in comparison groups of nonhandicapped mothers. Second, the training package was more ef...

  14. Impaired Language Abilities and Pre-Linguistic Communication Skills in a Child with a Diagnosis of Galactosaemia

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne; Kilcoyne, Sarah; Murdoch, Bruce E.


    Variable language outcomes have been reported in children with the metabolic disorder galactosaemia (GAL), but these outcomes do not appear to be related to the severity of symptoms in the neonatal period, compliance with the non-dairy diet, or IQ. Currently, there is no means by which at-risk children with GAL can be identified early to initiate…

  15. How Is No Child Left Behind Affecting Proficient and Advanced Students on the California STAR Test in English Language Arts

    Levine, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether students who enter high school in ninth grade and score proficient or advanced on their CST in English Language Arts remain proficient or advanced 2 years later in 11th grade. The effects of NCLB will be considered as a contributing factor to the difference in student scores. This study was…

  16. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena


    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  17. A Micro-Ethnographic Study of the Communication/Language Development in a Japanese Child with Profound Hearing Loss Before and After Cochlear Implantation

    Richard R. Kretschmer


    Full Text Available This study described the communication and spoken language development of a Japanese girl with profound hearing loss who used a cochlear implant from 19 months of age. The girl, Akiko, was born in Belgium where her family was living at that time. After she was identified as deaf at birth, she and her parents were provided with support services. The family relocated to Japan when Akiko was 1 year 5 months of age. When she was 1 year 6 months of age Akiko underwent cochlear implantation. The cochlear implant device was activated when Akiko was 1 year 7 months of age. The parents routinely made video recordings of Akiko interacting with family members and teachers at home and at school. The video recordings taken by the parents used as the data for this study contained scenes of Akiko from the time she was 3 months of age until she was 4 years 11 months of age. Micro-ethnographic methods were used to analyze the dynamics and development of selected communicative interactions over this age span of fifty-six months. The original pool of video recordings contained 213 scenes.As a result of video viewing and editing, Akiko’s communication development was found to follow expected patterns of development as described by other child language researchers of children with normal hearing. There were seven demarcations that represent Akiko’s communication and spoken language development: 1 perlocutionary, 2 transition of perlocutionary to illocutionary, 3 illocutionary, 4 transition of illocutionary to locutionary, 5 locutionary, 6 dialogue, and 7 narrative.

  18. Language competence in movement

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup


    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...... multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence as a...

  19. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale


    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  20. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health professionals have milestones for what's normal. ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Language disorders can mean that the child ...

  1. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S


    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  2. The Influence of Dialects on Child Language Acquisition and Enlightenment to Mandarin Education%方言对儿童语言习得的影响及普通话教育策略

    彭小红; 张娟


    Observation method,mathematical statistics,document material method are applied in this paper to study the influences of dialects on child language acquisition.It discusses the relationship between dialects and child language acquisition,analyses the influences of dialects on child language acquisition from the perspective of environment of dialects,characteristics of dialects,superficial phonetic ability,deep internal and external code-switching ability and psychological factors.Further research on the relationship between dialects and Mandarin education,together with the countermeasures to overcome the influences of dialects on Mandarin is also conducted in this paper.%文章采用观察法、数理统计法和文献资料法对方言对儿童语言习得的影响做研究,主要论述方言与儿童语言习得的关系。从方言运用环境、方言的特点、语言表层语音能力、深层内外部语言转换能力、心理因素等多个角度分析方言对儿童语言习得的影响,并进一步探讨方言与普通话教育之间的关系,探究克服方言对普通话影响的对策。

  3. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  4. First and Second Language Acquisition



    Though there are similarities between child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition,this paper explores the differences between these two processes from several aspects and gives the suggestions that how we language teachers teach L2 students well in language teaching.

  5. Speech and Language Impairments

    ... easily be mistaken for other disabilities such as autism or learning disabilities, so it’s very important to ensure that the child receives a thorough evaluation by a certified speech-language pathologist. Back to top What Causes Speech ...

  6. Speech and Language Delay

    ... child depends on the cause of the speech delay. Your doctor will tell you the cause of your child's problem and explain any treatments that might fix the problem or make it better. A speech and language pathologist might be helpful in making treatment plans. This ...

