... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...
... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...
Saudino, Kimberly J.
Most temperament theories presume a biological basis to those behavioral tendencies thought to be temperamental in origin. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to test this assumption. Twin and adoption studies suggest that individual differences in infant and child temperament are genetically influenced. However, behavioral genetics has much more to offer to the study of temperament than simple heritability estimates. The present paper describes some recent findings from behavioral genetic...
This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...
... problem, ask for help. Poor choices can become habits. Kids who have behavior problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or family therapy ...
Lindhiem, Oliver; Dozier, Mary
Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between child behavior problems and caregiver commitment to their child in a group of young foster children. Method: The sample consisted of 102 caregiver-child dyads from the greater Baltimore area. Child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL; Achenbach, T. M. (1991).…
Evans, Robert C.; And Others
Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…
I. van Meurs (Inge)
textabstractIn the present thesis, the intergenerational transmission of child problem behavior will be investigated. In this introduction, we will explain why it is important to study transmission of problem behavior from parents to their offspring. In addition, we will describe the study design th
Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy
Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Using a large, contemporary U.S. dataset, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement, this paper explores the relationship between maternal shift work and the behavioral outcomes of children aged 4 to 10. Special attention was given to subgroups of children (e.g., based on family type, family income, and mother’s occupation and working hours) and the patterns of parental work schedules and work hours. Regression results suggest that maternal shift work may contribute to more b...
Gambrill, E D
The range of factors identified as related to child maltreatment has expanded over the years. The literature clearly calls for an ecological approach in which individual, family, community, and societal factors are considered. The behavioral literature to date reflects an unevenness in terms of acceptance of such an approach. Studies are also uneven concerning the faithfulness with which hallmarks of a behavioral approach have been applied. These include individually tailored assessment and intervention based on empirical data and planning for generalization and maintenance. Most intervention programs do attend to positive as well as negative parent behaviors. Little attention is devoted to environmental characteristics, such as poverty level incomes and impoverished social support systems that may contribute to maltreatment. Lack of comprehensive assessment and intervention programs is no doubt responsible for the modest changes described in many reports. Behavioral studies suffer from uncritical acceptance of the term "abuse" or "at risk" in a number of ways, one of which is a failure to clearly describe the nature of the alleged maltreatment and the immediate situational context. Another is in the assumption that one particular factor is responsible for the maltreatment, such as ineffective parenting skills. Too often a label identifies only one characteristic of a person, ignoring other attributes and related factors. Like all deviant labels, the poor and minority groups are more likely to receive negative labels (Newberger et al., 1976). Investigaters have not taken advantage of relevant literature in the area of child welfare. Familiarity with this material would be helpful in avoiding myths in the field to which many have fallen prey, such as the myth of classlessness of child maltreatment. Acceptance of this myth interferes with the development of programs that deal with difficult environmental problems. Reports suggest that a behavioral approach is
Evans, I M
Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself. PMID:10587900
Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C
The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. PMID:22659077
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
Westermaier, Franz; Mühlenweg, Andrea M.; Morefield, Brant
This study examines the importance of parental health in the development of child behavior during early childhood. Our analysis is based on child psychometric measures from a longitudinal German dataset, which tracks mothers and their newborns up to age six. We identify major changes in parental health (shocks) and control for a variety of initial characteristics of the child including prenatal conditions. The results are robust to placebo regressions of health shocks that occur after the out...
Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Kovacs, Maria
Background: Despite findings that parent depression increases children's risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about other factors that combine with parent depression to contribute to behavior problems. Methods: As part of a longitudinal, interdisciplinary study on childhood-onset depression (COD), we examined the…
Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S
Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098
Gross, Rachel S.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Hauser, Nicole R.; Messito, Mary Jo
Background: Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity.
Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.
Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…
Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Southam-Gerrow, Michael
We examined associations of maternal and child emotional discourse and child emotion knowledge with children's behavioral competence. Eighty-five upper middle-income, mostly White preschoolers and mothers completed a home-based bookreading task to assess discourse about emotions. Children's anger perception bias and emotion situation knowledge…
Tempel, Ashley B.; Wagner, Stephanie M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Empirical examination of components of behavioral parent training programs is necessary to inform treatment effectiveness and efficiency; however, comprehensive research on many components is lacking. The current study examined two parenting components utilized in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy by investigating the effects of behavioral…
Hartman, Georgia L.; And Others
Prosecuting and defense attorneys across Indiana were surveyed concerning the acceptability of specific behaviors associated with child abuse. Among respondents (n=154) prosecutors had more severe judgments than defense attorneys on 32 of the 42 behaviors. Cognitive dissonance theory is proposed as an explanation for these findings. (Author/DB)
Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil
Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424
Frame, C; Matson, J L; Sonis, W A; Fialkov, M J; Kazdin, A E
The present study evaluated behavioral treatment of symptoms of depression in a 10 yr-old boy. Diagnosis of the child's depression was made on the basis of DSM-III criteria. Information was obtained from separate interviews with the child and mother and from multiple assessment instruments. Ratings from several sources (mother, psychiatrist, psychologist and staff) confirmed the diagnosis. Four behaviors that characterized the child's depression were selected for intervention and included inappropriate body position, lact of eye contact, poor speech and bland affect. Treatment, evaluated in a multiple-baseline design across symptoms, consisted of the combination of instructions, modeling, role-playing and feedback. Results indicated that behaviors characteristic of childhood depression could be reliably identified and effectively treated by behavioral techniques. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-week follow-up assessment. PMID:7142416
Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula
This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…
Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…
Melbye, Elisabeth Lind
With the increasing prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in mind, the main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of preadolescent children’s eating behavior in the context of parent-child food-related interactions. A more long-term objective is to obtain knowledge that might have the potential to inform future family-oriented nutrition interventions. This thesis consists of three empirical studies and an overview presenting the t...
Graziela A.H. Zottis; Giovanni A. Salum; Luciano R. Isolan; Manfro, Gisele G.; Elizeth Heldt
OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks) and inductive (explaining, re...
Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...
Sroufe, L A; Stuecher, H U; Stutzer, W
Physiological, cognitive, and emotional factors were examined throughout the treatment of a psychotic child. Heart rate, latency and accuracy in task performance, behavioral indices of stress (e.g., muscular tension, facial expression), and frequency of autistic mannerisms were measured concurrently. Both contemporaneous relationships and patterns of change suggested that autistic behaviors were organized and psychologically meaningful. Self-stimulation, conflict, and negativism (deliberate erroneous performance) occurred predictably, were intimately related, and were associated with specific patterns of heart-rate change. The changing function of self-stimulation across treatment and the centrality of negativism in this child's disturbance were discussed. PMID:24198177
Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Arnold, David H; Baker, Courtney N
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers' (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children's behavior problems were collected twice during the school year. Parents' own social support predicted improvement for boys and parent depression was associated with worsening symptoms for girls. Single parenthood and parent involvement predicted changes in behavior problems for the sample as a whole. Several significant ethnic differences emerged, highlighting the importance of considering cultural context in studies of parenting and child externalizing behavior. PMID:24347757
Lanning, Kenneth V.
