Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T; Friggens, N;
IBDV and E. coli (I+E+). Body weight gain was depressed by IBDV immunization as well as E. coli inoculation. The depression of BW gain was significantly larger in L-type chickens compared with H-type chickens. The antibody response to E. coli was significantly depressed by IBDV vaccination and antibody...
Juul-Madsen, Helle R.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;
. Serum MBL levels also influenced IBV vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations. Moreover, addition of mannose to an IBV vaccine altered both vaccine-induced changes in circulating T-cell populations and IBV specific vaccine and infection-induced antibody responses in chickens with high...... serum MBL levels. These data demonstrate that MBL is involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response to IBV....
Moslem, Maryam; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Kheradmand, Alireza
Background: Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods: The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz) using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results: In this study, 45 (13.4 %) urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females). The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%), followed by C. glabrata (32.1%), C. tropicalis (9.4%), other Candida species (22.6%), and Rhodotorula species (1.9%). The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria. PMID:26870314
Full Text Available Background Candida species are normal mycoflora of human body which are capable to cause urinary tract infection (UTI. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is a kind of innate immune system and decreasing plasma levels of MBL may disrupt the natural immune response and increase susceptibility to infections. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess MBL in the serum of patients with candiduria and compare them with control. Patients and Methods The blood and urine samples were collected from 335 patients (hospitalized in Golestan hospital, Ahvaz using standard methods and the growing colonies on CHROMagar were identified using routine diagnostic tests. MBL activity in the serum of 45 patients with candiduria and 45 controls was measured using Eastbiopharm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results In this study, 45 (13.4 % urine samples were positive for Candida species (17 males and 28 females. The most common isolated yeast was Candida albicans (34%, followed by C. glabrata (32.1%, C. tropicalis (9.4%, other Candida species (22.6%, and Rhodotorula species (1.9%. The mean serum levels of MBL were 0.85 ± 0.01 ng/mL and 1.02 ± 0.03 ng/mL among candiduric patients and controls, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.6. Conclusions Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between MBL serum levels and candiduria.
Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie L; Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Kjærup, Rikke B; Okimoto, Ron; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Maurischat, Sven; Sørensen, Poul; Dalgaard, Tina S
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key molecule in innate immunity. MBL binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens, initiating the complement system via the lectin-dependent pathway or facilitates opsonophagocytosis. In vivo studies using inbred chicken lines differing in MBL serum concentration indicate that chicken MBL affects Salmonella resistance; further studies are imperative in conventional broiler chickens. In this study 104 conventional day-old chickens (offspring from a cross between Cobb 500 male and female parent breeders) were orally infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo. The chickens were divided into two groups based on polymorphisms in their MBL promoter region, designated L/L for low serum concentrations of MBL and L/H for medium serum concentrations of MBL. A semi-quantitative real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in cloacal swabs was used, the log10 CFU quantification was based on a standard curve from artificially spiked cloacal swab samples pre-incubated for 8 h with known concentrations of Salmonella ranging from 10(1) to 10(6) CFU/swabs, with an obtained amplification efficiency of 102% and a linear relationship between the log10 CFU and the threshold cycle Ct values of (R(2) = 0.99). The L/L chickens had significantly higher Log10 CFU/swab at week 5 post infection (pi) than the L/H chickens. A repetition of the study with 86 L/L and 18 L/H chickens, also gave significantly higher log10 CFU ± SEM in cloacal swabs, using the semi-quantitative real-time PCR method from L/L chickens than from the L/H chickens at week 5 pi. These results indicate that genetically determined basic levels of MBL may influence S. Montevideo susceptibility. PMID:26994208
K.A. Miranda; L.R.S. Vasconcelos; L.C.B.B. Coelho; J.L. Lima Filho; M. S. M. Cavalcanti; Moura, P.
The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates...
Troelsen, Lone N; Garred, Peter; Christiansen, Buris; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Jacobsen, Søren
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to accelerated atherosclerosis that cannot be attributed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors alone. Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) causing low serum concentrat......Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to accelerated atherosclerosis that cannot be attributed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors alone. Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2) causing low serum...... concentrations of functional mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are associated with SLE and development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies show that these variant alleles are associated with increased risk of arterial thrombosis and cardiovascular disease in patients with SLE. Intima-media thickness of the common...
Full Text Available The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates were coated with monoclonal antibody to MBL and bound MBL or recombinant human MBL were detected by rabbit anti-human MBL serum. HRPO-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody was used for detection of the reaction. Two groups of patients seen at referral hospitals in Recife, PE, Brazil, were divided according to the year of infection, 2001 (N = 61 or 2002 (N = 57 and compared in terms of disease severity and levels of serum MBL. A group of healthy volunteers (N = 97 matched by age, gender, and ethnic background was used as control. Patients infected in 2001 had more severe outcomes than those infected in 2002, including jaundice, hemorrhage, respiratory alteration, and renal complication (P = 0.0009; chi-square test. The frequency of patients producing serum MBL >1000 ng/mL was higher in the 2001 group than in the 2002 and control groups (P < 0.01, suggesting an association of MBL level with disease severity. The involvement of MBL and genetic variation of the MBL2 gene should be further evaluated to establish the role of this lectin in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.
Troelsen, Lone N; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O.;
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have excess morbidity and mortality due to ischemic heart disease. It has been suggested that high serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and agalactosyl IgG (IgG-G0) are associated with increased inflammation in RA. MBL also enhances inflammation......-mediated tissue injury during postischemic reperfusion. This study was undertaken to examine whether these factors are associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease in RA....
Eisen, Damon P; Dean, Melinda M; Boermeester, Marja A;
MBL-deficient patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection (odds ratio, 5.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-24.92) after adjustment for bacteremia, comorbidities, and age. CONCLUSIONS: We defined a serum level for MBL deficiency that can be used with confidence in future studies of MBL disease...... associations. The risk of death was increased among MBL-deficient patients with severe pneumococcal infection, highlighting the pathogenic significance of this innate immune defence protein....
Ulrich-Lynge, Sofie Louise; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;
cloacal swabs and the number of Salmonella positive chickens during the experiment was significantly higher in L10L than L10H, indicating that MBL may affect the magnitude of Salmonella colonisation in day-old chickens. MBL expression was determined in ceca tissue by real-time RT-PCR. L10H chickens showed...... differences between healthy L10H and L10L chicken sublines were more profound than differences caused by the S. Infantis infection. The average daily body weight was higher for L10H than for L10L, regardless of infection, indicating beneficial effects of MBL selection on growth. Salmonella was detected in...
Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Sørensen, Poul; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl
MBL participates in the protection of hosts against virus infections. Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious disease of economic importance in the poultry industry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). MBL has earlier been described to play a potential role in the...
MBL (mannose-binding lectin) is primarily a liver-derived collagen-like serum protein. It binds sugar structures on micro-organisms and on dying host cells and is one of the four known mediators that initiate activation of the complement system via the lectin pathway. Common variant alleles...
Choteau, Laura; Vasseur, Francis; Lepretre, Frederic; Figeac, Martin; Gower-Rousseau, Corine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Poulain, Daniel; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir
Mannose-binding lectin, together with mannose-associated serine proteases, activates the lectin pathway of the complement system and subsequent inflammatory mechanisms. An association between mannose-binding lectin deficiency and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody levels is observed in Crohn’s disease and this deficiency is frequently associated with a severe Crohn’s disease phenotype. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between serum concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, mannose-binding lectin functional activity, MBL2 and NOD2 polymorphisms, anti-S. cerevisiae antibody levels and clinical Crohn’s disease phenotype in 69 Crohn’s disease patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The results show that the MBL2 variant rs5030737 at codon 52 was associated with a low level of mannose-binding lectin and impaired mannose-binding lectin–mannose-associated serine protease (MBL-MASP) functional activity in Crohn’s disease patients. This MBL2 variant was also associated with a higher level of anti-S. cerevisiae antibodies. In addition, the NOD2 variant rs2066844, which is associated with susceptibility to Crohn’s disease, was significantly correlated with an impairment in MBL-MASP functional activity. These results provide evidence that Crohn’s disease patients have an impairment in MBL-MASP functional activity and that this defect is associated with MBL2 and NOD2 variants. PMID:27404661
Choteau, Laura; Vasseur, Francis; Lepretre, Frederic; Figeac, Martin; Gower-Rousseau, Corine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Poulain, Daniel; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir
Mannose-binding lectin, together with mannose-associated serine proteases, activates the lectin pathway of the complement system and subsequent inflammatory mechanisms. An association between mannose-binding lectin deficiency and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody levels is observed in Crohn's disease and this deficiency is frequently associated with a severe Crohn's disease phenotype. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between serum concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, mannose-binding lectin functional activity, MBL2 and NOD2 polymorphisms, anti-S. cerevisiae antibody levels and clinical Crohn's disease phenotype in 69 Crohn's disease patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The results show that the MBL2 variant rs5030737 at codon 52 was associated with a low level of mannose-binding lectin and impaired mannose-binding lectin-mannose-associated serine protease (MBL-MASP) functional activity in Crohn's disease patients. This MBL2 variant was also associated with a higher level of anti-S. cerevisiae antibodies. In addition, the NOD2 variant rs2066844, which is associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, was significantly correlated with an impairment in MBL-MASP functional activity. These results provide evidence that Crohn's disease patients have an impairment in MBL-MASP functional activity and that this defect is associated with MBL2 and NOD2 variants. PMID:27404661
Ma, Ying Jie; Doni, Andrea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole;
recruitment of C1q, but this was not seen for the MBL-SAP complex. However, both MBL-PTX3 and MBL-SAP complexes enhanced C4 and C3 deposition and opsonophagocytosis of Candida albicans by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Interaction between MBL and PTX3 led to communication between the lectin and classical......The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), serum amyloid P component (SAP), and C-reactive protein belong to the pentraxin family of pattern recognition molecules involved in tissue homeostasis and innate immunity. They interact with C1q from the classical complement pathway. Whether this also occurs via the...
Bay, J T; Garred, P
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein, which functions as an opsonin and initiator of the lectin pathway of complement. The serum concentration of MBL shows great interindividual variation because of common polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. Although several quantitative MBL immunoassays...
Kahlow, Barbara Stadler; Nery, Rodrigo Araldi; Skare, Thelma L; Ribas, Carmen Australia Paredes Marcondes; Ramos, Gabriela Piovezani; Petisco, Roberta Dombroski
Mannose binding lectin is a lectin instrumental in the innate immunity. It recognizes carbohydrate patterns found on the surface of a large number of pathogenic micro-organisms, activating the complement system. However, this protein seems to increase the tissue damage after ischemia. In this paper is reviewed some aspects of harmful role of the mannose binding lectin in ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27120743
Jacobsen, Soren; Baslund, Bo; Madsen, Hans Ole;
To determine whether variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene causing low serum concentrations of MBL and/or polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 are associated with increased susceptibility to polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) or particular clinical phenotypes of PMR/GCA....
Hamzic, Edin; Kjærup, Rikke Brødsgaard; Mach, Núria;
. Conclusions Healthy animals from the two lines showed significant differences in expression profiles for subsets of both adaptive and innate immunity related genes. Whereas, comparison of the IBV infected birds from the two MBL lines showed differences in expression of immunity related genes involved in T....... Sixteen birds from each line were infected with IBV on day 1 and birds were euthanized at 1 week and 3 weeks post infection, 8 uninfected controls and 8 infected birds from each line at each occasion. RNA sequencing was performed on spleen samples from all 64 birds used in the experiment. Differential...... performed using Gene Ontology (GO) Immune System Process terms specific for Gallus gallus. Results Comparing uninfected L10H and L10L birds, we identified 1698 and 1934 differentially expressed (DE) genes at week 1 and week 3, respectively. For the IBV infected birds 1698 and 1934 DE genes were identified...
Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Madsen, Hans O; Garred, Peter;
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins activate the complement cascade, which is involved in atherogenesis. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2) leading to dysfunctional protein are related to development of myocardial infarction (MI). The...
Polotsky, V Y; Fischer, W; Ezekowitz, R A; Joiner, K A
We explored the interaction of human recombinant mannose-binding protein and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The best ligand was Micrococcus luteus lipomannan, followed by Enterococcus spp. LTA containing mono-, di-, and oligoglucosyl substituents. LTAs lacking terminal sugars (those of Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) or containing galactosyl substituents (those of Listeria spp. and Lactococcus spp.) were poor ligands. These results are consis...
Figueiredo, Gabriela G; Cezar, Renata D; Freire, Naishe M; Teixeira, Vanessa G; Baptista, Paulo; Cordeiro, Marli; Carmo, Rodrigo F; Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson Silva; Moura, Patrícia
Dengue is the main arbovirosis in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The majority of infected individuals present an asymptomatic outcome while others progress to dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Dengue infection evolution to severe outcomes is in part, related to innate immunity response. The MBL2 gene encodes for a pathogen recognition pattern molecule, the mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Variant alleles at promoter and structural regions of the MBL2 are related to serum MBL levels and function. Due to the important inflammatory modulation role of MBL, MBL2 polymorphisms could influence dengue progression. Therefore, this study investigated associations of MBL2 polymorphisms and serum MBL levels in patients with dengue. Genotyping of promoter and structural regions of MBL2 was performed by real-time PCR using Taqman® probes in 161 patients presenting DF or DHF outcome. For the serum MBL determination a commercial ELISA kit was used. The variant OO genotype and O allele were associated with DHF (p=0.008 and p=0.009 respectively). Haplotypes correlated to MBL low levels were associated with DHF (p=0.04). Our results support the hypothesis that patients carrying genotypes or haplotypes of low production of MBL would be more susceptible to DHF. PMID:27180198
Pągowska-Klimek, Izabela; Świerzko, Anna S; Michalski, Mateusz; Moll, Maciej; Szala-Poździej, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech R; Cedzyński, Maciej
We investigated MBL2 and MASP2 genotypes, serum MBL (mannose-binding lectin) levels and activities of its complexes with associated serine proteases (MASP-1, MASP -2), in relation to complications following cardiac surgery in 195 children. The incidence of SIRS was lower in patients carrying MBL2 A/O and O/O genotypes (p=0.024). Children with MBL levels 30) (p=0.021). Thus, low MBL concentrations and associated genotypes may protect patients from systemic inflammation while high MBL serum levels and corresponding genotypes are risk factors of postoperative complications. PMID:26382056
Øhlenschlaeger, Tommy; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O;
Cardiovascular disease is an important complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Variant alleles of the mannose-binding lectin gene are associated with SLE as well as with severe atherosclerosis. We determined whether mannose-binding lectin variant alleles were associated...