  7. Use of communication matrix in preschool child with cerebral palsy

    Makovec, Manuela


    Speech or language impairment in child development affects already the pre-schoolers. No matter what the cause for speech or language impairment is, it will definitely also effect on the other areas of the child development. In order to help a child improve in communication, we need precise and authentic evaluation of his/her communication skills. When we integrate a child with speech or language impairment into nursery school, the teacher becomes the person who will encourage and evaluate ch...

  8. Explaining Language Choice in Early Infant Bilingualism.

    Quay, Suzanne

    This study investigated whether language context affects language choice in a Spanish-English bilingual infant from age 1;3 to 1;10. Most studies of child bilingualism assume that communicative competence occurs at a stage in language development after the onset of syntactic constructions, but this paper hypothesizes that once the child begins to…

  9. The Influence of Maternal Language Responsiveness on the Expressive Speech Production of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Microanalysis of Mother-Child Play Interactions

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.


    Adult responsiveness is related to language development both in young typically developing children and in children with autism spectrum disorders, such that parents who use more responsive language with their children have children who develop better language skills over time. This study used a micro-analytic technique to examine how two facets…

  10. The influence of family environment on children's language development and the role of language in shaping human view of reality

    Andrejc, Mojca


    The thesis highlights external influences on language development. It emphasizes the way family environment influences on children's language development. The higher position in socioeconomic structure reflects in better child's language competence. Educational orientation has a big influence on children's language development and authoritarian education in family environment does not encourage the language competence. The example of speaking in the child's family influences on child's langua...

  11. Early Dual Language Learning

    Genesee, Fred


    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  12. Experimental Evaluation of a Preschool Language Curriculum: Influence on Children's Expressive Language Skills

    Justice, Laura M.; Mashburn, Andrew; Pence, Khara L.; Wiggins, Alice


    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate child impacts following implementation of a comprehensive language curriculum, the Language-Focused Curriculum (LFC; Bunce, 1995), within their preschool classrooms. As part of this larger purpose, this study identified child-level predictors of expressive language outcomes for children…

  13. Ethological Approach to Delayed Language Acquisition

    Mahoney, Gerald J.


    The ethological approach to language acquisition (which focuses on the nature of the child's interaction with the environment) is described, and implications for the language development of mentally retarded and autistic children are discussed. (CL)

  14. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English

    Kang, Sang-Gu


    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  15. The End of Crocodile Tears, or Child Literature as Emotional Self-Regulation

    Kellogg, David


    This article begins by revisiting an old dispute between the children's writer Chukovsky and the child psychologist Vygotsky on whether and how child literature should mediate development. It then considers child language language lessons in South Korea for clues about how such mediation might happen, and finds the development of rote language,…

  16. Child Abuse

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  17. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Bradshaw, Jonathan


    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  18. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    ... Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: ...

  19. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Jacquemin, Melanie


    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  20. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing



    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  1. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    O'Shannessy, Carmel


    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  2. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack ...

  3. Expanding the Boundaries of Shared Book Reading: E-Books and Printed Books in Parent-Child Reading as Support for Children's Language

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Heibal, Shani


    Early shared book reading activities are considered to be a promising context for supporting young children's language development. Ninety low socioeconomic status preschoolers and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) e-book reading; (2) printed book reading; (3) regular kindergarten literacy program (control). Mothers…

  4. A Multilevel Model of Child- and Classroom-Level Psychosocial Factors that Support Language and Literacy Resilience of Children in Head Start

    Maier, Michelle F.; Vitiello, Virginia E.; Greenfield, Daryl B.


    Early exposure to the multiple risk factors associated with poverty is related to an elevated risk for academic difficulty. Therefore, it is important to promote academic resilience as early as possible and to identify factors that support resilience. Given the positive relation between early language skills and later academic outcomes, examining…

  5. Meeting the Objectives of the Curriculum at the First Stage of Basic School by the Child Having Left the Language Immersion Kindergarten

    Kukk, Airi; Õun, Tiia


    Year after year, the interest in early learning of the state language by non-Estonian children has increased. In Estonia, the course has been directed that non-Estonian learners have to reach functional bilingualism by the time they leave basic school and thus to become competitive in labour and education markets in Estonia. The objective of the…

  6. Language and Recursion

    Lowenthal, Francis


    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  7. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.