This booklet provides a behavioral analysis of child molesters. The terms child molesters and pedophiles are defined and distinctions are drawn between the two. The second section develops a law enforcement typology differing from those of mental health professionals, focusing on pre-arrest behavior or pre-identification behavior of child…
Children displaying high levels of externalizing problems (like aggression) have been found to be prone to a large number of school adjustment difficulties. It has been argued that children’s problem behavior do not only negatively impact upon their own developmental outcomes, but can also have negative consequences for the teacher (Hammarberg, 2003). These consequences leads to an inability of teachers to manage behavior problems in the classroom, which is rated the most serious problem faci...
Kress, Gerard C., Jr.; Ehrlichs, Melvin A.
In a preclinical course in pediatric dentistry, 76 students were taught child behavior management through role playing of 7-10 common management situations. Pre- and postcourse measures of student confidence found that, although older students were more confident, all gained significantly from the training. Other student characteristics were also…
Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn
Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…
Kendall, Philip C., Ed.
Widely regarded as the definitive clinical reference and text in the field, this authoritative volume presents effective cognitive-behavioral approaches for treating frequently encountered child and adolescent disorders. The editor and contributors are leading experts who provide hands-on, how-to-do-it descriptions illustrated with clinical…
Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…
Jackson, Aurora P.; Preston, Kathleen S.; Franke, Todd M.
Two waves of data from a sample of 89 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their preschool children were used to study the influences of parenting stress, physical discipline practices, and nonresident fathers’ relations with their children on behavior problems in kindergarten. The results indicate that higher levels of parent stress, more frequent spanking, and less frequent father–child contact at time 1 were associated with increased teacher-reported behavior problems at time 2. In ...
As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter
This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year observations).…
Mindrila, Diana L.
To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…
Zilanawala, Afshin; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.
Child behavior problems are associated with long-term detrimental effects. A large body of literature looks at the association between income and child behavior but few studies examine this association with material hardship, an alternative economic indicator. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the following questions: (a) Is material hardship associated with child socioemotional behavior and are there differences by developmental timing, (b) Are partic...
Isaacs, C D
Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse....
Isaacs, C D
Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the
Blazei, Ryan W.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
The effect of father's presence in the home on the child's antisocial behavior is studied to determine whether the father's presence may moderate the relationship between father and child antisociality. Results suggest that the presence of the father appears to provide some environmental influence that leads to increased child antisocial behavior.
Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak
The criminological literature has a long tradition of emphasizing the socialization effects that parents have on children. By contrast, evidence from behavioral genetics research gives precedence to child effects on parental management techniques over parental effects on children's outcomes. Considering these diverging lines of scholarship and literature, the current study explores a novel hypothesis that child effects on parenting may be conditioned by the level of the disadvantage of the neighborhood in which the child's family resides. By using measures of perceived parenting as dependent variables, the researchers analyze data on 733 same-sex sibling pairs derived from the Add Health study by taking advantage of the DeFries-Fulker analytical technique. The results show that in adequate neighborhoods, between 43% and 55% of the variance in the measures of perceived parenting is due to genetic factors, whereas shared environmental effects are negligible. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, genetic effects are negligible, whereas shared environmental influences account for between 34% and 57% of the variance in perceived parenting. These results offer partial support for the contextualized gene-environment correlation, which provides initial evidence that although both parental socialization effects and child effects exist, these effects can be modified by the context. PMID:25891272
Graziela A.H. Zottis
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.
Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Leonard, Tammy; Beron, Kurt; Murdoch, James
Background The purpose of this study was to extend the analysis of neighborhood effects on child behavioral outcomes in two ways: (1) by examining the geographic extent of the relationship between child behavior and neighborhood physical conditions independent of standard administrative boundaries such as census tracts or block groups and (2) by examining the relationship and geographic extent of geographic peers’ behavior and individual child behavior. Methods The study neighborhood was a lo...
Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D.
Growing evidence suggests that child care instability is associated with child behavior problems, but existing studies confound different types of instability; use small, convenience samples; and/or control insufficiently for selection into child care arrangements. This study uses survey and calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to estimate the associations between three different types of child care instability—long-term instability, multiplicity, and the use of ...
Holland, Jodi Cahill; Kolko, Rachel P.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Objective To examine associations between modifications in parent feeding practices, child diet, and child weight status after treatment and to evaluate dietary mediators. Design and Methods Children classified as overweight or obese and 7-11 years old (N=170) completed a 16-session family-based behavioral treatment program (FBT). Anthropometrics (standardized body mass index (zBMI)), Child Feeding Questionnaire, and 24-hr dietary recalls were collected at baseline and post-FBT. Linear regres...
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…
Yates, Tuppett M; Dodds, Michele F; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron
Previous research suggests an association between partner violence and child behavior problems. However, methodological shortcomings have precluded the formation of directional conclusions. These limitations include failure to control for the effects of child physical abuse and general life stress, employment of nonrepresentative samples from battered women's shelters, and reliance on a single contemporaneous reporter, usually the mother, for information on both independent and dependent measures. This study used prospective, longitudinal data (N = 155) and multiple informants to examine the relation between maternal reports of partner violence in the homeand teacher- and youth-report ratings of concurrent and prospective child behavior problems. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to control for the effects of child physical abuse, child physical neglect, socioeconomic status, child cognitive ability, and life stress. The contribution of partner violence to child behavior problems was confirmed for boys' (n = 81) externalizing problems and girls' (n = 74) internalizing problems. Child developmental status at the time of exposure further influenced these relations. For boys, behavior problems in middle childhood were most strongly related to contemporaneous partner violence, whereas behavior problems among both boys and girls at age 16 were most strongly related to partner violence exposure during the preschool years. PMID:12848442
Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Figueiredo, Mafalda; Vaughn, Brian E.
Research Findings: Data from a national sample of Portuguese preschool centers were used to examine the relationship between age of start and number of hours in child care and levels of externalizing and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were both parents and teachers of 543 children (mean age = 4.5 years, 50.6% girls). Children started…
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were…
Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.
We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…
Jin, Yoonmi; Chung, Un-Sun; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Won Kee
Objective This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in Korean children aged from 6 to 12 years old and the suitability of and potential for clinical application of the CSBI in Korean population. Methods The participants consisted of 158 typically growing children and 122 sexually abused children. The subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), the Child Behavior Check...