Garred, P; Madsen, H O; Halberg, P;
To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections.......To determine whether variant alleles in the coding portion of the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene are associated with increased susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and concomitant infections....
Goti, Giulio; Palmioli, Alessandro; Stravalaci, Matteo; Sattin, Sara; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Gobbi, Marco; Bernardi, Anna
Antagonists of mannose binding lectin (MBL) have shown a protective role against brain reperfusion damage after acute ischemic stroke. Here we describe the design and streamlined synthesis of glycomimetic MBL antagonists based on a new tetravalent dendron scaffold. The dendron was developed by optimisation of a known polyester structure previously demonstrated to be very efficient for ligand presentation to MBL. Replacement of a labile succinyl ester bond with a more robust amide functionality, use of a longer and more hydrophilic linker, fast modular synthesis and orthogonal functionalisation at the focal point are the main features of the new scaffold. The glycoconjugate constructs become stable to silica gel chromatography and to water solutions at physiological pH, while preserving water solubility and activity in an SPR assay against the murine MBL-C isoform. Higher-order constructs were easily assembled, as demonstrated by the synthesis of a 16-valent dendrimer, which leads to two orders of magnitude increase in activity over the tetravalent version against MBL-C. PMID:26696414
Mishra, Anshuman; Antony, Justin S; Gai, Prabhanjan; Sundaravadivel, Pandarisamy; Van, Tong Hoang; Jha, Aditya Nath; Singh, Lalji; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania donovani is endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Mannose-binding Lectin (MBL) is a complement lectin protein that binds to the surface of Leishmania promastigotes and results in activation of the complement lectin cascade. We utilized samples of 218 VL patients and 215 healthy controls from an Indian population. MBL2 functional variants were genotyped and the circulating MBL serum levels were measured. MBL serum levels were elevated in patients compared to the healthy controls (adjusted P=0.007). The MBL2 promoter variants -78C/T and +4P/Q were significantly associated with relative protection to VL (-78C/T, OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5-0.96, adjusted P=0.026 and +4P/Q, OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.48-0.9, adjusted P=0.012). MBL2*LYQA haplotypes occurred frequently among controls (OR=0.69, 95% CI=0.5-0.97, adjusted P=0.034). MBL recognizes Leishmania and plays a relative role in establishing L. donovani infection and subsequent disease progression. In conclusion, MBL2 functional variants were associated with VL. PMID:26297290
The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (570C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines
Mannose-binding proteins have been isolated from the liver of rats and humans and subsequently been found in the serum of rats, rabbits, and humans. We report the isolation of cDNA clones isolated from a human liver cDNA library that encodes a human mannose-binding protein. The primary structure has three domains: (a) an NH2-terminal cysteine-rich segment of 19 amino acids which appears to be involved in the formation of interchain disulfide bonds that would stabilize multimeric forms of the ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL activates complement system and has been suggested to play a role in vascular complications in diabetics. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT detects subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association of MBL and IMT in type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients. Methods. Serum MBL levels and cIMT were measured in a total of 103 diabetics and in 98 age-matched healthy controls. Results. There was no significant difference in MBL level in T2DM versus controls. As expected, IMT was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in controls (P=0.001. In T2DM, the lowest cIMT was seen in patients with normal MBL level (500–1000 while cIMT continuously increased with both high MBL and absolute MBL deficiency states. This was especially significant in high MBL versus normal MBL T2DM patients (P=0.002. According to multiple regression analysis the main predictors of IMT in T2DM are age (P<0.003, ApoA level (P=0.023, and the MBL (P=0.036. Conclusions. Our results suggest a dual role of MBL as a risk factor for cIMT in T2DM. MBL may also be used as a marker of macrovascular disease, as both low and high levels indicate the susceptibility for atherosclerosis in T2DM.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA-stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.
Świerzko, Anna S; Bartłomiejczyk, Marcin A; Brzostek, Anna; Łukasiewicz, Jolanta; Michalski, Mateusz; Dziadek, Jarosław; Cedzyński, Maciej
The pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) able to activate complement via the lectin pathway are suspected to be involved in the interaction between pathogenic Mycobacteria and the host immune response. Recently, we have found strong interactions between 25 and 35kDa mycobacterial cell fractions and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Here we demonstrate that two biologically important mycobacterial structures, mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, induce activation of the lectin pathway of complement. The strong interaction of recombinant MBL with purified ManLAM was confirmed, but no binding of recombinant ficolins (ficolin-1, -2, -3) with this structure was observed. Interestingly, all PRMs tested reacted with the mycobacterial antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Based on the use of specific inhibitors (mannan for MBL, acetylated bovine serum albumin for ficolin-1 and -2, Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 lipopolysaccharide for ficolin-3), we concluded that carbohydrate-recognition (MBL) and fibrinogen-like domains (ficolins) were involved in these interactions. Our results indicate that the mycobacterial antigen 85 complex is a target for ficolins and MBL. Furthermore, those PRMs also bound to fibronectin and therefore might influence the Ag85 complex-dependent interaction of Mycobacterium with the extracellular matrix. PMID:27141819
Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the association between mannose-binding lectin (MBL gene polymorphism and serum levels with infection by HIV-1. METHODS: Blood samples (5mL were collected from 97 HIV-1-infected individuals resident in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil, who attended the Special Outpatient Unit for Infections and Parasitic Diseases (URE-DIPE. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and plasma viral load were quantified. A 349bp fragment of exon 1 of the MBL was amplified via PCR, using genomic DNA extracted from controls and HIV-1-infected individuals, following established protocols. MBL plasma levels of the patients were quantified using an enzyme immunoassay kit. RESULTS: Two alleles were observed: MBL*O, with a frequency of 26.3% in HIV-1-infected individuals; and the wild allele MBL*A (73.7%. Similar frequencies were observed in the control group (p > 0.05. Genotype frequencies were distributed according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both groups. Mean MBL plasma levels varied by genotype, with statistically significant differences between the AA and AO (p 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that MBL gene polymorphism or low plasma MBL concentrations might have a direct influence on HIV-1 infection, although a broader study involving a large number of patients is needed.
Wang, X.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kaji, H.; Saito, J.; Tanino, Y.; Ishida, T.; Munakata, M. [Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan)
Infection, immunity and genetic factors play roles in the development of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) and progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). We investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the key molecules of innate immunity, is associated with the susceptibility to CWP. MBL2 polymorphisms (codon54, promoter -221, and -550) were assessed for 197 patients with CWP (119 with nodular CWP and 78 with PMF) and 153 unexposed regional controls. Serum MBL concentrations were measured in 119 CWP patients. Three polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium for all study populations. The MBL2 genotype and haplotypes were associated with lower serum MBL levels. The frequency of such MBL2 genotype and haplotypes were significantly higher in patients with CWP compared to controls, whereas these distributions were not different between patients with nodular CWP and those with PMF. MBL2 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be one of the genetic determinants for the susceptibility of CWP.
Guoyin Kai; Lingxia Zhao; Jingui Zheng; Lei Zhang; Zhiqi Miao; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tanga
In this paper, we report the cloning and characterization of the first mannose-binding lectin gene from a gymnosperm plant species, Taxus media. The full-length cDNA of T. media agglutinin (TMA) consisted of 676 bp and contained a 432 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 144 amino acid protein. Comparative analysis showed that TMA had high homology with many previously reported plant mannose-binding lectins and that tma encoded a precursor lectin with a 26-aa signal peptide. Molecular modelling revealed that TMA was a new mannose-binding lectin with three typical mannose-binding boxes like lectins from species of angiosperms. Tissue expression pattern analyses revealed that tma is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in leaves and stems, but not in fruits and roots. Phylogenetic tree analyses showed that TMA belonged to the structurally and evolutionarily closely related monocot mannose-binding lectin superfamily. This study provides useful information to understand the molecular evolution of plant lectins.
Møller-Kristensen, Mette; Ip, WK; Shi, L;
Burn injury disrupts the mechanical and biological barrier that the skin presents against infection by symbionts like the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacteria. A combination of local factors, antimicrobial peptides, and resident effector cells form the initial response to mechanical...... injury of the skin. This activity is followed by an inflammatory response that includes influx of phagocytes and serum factors, such as complement and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), which is a broad-spectrum pattern recognition molecule that plays a key role in innate immunity. A growing consensus from...... that MBL plays a key role in containing and preventing a systemic spread of P. aeruginosa infection following burn injury and suggests that MBL deficiency in humans maybe a premorbid variable in the predisposition to infection in burn victims....
Ilonka. H. van Veen
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that activation of the complement system in asthma contributes to ongoing inflammation, tissue damage and airway remodeling. Mannose binding lectin (MBL is a pattern recognition molecule that serves as the key mediator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. MBL levels are genetically determined and vary widely amongst individuals. In the present study we hypothesized that high MBL levels in asthma are associated with increased loss of lung function over time, as a consequence of inflammatory tissue damage. We measured serum MBL levels by ELISA in 68 patients with severe asthma and prospectively determined the change in post-bronchodilator (pb FEV1 over a mean period of 5.7 years. The relationship between MBL and change in pbFEV1 (FEV1 was analysed using (multiple regression analysis and corrected for possible confounders (age, sex, age of onset, asthma duration, and pbFEV1. The median (range MBL level was 332 (10.8-3587 ng·ml–1. MBL was significantly associated with FEV1 (p<0.04. Patients with a high MBL level (332 ng·ml–1 had an increased risk of lung function decline compared to those with low MBL levels (OR (CI: 3.16 (1.14-8.79, p = 0.027; the excess decline being 42 ml·yr–1 (p = 0.01. We conclude that a high MBL level is associated with an increased decline in lung function in patients with severe asthma. MBL might provide a clue towards better understanding of the pathophysiology of ongoing inflammation and subsequent decline in lung function of patients with severe asthma.
Farrokhi, Mehrdad; Dabirzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Dastravan, Nastaran; Etemadifar, Masoud; Ghadimi, Keyvan; Saadatpour, Zahra; Rezaei, Ali
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with variable phenotypic presentations, while Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is the prototypic acute inflammatory disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a T cell dependent and antibody mediated autoimmune disease. Although it has been shown that complement plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of MS, GBS, and MG, the role of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) as a biomarker of immunopathogensis of these diseases and also its association with the severity of them have been poorly investigated. Therefore, in this study we aimed to measure plasma levels of MBL in patients with MS, GBS, and MG. In a case-control study, plasma was obtained from healthy controls (n=100) and also patients with MS (n=120), GBS (n=30), and MG (n=30). Plasma level measurement of MBL was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum level of MBL was significantly different between groups of patients and healthy controls (p<0.001). We also found a positive correlation between plasma levels of MBL and severity scores of MS, MG, and GBS patients including: expanded disability status scale (EDSS) (r=+0.60 and p=<0.001), quantitative myasthenia gravis score (QMGS) (r=+0.56 and p=0.01), and GBS disability scale (GDS) (r=+0.37 and p=0.04). Taken together, our findings suggest that complement activation mediated by MBL contributes to the pathogenesis and also severity of MS, MG, and GBS. However, because the lectin pathway can be involved in several phases of the immune response, further evidence will be required to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:27424141
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.
Christiansen, Ole B; Nielsen, Henriette S; Lund, Marie;
BACKGROUND: Low levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) predispose to various infectious and inflammatory disorders and have been reported to be associated with recurrent early miscarriages. Recurrent late pregnancy losses (RLPL) in the second trimester is a rare but devastating syndrome where...
J. Israëls; F.N.J. Frakking; L.C.M. Kremer; M. Offringa; T.W. Kuijpers; M.D. van de Wetering
The authors systematically reviewed the literature on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and infections in newborns to determine whether infection risk is increased in MBL-deficient newborns. All original reports on MBL and infections in newborns were retrieved from Embase, Medline and CENTRAL from 1966 t
The relationship between polymorphisms in the promoter region of mannose binding lectin (MBL) gene and the serum levels of MBL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. The polymorphism of alleles-550(H/L) and-221(X/Y) in the promoter region of MBL gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (SSP-PCR) in 62 patients with SLE and 54 healthy controls. The serum level of MBL was also determined by ELISA. The results showed that three haplotypes, HY, LY and LX, were presented in both groups. The frequency of haplotype LX in SLE patients were significantly higher than that in healthy control(OR, 2.23; 95% CI,1.09-4.55; P=0.02). The serum level of MBL in SLE patients with genotype HY/HY was significantly higher than that in the patients with other genotypes (LY/LY, LX/LX, HY/LY, HY/LX and LY/LX, P<0.05). There was a significant difference for the percentage of subjects with MBL level in serum lower than 1000 μg/L between SLE patients (40.32%) and controls (14.81%) (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.57-9.62; P=0.002). Therefore, low serum level of MBL in SLE patients may be associated with increased frequency of haplotype LX. (authors)
Morrison, Helena; Frye, Jennifer; Davis-Gorman, Grace; Funk, Janet; McDonagh, Paul; Stahl, Gregory; Ritter, Leslie
After complement system (CS) activation, the sequential production of complement products increases cell injury and death through opsonophagocytosis, cytolysis, adaptive, and inflammatory cell responses. These responses potentiate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury after ischemic stroke and reperfusion. Activation of the CS via mannose binding lectin (MBL)-initiated lectin pathway is known to increase tissue damage in response to IR in muscle, myocardium and intestine tissue. In contra...