    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  8. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  9. Produção de conhecimento sobre narrativas orais: contribuições para as investigações em linguagem infantil Production of knowledge on oral narratives: contributions to research on child language

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo indicar um panorama geral sobre a produção de conhecimento no que tange os padrões para o desenvolvimento da narrativa oral, nos últimos quatro anos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica sistematizada, voltada para a temática de intervenção em linguagem infantil, com o uso de narrativas orais. A revisão foi realizada em uma única etapa, com critérios específicos, utilizando os seguintes descritores: narrativas, narrativa, narrativas de crianças, linguagem e desenvolvimento, linguagem oral, habilidades linguísticas, linguagem falada, linguagem infantil, narração/narração de histórias e linguagem. O período considerado foi de 2007 a 2011. Foram obtidos 900 registros, dentre os quais, nove (1% atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos para análise. A maioria dos estudos relacionou-se com análises psicolinguísticas. Apenas um estudo utilizou método experimental. No período considerado foram produzidos poucos estudos abordando narrativas orais infantis; a sua grande maioria levou em consideração, fundamentalmente, aspectos cognitivos e linguísticos no processo de desenvolvimento da habilidade narrativa; a grande maioria das pesquisas foi realizada com crianças que possuem algum tipo de alteração em seu desenvolvimento linguístico. Considera-se que a produção de conhecimento, em relação ao desenvolvimento de narrativas orais infantis, exige, atualmente, um olhar voltado para as intervenções que utilizem metodologia experimental. Por fim, considera-se que é necessária uma atenção maior em relação ao desenvolvimento típico da habilidade narrativa.The purpose of this study is to indicate an overview about knowledge production regarding the standards for the development of oral narrative in the past four years through a systematic literature review, focused on intervention thematic in child language, with the use of oral narratives. The review was held in a single step, with specific

  10. Parent-child interactions: contributions to the development of social competence in preschoolers.

    Phillips-Hing, Christine Dawn


    Sixty families with their eldest child, aged 3 or 4 years, participated in this study of parent-child interactions and the development of social competency. Mother-child and father-child dyads were observed for 10 minutes each, completing either a gross motor or fine motor semi-structured laboratory construction task. Parental directiveness and scaffolding were coded and measures of child temperament, child receptive language, and child social competency in preschool were obtained. As expecte...

  11. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Anelise Henrich Crestani


    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  12. [Managing an autistic child].

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique


    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  13. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  14. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  15. 18-24 Months: Your Child's Development

    ... Resources & Services Parenting Resource 18–24 Months: Your Child’s Development Download Files Feb 10, 2016 This is a ... home language in the same sentence. Downloads Your Child's Development: 18–24 Months PDF 464 KB Read more ...

  16. 15-18 Months: Your Child's Development

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... understand my feelings and others’ feelings too. Read books that talk about feelings. Stay calm during tantrums. ...

  17. Language Acquisition by Children with Down Syndrome: A Naturalistic Approach to Assisting Language Acquisition

    Vilaseca, R.M.; Del Rio, M-J.


    Many child language studies emphasize the value of verbal and social support, of 'scaffolding' processes and mutual adjustments that naturally occur in adult-child interactions in everyday contexts. Based on such theories, this study attempted to improve the language and communication skills in children with special educational needs through…

  18. Outcome Measurement Using Naturalistic Language Samples: A Feasibility Pilot Study Using Language Transcription Software and Speech and Language Therapy Assistants

    Overton, Sarah; Wren, Yvonne


    The ultimate aim of intervention for children with language impairment is an improvement in their functional language skills. Baseline and outcome measurement of this is often problematic however and practitioners commonly resort to using formal assessments that may not adequately reflect the child's competence. Language sampling,…

  19. Bilingual Siblings: Language Use in Families

    Barron-Hauwaert, Suzanne


    Taking a different perspective to traditional case studies on one bilingual child, this book discusses the whole family and the realities of life with two or more children and languages. What do we know about the language patterns of children in a growing and evolving bilingual family? Which languages do the siblings prefer to speak to each other?…

  20. Language and Literacy Acquisition through Parental Mediation in American Sign Language

    Bailes, Cynthia Neese; Erting, Lynne C.; Thumann-Prezioso, Carlene; Erting, Carol J.