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine;
OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system....
Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.
High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the development of aggressive-disruptive student behavior during first grade. Parent ratings and child interviews assessed three child characteristics associ...
Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. The current analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ) which are hypoth...
Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Parents of a child with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined associations between child behavior problems and parenting behavior. Results showed that mothers of children with ASD reported significantly lower scores on Rules and Disciplin...
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2009
The Child Development & Behavior (CDB) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks to improve the health and well-being of individuals from infancy through early adulthood by supporting research into healthy growth and development, including all aspects of child development. The study of typical child…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Joesch, Jutta M.
Examined how the price of child care affects welfare recipients' paid work behavior according to past studies. Analyzed the relationship between child care prices and hours of paid work for recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The complex nature of AFDC child care regulations is taken into account in the context of a…
Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne
This research investigated whether father involvement in infancy may reduce or exacerbate the well-established adverse effect of maternal depression during a child's infancy on behavior problems in childhood. In a community sample (N = 350), the authors found that fathers' self-reported parenting styles interacted with the amount of time fathers spent caring for their infants to moderate the longitudinal effect of maternal depression during the child's infancy on children's internalizing, but not externalizing, behaviors. Low to medium amounts of high-warmth father involvement and high amounts of medium- or high-control father involvement at this time were associated with lower child internalizing behaviors. Paternal depression during a child's infancy exacerbated the effect of maternal depression, but this moderating effect was limited to depressed fathers spending medium to high amounts of time caring for their infants. Results emphasize the moderating role fathers may play in reducing or exacerbating the adverse long-term effects of maternal depression during a child's infancy on later child behavior problems. PMID:15598163
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Cafri, Guy; Crow, Scott J.
Family based behavioral treatment for overweight and obese children includes parenting skills targeting the modification of child eating and activity change. The purpose of this study was to examine parenting skills and parent weight change as predictors of child weight change in a sample of 80 parent/child dyads who were enrolled in a family based behavioral weight loss program for childhood obesity. Eighty overweight and obese children and their parents who enrolled in treatment in two site...
Shek, Daniel T. L.
Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perceived parent-child relational qualities (parental trust of the child, child's trust of parents, child's readiness to communicate with parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), parental behavioral control (including indicators of…
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.
Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…
Gregory, Alice M.; Cousins, Jennifer C.; Forbes, Erika E.; Trubnick, Laura; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.
Objective: The Child Behavior Checklist is sometimes used to assess sleep disturbance despite not having been validated for this purpose. This study examined associations between the Child Behavior Checklist sleep items and other measures of sleep. Method: Participants were 122 youth (61% female, aged 7 through 17 years) with anxiety disorders…
Linares, L. Oriana; Heeren, Timothy; Bronfman, Elisa
Structural equation modeling was used to examine how maternal distress mediated the link between exposure to community violence (CV) and development of early child behavior problems. Findings indicated that direct CV-early child behavior problems path diminished when maternal distress was included in the model, after controlling for maternal SES…
Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.
Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…
Griffin, Gene; Martinovich, Zoran; Gawron, Tim; Lyons, John S.
Objectives: To determine whether traumatic experiences of children entering the child welfare system have an impact on their risk behaviors and whether these behaviors are moderated by children's strengths. Method: The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services administered the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) measure to…
The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behavior and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n = 96) or without (n = 126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behavior problems. Maternal negative affective behavior, child externalizing emotional expression, and child internalizing emotional expression were observed during a number of lab tasks at child ages 4 and 5, and child e...
Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, Carl Göran; Wingren, Gun; Gustafsson, Per
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The respon...
Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents’ appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptio...
In the first part of my diploma I present terminology and definition of aggression and different theories of aggression. I concentrated on aggressive behavior in preschool child and reactions of educator when they have a child with aggressive behavior problems. In the second part I present and analyze interviews of ten preschool educators of Vrtec Antona Medveda Kamnik. I explored their views on aggressive behavior in preschool years with individual interviews. The research showed that...
Witt, Philip H.; Merdian, Hannah Lena; Connell, Mary; Douglas P. Boer
One type of claim in parenting assessment (child custody)1 cases is that one parent, typically the father, is alleged to be engaging in improper or compulsive sexual behavior via the Internet. The sexual behavior at issue can range from frequent sexually explicit chats with other adults to compulsive viewing of adult pornography. In more extreme cases, the problematic behavior may involve viewing child pornography, and in some cases the parent faces actual criminal charges in this regard. The...
Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. PMID:25262097
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style. PMID:12056110
Liu, Haiyong; Mroz, Thomas; Adair, Linda
A dynamic optimization model of parents choosing investments in their children’s health motivates an empirical model of parents’ choices of health inputs for their children and the impacts of these decisions on their children’s subsequent health. Estimates of the child health input demand functions and the child health production functions from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey accord with the prediction that optimizing behavior results in higher levels of aggregate child heal...
Smagner, John P.; Sullivan, Meredith H.
Objective: Whether parents could be taught to use behavior-analytic child-management skills. Method: Eleven parents typically labeled as difficult to train participated in one of two experimental parent-training programs at child-welfare agencies within the city of Chicago. Four classes of desirable parenting skills were recorded by observers…
Lench, Heather C.; Levine, Linda J.; Whalen, Carol K.
Objective: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood disorder associated with parent--child conflict and parental stress. This investigation explored whether parents' interpretation of symptomatic behavior predicted negative interactions with and perceptions of their child. Method: We recruited parents…
Ivanova, Masha Y; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred;
There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year...
Neece, Cameron L.; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.
The impact on everyday life for siblings of children with intellectual disability or typical development was examined. Participants were families of children with intellectual disability (n = 39) or typical development (n = 75). Child behavior problems and sibling impact were assessed at child ages 5, 6, 7, and 8. Results indicate that siblings of…
Post, Phyllis B.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Penn, Saundra L.
The purpose of this article is to provide specific guidelines for child-centered play therapists to set behavioral outcome goals to effectively work with families and to meet the demands for accountability in the managed care environment. The child-centered play therapy orientation is the most widely practiced approach among play therapists who…
McCrae, Julie S.
Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…
Short-Meyerson, Katherine; Sandrin, Susannah; Edwards, Chris
Gender is a critical social factor influencing how children view the world from very early childhood. Additionally, during the early elementary years, parents can have a significant influence on their child's behaviors and dispositions in fields such as science. This study examined the influence of parent gender and child gender on 2nd- and…
Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.
The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…
Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…
Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503
Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel
Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…
Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.
Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…
Merrell, Kenneth W.