Bouwman, Lee Hans
The scope of the current thesis is to obtain insight in immunological aspects of transplantation and diabetes. This thesis underscores the current concept of collaboration between the innate and adaptive immune system by showing close interactions between both immune systems. Mannose binding lectin as a major recognition molecule of the lectin pathway and as a key protein of the immune system was studied in relation to its functional characteristics. Appreciating the Jekyll-and-Hyde character...
Full Text Available Osmolarity is a colligative property of solutions that depends on the number ofdissolved particles. The three types of solutes most encountered in biological fluidsare electrolytes, organic non-electrolyte molecules and colloids. The osmolarity ofthe extracellular fluid is about equal to that of the intracellular fluid, although thereare significant differences in the ionic composition of the two compartments. Plasmaosmolarity is a convenient and accurate guide to intracellular osmolarity. There areseveral different formulas for the calculation of human serum osmolarity. The goalof this study is to estimate the plasma osmolarity in chickens from theconcentrations of the main electrolytes and the glucose and urea content, and toestablish the contribution of each osmotic component. Linear regression analysiswas carried out to determine the best predictors of serum osmolarity in chickens.Two equations were also deduced for calculating serum osmolarity using manualregression analysis.
Zhao, Yunjie; Jian, Yiren; Zeng, Chen; Computational Biophysics Lab Team
The specific carbohydrate binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) protein in plants makes it a very useful molecular tool for cancer cell detection and other applications. The biological states of most MBL proteins are dimeric. Using dynamics network analysis on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the model protein of MBL, we elucidate the short- and long-range driving forces behind the dimer formation. The results are further supported by sequence coevolution analysis. We propose a general framework for deciphering the recognition mechanism underlying protein-protein interactions that may have potential applications in signaling pathways.
Zhonghai Chen; Guoyin Kai; Xiaojun Liu; Juan Lin; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang
Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a 510 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 169 amino acids with a signal peptide. ZOA was a mannose-binding lectin with three typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that zoa expressed in all the tested tissues of Z. officinale including leaf, root and rhizome, suggesting it to be a constitutively expressing form. ZOA protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with the molecular weight expected. To our knowledge, this is the first mannose-binding lectin cDNA cloned from the family Zingiberaceae. Our results demonstrate that monocot mannose-binding lectins also occur within the family Zingiberaceae.
Ocejo-Vinyals, J-Gonzalo; Lavín-Alconero, Lucía; Sánchez-Velasco, Pablo; Guerrero-Alonso, M-Ángeles; Ausín, Fernando; Fariñas, M-Carmen; Leyva-Cobián, Francisco
Mannose-binding lectin is a central molecule of the innate immune system. Mannose-binding lectin 2 promoter polymorphisms and structural variants have been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. However, contradictory results among different populations have been reported, resulting in no convincing evidence of association between mannose-binding lectin 2 and susceptibility to tuberculosis. For this reason, we conducted a study in a well genetically conserved Spanish population in order to shed light on this controversial association. We analysed the six promoter and structural mannose-binding lectin 2 gene variants in 107 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 441 healthy controls. Only D variant and HYPD haplotype were significantly more frequents in controls which would indicate that this allele could confer protection against pulmonary tuberculosis, but this difference disappeared after statistical correction. Neither the rest of alleles nor the haplotypes were significantly associated with the disease. These results would indicate that mannose-binding lectin promoter polymorphisms and gene variants would not be associated with an increased risk to pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite the slight trend of the D allele and HYPD haplotype in conferring protection against pulmonary tuberculosis, susceptibility to this disease would probably be due to other genetic factors, at least in our population. PMID:23304495
Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin is a central molecule of the innate immune system. Mannose-binding lectin 2 promoter polymorphisms and structural variants have been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. However, contradictory results among different populations have been reported, resulting in no convincing evidence of association between mannose-binding lectin 2 and susceptibility to tuberculosis. For this reason, we conducted a study in a well genetically conserved Spanish population in order to shed light on this controversial association. We analysed the six promoter and structural mannose-binding lectin 2 gene variants in 107 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 441 healthy controls. Only D variant and HYPD haplotype were significantly more frequents in controls which would indicate that this allele could confer protection against pulmonary tuberculosis, but this difference disappeared after statistical correction. Neither the rest of alleles nor the haplotypes were significantly associated with the disease. These results would indicate that mannose-binding lectin promoter polymorphisms and gene variants would not be associated with an increased risk to pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite the slight trend of the D allele and HYPD haplotype in conferring protection against pulmonary tuberculosis, susceptibility to this disease would probably be due to other genetic factors, at least in our population.
Juan Lin; Xuanwei Zhou; Shi Gao; Xiaojun Liu; Weisheng Wu; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang
Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) is a very basic protein that accumulates in the tuber of P. pedatisecta. PPA is a hetero-tetramer protein of 40 kDa, composed of two polypeptide chains A (about 12 kDa) and two polypeptides chains B (about 12 kDa). The full-length cDNA of PPA was cloned from P. pedatisecta using SMART RACE-PCR technology; it was 1146 bp and contained a 771 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 256 amino acid residues with a 24 amino acid signal peptide. The PPA precursor contained 3 mannose-binding sites (QXDXNXVXY) and two conserved domains of 43% identity, PPA-DOM1 (polypeptides A) and PPA-DOM2 (polypeptides B). PPA shared varying identities, ranging from 40% to 85%, with mannose-binding lectins from other species of plant families such as Araceae, Alliaceae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Bromeliaceae. Southern blot analysis indicated that ppa belonged to a multi-copy gene family. Expression pattern analysis revealed that ppa expressed in most tested tissues, with high expression being found in spadix, spathe and tuber. Cloning of the ppa gene not only provides a basis for further investigation of its structure, expression and regulatory mechanism, but also enables us to test its potential role in controlling pests and fungal diseases by transferring the gene into plants in the future.
José Raul Sandoval
Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.
Kronborg, Gitte; Madsen, Hans O; Pedersen, Svend S;
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a serious infection that primarily affects very young children and elderly or immunocompromised individuals but also affects previously healthy people. Variant mannose-binding lectin (MBL) alleles are associated with recurrent infections and may be a risk factor for...... pneumococcal infections. To assess the influence of MBL genotypes on the course and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease, clinical data for 141 adult patients were collected prospectively and their genotypes were determined. All patients included had positive blood cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae....... The distribution of variant MBL alleles related to low MBL serum concentrations was similar among the patients and healthy individuals, and MBL genotype was not associated with infection outcome. Thus, in a random adult population with invasive pneumococcal infection, MBL does not seem to play a role...
An experiment on the growth embryonic muscle cell in the rabbit and sheep serum media was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. The aim of this experiment was to observe the potency of the growth of embryonic muscle cell of the inbred chicken and indigeneous chicken in the medium of rabbit and sheep serum. Two kinds of embryo, the inbred and indigeneous chicken of eleven days old were used in the experiment. The rabbit and the sheep serum were prepar...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of Mannose-binding lectin (MBL and the MBL2 gene with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and the influence of MBL2 polymorphisms on serum MBL levels. METHODS: The study population included 675 type 2 diabetic patients with or without nephropathy and 855 normoglycemic controls. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of rs1800450, rs1800451, and rs11003125 of the MBL2 gene were determined by the Multiplex Snapshot method. Serum MBL levels were measured by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. RESULTS: Rs1800450 and rs11003125 SNPs demonstrated strong linkage disequilibrium in the study population (r(2 = 0.97. The haplotypes constructed from the G allele of rs1800450 and the C allele of rs11003125 increased the risk for type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4, P = 0.01. For rs1800450, GG and GA genotypes were associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.02, 0.01, respectively. For rs11003125, the GC genotype frequency was significantly different between patients and controls (18.1% vs. 24.9%, P = 0.001. Analyses of genotypes and allele frequency distributions among patients with normal UAE, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria showed that there was no obvious evidence of association between the MBL2 gene and diabetic nephropathy. Subjects with the GG genotype of rs1800450 and the CC genotype of rs11003125 had much higher serum MBL levels. CONCLUSIONS: The rs1800450 and rs11003125 SNPs of the MBL2 gene have strong linkage disequilibrium and are associated with type 2 diabetes in the North Chinese Han population. No association was observed between the MBL2 gene and diabetic nephropathy. Subjects with the GG genotype of rs1800450 and the CC genotype of rs11003125 had much higher serum MBL levels. An association between elevated serum MBL and diabetic nephropathy was also observed.
Daniel L Worthley; Peter G Bardy; David L Gordon; Charles G Mullighan
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern-recognition molecule that binds to characteristic carbohydrate motifs present on the surface of many different pathogens.MBL binding stimulates the immune system via the lectin pathway of complement activation. In certain clinical situations, often characterized by pre-existing immune compromise, MBL deficiency increases the risk of infectious and other disease-specific complications. Many of the key pathogenic processes inherent to common gastroenterological diseases, such as infection, immunological damage, and carcinogenesis, have been linked to MBL. This editorial reviews the biology of MBL, outlines key disease associations to document the breadth of influence of MBL, and finally, highlights the relevance of MBL to both gastroenterological health and disease.
Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi
Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.
Hartshorn Kevan L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a pattern recognition innate immune molecule, inhibits influenza A virus infection in vitro. MBL deficiency due to gene polymorphism in humans has been associated with infection susceptibility. These clinical observations were confirmed by animal model studies, in which mice genetically lacking MBL were susceptible to certain pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 2. Results We demonstrate that MBL is present in the lung of naïve healthy wild type (WT mice and that MBL null mice are more susceptible to IAV infection. Administration of recombinant human MBL (rhMBL reverses the infection phenotype, confirming that the infection susceptibility is MBL-mediated. The anti-viral mechanisms of MBL include activation of the lectin complement pathway and coagulation, requiring serum factors. White blood cells (WBCs in the lung increase in WT mice compared with MBL null mice on day 1 post-infection. In contrast, apoptotic macrophages (MΦs are two-fold higher in the lung of MBL null mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, MBL deficient macrophages appear to be susceptible to apoptosis in vitro. Lastly, soluble factors, which are associated with lung injury, are increased in the lungs of MBL null mice during IAV infection. These results suggest that MBL plays a key role against IAV infection. Conclusion MBL plays a key role in clearing IAV and maintaining lung homeostasis. In addition, our findings also suggest that MBL deficiency maybe a risk factor in IAV infection and MBL may be a useful adjunctive therapy for IAV infection.
Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H;
The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....
Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Clausen, Louise Nygaard;
BACKGROUND: Most children are transiently colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae, but very few develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Host genetic variation of innate immunity may predispose to IPD. We investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, on...
Bay, Jakob Thaning; Sørensen, Søren S; Hansen, Jesper M;
-year death-censored graft survival (hazard ratio 1.68). Subanalysis showed that this association was confined to non-HLA-immunized patients (hazard ratio 1.93). The strongest association was seen in non-HLA-immunized patients receiving a kidney from a deceased donor (hazard ratio 2.93). No significant...
Full Text Available Objectives: Our objective was to study mannose binding protein (MBP polymorphisms in exonic and promoter region and correlate associated infections and vasoocculsive (VOC episodes, since MBP plays an important role in innate immunity by activating the complement system. Methods: We studied the genetic polymorphisms in the Exon 1 (alleles A/O and promoter region (alleles Y/X; H/L, P/Q of the MBL2 gene, in sickle cell disease (SCD patients as increased incidence of infections is seen in these patients. A PCR-based, targeted genomic DNA sequencing of MBL2 was used to study 68 SCD Omani patients and 44 controls (voluntary blood donors. Results: The observed frequencies of MBL2 promoter polymorphism (-221, Y/X were 44.4% and 20.5% for the heterozygous genotype Y/X and 3.2% and 2.2% for the homozygous (X/X respectively between SCD patients and controls. MBL2 Exon1 gene mutations were 29.4% and 50% for the heterozygous genotype A/O and 5.9% and 6.8% respectively for the homozygous (O/O genotype between SCD patients and controls. The distribution of variant MBL2 polymorphisms did not show any correlation in SCD patients with or without vasoocculsive crisis (VOC attacks (p=0.162; OR-0.486; CI=0.177 -1.33, however, it was correlated with infections (p=0.0162; OR-3.55; CI 1.25-10.04. Conclusions: Although the frequency of the genotypes and haplotypes of MBL2 in SCD patients did not differ from controls, overall in the SCD patient cohort the increased representation of variant alleles was significantly correlated with infections (p<0.05. However, these variant MBL2 polymorphisms did not seem to play a significant role in the VOC episodes in this SCD cohort. Keywords: Mannose-binding lectin, polymorphism, promoter, Sickle cell disease, MBL2, MBP
Full Text Available "nBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis develops by pathogenic Acanthamoeba such as A. palestinensis. Indeed this species is one of the known causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Iran. Mannose Binding Protein (MBP is the main pathogenicity factors for developing this sight threatening disease. We aimed to characterize MBP gene in pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolates such as A. palestinensis."nMethods: This experimental research was performed in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran during 2007-2008. A. palestinensis was grown on 2% non-nutrient agar overlaid with Escherichia coli. DNA extraction was performed using phenol-chloroform method. PCR reaction and amplification were done using specific primer pairs of MBP. The amplified fragment were purified and sequenced. Finally, the obtained fragment was deposited in the gene data bank."nResults: A 900 bp PCR-product was recovered after PCR reaction. Sequence analysis of the purified PCR product revealed a gene with 943 nucleotides. Homology analysis of the obtained sequence showed 81% similarity with the available MBP gene in the gene data bank. The fragment was deposited in the gene data bank under accession number EU678895"nConclusion: MBP is known as the most important factor in Acanthamoeba pathogenesis cascade. Therefore, characterization of this gene can aid in developing better therapeutic agents and even immunization of high-risk people.
Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons. PMID:24825317
Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is the third leading cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. Endothelial dysfunction, renal medullary ischemia, and tubular toxicity are regarded as the most important factors in the pathogenesis of CIN. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a pattern recognition protein of the lectin pathway of complement, has been found to aggravate and mediate tissue damage during experimental renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury which was alleviated by inhibition with C1 inhibitor, a potent MBL, and lectin pathway inhibitor. In this paper, we highlight the potential role of MBL in the pathogenesis of human CIN. In experimental I/R models, MBL was previously found to induce tubular cell death independent of the complement system. In addition, after binding to vascular endothelial cells, MBL and its associated serine proteases were able to trigger a proinflammatory reaction and contribute to endothelial dysfunction. In humans, urinary MBL was increased after administration of contrast media and in individuals with CIN. Moreover, individuals with normal/high MBL levels were at increased risk to develop radiocontrast-induced renal dysfunction. Hence, MBL and the lectin pathway seem to be a promising target given that a licensed, powerful, human recombinant inhibitor exits to be added to the scarce armamentarium currently available for prophylaxis of CIN.
Choteau, L; Parny, M; François, N; Bertin, B; Fumery, M; Dubuquoy, L; Takahashi, K; Colombel, J-F; Jouault, T; Poulain, D; Sendid, B; Jawhara, S
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a soluble lectin of the innate immune system that is produced by the liver and secreted into the circulation where it activates the lectin complement pathway, enhances phagocytosis of microorganisms by leukocytes, and modulates inflammation. MBL can recognize patterns on the surface of different pathogens, including Candida albicans. Our aims were to investigate whether MBL is expressed in the gut epithelium and to examine its effect on the modulation of intestinal inflammation and C. albicans elimination. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, MBL transcripts were highly expressed in different parts of the mouse gut. MBL expression was also detected by immunoblotting and immunolocalization in response to C. albicans colonization of the gut; the highest expression of MBL was detected in the stomach. Blocking MBL by administering mannans to mice increased C. albicans colonization. MBL-deficient mice had a higher level of colonization than wild-type mice. Dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis promoted C. albicans dissemination to the kidneys and lungs of MBL-deficient mice. MBL-deficient mice exhibited elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-23, dectin-1, and Toll-like receptor-4. This study shows that MBL expression is induced in the gut in response to C. albicans sensing and is required for intestinal homeostasis and host defense against C. albicans. PMID:26442658
Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter; Dalgaard, Michael; Magesa, Stephen M; Alifrangis, Michael
The association between selected mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotype polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection status was assessed among individuals whose infection status had been monitored for three decades. Blood samples were collected in 2006 and examined for polymorphisms in the mbl-2 gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression ...
Ciencewicki, Jonathan M; Verhein, Kirsten C; Gerrish, Kevin; McCaw, Zachary R; Li, Jianying; Bushel, Pierre R; Kleeberger, Steven R
Ozone is a common, potent oxidant pollutant in industrialized nations. Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity, lung hyperpermeability, inflammation, and cell damage in humans and laboratory animals, and exposure to ozone has been associated with exacerbation of asthma, altered lung function, and mortality. The mechanisms of ozone-induced lung injury and differential susceptibility are not fully understood. Ozone-induced lung inflammation is mediated, in part, by the innate immune system. We hypothesized that mannose-binding lectin (MBL), an innate immunity serum protein, contributes to the proinflammatory events caused by ozone-mediated activation of the innate immune system. Wild-type (Mbl(+/+)) and MBL-deficient (Mbl(-/-)) mice were exposed to ozone (0.3 ppm) for up to 72 h, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was examined for inflammatory markers. Mean numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils and levels of the neutrophil attractants C-X-C motif chemokines 2 [Cxcl2 (major intrinsic protein 2)] and 5 [Cxcl5 (limb expression, LIX)] in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in Mbl(-/-) than Mbl(+/+) mice exposed to ozone. Using genome-wide mRNA microarray analyses, we identified significant differences in transcript response profiles and networks at baseline [e.g., nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response] and after exposure (e.g., humoral immune response) between Mbl(+/+) and Mbl(-/-) mice. The microarray data were further analyzed to discover several informative differential response patterns and subsequent gene sets, including the antimicrobial response and the inflammatory response. We also used the lists of gene transcripts to search the LINCS L1000CDS(2) data sets to identify agents that are predicted to perturb ozone-induced changes in gene transcripts and inflammation. These novel findings demonstrate that targeted deletion of Mbl caused differential levels of inflammation-related gene sets at
Runglawan Sudmoon; Nison Sattayasai; Wandee Bunyatratchata; Arunrat Chaveerach; Suporn Nuchadomrong
A mannose-binding lectin was purified from Dendrobium (D.) findleyanum pseudobulb using mannan-agarose column chromatography. After heating in the presence of SDS with or without 2-mercaptoethanol on SDS-PAGE with a continuous gradient of 8%-20% acrylamide, the purified lectin showed only one protein band with a molecular mass of 14.5 kDa. Without heating, two bands were seen on the gel at the positions of 14.5 kDa and 53.7 kDa, but a higher amount of the 53.7 kDa protein was observed in the presence of 2- mercaptoethanol. Protein identification of both protein bands by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed three peptide fragments identical to parts of a lectin precursor from D. officinale; the lectin was named D. Findleyanum agglutinin (DFA). Using various concentrations of native- PAGE and Ferguson plot, only one protein band revealed a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, indicating four 14.5 kDa polypeptide subunits in the DFA. Isoelectric focusing revealed that the DFA had three conformational forms with an isoelectric point of 5.18, 4.87 and 4.72, whereas 2-mercaptoethanoltreated DFA showed only one band with an isoelectric point of 5.18. DFA exhibited specificity towards mannose using the solid-phase method. The binding activity, anti-fungal activity and hemagglutination activity of DFA were not affected by heat, but were increased by free sulfhydryl groups.
Mohs, Angela; Li, Yingjie; Doss-Pepe, Ellen; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara
Missense mutations in the collagen triple-helix that replace one of the required Gly residues in the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)(n)() repeating sequence have been implicated in various disorders. Although most hereditary collagen disorders are rare, a common occurrence of a Gly replacement mutation is found in the collagenous domain of mannose binding lectin (MBL). A Gly --> Asp mutation at position 54 in MBL is found at a frequency as high as 30% in certain populations and leads to increased susceptibility to infections. The structural and energetic consequences of this mutation are investigated by comparing a triple-helical peptide containing the N-terminal Gly-X-Y units of MBL with the homologous peptide containing the Gly to Asp replacement. The mutation leads to a loss of triple-helix content but only a small decrease in the stability of the triple-helix (DeltaT(m) approximately 2 degrees C) and no change in the calorimetric enthalpy. NMR studies on specifically labeled residues indicate the portion of the peptide C-terminal to residue 54 is in a highly ordered triple-helix in both peptides, while residues N-terminal to the mutation site have a weak triple-helical signal in the parent peptide and are completely disordered in the mutant peptide. These results suggest that the N-terminal triplet residues are contributing little to the stability of this peptide, a hypothesis confirmed by the stability and enthalpy of shorter peptides containing only the region C-terminal to the mutation site. The Gly to Asp replacement at position 54 in MBL occurs at the boundary of a highly stable triple-helix region and a very unstable sequence. The junctional position of this mutation minimizes its destabilizing effect, in contrast with the significant destabilization seen for Gly replacements in peptides modeling collagen diseases. PMID:15697204
Herpers Bjorn L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose binding lectin (MBL is an important host defence protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens. This carbohydrate-binding protein, an opsonin and lectin pathway activator, binds through multiple lectin domains to the repeating sugar arrays displayed on the surface of a wide range of clinically relevant microbial species. We investigated the contribution of MBL to antifungal innate immunity towards C. parapsilosis in vitro. Results High avidity binding was observed between MBL and C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Addition of MBL to MBL deficient serum increased the deposition of C4 and C3b and enhanced the uptake of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and acapsular C. neoformans by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs. Compared to other microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Cryptococcus neoformans, C. parapsilosis and Candida albicans were potent activators of the lectin pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that MBL plays a crucial role in the innate immunity against infections caused by yeast by increasing uptake by PMN.
Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Hummelshoj, Tina; Palarasah, Yaseelan;
isoforms 1 and 2, respectively) are splice variants of the MASP1 gene, whereas MASP-2 and sMAP are splice variants of the MASP2 gene. We have identified a novel serum protein of 45 kDa that is associated with MBL and the ficolins. This protein is named MBL/ficolin-associated protein 1 (MAP-1 corresponding......The human lectin complement pathway involves circulating complexes consisting of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or three ficolins (ficolin-1, -2, and -3) in association with three MBL/ficolin-associated serine proteases (MASP) (MASP-1, -2, and -3) and a nonenzymatic sMAP. MASP-1 and MASP-3 (MASP1...... to MASP1 isoform 3). The transcript generating MAP-1 (MASP1_v3) contains exons 1-8 and a novel exon encoding an in-frame stop codon. The corresponding protein lacks the serine protease domains but contains most of the common heavy chain of MASP-1 and MASP-3. Additionally MAP-1 contains 17 unique C...
ES de Freitas
Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.
Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....
Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter;
The association between selected mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotype polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection status was assessed among individuals whose infection status had been monitored for three decades. Blood samples were collected in 2006 and examined for polymorphisms in the mbl-2...... gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...... genotype (OR = 9.51). The susceptibility to W. bancrofti infection thus appears to be significantly affected by the MBL expression genotype of the host....
Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Garred, Peter;
The association between selected mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genotype polymorphisms and Wuchereria bancrofti infection status was assessed among individuals whose infection status had been monitored for three decades. Blood samples were collected in 2006 and examined for polymorphisms in the mbl-2...... gene and for W. bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) status. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between MBL genotype and CFA status, with low-expression MBL genotype individuals being almost three times more likely to be CFA positive than high-expression MBL...... genotype (OR = 9.51). The susceptibility to W. bancrofti infection thus appears to be significantly affected by the MBL expression genotype of the host....
Kristiansen, Malthe; Frisch, Morten; Madsen, Hans Ole; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren
To investigate whether polymorphisms in genes coding for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) are associated directly or by interaction with smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) positive RA, and erosive RA. MBL2 genotypes, SFTPD...... genotype at codon 11, and HLA-shared epitope were determined in 456 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 533 sex- and age-matched controls. Patients were grouped according to the presence of ACPA antibodies and RA-associated bone erosions and sub-stratified according to smoking status as never or ever...... with RA but with erosive RA by interaction with smoking. The genetic disposition for high MBL production was associated with ACPA positive RA irrespective of shared epitope. The findings need to be replicated but do as such offer further explanations for the clinical heterogeneity of RA....
The present study investigated changes of activities alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broiler chickens exposed to single of whole-body dose of 3 Gy gamma rays and concentration of cadmium 6 mg · kg-1 live weight. Samples of our experiment was analyse on the 7, 14. and 21 day after irradiation. (authors)
Garred, Peter; Nielsen, Morten A; Kurtzhals, Jørgen;
Variant alleles in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene (mbl2) causing low levels of functional MBL are associated with susceptibility to different infections and are common in areas where malaria is endemic. Therefore, we investigated whether MBL variant alleles in 551 children from Ghana were ...
G. F. Zheleznikova
Full Text Available The serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 were tested in ELISA in 74 children with different courses of chicken pox. Moderate severity course of chicken pox was accompanied by significant increase of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10 levels, but severe course of infection was associated with cytokine response reduction. Manifestation of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was accompanied by the rise of IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and IL-10 levels during the second week of disease.
G. F. Zheleznikova; Y. V. Lobzin; N. V. Skripchenko; G. P. Ivanova; E. Y. Skripchenko; N E Monakhova
The serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 were tested in ELISA in 74 children with different courses of chicken pox. Moderate severity course of chicken pox was accompanied by significant increase of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10 levels, but severe course of infection was associated with cytokine response reduction. Manifestation of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was accompanied by the rise of IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and IL-10 levels during the second week of di...
Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Wuethrich, A. J.; Hancock, D. L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
Broiler chickens at 35 days of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 days. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-day period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and breast muscle groups of twelve-day chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 micron clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 days beginning on the seventh day in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes were significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of MHC was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast and leg muscle cultures; however, MHC quantity was 50- 100% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 nM and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The Beta-AR population was 4,000-7,000 Beta-AR per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum, with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle cultures. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the Beta-AR population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 18,000-20,000 Beta-AR per cell. Basal concentration of cAMP was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 micron isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP concentration above basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were stimulated with 1 micron isoproterenol, increases of 600
Gál, Péter; Harmat, Veronika; Kocsis, Andrea; Bián, Tünde; Barna, László; Ambrus, Géza; Végh, Barbara; Balczer, Júlia; Sim, Robert B; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Závodszky, Péter
Few reports have described in detail a true autoactivation process, where no extrinsic cleavage factors are required to initiate the autoactivation of a zymogen. Herein, we provide structural and mechanistic insight into the autoactivation of a multidomain serine protease: mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), the first enzymatic component in the lectin pathway of complement activation. We characterized the proenzyme form of a MASP-2 catalytic fragment encompassing its C-terminal three domains and solved its crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution. Surprisingly, zymogen MASP-2 is capable of cleaving its natural substrate C4, with an efficiency about 10% that of active MASP-2. Comparison of the zymogen and active structures of MASP-2 reveals that, in addition to the activation domain, other loops of the serine protease domain undergo significant conformational changes. This additional flexibility could play a key role in the transition of zymogen MASP-2 into a proteolytically active form. Based on the three-dimensional structures of proenzyme and active MASP-2 catalytic fragments, we present model for the active zymogen MASP-2 complex and propose a mechanism for the autoactivation process. PMID:16040602
Bicart-See, A; Rottman, M; Cartwright, M; Seiler, B; Gamini, N; Rodas, M; Penary, M; Giordano, G; Oswald, E; Super, M; Ingber, D E
Here we describe how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be rapidly isolated from clinical samples of articular fluid and synovial tissue using magnetic beads coated with the engineered chimeric human opsonin protein, Fc-mannose-binding lectin (FcMBL). The FcMBL-beads were used to capture and magnetically remove bacteria from purified cultures of 12 S. aureus strains, and from 8 articular fluid samples and 4 synovial tissue samples collected from patients with osteoarthritis or periprosthetic infections previously documented by positive S. aureus cultures. While the capture efficiency was high (85%) with purified S. aureus strains grown in vitro, direct FcMBL-bead capture from the clinical samples was initially disappointing (viscosity of these complex biological samples. Importantly, capture of pathogens using the FcMBL-beads was increased to 76% efficiency by pretreating clinical specimens with hypotonic washes, hyaluronidase and a protease cocktail. Using this approach, S. aureus bacteria could be isolated from infected osteoarthritic tissues within 2 hours after sample collection. This FcMBL-enabled magnetic method for rapid capture and concentration of pathogens from clinical samples could be integrated upstream of current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories to identify pathogens and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing when bacterial culture is not possible or before colonies can be detected. PMID:27275840
Full Text Available Here we describe how Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be rapidly isolated from clinical samples of articular fluid and synovial tissue using magnetic beads coated with the engineered chimeric human opsonin protein, Fc-mannose-binding lectin (FcMBL. The FcMBL-beads were used to capture and magnetically remove bacteria from purified cultures of 12 S. aureus strains, and from 8 articular fluid samples and 4 synovial tissue samples collected from patients with osteoarthritis or periprosthetic infections previously documented by positive S. aureus cultures. While the capture efficiency was high (85% with purified S. aureus strains grown in vitro, direct FcMBL-bead capture from the clinical samples was initially disappointing (< 5% efficiency. Further analysis revealed that inhibition of FcMBL binding was due to coating of the bacteria by immunoglobulins and immune cells that masked FcMBL binding sites, and to the high viscosity of these complex biological samples. Importantly, capture of pathogens using the FcMBL-beads was increased to 76% efficiency by pretreating clinical specimens with hypotonic washes, hyaluronidase and a protease cocktail. Using this approach, S. aureus bacteria could be isolated from infected osteoarthritic tissues within 2 hours after sample collection. This FcMBL-enabled magnetic method for rapid capture and concentration of pathogens from clinical samples could be integrated upstream of current processes used in clinical microbiology laboratories to identify pathogens and perform antibiotic sensitivity testing when bacterial culture is not possible or before colonies can be detected.
Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a plasma C-type lectin, plays an important role in innate immunity. However, the interaction, and the consequences of it, between MBL and the immune system remain ill defined. We have investigated the contributing mechanisms and effects of MBL on the proliferation of human monocytes. At lower concentrations (≤4 μg/ml MBL was shown to partially enhance monocyte proliferation. By contrast, at higher concentrations (8-20 μg/ml of MBL, cell proliferation was markedly attenuated. MBL-induced growth inhibition was associated with G0/G1 arrest, down-regulation of cyclin D1/D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk 2/Cdk4 and up-regulation of the Cdk inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. Additionally, MBL induced apoptosis, and did so through caspase-3 activation and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Moreover, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 levels increased in the supernatants of MBL-stimulated monocyte cultures. We also found that MBL-dependent inhibition of monocyte proliferation could be reversed by the TGF-β receptor antagonist SB-431542, or by anti-TGF-β1 antibody, or by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors specific for p38 (SB203580, but not ERK (U0126 or JNK (SP600125. Thus, at high concentrations, MBL can affect the immune system by inhibiting monocyte proliferation, which suggests that MBL may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects.
Cheng-Ye; Che; Jing-Fen; Zhang; Ji-Eun; Lee; Jing; Lin; Li-Ting; Hu; Nan; Jiang; Qian; Wang; Qiang; Xu; Gui-Qiu; Zhao
AIM: To evaluate the early expression of mannose-binding lectin 2(MBL2) in human corneal epithelial cells(HCECs) infected by Aspergillus fumigatus(AF).METHODS: HCECs cultured in vitro with AF antigens and sampled at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h. The expression of MBL2 m RNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The expression of MBL2 protein in supernatant fluid was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). MBL2 protein in HCECs was detected by immunocytochemistry at 0 and 24 h.RESULTS: MBL2 m RNA and protein are expressed in normal HCECs. The expression of MBL2 m RNA and protein in supernatant fluid begin to increase after being stimulated with AF antigens. The most significantly peak of MBL2 m RNA is in 2h. The protein of MBL2 in supernatant fluid decrease gradually after 0.5h. The protein in HCECs expression increase after stimulation of24 h.· CONCLUSION: MBL2 receptor expressed in normal HCECs in vitro. The stimulation by AF antigens can increase the early expression of it.
Su, Chenghao; Lin, Yong; Cai, Lin; Mao, Qianguo; Niu, Jianjun
The innate immunity gene mannose-binding lectin2 (MBL2) has played an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and the relationship between MBL2 variants and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk has not yet been identified. In total, 315 HCC cases and 315 healthy controls were enrolled and blood samples were acquired. High resolution melt analysis (HRM) was employed to genotype 6 polymorphisms in MBL2 gene. Increased HCC risk in carriers of LL genotype of -550 polymorphism with an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.61 (95%CI = 1.00-2.57) was observed but no significant association detected in HL genotype. Both YX and XX genotype demonstrated a significantly elevated HCC risk in the analysis of -221 polymorphism. The B variants in codon 54 was also significantly associated with elevated HCC risk. HYB was identified as the protective factor of HCC while LXB was significantly associated with increase HCC risk. ELISA technique revealed that the MBL2 protein was significantly reduced in HCC cases. Moreover, both IL-1β and IL-6 were inversely associated with plasma MBL2 level.The mutations in MBL2 could lead to compromised innate immunity, and possibly lead to elevated HCC risk, and a novel haplotype HXB has been identified with a rate of 12.5%. PMID:27557564
Wang, Ben; Zhu, Yanzhu; Zhang, Hongling; Liu, Liming; Li, Guojiang; Song, Yongli; Li, Yanfei
The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the hepatic metabolism function and trace elements' distribution. Two hundred healthy male chickens (1 day old) were intraperitoneally administered with AlCl3 (0, 18.31, 27.47, and 36.62 mg kg(-1) day(-1) of Al(3+)) consecutively for 3 days. Then the chickens were allowed to rest for 1 day. The cycle lasted four days. The cycle was repeated 15 times (60 days). The contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBI), direct bilirubin (DBI), hepatic aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were examined. The results showed that the contents of serum TP and ALB and hepatic Fe and Zn decreased and the contents of serum TBI and DBI and hepatic Al and Cu increased in the chickens with AlCl3 This indicates that chronic administration of AlCl3 impairs the hepatic metabolism function and disorders the hepatic trace elements' distribution. PMID:25896954
Mannose-binding lectin and its associated proteases (MASPs) mediate coagulation and its deficiency is a risk factor in developing complications from infection, including disseminated intravascular coagulation
Takahashi, Kazue; Chang, Wei-Chuan; Takahashi, Minoru; Pavlov, Vasile; Ishida, Yumi; La Bonte, Laura; Shi, Lei; Fujita, Teizo; Stahl, Gregory L.; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.
The first line of host defense is the innate immune system that includes coagulation factors and pattern recognition molecules, one of which is mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Previous studies have demonstrated that MBL deficiency increases susceptibility to infection. Several mechanisms are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, including reduced opsonophagocytic killing and reduced lectin complement pathway activation. In this study, we demonstrate that MBL and MBL-associated ...
Osthoff, Michael; Dean, Melinda M.; Baird, Paul N.; Richardson, Andrea J.; Daniell, Mark; Guymer, Robyn H.; Eisen, Damon P
Background In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the complement system is thought to be activated by chronic oxidative damage with genetic variants identified in the alternative pathway as susceptibility factors. However, the involvement of the lectin pathway of complement, a key mediator of oxidative damage, is controversial. This study investigated whether mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and genetic variants in lectin pathway proteins, are associated with the predisposition to and s...
de Santana Evangelista, Karla; Andrich, Filipe; Figueiredo de Rezende, Flávia; Niland, Stephan; Cordeiro, Marta N.; Horlacher, Tim; Castelli, Riccardo; Schmidt-Hederich, Alletta; Peter H. Seeberger; Sanchez, Eladio F.; Richardson, Michael; Gomes de Figueiredo, Suely; Eble, Johannes A.
Recently, a few fish proteins have been described with a high homology to B-type lectins of monocotyledonous plants. Because of their mannose binding activity, they have been ascribed a role in innate immunity. By screening various fish venoms for their integrin inhibitory activity, we isolated a homologous protein from the fin stings and skin mucus of the scorpionfish (Scorpaena plumieri). This protein inhibits α1β1 integrin binding to basement membrane collagen IV. By protein chemical and s...
Silva, Ayrles F B; Matos, Mayara P V; Ralph, Maria T; Silva, Daiane L; de Alencar, Nylane M; Ramos, Márcio V; Lima-Filho, José V
The immunomodulatory properties of mannose-binding lectins ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis) and CFL (Cratylia argentea) were investigated comparatively in a model of Salmonella infection. The lectins were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered to mice daily for three days before the bacterial challenge with Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium (0.2 mL i.p.; 10(7) CFU/mL). In vivo assays have shown that both lectins induced a significant leukocyte infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of uninfected mice, which was higher in the CFL group 3 days post-infection. Total and differential cell counts in the bloodstreams have shown uninfected animals pretreated with ConBr and CFL exhibited accentuated lymphopenia. Conversely, there was an increasing population of lymphocytes following 3 days post-infection in mice pretreated with both lectins. In addition, the bacterial burden was significantly reduced into the peritoneal cavity, bloodstreams, spleen and the liver in these mice. The lectins did not induce the release of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines into the peritoneal fluid of uninfected animals. However, following infection, the release of TNF-α and IL-10 in the peritoneal fluid were down-regulated in mice pretreated with both lectins whereas IL-1 was only reduced in mice pretreated with ConBr. Uninfected animals pretreated with CFL exhibited high nitric oxide (NO) content in the peritoneal fluid, which was decreased after infection in comparison to ConBr group. The lectins did not alter the serum levels of NO in uninfected mice but treatments with ConBr significantly reduced the NO content in infected animals in comparison to CFL group 24h after the bacterial challenge. Survival experiments have shown survival rates ranging from 70% to 100% in mice that received CFL or ConBr. On the other hand, untreated mice (PBS group) died 1-6 days after infection. We conclude that ConBr and CFL are prospective phytotherapeutics capable of modulate the cascade of pro
A multiresidue method has been developed for determination of fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in chicken serum and muscle. FQs are extracted from either serum or muscle with acetonitrile/ammonium hydroxide and the extracts are defatted, evaporated and resuspended in buffer, then filtered and analy...
Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, Kristin Y.; Wuethrich, Andrew J.; Hancock, Deana L.
Broiler chickens at 35 d of age were fed 1 ppm clenbuterol for 14 d. This level of dietary clenbuterol led to 5-7% increases in the weights of leg and breast muscle tissue. At the end of the 14-d period, serum was prepared from both control and clenbuterol-treated chickens, and was then employed as a component of cell culture media at a final concentration of 20% (v/v). Muscle cell cultures were prepared from both the leg and the breast muscle groups of 12-d chick embryos. Treatment groups included control chicken serum to which 10 nM, 50 nM, and 1 uM clenbuterol had been added, as well as cells grown in media containing 10% horse serum. Cultures were subjected to each treatment for 3 d, beginning on the seventh d in culture. Neither the percent fusion nor the number of nuclei in myotubes was significantly affected by any of the treatments. The quantity of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) was not increased by serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens in either breast or leg muscle cultures; however, the MHC quantity was 50-150% higher in cultures grown in control chicken serum to which 10 and 50 nM clenbuterol had also been added. The B-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) population was 4000-7000 betaARs per cell in cultures grown in chicken serum with leg muscle cultures having approximately 25-30% more receptors than breast muscle Culture. Receptor population was not significantly affected by the presence of clenbuterol or by the presence of serum from clenbuterol-treated chickens. In contrast, the betaAR Population in leg and breast muscle cultures grown in the presence of 10% horse serum was 16,000-18,000 betaARs per cell. Basal concentration of cyclic adenosine 3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) was not significantly affected by the treatments. When cultures grown in chicken serum were stimulated for 10 min with 1 uM isoproterenol, limited increases of 12-20% in cAMP Concentration above the. basal levels were observed. However, when cultures grown in the presence of horse serum were
Klostergaard, Anja; Steffensen, Rudi; Møller, Jens K;
Infections after chemotherapy often cause significant morbidity in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Chitotriosidase (CHIT) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) are part of the innate immune system. Polymorphism in the CHIT-coding gene (CHIT1) may be associated with Gram-negative sepsis in...... observed. The severe and long-lasting neutropenia and mucositis after chemotherapy may explain why the MBL system does not protect against sepsis in patients with AML. Replacement therapy with recombinant MBL is not likely to decrease the risk of sepsis in patients with AML....
Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Christensen, Jens Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Bojesen, Anders Miki
To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum samples obtained from 26 Gallibacterium anatis-infected and 20 Streptococcus zooepidemicus-infected brown layer chickens. In addition, sera from 14 apparently healthy and 19 negative control chickens were analysed in the Gallibacterium group whereas sera from 20 healthy and 11 negative control chickens from the Streptococcus group were analysed. All calibration curves revealed high coefficients of determination (≥ 0.97) between optical density (OD 450nm) and concentrations of OTF (mg/ml). OTF concentrations in high, medium and low pools (made of sera from a combination of infected and/or non-infected birds) were >6.4, >3.8 to 6.7, >3.5 to <3.7 and <1.1 mg/ml in the Streptococcus group, respectively. For each pool, low coefficients of intra-assay (7.8, 5.7 and 5.3) and inter-assay (15.8, 18.0 and 18.0) variations were obtained in the Gallibacterium study. In the Streptococcus study only the intra-assay variation was low (3.7, 3.8 and 6.2, respectively). The linearity check was acceptable demonstrating a straight line with slope and intercept, not deviating from one and zero, respectively, using the Gallibacterium sera, whereas the Streptococcus sera deviated from the linear line. Detection limits were low (Gallibacterium, 0.01 mg/ml; Streptococcus, 0.32 mg/ml). OTF concentrations (mean ± standard error of the mean) in overlap performances were elevated in the sera of infected chickens (Gallibacterium, 4.4 ± 0.3 mg/ml; Streptococcus, 3.2 ± 0.4 mg/ml) compared with negative controls (1.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Chicken-OTF-ELISA can be used to measure reproducible serum OTF concentrations in brown layer chickens as a response to G. anatis infections
Md. Zulfekar Ali
Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.
Lundbo, Lene F; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Clausen, Louise N; Hollegaard, Mads V; Hougaard, David M; Konradsen, Helle B; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas
Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the...... innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years......) diagnosed during 1982-2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis...
Juul-Madsen, H.R.; Munch, M.; Handberg, Kurt;
increase of 24%, whereas the acute phase response in chickens challenged after 12 h of rest peaked after 3.1 d with an increase of 51%. The specific antibody titer against IBV was also tested, and a difference (P <0.0091) between the two experimental groups was found with peak titer values of 6,816 and 4...... or complement activation via MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP) -1 and -2. Thus, MBL plays a major role in the first-line innate defense against pathogens. We investigated the MBL concentrations in serum during experimental infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in chickens. The results......,349. However, the highest value was found in chickens inoculated after 12 h of activity. Thus, an inverse relation exists between the MBL response and the IBV specific antibody response. The ability of MBL to activate the complement cascade was tested in a heterologous system by deposition of human C4 on the...
Full text: Forty 6-week-old male Iranian indigenous chickens were randomly assigned into two equal groups, designated as control or propylthiouracil (PTU)-treated group. The goitrogen, PTU, was administered at a level of 0.1% (w:w) to the diet of PTU-treated group between the weeks 7 and 13 of age. From the week 13 to 26, both groups were fed with a PTU-free diet. The lighting schedule was 14 h-light:10 h-darkness. Blood sampling started at week 7 of age, and repeated every other week until the week 19 as well as body weighing simultaneously. Chicks were trained by the abdominal massage method and semen samples were collected from the week 21 and repeated once a week for seven weeks. Proc Mixed of SAS (6.03 edn.) was used to data analysis and body weight was considered as covariate in statistical model. The effect of PTU treatment on serum thyroxine (T4) levels (P 0.05). The effect of age on all parameters, including body weight (P 0.05); but the interaction was significant for body weight (P 0.05). No significant correlation observed between testosterone and T4 levels in both groups. (author)
Troelsen, Lone N; Garred, Peter; Christiansen, Buris; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Christensen, Ib J; Narvestad, Eva; Jacobsen, Søren
high and low serum levels of MBL are reported to be associated with CVD. Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (ccIMT) is a validated non-invasive anatomic measure of subclinical CVD. We examined the relation between ccIMT and MBL in 114 RA patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study...... MBL2 genotypes and serum concentrations of MBL were assessed; ccIMT was determined by means of ultrasonography; traditional and RA related cardiovascular risk modifiers were measured. RESULTS: The median ccIMT was 0.67 mm. The investigated MBL2 genotypes were not significantly associated with cc......IMT. Using a general linear model, ccIMT was not linearly associated with serum MBL but was highly associated with the quadratic term of serum MBL (MBL(2)) (P=0.001) reflecting a U-shaped relation. MBL(2) was also significantly associated with ccIMT in a multivariable analysis adjusting for traditional and...
Md. Zulfekar Ali; Md. Mostafizer Rahman; Shirin Sultana
Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is important avian pathogens responsible for chronic respiratory diseases of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the...
Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco;
variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno...... high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations....
Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth;
To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum......-infected birds) were >6.4, >3.8 to 6.7, >3.5 to...
Dobó, József; Harmat, Veronika; Sebestyén, Edina; Beinrohr, László; Závodszky, Péter; Gál, Péter
MASP-1, a multidomain serine protease, is a component of the lectin pathway of complement. Its precise function is unknown, although it seems to enhance the complement-activating capacity of MASP-2, a related enzyme. MASP-1 has also been implicated as playing a role in blood coagulation. It is mostly found associated with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Early attempts to crystallize MASP-1 failed because of the inhomogeneity of the purified material. MASP-1 was shown by acidic nondenaturing PAGE to be composed of differently charged species, which are most likely to be the products of deamidation occurring during the refolding procedure. Sequential cation-exchange and anion-exchange chromatography resulted in a homogeneous material, which was successfully crystallized. The best crystal diffracted to 2.55 A resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.4, b = 70.4, c = 121.4 A. The crystal structure of MASP-1 may help in understanding the function of this mysterious serine protease. PMID:18765903
Acidic nondenaturing PAGE revealed inhomogeneity of the MASP-1 catalytic region caused by deamidation as the reason behind previous unsuccessful crystallization attempts. Monitoring the separation of the various species by acidic nondenaturing PAGE during purification helped to obtain pure protein, which was subsequently crystallized. MASP-1, a multidomain serine protease, is a component of the lectin pathway of complement. Its precise function is unknown, although it seems to enhance the complement-activating capacity of MASP-2, a related enzyme. MASP-1 has also been implicated as playing a role in blood coagulation. It is mostly found associated with mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Early attempts to crystallize MASP-1 failed because of the inhomogeneity of the purified material. MASP-1 was shown by acidic nondenaturing PAGE to be composed of differently charged species, which are most likely to be the products of deamidation occurring during the refolding procedure. Sequential cation-exchange and anion-exchange chromatography resulted in a homogeneous material, which was successfully crystallized. The best crystal diffracted to 2.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.4, b = 70.4, c = 121.4 Å. The crystal structure of MASP-1 may help in understanding the function of this mysterious serine protease
Full Text Available Structural variants of the Mannose Binding Lectin (MBL cause quantitative and qualitative functional deficiencies, which are associated with various patterns of susceptibility to infectious diseases and other disorders. We determined genetic MBL variants in 2010 Ghanaian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and 2346 controls and characterized the mycobacterial isolates of the patients. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, we found a protective association between TB and the MBL2 G57E variant (odds ratio 0.60, confidence interval 0.4-0.9, P 0.008 and the corresponding LYQC haplotype (P(corrected 0.007 which applied, however, only to TB caused by M. africanum but not to TB caused by M. tuberculosis. In vitro, M. africanum isolates bound recombinant human MBL more efficiently than did isolates of M. tuberculosis. We conclude that MBL binding may facilitate the uptake of M. africanum by macrophages, thereby promoting infection and that selection by TB may have favoured the spread of functional MBL deficiencies in regions endemic for M. africanum.
Nakamura, Shuichi; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Guo, Yijie; Ihara, Kohei; Tomioka, Rintaro; Masuda, Mizuki; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key pattern recognition molecule in the lectin pathway of the complement system, an important component of innate immunity. MBL functions as an opsonin which enhances the sequential immune process such as phagocytosis. We here report an inhibitory effect of MBL on the motility of pathogenic bacteria, which occurs by affecting the energy source required for motility and the signaling pathway of chemotaxis. When Salmonella cells were treated with a physiological concentration of MBL, their motile fraction and free-swimming speed decreased. Rotation assays of a single flagellum showed that the flagellar rotation rate was significantly reduced by the addition of MBL. Measurements of the intracellular pH and membrane potential revealed that MBL affected a driving force for the Salmonella flagellum, the electrochemical potential difference of protons. We also found that MBL treatment increased the reversal frequency of Salmonella flagellar rotation, which interfered with the relative positive chemotaxis toward an attractive substrate. We thus propose that the motility inhibition effect of MBL may be secondarily involved in the attack against pathogens, potentially facilitating the primary role of MBL in the complement system. PMID:27104738
Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba castellanii is the important cause of amoebic keratitis in Iran. The key molecule in pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis is Mannose Binding Protein (MBP led to adhesion of amoeba to corneal epithelium. Subsequent to adhesion other cytopathic effects occur. The goal of this study was to identify the molecular characterization of a gene encoding MBP in an Iranian isolate of A.castellanii in order to pave the way for further investigations such as new therapeutic advances or immunization. Methods: A.castellanii was cultured on non nutrient agar. Extraction of DNA was performed by phenol-chloroform method. After designing a pair of primer for the gene encoding MBP, PCR analysis was performed. Finally, the PCR product has been sequenced and the result submitted to the gene data banks. Results: An MBP gene of 1081 nucleotides was sequenced. This fragment contained three introns and encodes a protein with 194 amino acids. Homology search by Blast program showed a significant homology with the MBP gene in gene data banks (96%. Besides, the identity of amino acids with the other MBPs in gene data banks was about 86%. Conclusion: We isolated and sequenced a gene fragment encoding MBP in an Iranian isolate of A.castellanii. Molecular characterization of this important gene is the first step in pursuing researches such as developing better therapeutic agents, immunization of population at risk or even developing a diagnostic tool by PCR techniques.
V. N. Muhasin Asaf
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to identify whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs109231409 located on mannose-binding lectins 1 (MBL1 gene was associated with mastitis tolerance/susceptibility. Materials and Methods: After grouping 100 Vrindavani crossbred cattle as mastitis positive and negative animals, they were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms method. Gene and genotype frequencies of different patterns were estimated by standard procedure (POPGENE version 1.32, (University of Alberta, Canada and statistical analysis was carried out by logistic regression methods using STATA 12 software (StataCorp LP, USA. Results: The 588 bp fragment of MBL1 gene was amplified using PCR. PCR product was digested with ApaI restriction enzyme showed two distinct genotypes viz., GG (311 bp and 272 bp fragments and GA (588 bp, 311 bp and 277 bp fragments. The gene, genotype frequencies, average heterozygosity, polymorphic information content and χ2 values for the locus rs109231409 was ascertained. Conclusions: No significant association between SNP “rs109231409” with mastitis tolerance was found. Although there is a lack of association, further studies have to be undertaken in a large population in order to validate the impact of rs109231409 (g.855G >A on mastitis tolerance.
Tanha, N; Troelsen, L; From Hermansen, M-L;
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmunity may in part result from deficiencies in the processing of apoptotic debris. As mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is involved in such processes, we hypothesized that the variants in the MBL2 gene resulting in MBL deficiency confer an increased risk of nephritis in systemic lupus......, respectively. The follow-up period was defined as the time from fulfillment of the ACR 1987 classification criteria for SLE until the occurrence of an event (nephritis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death) or end of follow-up. Cox regression analyses were controlled for gender, age and race. RESULTS......: During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, nephritis developed in 94 patients, and ESRD developed in 16 of these patients. Twenty-seven patients died. The distribution of the MBL2 genotypes A/A, A/O and O/O was 58%, 35% and 7.0%, respectively. Compared to the rest, O/O patients had 2.6 times (95% CI: 1...
Full Text Available Ficolins are thought to be pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-(PAMP- recognition molecules that function to support innate immunity. Like mannose-binding lectins (MBLs, most mammalian ficolins form complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs, leading to complement activation via the lectin pathway. However, the ability of murine ficolin B, a homologue of human M-ficolin, to perform this function is still controversial. The results of the present study show that ficolin B in mouse bone marrow is an oligomeric protein. Ficolin B, pulled down using GlcNAc-agarose, contained very low, but detectable, amounts of MASP-2 and small MBL-associated protein (sMAP and showed detectable C4-deposition activity on immobilized N-acetylglucosamine. These biochemical features of ficolin B were confirmed using recombinant mouse ficolin B produced in CHO cells. Taken together, these results suggest that like other mammalian homologues, murine ficolin B has an ability to exert its function via the lectin pathway.
Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl;
The lectin complement pathway has important functions in vertebrate host defence and accumulating evidence of primordial complement components trace its emergence to invertebrate phyla. We introduce two putative mannose-binding lectin homologues (CioMBLs) from the urochordate species Ciona intest...... protease in the epithelia cells lining the stomach and intestine. In conclusion we present two urochordate MBLs and identify an associated serine protease, which support the concept of an evolutionary ancient origin of the lectin complement pathway....
Sundtoft, Iben; Uldbjerg, Niels; Steffensen, Rudi; Sommer, Steffen; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne
(OR) of 3.1 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-7.4, p = 0.01] and MBL2 genotypes coding for low or intermediate levels of plasma MBL had an OR of 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-9.0, p = 0.01) for cervical insufficiency compared with controls. Serum MBL levels were lower in women with cervical insufficiency than......-control study, potential maternal biomarkers for cervical insufficiency were investigated in 30 women with a history of second-trimester miscarriage or preterm birth due to cervical insufficiency and in 70 control women. RESULTS: Homozygous carriers of the interleukin 6 (IL6) -174 genotype GG had an odds ratio...... in controls (median 408 and 1,985 ng/ml, respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL6 gene and the MBL2 gene and low MBL levels related to the latter polymorphism may increase the risk of preterm birth due to cervical insufficiency....
张海燕; 王长法; 仲跻峰; 杨桂文; 安利国
甘露糖结合凝集素途径是补体激活的一个重要途径,在无特异性免疫应答的生物体内或在机体发生免疫应答之前,凝集素补体途径可发挥主要的防御作用.甘露糖结合凝集素相关的丝氨酸蛋白酶(mannose-binding lectin-associated ser-ine protease,MASP)是凝集素途径的中心蛋白酶分子.甘露糖结合凝集素(mannose-binding lectin,MBL)或纤维胶凝蛋白(fi-colin)分子通过其胶原样区(collagen-like region,CLR)与MBL相关丝氨酸蛋白酶MASP-1或MASP-2结合形成复合物,在其C端糖识别域(carbohydrate recognition domain,CRD)识别、结合病原微生物的糖结构后,可活化MASPs酶原,从而激活补体凝集素途径而发挥天然抗感染免疫效应.%The mannose-binding lectin pathway is an important pathway of complement activation. In the absence of specific immune responses in vivo or before immune response occurs in body the lectin complement pathway may play a major role in the defense. Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) is an central protease of the complement lectin pathway. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolin can form compound with Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASPs) through its CLR. After its CRD domain recognize and binding to sugars presented on pathogens, MBL or ficolin can activity the zymogens of MASPs,then activate the complement cascade via lectin pathway to play the function of anti-infection by innate immunity.