    This longitudinal case study examined the language and literacy acquisition of a Deaf child as mediated by her signing Deaf parents during her first three years of life. Results indicate that the parents' interactions with their child were guided by linguistic and cultural knowledge that produced an intuitive use of child-directed signing (CDSi)…

  1. Child Support

    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)


    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  2. Entre quatro paredes: atendimento fonoaudiológico a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência Speech-language therapy for abused and neglected child

    Milica Satake Noguchi


    Full Text Available Buscou-se levantar o conhecimento e a experiência de fonoaudiólogos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro sobre o problema da violência familiar contra a criança e o adolescente. Foi efetuado um survey via correio, com duplo envio de questionários, a uma amostra de profissionais registrados no Conselho Regional de Fonoaudiologia. Foram enviados 500 questionários sendo obtidas 224 respostas. Os resultados indicam que, dos 71% dos entrevistados que trabalham em consultório ou clínica particular, 25,8% já tiveram clientes infanto-juvenis que sofreram violência familiar. Apesar de somente 12,9% dos fonoaudiólogos trabalharem em centro/posto de saúde, quase a metade desses profissionais já atendeu vítimas de violência familiar (48,3%. Dos fonoaudiólogos que atenderam pelo menos um caso de violência, 88,9% indicaram o Conselho Tutelar para encaminhamento dos casos, mas somente quatro fonoaudiólogos afirmaram ter efetuado a notificação. Os resultados sugerem que, além da falta de informação sobre o tema, a configuração do trabalho deste profissional, em que predomina a atuação em consultórios particulares, dificulta a realização da notificação, já que não contam com um apoio institucional no enfrentamento deste grave problema.The objective of this work was to appraise the knowledge and experience of Rio de Janeiro's speech-language pathologist and audiologist about child abuse and neglect. We sent a survey form by mail to a sample of professionals registered at the Speech-Language Pathologist and Audiologist Local Council. The forms were sent twice to each professional. Five hundred forms were sent and 224 professionals responded, of which 71% worked in private clinics. Among these professionals, 25.8% had had child clients who suffered some type of abuse. Only 12.9% of interviewees worked in public health services and almost half of them (43.8% had cared of clients who suffered abuse and/or neglect. Even though 88.9% of

  3. Late bloomer or language impaired? Screening the speech of a Spanish-English bilingual toddler for early signs of language impairment

    Barquin, Elisa Leslie


    This case study presents corpus data gathered from a Spanish-English bilingual child with expressive language delay. Longitudinal data on the child???s linguistic development was collected from the onset of productive speech at age 1;1 until age 4 over the course of 28 video-taped sessions with the child???s principal caregivers. A literature review focused on the relationship between language delay and persisting disorders???including a discussion of the frequent difficulty in distinguishi...

  4. Automated Analysis of Child Phonetic Production Using Naturalistic Recordings

    Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Gilkerson, Jill


    Purpose: Conventional resource-intensive methods for child phonetic development studies are often impractical for sampling and analyzing child vocalizations in sufficient quantity. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on early language development by an automated analysis of child phonetic production using naturalistic…

  5. Quality in Child Care Centers.

    ERS Spectrum, 1998


    A significant correlation exists between quality child care and outcomes. Quality-related outcomes include cooperative play, sociability, creativity, ability to solve social conflicts, self-control, and language and cognitive development. Legislatures and agencies should strengthen standards; require initial and ongoing staff training; recruit,…

  6. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels


    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  7. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Trovato, Sara


    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  8. Language Revitalization.

    Hinton, Leanne


    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  9. Language Segmentation

    Alfter, David


    Language segmentation consists in finding the boundaries where one language ends and another language begins in a text written in more than one language. This is important for all natural language processing tasks. The problem can be solved by training language models on language data. However, in the case of low- or no-resource languages, this is problematic. I therefore investigate whether unsupervised methods perform better than supervised methods when it is difficult or impossible to trai...

  10. Japanese language, standard language, national language



    Abstract The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old. Keywords: language...

  11. Outcome of Severe Receptive Language Disorder

    J Gordon Millichap


    The clinical and familial characteristics of severe receptive specific language impairment (SLI) were studied in 58 affected children (ratio of boys to girls 2:1) at the Department of Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.

  12. Father-Child Interactions at 24 and 36 Months and Developmental Outcomes at Prekindergarten

    McMurdie, Shareesa L.


    This study looked at father teaching interactions and singing in toddlerhood as predictors of child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten in a low-income, ethnically diverse sample. Results found that, overall, father teaching interactions in toddlerhood predicted child cognitive and language outcomes at prekindergarten and father singing in toddlerhood predicted language outcomes. Fathers provided slightly more teaching interactions at child age 24 months than at 36 months, and ...