The article discusses the rationale and advantages of school-based parent training in child behavior management. The research literature on behavioral parent training is reviewed. Information on packaged behavioral parent training programs, as well as other resources for practitioners and parents, is provided. (Author/DB)
The main goal of the dissertation was to assess the mechanism of the change as a result of mother’s participation in the parent training program and to clarify the role of various factors which might explain individual variability in these changes. The results show that mother’s participation in the parent training program led to an increase in the mother’s sense of competence and a decrease in the child behavior problems. The changes in mother-child emotional availability mediated the relati...
McKee, Laura; Colletti, Christina; Rakow, Aaron; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex
Building upon the link between inadequate parenting and child noncompliance, aggression, and oppositionality, behavioral parent training has been identified as a well-established treatment for externalizing problems in children. Much less empirical attention has been devoted to examining whether inadequate parenting and, in turn, behavioral parent training programs, have specific effects on child externalizing problems or more diffuse effects on both internalizing and externalizing problems. ...
Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.
This study examined a neurobiologically–informed model of the emergence of child externalizing behaviors in an ethnically diverse community sample of 232 9–12 year old children. Replicating extensive prior research, our analyses revealed that parents’ inconsistent discipline and poor quality monitoring were predictive of child externalizing behavior. In addition, poor parental monitoring, but not inconsistent discipline, was associated with children having a significantly flatter morning–to–e...
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in the other relationship context. Adolescent-reported antisocial behavior was low when either parent-child relationships or friendships were low in conflic...
Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J
Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029
Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik
Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…
Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Jansen, Pauline W; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Basten, Maartje; So, Pety; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
This study examined multiple determinants of discrepancies between mother and child reports of problem behavior. In 5,414 6-year-olds, child problem behavior was assessed by self-report using the Berkeley Puppet Interview and by maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Patterns in mother-child reports were modeled using latent profile analysis. Four profiles, differing in problem level, and the direction and magnitude of mother-child discrepancies, were identified: one profile representing agreement (46%), another representing slight discrepancies (30%), and two representing higher problem levels and more discrepancies. In the latter two profiles either children (11%) or mothers (13%) reported more problems. Compared to the first profile, the second was predominantly characterized by a positive family environment, the third by child cognitive difficulties, and the fourth by harsh discipline and poor family functioning. Knowledge about specific child/family characteristics that contribute to mother-child discrepancies can help to interpret informants' reports and to make diagnostic decisions. PMID:25577034
Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…
Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.
In a sample of 107 Chinese immigrant families we examined whether cultural child-rearing beliefs moderated the association between parents' use of punitive discipline and children's behavioral adjustment. Immigrant parents and their children aged 7 to 17 years completed measures of parental discipline and child behavior problems. Parents also…
Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi
Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019
Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care. PMID:21964826
Stokes, T F; Kennedy, S H
The uncooperative behavior of grade-school children during dental treatment was examined. Forty children enrolled in a government dental program were observed during treatment conditions involving instructions concerning the appropriate behavior required by the dental practitioner, description of the objective procedures and subjective experience the child could expect, praise for appropriate behavior, and a colorful stamp for coming to the clinic. Eight of these children whose behavior was s...
B S Suprabha; Arathi Rao; Shwetha Choudhary; Ramya Shenoy
Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1) age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2) dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionna...
Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K
Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866477
Cho, Eunae; Allen, Tammy D.
Despite its theoretical and practical importance, behavioral consequences of work-family conflict that reside in the family domain rarely have been examined. Based on two studies, the current research investigated the relationship of work-interference-with-family (WIF) with parent-child interactive behavior (i.e., educational, recreational, and…
Parenting interventions are a promising strategy to prevent antisocial behavior in society. Evidence accumulates that parenting interventions can reduce disruptive child behavior, and insight rapidly increases into which families they benefit most. At the same time, however, several high risk popula
Averdijk, Margit; Malti, Tina; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis
This study investigated the relationship between parental separation and aggressive and internalizing behavior in a large sample of Swiss children drawn from the ongoing Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Parents retrospectively reported life events and problem behavior for the first 7 years of the child's life on a…
Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.
Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…
Thomas, Duane E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Thompson, Celine; Powers, C. J.
High rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior exhibited by children during their initial years of elementary school increase their risk for significant behavioral adjustment problems with teachers and peers. The purpose of the present study was to examine the unique and combined contributions of child vulnerabilities and school context to the…
Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie
Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders" 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a…
Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.
This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…
Jensen, Scott A.; Grimes, Lisa K.
Though behavioral parent training has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for child behavior problems, it continues to suffer from high attrition rates. Few variables have been found to predict or decrease high attrition rates from parent training classes. The present study found 43-52% increases in attendance rates for parents whose…
Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…
Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte
We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…
Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.
This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…
Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, Jim
We demonstrate graphical and analytical methods for multilevel (2- and 3-level) models using the analysis of observed microsocial interaction between parent-child dyads as an example. We also present multilevel path diagrams and argue that while not as compact as equations, path diagrams may communicate results better to a wider audience. The…
Malone, Patrick S; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used to examine trajectories of externalizing behavior problems in relation to children's experience of their parents' divorce. Participants included 35...
Peláez Merrick, Melissa Teresa
The link between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency has been repeatedly documented. Empirical prospective research delineating the factors responsible for this relationship (i.e., mediators), however, is relatively sparse. Because many of the outcomes of child maltreatment (e.g., sexualized behaviors, loneliness) are risk factors for juvenile delinquency, this relationship could likely be mediated by these variables. The present investigations utilized samples of children from the LO...
van Meurs, Inge; Reef, Joni; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan
The scores of 4- to 16-year-olds on a child behavior checklist made in 1983 is compared with those of their 6- to 18-year-old offsprings that were done in 2007. It is found that most forms of problem behavior in children were predicted by their parent's behavior as children and that continuity is stronger in mothers than fathers and in sons than…
Van Camp, Carole M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Goh, Han-Leong; Whitehouse, Cristina M.; Reyes, Jorge; Montgomery, Jan L.; Borrero, John C.
Objective: Behavioral parent training has been proven effective through years of research with a variety of groups. However, little research has been conducted to systematically evaluate the extent to which behavioral parent training may improve parenting skills of foster and other caregivers of dependent children. The Behavior Analysis Services…
Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra
Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…
Mauro, C F; Harris, Y R
This study was an exploratory examination of the influence of mothers' teaching behaviors, strategies, and child-rearing attitudes on their children's ability to delay gratification. In an externally imposed delay of gratification situation, 30 mothers from a rural university community taught their children strategies that could help them refrain from touching a brightly wrapped present when the mothers left the room. Results showed that mothers of children who did not delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with a permissive parenting style, whereas mothers of children who did delay gratification exhibited teaching behaviors and child-rearing attitudes consistent with an authoritative parenting style. The results of this study are discussed with respect to the development of children's self-control and self-regulatory abilities. PMID:10971908
Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.
Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj
Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong
Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986
Maddoux, John A; Liu, Fuqin; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Paulson, Rene; Binder, Brenda K; Fredland, Nina; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi
Partner violence is associated with numerous negative consequences for victims, especially poor mental health. Children who are exposed to partner violence are more likely to have behavior problems. Nevertheless, research on the relationship between severity of abuse, maternal mental health functioning following partner violence, and child behavior problems is limited. We explored the direct and indirect effects on the child's behavioral functioning of severity of maternal abuse and maternal mental health functioning following abuse. A sample of 300 mothers was recruited when they sought assistance for abuse for the first time at shelters for abused women or at the district attorney's office. Severity of abuse, mothers' mental health functioning, and child behavioral functioning were measured by maternal self-report at entry into the study and 4 months later. In SEM analysis, at both entry and 4 months, severity of abuse had a direct effect on maternal mental health functioning, which in turn had a direct effect on child behavioral functioning. The path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning also was significant but became non- significant once maternal mental health functioning was added to the equation, indicating that the path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning was indirect and occurred as a result of the mother's mental health functioning, which remained directly linked to child behavioral problems. Intergenerational interventions are needed to address both maternal mental health and child behavioral functioning when a mother reports partner violence and is experiencing mental health problems. PMID:26694769
Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng
Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors. PMID:20132462
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176
Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony
Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…
Baxley, Gladys B.; Ullmann, Rina K.
The effects of methylphenidate on the behavior and teacher interactions of a nine-year-old hyperactive female were analyzed. Results suggest that the use of medication may enable the hyperactive child to profit both behaviorally and academically. (Author)
Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.
Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children’s social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children’s socially disruptive behavior using genetically-sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-bi...
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Liping
Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors about use of child safety seats among parents of newborns and explore expectant mothers’ views and decisions regarding child safety seats use. Methods A cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview were conducted in the maternity departments of two hospitals in China. Parents of newborns were recruited after delivery and surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding child safety seats use. Pregn...
Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel
Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. PMID:24727101
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Kwon, Jeong Yoon
The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…
Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.
Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…
Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.
This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…
Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.
The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…
Khafi, Tamar Y.; Yates, Tuppett M.; Sher-Censor, Efrat
Emotional Overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS-EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS-EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive processes when parenting younger children. Thus, this study evaluated relations of each FMSS-EOI criterion with changes in child behavior problems from preschool to first grade in a community sample of 223 child-mother dyads (47.98% female; Mage_W1 = 49.08 months; 56.50% Hispanic/Latina). Maternal FMSS-EOI ratings were obtained at wave 1, and independent examiners rated child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at wave 1 and two years later. Path analyses indicated that both the Self-Sacrifice/Overprotection (SSOP) and Statements of Attitude (SOAs) FMSS-EOI criteria predicted increased externalizing problems. In contrast, Excessive Detail and Exaggerated Praise were not related to child externalizing behavior problems, and Emotional Display was not evident in this sample. None of the FMSS-EOI criteria evidenced significant relations with internalizing behavior problems. Multigroup comparisons indicated that the effect of SOAs on externalizing behavior problems was significant for boys but not for girls, and there were no significant group differences by race/ethnicity. These findings point to the salience of SSOP and SOAs for understanding the developmental significance of EOI in early development. PMID:26147935
Ice, Christa L.; Neal, William A.; Cottrell, Lesley
The epidemic of childhood obesity, and its subsequent impact on negative health outcomes, continues to plague the United States. Better health outcomes have been linked to increased child achievement in school. Due to the strong influence parents have on children's healthful behaviors particularly in younger years, it's imperative to…
Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil
Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…
Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.
Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…
Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sunha
This study analyzed Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) study data, examining the effect of parenting classes on parenting behaviors and children's cognitive outcomes. The study analyzed three sets of dependent variables: parental language and cognitive stimulation, parent-child interactive activities, and the Bayley Mental…
Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin
Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…
Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin
Consumers' willingness to accept treatments is an important concern of clinicians and clinical researchers, particularly when treating children. However, few studies have directly asked parents to give reasons for accepting or refusing treatments. In the current study, 82 parents read descriptions of six behavioral child management techniques,…
Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura
This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's…
This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…
Silver, Bernard; And Others
A behavioral treatment program was used to improve the functional skills of a 12-year-old anoxic child. Neuropsychological test results indicated marked amnesia and global cognitive deficits. Functionally, self-care tasks could be performed, but only with verbal and physical prompting. Introduction of a monetary reward system significantly reduced…
Malmgren, Kimber W.; Meisel, Sheri M.
This study examined service delivery and risk factors for 93 youth with emotional and behavioral disorders who were served by one jurisdiction's child welfare, juvenile justice, and special education agencies. The researchers collected data through an archival review of agency records. The article discusses findings as they relate to the link…
Vaughan, Ellen L.; Feinn, Richard; Bernard, Stanley; Brereton, Maria; Kaufman, Joy S.
Children with emotional and behavioral disturbance often have difficulties in multiple symptom domains. This study investigates the relationships between child symptoms and caregiver strain and parenting stress among 177 youth and their caregivers participating in a school-based system of care. Youth were grouped by symptom domain and included…
Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.
This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Rebocho, Maria Francisca; Goncalves, Rui Abrunhosa
Although there has been an increase in research on sex offenders' modus operandi, geographic decision making, and hunting behavior, most studies still tend to emphasize criminal motivation while overlooking the role of situational and environmental factors. Studies of mixed samples of rapists and child molesters typically neglect to conduct…
Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Urbánek, Tomáš
Wien: FACULTAS Buchhandels und Verlags, 2003. s. 224. [European Congress of Psychology /8./. 06.07.2003-11.07.2003, Wien] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : longitudinal research * child behavior * Five-factor model of personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra
Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…
Appleyard, Karen; Egeland, Byron; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Sroufe, L. Alan
Background: Cumulative risk research has established the deleterious effects of co-occurring risk factors on child behavior outcomes. However, extant literature has not addressed potential differential effects of cumulative risk at different points in development and has left open questions about whether a threshold model or a linear risk model…
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.
Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…
A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons); T.M. Achenbach (Thomas); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population sampl
Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.
This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…
McGough, JJ; McCracken, JT; Cho, AL; Castelo, E; Sturm, A; Cowen, J; Piacentini, J; Loo, SK
Objective The Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL/DP) identifies youth at increased risk for significant psychopathology. Although the genetic architecture and several biological correlates of the CBCL/DP have been described, little work has elucidated its underlying neurobiology. We examined the potential utility of electroencephalography (EEG), along with behavioral and cognitive assessments, in differentiating individuals based on the CBCL/DP. Method Participants aged 7 to...
Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.
Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...
Peyer, Karissa L.; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang
Abstract Background: A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may r...
O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace
Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412
Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S
Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775
Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh Prasad; Wissow, Lawrence S; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A
Commonly used paradigms for studying child psychopathology emphasize individual-level factors and often neglect the role of context in shaping risk and protective factors among children, families, and communities. To address this gap, we evaluated influences of ecocultural contextual factors on definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems and examined how contextual knowledge can inform culturally responsive interventions. We drew on Super and Harkness' "developmental niche" framework to evaluate the influences of physical and social settings, childcare customs and practices, and parental ethnotheories on the definitions, development of, and responses to child behavior problems in a community in rural Nepal. Data were collected between February and October 2014 through in-depth interviews with a purposive sampling strategy targeting parents (N = 10), teachers (N = 6), and community leaders (N = 8) familiar with child-rearing. Results were supplemented by focus group discussions with children (N = 9) and teachers (N = 8), pile-sort interviews with mothers (N = 8) of school-aged children, and direct observations in homes, schools, and community spaces. Behavior problems were largely defined in light of parents' socialization goals and role expectations for children. Certain physical settings and times were seen to carry greater risk for problematic behavior when children were unsupervised. Parents and other adults attempted to mitigate behavior problems by supervising them and their social interactions, providing for their physical needs, educating them, and through a shared verbal reminding strategy (samjhaune). The findings of our study illustrate the transactional nature of behavior problem development that involves context-specific goals, roles, and concerns that are likely to affect adults' interpretations and responses to children's behavior. Ultimately, employing a developmental niche framework will elucidate setting
Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ontai, Lenna L.
This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined mechanisms proposed to explain continuities in parenting behavior across 2 generations (G1, G2). Data came from 187 G2 adults, their mothers (G1), and their children (G3). Prospective information regarding G2 was collected both during adolescence and early adulthood. G1 data were collected…
Bunger, Alicia C; Cao, Yiwen; Girth, Amanda M; Hoffman, Jill; Robertson, Hillary A
This qualitative study examines worker perceptions of how public child welfare agencies' purchase of service contracts with private behavioral health organizations can both facilitate and constrain referral making and children's access to services. Five, 90-min focus groups were conducted with workers (n = 50) from an urban public child welfare agency in the Midwest. Using a modified grounded theory approach, findings suggest that contracts may expedite service linkages, but contract benefits are conditioned upon design and implementation. Results also suggest the critical role of front line workers in carrying out contractual relationships. Implications for research and interventions for enhancing contracting are discussed. PMID:26427998
This presentation reviews psychologist Jean Piaget's contributions to knowledge of cognitive development in children, relating it to behavior management techniques. Piaget theorized that children's knowledge about reality is realized by touching and observing; he termed this constructivism. He recognized that there are stages of development in knowledge acquisition. Practitioners should try to stimulate these needs to develop a positive dental experience. Another Piaget model is egocentrism, wherein a child views the world subjectively. The dentist should let the child patient know what's going on and have an active part in treatment. PMID:11199558
Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children. PMID:17551896
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6–10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent traini...
Daniel J. Whitaker
Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.
Young, Margaret H.
Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...
Horan, Jacqueline M.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors—sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior—mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female;...
Luiselli, J K
This case study describes the functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a 14-year-old male child with a history of physical abuse. Evaluation was performed in a classroom within a residential school setting. Functional assessment in forms of indirect and descriptive methods was used to generate hypotheses regarding sources of behavioral control. A treatment plan that combined multi-level differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and positive reinforcement for task completion was implemented based on the outcome of functional assessment. Treatment was associated with a gradual and steady reduction in challenging behaviors with near-zero rates achieved at follow-up. This case provides an example of clinical intervention for behavior disorders commonly observed in children who have been abused physically and a hypothesis-driven model of treatment formulation. PMID:8814520
Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C
This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. PMID:25287585
van Dolen, Willemijn M.; Weinberg, Charles B.; Ma, Leiming
Objective: This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Methods: Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline ("De Kindertelefoon") in the Netherlands from 2003 to 2008 and on the…
Bodden, Denise H. M.; Bogels, Susan M.; Nauta, Maaike H.; De Hann, Else; Ringrose, Jaap; Appelboom, Carla; Brinkman, Andries G.; Appelboom-Geerts, Karen C. M. M. J.
Child-focused and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for 128 children with clinical anxiety disorders and their parents were compared in terms of efficacy and partial effectiveness. Results indicate that 53% of the children under the child CBT became free of anxiety disorders at posttreamtent compared to only 28% under family CBT.…
W.M. van Dolen; C.B. Weinberg; L. Ma
Objective This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Methods Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline (‘De Kindertelefoon’) i
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Manlove, Elizabeth E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of otitis media (OM) and the quality of child care on the social and communicative behaviors of toddlers, using a cumulative risk framework that included moderation. The study followed 72 children who began child care in infancy. Both process and structural aspects of the quality of 11 child…
Abrahamse, Mariëlle E.; Junger, Marianne; Wouwe, van Mirjam A.M.M.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramon J.L.
Parent management training programs have proven the most effective way to treat child behavior problems. This study reports on an effectiveness trial of a community-based implementation of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in comparison with the Dutch-developed Family Creative Therapy (FCT). F
Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.
Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among ...
Holtrop, Kendal; Smith, Sharde' Mcneil; Scott, Jenna C.
This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and pr...
Gunnar, Megan R.; Kryzer, Erin; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Phillips, Deborah A.
Children of ages 3 to 4.5 years (N = 107; 45 boys, 62 girls) were studied twice, 6 months apart, to examine whether the cortisol rise in child care at Time 1 (T1) was associated with (a) changes in anxious, vigilant behavior from T1 to Time 2 (T2) and (b) higher internalizing symptoms at T2. Controlling for measures of home environment and child…
DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Becky A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Antoine, Karla D.
This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care (n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed pro...
Emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive proc...
Epidemiologische Studien an Kindern und Jugendlichen mit intellektueller Behinderung zeigen eine deutlich erhöhte Rate von emotionalen Störungen und Verhaltensproblemen. Es fehlt aber bisher an standardisierten Beurteilungsverfahren, die für eine spezifische und objektive Diagnostik in dieser Gruppe geeignet wären. Es werden die Erfahrungen beim Einsatz der "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" in einer Gruppe von 246 Kindern zu Reliabilität, Übereinstimmung verschiedener Beurteiler, konverge...