  13. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Echu, George


    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  14. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Karolak, Eric


    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  15. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S


    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences. PMID:23360640

  16. Long-term stability of core language skill in children with contrasting language skills.

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L


    This 4-wave longitudinal study evaluated stability of core language skill in 421 European American and African American children, half of whom were identified as low (n = 201) and half of whom were average-to-high (n = 220) in later language skill. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multivariate age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single latent variables of core language skill at 15 and 25 months and 5 and 11 years. Significant stability coefficients were obtained between language latent variables for children of low and average-to-high language skill, even accounting for child positive social interaction and nonverbal intelligence, maternal education and language, and family home environment. Prospects for children with different language skills and intervention implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26998572

  17. Adaptação transcultural do instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC utilizado para identificar a violência contra a criança Portuguese-language cross-cultural adaptation of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC, an instrument used to identify parental violence against children

    Michael Eduardo Reichenheim


    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a primeira fase da avaliação da equivalência transcultural entre o instrumento Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, concebido em inglês e usado para identificar violência contra a criança, e uma versão em português a ser proposta para uso no Brasil. Subsidiada por uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, a avaliação da equivalência conceitual e de itens envolveu discussões com grupo de especialistas sobre a existência e pertinência em nosso meio dos conceitos teóricos subjacentes e dos itens componentes do instrumento original. A avaliação da equivalência semântica constou das seguintes etapas: duas traduções e respectivas retraduções; uma avaliação da equivalência de significado referencial (literal e geral (sentido entre as retraduções e o original; novos encontros com especialistas para a definição de uma versão-síntese e um pré-teste realizado em 774 mulheres. Constatou-se boa equivalência conceitual de itens e semântica entre a versão final em português e o original, bem como uma excelente aceitabilidade do instrumento adaptado. Apesar de encorajadores, os resultados obtidos merecem ser revistos após avaliações psicométricas futuras (equivalência de mensuração e através de crítica contínua por parte dos profissionais interessados.This article concerns the first phase of the assessment of the cross-cultural equivalence between the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC designed in English and used to identify child abuse and neglect, and a Portuguese-language version to be used in Brazil. Evaluating conceptual and item equivalences involved expert groups. Assisted by a broad literature review, discussions focused on the existence and pertinence of the underlying theoretical concepts and the corresponding component items in the Brazilian context. The appraisal of semantic equivalence involved the following steps: two translations and respective back-translations; an evaluation

  18. Patterns in conversations between mothers and children with and without specific language disorder


    Mothers are an important part of children’s language environments, and are assumed to play a role in their children’s language development. This exploratory study investigates the maternal responses in groups of children with and without language impairments, especially related to the intelligibility and errors in the child utterances. Analyses of child-mother sequences indicate that the mothers of children with normal language and children with suspected or diagnosed language disorders show ...

  19. Language Delay and Its Relationship to Separation

    Jervay-Pendergrass, Debra; Erdelyi, Paula J.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.


    This article explores a form of separation that is neither the result of physical disconnection between child and caregiver nor the product of emotional separation associated with parental psychopathology. Underscoring the central role that language and communication play in the development and maintenance of positive parent-child

  20. Disobedient Child

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  1. Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study

    Wang, Yuxiang


    English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

  2. School-Home Communication in Multiple Languages

    Avila, Verdi N.


    The No Child Left Behind Act requires school districts to communicate with parents in an "understandable and uniform format ... in a language that parents can understand." But with a student population representing 131 countries and speaking 81 major languages, the Cobb County, Ga., Public School District was finding it difficult to meet that…

  3. Gender, Play, Language, and Creativity in Preschoolers

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn


    This study explored the effects of a child's gender and school setting on preschoolers' language abilities (receptive vocabulary), creativity, and social play. The participants were primarily European-American children who spoke English as a primary language (nine children were bilingual), and were from middle income socioeconomic…

  4. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    ... be due to a speech or language disorder. Language disorders can mean that the child has trouble understanding what others say or difficulty sharing her thoughts. Children who have trouble producing speech sounds correctly or who hesitate or stutter when talking ...

  5. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    Muhlhausler, Peter


    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  6. Language learning - physiological and psychological aspects

    Dorina Tarnoveanu


    Full Text Available There are several stages in the linguistic development of a child; he will not merely reproduce the sentences he hears, but a personal production is often noticed. Children do not acquire the grammar of their native language through theoretical teaching; exposure to the speaking community will lead to the acquisition of the grammatical structures of their language. Little is known about how little children acquire the rules of their native language; yet, we may distinguish between physiological and psychological aspects.

  7. Language Acquisition and Language Learning



    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  8. Language Acquisition and Language Learning



    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  9. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.


    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  10. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude


    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. Child labor

    Udry, Christopher


    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  13. Child abuse

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)


    Human Resources Division


    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  15. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G


    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  16. Language Awareness.

    Carter, Ronald


    Discusses the concept of language awareness and its use in language teaching, which refers to the development in learners of an enhanced consciousness of and sensitivity to the forms and functions of language. The approach has been developed in the contexts of both second and foreign language learning, as well as in mother tongue education.…

  17. "Mama" and "Papa" in Child Language

    Ruke-Dravina, Velta


    This case study of two Latvian children attempts to show how the parental terms for"mummy" and "daddy" in Latvian are acquired, paying particular attention to the changing relationship between the input and output forms during the acquisition process. (Author/RM)

  18. Child CPR

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.


    Pallavi Chincholkar


    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  20. Bilingual Intertextuality: The Joint Construction of Bi-Literacy Practices between Parent and Child

    Liu, Yu; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.


    Based on sociocultural theory, this article examines two activities constituted by a parent and child as jointly constructed bi-literacy practices. Bi-literacy practices enable the parent and child to co-construct conceptual meanings and sense across two languages. Concept development in young children "begins" with meaning in one language and…

  1. Assessing Linguistic Competence: Verbal Inflection in Child Tamil

    Lakshmanan, Usha


    Within child language acquisition research, there has been a fair amount of controversy regarding children's knowledge of the grammatical properties associated with verbal inflection (e.g., tense, agreement, and aspect). Some researchers have proposed that the child's early grammar is fundamentally different from the adult grammar, whereas others…

  2. Predictors of Second Language Acquisition in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica


    Purpose: This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In this randomized controlled trial,…

  3. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.


    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  4. The Association between Morphological Awareness and Literacy in English Language Learners from Different Language Backgrounds

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Siegel, Linda S.; Mazabel, Silvia


    Purpose: The main goal of this study was to examine whether the morphological structure of a child's first language determined the strength of association between morphological awareness and reading and spelling skills in English, their second language. Methods: The sample consisted of 888 Grade six students who had English as their first language…


    Nematullah Shomoossi; Ahmad Shomoossi; Lotfollah Karimi


    Concerning issues in first language acquisition, the present paper explores positions in theory making, asyntacticity of early child language, Piaget's idea about children's logical thinking, Vygotsky's and Chomsky's controversy over the origins of language, the relationship between communicative competence and other abilities, the stage where child's utterance is counted to be communicative, reflecting on the relationship between language and thought, the idea of modularity, the role of emer...

  6. Pediatric Health Assessments of Young Children in Child Welfare by Placement Type

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Arnold-Clark, Janet S.; McDaniel, Dawn; Xie, Bin


    Objectives: To describe health-related problems across placement types (unrelated foster, kin foster, in-home with birth parent); to examine the association of placement and demographic/child welfare variables (child gender, age, race/ethnicity; caregiver language; type of maltreatment, and length of time receiving services from child welfare)…

  7. Simultaneous Bilingual Language Acquisition: The Role of Parental Input on Receptive Vocabulary Development

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Page, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salome


    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the "one-parent-one-language" approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the…

  8. Not Just "Situaciones de la Vida": Professionalization and Indigenous Language Revitalization in the Andes

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Swinehart, Karl F.


    Within discourses of language endangerment, life stages such as child language acquisition, adolescent language shift, and the death of community elders figure prominently, but what of the role of other, intermediate life stages during adulthood and professional life in the course of language obsolescence or revitalization? Drawing from long-term…

  9. Modelling language

    Cardey, Sylviane


    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  10. Child pornography

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena


    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  11. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Francis, Norbert


    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  12. Enhancing Parent-Child Book Reading in a Disadvantaged Community

    Elias, Gordon; Hay, Ian; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate


    A parent-child dialogic reading program was implemented across four preschools, involving 62 caregivers/parents in a low socioeconomic status, disadvantaged community where English was not the first language in 54 per cent of the homes. This socioculturally sensitive program aimed to enhance children's language and emergent literacy development,…

  13. Child Development

    ... in Early Childhood Reassessing the approach of the Learn the Signs. Act Early. campaign. Key findings Improving Children’s Behavioral Health New Tool For Parents Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The early years of a ...