Kemptner, Daniel; Marcus, Jan
This study investigates the effects of maternal education on child's health and health behavior. We draw on a rich German panel data set containing information about three generations. This allows instrumenting maternal education by the number of her siblings while conditioning on grandparental characteristics. The instrumental variables approach has not yet been used in the intergenerational context and works for the sample sizes of common household panels. We find substantial effects on hea...
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive a...
Crijnen, Alfons; Achenbach, Thomas; Verhulst, Frank
textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population samples in Australia, Belgium, China, Germany, Greece, Israel, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. RESULTS: Comparisons of nine cultures for subjects ages 6 through 17 gave medium effect s...
Karin Rechsteiner, MSc
Conclusions: This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314.
Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs. PMID:25469889
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the two eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, work- and middle-class families. On three occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the two siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers relative to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior relative to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers. PMID:22775198
Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the 2 eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, working- and middle-class families. On 3 occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the 2 siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers in relation to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior in relation to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers. PMID:22775198
Erath, Stephen A.; Bierman, Karen L.
Direct associations between aggressive marital conflict and child aggressive-disruptive behavior at home and school were explored in this cross-sectional study of 360 kindergarten children. In addition, mediated pathways linking aggressive marital conflict to maternal harsh punishment to child aggressive-disruptive behavior were examined. Moderation analyses explored how the overall frequency of marital disagreement might buffer or exacerbate the impact of aggressive marital conflict on mater...
Imami, Ledina; Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Lupro, Toni H.; Slatcher, Richard B.
Objective Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer behavioral and emotional outcomes in children with asthma. This study investigated the associations between maternal income and education and naturalistically observed behaviors and affect during everyday parent–child interactions. Methods 53 predominantly low-income youth with asthma, aged 10–17 years, wore a naturalistic event-sampling device, the Electronically Activated Recorder, for 4 days to assess mother and child positive ...
Lachman, J.; Cluver, L; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.
Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries...
Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry
This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environ...
Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting
This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777
Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting
This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Mills, Britain
This is a report of an examination of gender differences in behavior problems and a prediction of their changes from 2.5 to 3.5 years from mothering qualities among 209 low-income Hispanic children. Externalizing behaviors declined over this time somewhat more for girls than for boys. Fewer externalizing behavior problems at age 3.5 were…
Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C
Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a
Van Strien, Tatjana; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ouwens, Machteld A
To better understand whether the parental food controlling practices pressure and restriction to eat are obesity preventing or obesity promoting, this study examined whether these parenting practices are related to other (food or non-food) areas that are generally regarded as obesogenic or leptogenic. Are these foods controlling practices more indicative of obesogenic or leptogenic child life style behaviors? In a sample of 7-12-year-old boys and girls (n = 943) the perceived parental food controlling practices were related to various measures for unhealthy life style. Using factor analysis we assessed whether there is a constellation of lifestyle behaviors that is potentially obesogenic or leptogenic. Remarkably, perceived parental restriction and pressure loaded on two different factors. Perceived parental restriction to eat had a negative loading on a factor that further comprised potential obesogenic child life style behaviors, such as snacking (positive loading), time spend with screen media (television or computer) (positive loadings) and frequency of fruit consumption (negative loading). Perceived parental pressure to eat had a positive loading on a factor that further comprised potential leptogenic life style behaviors such as frequency of eating a breakfast meal and sporting (positive loadings). It is concluded that low perceived parental restriction in regard to food may perhaps be a sign of more uninvolved 'neglecting' or indulgent parenting/obesogenic home environment, whereas high perceived parental pressure to eat may be sign of a more 'concerned' leptogenic parenting/home environment, though more research into style of parenting is needed. PMID:19467280
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…
Full Text Available Alex Chatburn,1,2 Scott Coussens,1,2 Mark J Kohler1,3 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Health Network, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Children’s Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods: A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. Keywords: resilience, behavior, internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, depression, sleep
Stokes, Jocelyn O; Jent, Jason F; Weinstein, Allison; Davis, Eileen M; Brown, Tasha M; Cruz, Laura; Wavering, Hannah
The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the rate and type of parent-reported homework completion is associated with parent-report of child behavior outcomes, number of sessions to master parental skills as measured by therapist observation, and length of treatment in Parent-child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Sixty-two parent-child dyads (primary caregiver: Mage=36.35years, female 95.20%, 81.60% White, 59.57% Hispanic; child Mage=4.22years; child gender male 64.50%) who completed PCIT were included in the study. A within-subjects hierarchical regression statistical design was used to examine the impact of parent report of homework completion on treatment processes and outcomes. A higher rate of self-reported homework completion was predictive of parental mastery of skill acquisition in fewer sessions and treatment completion in fewer sessions. Parent report of homework completion rate was not related to changes in child disruptive behavior after controlling for child behavior at baseline. Current study findings reinforce the importance of having parents regularly practice PCIT skills outside of session in order to decrease treatment length and facilitate the acquisition of parenting skills, which may reduce family burdens associated with attending a weekly treatment. PMID:27423169
Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.
BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744
Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred
Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; John R. Seeley; Lewinsohn, Peter M.
Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2–18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1 grandparents. Results indicated that G1 MDD conferred risk for G2 MDD, but not for G3 CBCL scores. G2 MDD predicted higher G3 Internalizing and Anxious/Depre...
Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A
The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533
Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…
Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.
Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…
van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte
Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…
Giles, Lisa L.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Strakowski, Stephen M.
In order to recognize behavioral patterns in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder, this study examined Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profiles of bipolar offspring both with (BD group) and without ("at-risk" or AR group) bipolar disorder themselves. The BD youth had three CBCL subscale T scores greater than or equal to…
Armsden, Gay; Pecora, Peter J.; Payne, Vincent H.; Szatkiewicz, James P.
A study investigated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores for 362 children (ages 4-18) served in long-term family foster care by the Casey Family Program. Findings indicate that substantial proportions of children entering Casey scored in the borderline clinical or clinical range on some problem behavior scales. (Contains extensive references.)…
McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.
Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…
Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.
Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…
Silva, Liliane Aparecida Fagundes; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho; Matas, Carla Gentile
The purpose of this study was to longitudinally assess the behavioral and electrophysiological hearing changes of a girl inserted in a CI program, who had bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and underwent surgery of cochlear implantation with electrode activation at 21 months of age. She was evaluated using the P1 component of Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (LLAEP); speech perception tests of the Glendonald Auditory Screening Procedure (GASP); Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS); and Meaningful Use of Speech Scales (MUSS). The study was conducted prior to activation and after three, nine, and 18 months of cochlear implant activation. The results of the LLAEP were compared with data from a hearing child matched by gender and chronological age. The results of the LLAEP of the child with cochlear implant showed gradual decrease in latency of the P1 component after auditory stimulation (172 ms–134 ms). In the GASP, IT-MAIS, and MUSS, gradual development of listening skills and oral language was observed. The values of the LLAEP of the hearing child were expected for chronological age (132 ms–128 ms). The use of different clinical instruments allow a better understanding of the auditory habilitation and rehabilitation process via CI. PMID:26881163
Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta
Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...
Alcala, Hector Ernesto
Recent research has linked experiences of child abuse to cancer later in life. However much of the available research has failed to look at the independent effects of child abuse types (i.e. physical, sexual and emotional abuse) and does not attempt to test potential reasons for this association. To address these shortcomings, the purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of three health behaviors (i.e. smoking, overweight or obesity and alcohol drinking) and two measures of so...
Moylan, Carrie A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Sousa, Cindy; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examines the effects of child abuse and domestic violence exposure in childhood on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Data for this analysis are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective study of 457 youth addressing outcomes of family violence and resilience in individuals and families. Results show that child abuse, domestic violence, and both in combination (i.e., dual exposure) increase a child’s risk for internalizing and externalizing outcomes in ad...
Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi
Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...
Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L
A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550
Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane
Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…
Bell, Tessa; Romano, Elisa; Flynn, Robert J
Children living in out-of-home care have experienced a multitude of adversities, often resulting in compromised functioning. The current study used Ontario Looking After Children (OnLAC) project data to estimate developmental trajectories of behavioral outcomes (i.e., conduct and emotional problems) over a 4-year period (i.e., ages 6-10 to 9-13) in 313 children living in out-of-home care. Predictors measured at baseline (e.g., sex) and across the subsequent 4-year period (e.g., parenting practices) were also investigated. Findings indicated that 64.2% and 58.6% followed resilient trajectories for conduct behaviors and emotional functioning, respectively. Predictors of resilient trajectories included internal developmental assets, number of children in the home, whether the child was receiving treatment, and positive parenting. Findings need to be interpreted with an understanding that children in out-of-home care have varying levels of functioning across various domains (e.g., educational, social) other than the ones measured here. Predictors were static and dynamic and cut across various contexts, emphasizing the importance of considering child functioning within an ecological model. PMID:26002600
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25911092
Lioret Sandrine; Campbell Karen J; Crawford David; Spence Alison C; Hesketh Kylie; McNaughton Sarah A
Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as w...
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A
Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote positive nonviolent
Michaela L Scroggins
Full Text Available This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.
Brammer, Whitney A; Jezior, Kristen L; Lee, Steve S
Although the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with externalizing behavior, its mediating pathways are unknown. Given their sensitivity to serotonin neurotransmission and unique association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), we tested callous-unemotional (CU) traits and narcissism as separate mediators of the association of 5-HTTLPR with ADHD and ODD. We evaluated 209 5-9 year-old children with and without ADHD at baseline; approximately 2 years later (i.e., Wave 2), parents and teachers separately rated ADHD and ODD symptoms and youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Controlling for race-ethnicity and baseline ADHD/ODD, narcissism uniquely mediated predictions of multi-informant rated Wave 2 ADHD and ODD from variation in 5-HTTLPR; CU traits mediated predictions of Wave 2 ADHD from variations in 5-HTTLPR, but did not mediate the associations of 5-HTTLPR with ODD or youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Specifically, the number of 5-HTTLPR long alleles positively predicted CU traits and narcissism; narcissism was positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD and ODD symptoms, whereas CU traits were positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD. Child sex also moderated indirect effects of CU traits and narcissism, such that narcissism mediated predictions of ADHD/ODD in girls but not boys. Psychopathic traits may represent a relevant pathway underlying predictions of prospective change in ADHD and ODD from 5-HTTLPR, particularly in girls. We consider the role of psychopathic traits as a potential intermediate phenotype in genetically sensitive studies of child psychopathology. Aggr. Behav. 42:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990675
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...
Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H
To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification. PMID:24337863
Gorenstein, Gabriela; Gorenstein, Clarice; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke
This study aimed to investigate the impact of child-focused pediatric OCD treatment on parental anxiety, family accommodation and family environment. Forty-three parents (72.1% female, mean age±SD=43.1±5.6 years) were evaluated at baseline and after their children's (n=33, 54.5% female, mean age±SD=12.9±2.7 years) randomized treatment with Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or fluoxetine for 14 weeks. Validated instruments were administered by trained clinicians. Parents were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was administered to children. Significant findings after the children's treatment include decreased family accommodation levels (participation, modification and distress/consequences domains); increased cohesion and active-recreational components of the family environment. In addition, changes in the FAS distress/consequences and the FES cohesion subscores were correlated with the children's clinical improvement. These results suggest that child-focused OCD treatment may have a positive impact on family accommodation and family environment. Future studies should further clarify the reciprocal influences of pediatric OCD treatment and family factors. PMID:26216164
Full Text Available The number of complaints filed by parents against their children nationwide has increased dramatically, particularly since 2005. The aim of this study was to examine whether young offenders who had been charged for violence against their parents presented different psychological problems from youngsters charged with other types of offence and non-offenders. Data from 231 adolescents of both sexes aged 14 to 18 years and living in the Basque Country (Spain were analyzed. Of these, 106 were offenders and the rest were from a community sample. Some of the offenders had been charged with child-to-parent violence (n = 59, while the rest of them had not (n = 47. Offenders who had assaulted or abused their parents presented more behavior problems outside home and more characteristics associated with depressive symptomatology than offenders of other types or non-offenders. Certain psychological problems in adolescents could precipitate family conflict situations and leave parents unable to control their children. Findings highlight the need for offenders charged with child-to-parent violence to receive individual psychological therapy.
Rezendes, Debra L.; Angela Scarpa
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience increases in stress, depression, and anxiety, which are also associated with child behavior problems related to ASDs. Literature-examining potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship of child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression in this population are scarce. The current study sought to examine the roles of parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy as mediators between child behavio...
Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena
Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974251
Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.
An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…
McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen; Roland, Erin; Hardcastle, Emily; Compas, Bruce
The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the relations between three specific parenting behaviors (warmth, monitoring, and discipline) and two child outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems) within the context of parental depression. Using an approach recommended by A. Caron, B. Weiss, V. Harris, and T. Carron (2006),…
van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Egeland, Byron
We compared the predictive validity of five aggregation methods for multiple informant data on child and adolescent behavior problems. In addition, we compared the predictive validity of these aggregation methods with single informant scores. Data were derived from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 175). Maternal and…