  14. A language-specific comprehension strategy [Letters to Nature

    Cutler, A.; Mehler, J.; D. Norris; Segui, J.


    Infants acquire whatever language is spoken in the environment into which they are born. The mental capability of the newborn child is not biased in any way towards the acquisition of one human language rather than another. Because psychologists who attempt to model the process of language comprehension are interested in the structure of the human mind, rather than in the properties of individual languages, strategies which they incorporate in their models are presumed to be universal, not la...

  15. Child sexual abuse

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  16. Parental tobacco consumption and child development

    Nadine F. Santos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between parental tobacco consumption and the prevalence of psychomotor development disorders in children between 6 and 22 months of age.METHOD: One hundred and nine mothers, fathers, and their babies participated in the study. The sociodemographic and clinical conditions were assessed using questionnaires. Tobacco consumption was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND. Child development was evaluated using the Scale of Psychomotor Development in Early Childhood.RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between the father's morning smoking (FTND and the child's language development quotient; r = -0.41, p = 0.005, r2 =0.15. The children of mothers without nicotine dependence had a higher mean language development quotient than children of mothers with nicotine dependence; F(1, 107 = 5.51, p = 0.021, ?p2 = 0.05.CONCLUSION: Parental smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on child development.

  17. The acquisition of the Latvian language as the Second language at preschool age in theory and practice

    Ingēra Tomme-Jukēvica


    In Latvia there are no substantial studies on bilingual preschool children’s Latvian language as the second language. The article provides an overview of the 20th–21st century linguistic theories in the context of child second language acquisition as well as raises awareness about their influence on and use in the learning of preschoolers whose second language is Latvian, carrying out content analysis of the Minority Preschool Education Program (with instruction in Russian), the Latvian Langu...

  18. Endangered Languages.

    Hale, Ken; And Others


    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  19. Use of narratives to assess language disorders in an inpatient pediatric psychiatric population.

    Pearce, Patsy; Johnson, Carolyn; Manly, Patricia; Locke, Jake


    A large proportion of child psychiatry patients have undiagnosed language disorders. Adequately developed language is critical for psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapies. This study investigated (1) whether assessment of oral narratives would identify language impairments in this population undetected by assessment of only core language abilities, and (2) the extent to which measures of cognition, working memory, emotional distress, and social function differentially predict core language and narrative development. Results showed that (1) more than twice as many children were identified with language impairment when both narrative and core language assessment were used, and (2) core language comprehension and complex verbal working memory were the strongest predictors of narrative production, while core language comprehension, a less complex working-memory task, and social skills best predicted narrative comprehension. Emotional distress did not predict either. The results emphasize the importance of evaluating child psychiatry patients' language, using both core language and narrative measures. PMID:23689481

  20. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    Leonard, Laurence B.


    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those ...

  1. My Child Is Stealing

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  2. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  3. Child Sexual Abuse

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  4. Asthma - child - discharge

    ... this page: // Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  5. Language Switching and Language Competition

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela


    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  6. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko


    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  7. [Language gene].

    Takahashi, Hiroshi


    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  8. Parent-Child Interaction in Three Conversational Contexts: Variations in Style and Strategy.

    Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Dahlin, Michael P.; Powell, Terris A.


    Examined associations between parent language complexity and conversational style and child language use. Contrasted parents' story reading language style with their style for free play with toys and joint remembering of an event. Findings underscore the extent to which children's conversational ability is shaped by the demands of the social and…

  9. Strategies and Resources for Mainstream Teachers of English Language Learners. By Request Series.

    Reed, Bracken; Railsback, Jennifer

    This booklet presents practical, research-based principles and instructional strategies that mainstream teachers can use to meet the needs of linguistically diverse students who are English Language Learners (ELLs), focusing on the following: "In Context: English Language Learners and No Child Left Behind"; "The Implications of No Child Left…

  10. Early Relations between Mother Talk and Language Development: Masked and Unmasked.

    Hampson, June; Nelson, Katherine

    A study re-examined the hypothesis that an identifiable register of child-directed speech (motherese) contributes to child language acquisition. The hypothesis was studied from two perspectives: (1) that it has not been documented adequately at earlier ages; and (2) that individual differences in style of language acquisition interact with…