Esan Oluwaseun and Oladele Omolade
Full Text Available The Nigerian Indigenous breeds of Chicken (NIC have thrived in harsh tropical environment with little veterinary care and poor nutrition compared with the introduced exotic breeds which performs sub-optimally in the tropics. However, they receive little attention for commercial production in spite of low input required. A comparative assessment of cellular immune response of the indigenous and exotic breeds was carried out to provide scientific explanation for their hardy nature and justify production for economic purposes. Fifteen chickens from each of three indigenous breeds i.e. Frizzled- feathered, Naked-neck and Smooth-feathered, and 8 Isa Brown pullets were 10 weeks old and reared in separate cages. The chickens were stabilized and administered Newcastle Disease Vaccine (NDV, LaSota strain. At 14 and 16 weeks old, all breeds were administered NDV Komarov strain in Freund’s adjuvant and in PBS intramuscularly as sensitizing and challenge inoculants, respectively. They were bled for serum 5 days later and concentrations of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma were determined using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the Frizzled-feathered chickens had the highest concentration of IFN-gamma (58±2.8 pg/ml which was significantly higher than 49±3.2 pg/ml and 44±2.5 pg/ml recorded for Smooth-feathered and Isa brown breeds respectively. Also, concentration in Naked-neck breed was 54±2.9 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than Isa Brown. Isa Brown had the significantly lowest concentration. It was concluded that the three NIC studied, have inherent capacity to mount higher levels of cellular immune response compared with the exotic Isa brown, when challenged.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathways coordinated by innate pattern recognition receptors like mannose-binding lectin (MBL and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 are among the first immune responses to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus bloodstream infections (BSI in animal models, but human data are limited. Here, we investigated the role of MBL deficiency and NOD2 mutations in the predisposition to and severity of S. aureus BSI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A matched case-control study was undertaken involving 70 patients with S. aureus BSI and 70 age- and sex-matched hospitalized controls. MBL levels, MBL2 and NOD2 polymorphisms were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, MBL deficiency (<0.5 µg/ml was found less frequently in cases than controls (26 vs. 41%, OR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.20-0.95, p=0.04 as were low producing MBL genotypes (11 vs. 23%, OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.08-0.75, p=0.01, whereas NOD2 polymorphisms were similarly distributed. Cases with NOD2 polymorphisms had less organ dysfunction as shown by a lower SOFA score (median 2.5 vs. 4.5, p=0.02, whereas only severe MBL deficiency (<0.1 µg/ml was associated with life-threatening S. aureus BSI (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.25-24.85, p=0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to animal model data, our study suggests MBL deficiency may confer protection against acquiring S. aureus BSI. NOD2 mutations were less frequently associated with multi-organ dysfunction. Further human studies of the innate immune response in S. aureus BSI are needed to identify suitable host targets in sepsis treatment.
Andersen, Ove; Friis, P; Holm Nielsen, E;
affinity chromatography and selective elution was developed. The purification was monitored by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and electron microscopy. Binding of the lectins to Sephadex-iC3b, their collagenase sensitivity, and the size and antibody reactivity of their subunits was investigated. The...... demonstration, by SDS-PAGE, of 25-kDa subunits, which were unaffected by collagenase treatment but bound to Sephadex-iC3b and antibodies to human SAP, indicated the existence of bovine SAP. Bovine conglutinin (BK) also showed calcium-dependent binding to Sephadex-iC3b, whereas bovine MBP did not. The binding of...... BK was inhibitable with GlcNAc. A 3000-fold increase in BK activity (ELISA) was obtained in eluates from Sephadex-iC3b. SDS-PAGE analyses of BK and MBP revealed subunits with an Mr of 43 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively. These subunits were sensitive to collagenase treatment which reduced the Mr to 20 k...
Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Szyper-Kravitz, Martine; Witte, Torsten; Doria, Andrea; Tsutsumi, Akito; Tatsuya, Abe; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Fontao, Lionel; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Bijl, Marc; Matthias, Torsten; Fraser, Abigail; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Blank, Miri; Gilburd, Boris; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Shoenfeld, Y; Gershwin, ME
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of several autoantibodies. Among the multiple factors involved in SLE development, apoptotic defects and impaired clearance of cellular debris have gained considerable interest, as they contribute to autoanti
Shil, Niraj K; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; O'Rourke, Denise; Devlin, Joanne M
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a significant upper respiratory tract disease of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. Diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are commonly used in ILT disease control programs. These ELISAs generally detect serum antibody to infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and frequently utilize whole virus as the ELISA antigen. This study investigated the use of recombinant glycoprotein G (gG) of ILTV as an alterative to the use of whole virus antigen. Codon-optimized ILTV gG was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein tag (gG-MBP). Another gG fusion protein with a 6-histidine tag (gG-His) was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Following purification, the proteins were assessed for their suitability to be used as an antigen in an ELISA to detect ILTV-specific antibodies in sera from commercial and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds. The gG-MBP antigen showed some nonspecific reactions with chicken sera, but the gG-HIS antigen was found to be suitable for differentiating between sera collected from ILTV-vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. The highest levels of agreement between the results from the gG-HIS ELISA and the commercial Trop-ILT ELISA were achieved using a cut-off value for positivity equal to the geometric mean antibody concentration of the sera from the unvaccinated birds plus 1 SD. This produced a very good level of agreement (kappa [kappa] value of 0.821) using sera from commercial birds and a moderate level of agreement (kappa value of 0.506) using sera from SPF birds. Importantly, this ELISA was also tested for its ability to discriminate between sera collected from SPF chickens vaccinated with a gG deletion mutant candidate vaccine strain of ILTV (gG-ve ILTV) and sera collected from SPF chickens vaccinated with other ILTV strains. The results showed that the gG-His ELISA has the potential to serve as a companion diagnostic tool in conjunction
Parmentier, H.K.; Baelmans, R.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.
Antibody responses, serum complement haemolytic activity, and complement component C3 and Factor B consumption were studied in chickens divergently selected for high and low antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, and in a randombred control line. Significantly higher total and IgG antibody res
An efficient multiresidue method was developed for the determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in chicken serum, as well as muscle. In this method, FQs are extracted from matrix with ammoniacal acetonitrile, the extracts are defatted and then evaporated. After addition of basic phosphate buffer an...
Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula L; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hagen, Christian; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Buzdugan, Raluca; Cowan, Frances; Chasela, Charles
Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major global health problem. We assessed the association of mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency and vertical transmission of HIV. Novel diagnostics would be a major breakthrough in this regard. MBL is a liver-derived protein and a key component of the innate immune system. MBL levels may be classified as normal, intermediate, or deficient in the plasma and can use MBL2 haplotypes as a proxy. These haplotypes comprise polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene and promoter region and are known to result in varying levels of MBL deficiency. MBL deficiency can be defined as presence of A/O and O/O genotypes in the mothers and their children. MBL deficiency leads to defective opsonization activities of the innate immune system and increased susceptibility to several infections, including HIV-1. We determined the prevalence of MBL deficiency, using MBL2 haplotypes among 622 HIV-positive Zimbabwean mothers and their children aged 9-18 months old, in relation to the HIV-1 vertical transmission risk. The median age of the mothers was 30 (26-34, interquartile range [IQR]) years, and the babies' median age was 13 (11-15, IQR) months old at the time of enrollment. From the sample of 622 mothers who were HIV-1 infected, 574 babies were HIV negative and 48 were HIV-1-positive babies, giving a transmission rate of 7.7%. MBL2 normal structural allele A and variants B (codon 5 A>G), C (codon 57 A>G), and promoter region SNPs -550(H/L) and -221(X/Y) were detected. Prevalence of haplotype-predicted MBL deficiency was 34% among the mothers and 32% among the children. We found no association between maternal MBL2 deficiency and HIV-1 transmission to their children. We found no difference in the distribution of HIV-1 infected and uninfected children between the MBL2 genotypes of the mothers and those of the children. Taken together, the present study in a large sample of mother-infant pairs in Zimbabwe adds to the
甘露聚糖结合凝集素(Mannose Binding Lectin,MBL)是人血清中的一种多亚基的C型凝集素,是固有免疫防御系统的重要组成部分,具有激活补体、促进调理吞噬、调节炎症反应及促进凋亡等功能,当MBL激活时将参与肾脏疾病的发生发展.
Robcis, H L; Caldes, T; de Pablo, F
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the primary mediator of GH action after birth, but its role as a regulator of prenatal growth is unclear. In a previous study we showed that IGF-I mRNA was expressed in chicken embryos beginning at the blastoderm stage (day 0, newly laid egg). Here we present the ontogeny of serum IGF-I in normal and growth-retarded chicken embryos. Serum samples were pooled from multiple embryos starting on day 4 of development in ovo until hatching (day 21). Extracts of day 2 and 3 whole embryos were also studied. IGF-binding proteins were removed by filtration on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges. IGF-I was quantitated by a heterologous RIA validated for chicken species. Embryonic IGF-I showed a HPLC profile similar to that of adult chicken serum IGF-I. Serum IGF-I was measurable on day 6 of development (approximately 0.04 ng/ml), reached a peak on day 15 (18 ng/ml), and decreased to a low concentration (0.2 ng/ml) the day before hatching. Embryos cultured ex ovo showed progressive growth retardation after day 10 of development, and by day 20 their weight was 50% of normal. The serum IGF-I concentration of ex ovo cultured embryos was normal on day 10, but remained low until day 21, without the midembryogenesis rise observed in normal embryos. These results support the concept that IGF-I may have a role in general embryonic growth in addition to any paracrine/autocrine action in individual tissues. PMID:1706261
Laursen, S.B.; Hedemand, J.E.; Nielsen, O.L.; Thiel, S.; Koch, C.; Jensenius, J.C.
Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum lectin found in mammals and recently also in birds. It is thought to play an important role in the innate immune defence through binding to surface carbohydrates on micro-organisms followed by complement activation via the MBL pathway. This results in...
A. Rasool, M. Tariq Javed*, Masood Akhtar1, S. Shabbir Bhatti, M. N. Shahzad and Riaz Hussain2
Full Text Available In this study we analysed some of the serum enzymes, urea and creatinine to understand the pathological changes occurring in different organs of broilers due to urea and copper. The feeding for 15 days at or higher than 2% urea + 1gm copper sulphate caused significant rise in serum ALT, AST, AKP and creatinine. With further increase in time of 15 days, the levels of urea and LDH also increased significantly, this was seen even in birds fed 1% urea + 250 mg copper sulphate. We found increase in serum urea even in 1% urea fed birds and in all other groups where combination was used, however, serum creatinine increased significantly (P<0.05 only in birds fed 2% urea+1 gm copper sulphate or higher than these levels. The combined use of urea and copper sulphate resulted in changes in moisture, ash, crude protein and potassium in thigh and breast meat of broilers. The results of the present study suggest damaging effects of higher levels of urea and copper, alone or together and change in meat quality with lower protein contents and higher salt levels in meat of broilers. Thus the use of urea and copper sulphate together is not recommended in broilers, especially at 1% urea and 250mg copper sulphate or higher. The results of the study can be helpful to poultry farmers, pathologists and nutritionists who are involved in augmentation the meat quality and also to general public with special reference to people having hypertension as the meat salt levels may be higher with use of the these compounds in the broiler ration.
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration
Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H
The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted. PMID:23675158
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of antibody against gallid herpes virus, the causal agent of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT in chicken. Its application in experimental chicken under laboratory condition was also evaluated. Results showed that ELISA for ILT was developed successfully with sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 97,14% respectively. The ELISA was able to determine the dynamic of antibodies respond in experimental chickens following vaccination and artificial infection with ILT virus. It was concluded that this ELISA offers a simple, sensitive and specific antibody assay for detection of antibodies against ILT virus in chickens arising from vaccination or infection.
The aim of this study was to develop an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody against gallid herpes virus, the causal agent of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) in chicken. Its application in experimental chicken under laboratory condition was also evaluated. Results showed that ELISA for ILT was developed successfully with sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 97,14% respectively. The ELISA was able to determine the dynamic of antibodies respond in experiment...
姜枫; 彭勃; 尚佳; 张庶民
甘露糖结合凝集素(mannose binding lectin or mannan binding lectin;MBL)是一种存在于血清中的C型凝集素.MBL通过结合病原生物表面的甘露糖等糖基受体而直接介导调理吞噬作用和/或通过MBL途径激活补体,在机体的固有性免疫防御中发挥重要作用.HIV-1的表面包膜蛋白gp120/gp41为机体固有免疫系统通过MBL的攻击提供了潜在位点.MBL主要通过四个环节在艾滋病中发挥作用:补体活化、中和作用、调理作用和封闭DC细胞特异的ICAM3结合的非整合素.对于MBL在艾滋病的疾病进展和疾病传播中的作用认识不一,有待进一步研究.
The aim of investigate was the effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation on the organism of chicken. We investigated changes of concentration of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in time gap 1, 3, 14 and 25 days after expose with a single whole-body gamma irradiation of 3 Gy. (authors)
Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Laursen, S.B.
infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The concentration of serum MBL increased about twofold (from approximately 6 to 12 mu g/ml) due to these viral infections. The concentration peaked 3-7 days after infection with IBV, and 3-5 days after ILTV infection, depending on the ILTV strain used. The increased...
Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; de Paula, Viviane Ferraz; Palermo-Neto, João
Multiple factors, such as environment, nutritional status, and disease, induce stress in animals during livestock production. It has been shown that poultry exposed to stressors for prolonged periods had decreases in their performance parameters, mortality and decreased host resistance to pathogenic agents. It seems that early age stress may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify the expression of their genetic potential on growth performance and immunity. This study aimed to discuss the effects of early-age heat stress on the blood lymphocyte phenotypes (B and T lymphocytes) and plasma immunoglobulin levels (IgM and IgG) in chickens vaccinated against paramixovirus of the Newcastle (NC) disease (LaSota strain). For this purpose, 96 male chickens (Cobb) were divided into 4 groups: 1) control (C), 2) heat-stressed (HS), 3) control vaccinated (C/V), and 4) heat-stressed and Vaccinated (HS/V). The NC vaccine was administered twice on experimental day (ED) 7 and ED14, and the heat stress (38 ± 1°C) was applied from ED2 to ED6. The data showed that HS increased the corticosterone serum levels in the HS group compared with the control groups (C and C/V groups). At ED7, increased concentrations of IgM were observed in birds in the HS and HS/V groups compared with C and C/V animals; chickens from the HS/V group presented increased IgG levels compared with those in the birds of the C group. The heat stress shifted the immune cell profile from B-lymphocyte to a T-cytotoxic and T-helper lymphocyte profile, and this immune cell pattern persisted until the end of the study period. It was concluded that heat stress immunomodulated the immune function response of the chickens to the NC disease vaccine challenge. PMID:26362974
Antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma hormone levels and serum metabolites of finishing broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperature and fed lemon and orange peel extracts and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil.
Akbarian, A; Golian, A; Kermanshahi, H; De Smet, S; Michiels, J
The negative effects of high ambient temperature during some months of the year on poultry production have been of great concern in many countries. Dietary modifications are among the most practical ways to alleviate the effects of high temperature. Possible effects of dietary supplementation with 200 or 400 mg/kg feed of lemon peel extract (LPE), orange peel extract (OPE) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza essential oil (CXEO) under hot conditions (34 °C with 50% relative humidity for 5 h daily starting from day 28 until day 38 of age) on blood antioxidant enzyme activities, biochemical parameters and antibody titres of broiler chickens were investigated. All extracts are rich in phenolic compounds and highly available. Compared to control, supplementation with OPE at 400 mg/kg and CXEO significantly increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, plasma growth hormone concentrations and serum phosphorus, total protein and chloride concentrations and decreased serum low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol concentrations in chickens at 38 days of age. Regarding antibody titres, CXEO supplementation at 400 mg/kg caused a significant increase in bronchitis antibody titres. Supplementation with LPE and OPE gave more inconsistent results. Most interesting, 400 mg/kg LPE significantly increased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and GH concentration as compared to the control. In conclusion, the herbal extracts tested in this study, in particular CXEO at 400 mg/kg, may relieve some of the changes in blood composition induced by increased ambient temperatures. PMID:24702542
Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt
Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando
The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...
杨崤松; 董媛艳; 宁康健
To observe the effects of Lanceolata crude extract with different concentration on the serum antibody ti- ter of Newcastle disease（ND） and Infections bursal disease（IBD） in Cyan - shank partridge chickens, 400 one day Cyan - shank partridge chichens were divided into four groups at random （50 per repetition）. The dosages of Lanceolata crude extract in I - 1Vgroups drinking water were respectively 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0g/L from four- teen days old fed on Lanceolata for six weeks, ND and IBD antigen routine immunization. At each weekend, eight chickens were taken respectly in each group, from heart we picked the blood and separated the serum, and then serum antibody titer of ND and IBD were determined with Newcastle Hemagglutination Inhibition （ND - HI） and Agar Diffusion Experiment（ADE） respectively. The result showed that the ND -HI antibody titer from 28 days old and IBD antibody titer in Lanceolata groups were highter 1 to 2 titer than control group from 35 days old. It indicates that the adding Lanceolata crude extract can improve serum antibody titer of ND and IBD in Cyan - shank partridge chickens and moderate dose is better.%观察不同浓度的党参粗提物对青脚麻鸡血清中新城疫（ND）及传染性法氏囊炎（IBD）抗体效价的影响。400只1日龄青脚麻鸡随机均分4组，I-Ⅳ组分别在饮水中添加0g／L、0．5g／L、lg/L和2g／L的党参粗提物，14日龄开始给药，连续饮用6周，正常鸡新城疫和传染性法氏囊免疫。每周末各组随机抽样8只，心脏采血，分离血清，用微量血凝抑制实验（HI）测定ND抗体效价，琼脂扩散实验测定IBD抗体效价。结果表明，血清ND-HI抗体效价自28日龄起，IBD琼扩效价自35日龄起，党参各组较对照组均高出1-2个滴度以上，说明添加党参粗提物能够提高青脚麻鸡血清中ND-HI和IBD的抗体效价，其中中剂量药效为佳。
Taseer Ahmed Khan
Full Text Available Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic agent administered in high doses causes kidney and liver necrosis both in humans and in animals. Nigella sativa (Black seed has been reported to have hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties. Present investigation is performed to find out the effects of aqueous solution of Nigella sativa and its oil extract on serum urea and uric acid levels of layer chicks after oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg acetaminophen/kg body weight. Observations indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen to layer chicks caused significant (p<0.05 decrease in mean serum urea while non-significant decrease in mean serum uric acid concentration. The results of this study indicated that Nigella sativa has positive effects on urea and uric acid concentrations during the administration of acetaminophen overdose. However, Nigella sativa oil extract is more effective than its aqueous solution.
Jeon, M; Choi, H; Lee, S I; Kim, J S; Park, M; Kim, K; Lee, S; Byun, S J
Chicken serum has been suggested as a supplement to promote chicken cell proliferation and development. However, the molecular mechanisms by which chicken serum stimulates chicken cell proliferation remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of chicken serum supplementation on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cell proliferation. We also sought to elucidate the molecular pathways involved in mediating the effects of chicken serum on fibroblasts and DF-1 cells by overexpression of chicken 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (chGRP78), which is important for cell growth and the prevention of apoptosis. Our data demonstrated that the addition of 5% chicken serum significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, knockdown of chGRP78 using siRNA decreased fibroblast proliferation and increased apoptosis. Based on these results, we suggest that the chGRP78-mediated signaling pathway plays a critical role in chicken serum-stimulated fibroblast survival and anti-apoptosis. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the maintenance of chicken fibroblast cells through the inhibition of apoptosis and may lead to the development of new treatments for avian disease. PMID:26944959
Taseer Ahmed Khan; Muhammad Noman Khan; Ruqaiya Hasan; Habib Fatima; Einas Kousar
Acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic agent administered in high doses causes kidney and liver necrosis both in humans and in animals. Nigella sativa (Black seed) has been reported to have hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties. Present investigation is performed to find out the effects of aqueous solution of Nigella sativa and its oil extract on serum urea and uric acid levels of layer chicks after oral administration of a single dose of 300 mg acetaminophen/kg ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1)...
A 51chromium (51Cr) release microcytotoxicity assay has been established for studying cell-mediated immunity in chickens to a potentially wide variety of antigens. The system investigated in detail uses thyroglobulin-coated chicken red blood cells (Tg-CRBC) to analyse effector cell mechanisms operative in spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis in Obese strain (OS) chickens. A variety of technical parameters were investigated in order to optimise reliable, reproducible target cell preparation and to minimise spontaneous 51Cr-release. The final method adopted used tannic acid for coupling antigen to carefully selected donor erythrocytes of uniform MHC genotype. For the study of antibody dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Tg-CRBE were pre-sensitised with OS serum containing high titre Tg-autoantibody. Tannic acid-treated CRBC (TA-CRBC) served simultaneously as controls for the Tg specificity of direct cellular cytotoxicity (DCC) to Tg-CRBC, and also as target cells for natural, or spontaneous cellular cytotoxicity (SCC). With such an assay, cells capable of mediating Tg-specific DCC were demonstrated in the OS, but not in normal chickens. No differences in ADCC or SCC were observed when the two strains were considered as a whole, i.e. regardless of age, sex, MHC genotype or extent of disease. (Auth.)
The present study investigated changes in the concentration of cholesterol and glucose in the serum of poultry after single whole-body gamma irradiation with 4,5 Gy dose. In the experiment we used chickens of initial age 21 and 35 days at the beginning of the experiment. (authors)
Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam
We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold. PMID:18434362
The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The availability of the draft chicken genome sequence provided many possibilities to in detail study a variety of genomic changes during evolution using a comparison between chicken and mammals. For exampl...
Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.)
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...
Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.
Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen
The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:25135491
The specific antibody response against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs exposed to low dose gamma-radiation was studied. Materials and methods: Two groups of eggs of commercial meat chicken lines were irradiated with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation, respectively. The same number of eggs unexposed to gamma-radiation served as controls. After hatching the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation was not vaccinated while the group of chicken hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation was vaccinated on the 14 day. Specific serum anti-Newcastle disease virus antibodies were quantified by the hemagglutination inhibition assay with 4 HA units of Newcastle disease virus La Sota strain. Result: Specific antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation and vaccinated on the 14th day significantly increased on the 28th day. Specific antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus in the blood serum of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation and non-vaccinated was significantly higher on the 1st and 14th day. Conclusion: Acute irradiation of heavy breeding chicken eggs with the dose of 0.30 Gy 60Co gamma-rays before incubation and on the 19th day of incubation could have a stimulative effect on humoral immunity in chickens.
Hassanpour, Hossein; Teshfam, Masood; Momtaz, Hassan; Brujeni, Gholamreza Nikbakht; Shahgholian, Lohrasb
To compare Endothelin (ET) production and genes expression of ET-1 and ET(A) receptor (ET(A)R) between broiler and layer chickens during rearing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme immunometric assay were performed in the heart ventricles and serum. There were gradual elevations of ET-1 and ET(A)R mRNAs in the left ventricle of broiler and layer chicken groups that were mainly significant (Pbroilers and 42 days of age in layers with compared to previous days. Increasing of these mRNAs in the right ventricle of broiler chickens were significantly (Pbroilers was significantly (Pbroiler chickens than in layer chickens particularly after 21 days of age. It is probably that these breed differences make broiler chickens to be more susceptible to Endothelin related-cardiomyopathies such as congestive heart failure and ascites. PMID:20457459
Atefeh Araghi; Saeed Seifi; Reza Sayrafi; Parisa Sadighara
Objective: Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is extracted from the outer layer of rice. Little information is available regarding its safety. The present study was conducted to assess its safety in chicken embryo model. Materials and Methods: RBO was injected on day 4 of incubation of chickens. The tissues and serum samples were collected. Oxidative stress parameters in the liver, kidney and brain and biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The deformities were also investigated. Results: The chang...
The present investigation was undertaken to see if exogenous thyroid hormone could stimulate cartilage sulphation in vivo and in vitro in sex-linked dwarf chickens. L-thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine injection for 7 consecutive days stimulated in vivo 35SO42- incorporation into trachea cartilages of the dwarf chicken. Both thyroid hormones added to the incubation medium with or without 2,5% dwarf chicken serum also stimulated in vitro 35SO42- incorporation into pelvic rudiment from 11-day chick embryos. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones, like insulin-like growth factor I, might be responsible for the reduced growth rate of dwarf chickens. (author)
Full Text Available To evaluate the seroprevalence of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV in indigenous chicken flocks, serum samples from 200 mature indigenous chickens in villages around Maharlou Lake in Southwest of Iran were tested for IBV antibodies using commercial IBV Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The studied indigenous chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The overall ELISA titer and seroprevalence of IBV antibodies revealed in this study were 1427 and 68%, respectively. The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of IBV in indigenous chicken flocks in Southwest of Iran and necessitate the regular vaccination programme against IB in native flocks.
Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.
The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai
Sevastyanova Antonina A
Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.
Full Text Available While an understanding of lipid metabolism in chickens is critical for a further improvement of food production, there are few studies concerning differences in lipid metabolism mechanisms between chickens and other species at a molecular level. Chickens have three PPAR gene subtypes (α, β, and γ that function differently from those present in humans and mice. The chicken PPAR-gamma (cPPARγ gene is shorter than that in humans and lacks a γ2 isoform. Moreover, in serum-free media, cPPARγ shows high transcriptional activity without exogenous ligands. Luciferase reporter assays were used to examine the effect of sera on cPPAR transcriptional activities and showed that adult bovine serum and chicken serum highly activate cPPARα and β functions. Moreover, we found that bezafibrate induces the transactivation function of cPPARβ, but not human PPARδ (human PPARβ ortholog. This ligand selectivity relies on one amino acid residue (chicken: Val419, human: Met444. These results show the possibilities for unique functions of cPPARs on chicken-specific lipid glucose metabolism. As such, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism in chickens could result in higher productivity for the poultry industry.
Sayari, M; Namavari, M; Mojaver, S
Recently chickens are considered as an important intermediate hosts for Neospora caninum. Free range chickens expose to infection with N. caninum oocysts because they feed from the ground therefore they could be a good index of the environmental contamination. We studied N. caninum infection in free range chickens by serological. One hundred and fifty chickens purchased from five regions from Fars province and their blood were used for serological testing. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 26 (17.33 %) of 150 serum samples by MAT. This study is the first to describe the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in chicken in Iran. These serological results indicate a widespread exposure of free range chickens to N. caninum in south of Iran. PMID:27605795
Willoughby, D H; Bickford, A A; Charlton, B R; Cooper, G L
Esophageal trichomoniasis has been rarely reported in chickens. At the California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System-Turlock Branch, this disease was recently diagnosed in two cases submitted from backyard chicken flocks. The esophageal lesions observed were similar to those seen in several other important diseases of chickens. The causative trichomonad organisms were readily demonstrated on wet smears and by histologic studies. In both cases, the investigated flocks were afflicted with several concurrent diseases. California has experienced an increase in the number of small nontraditional chicken production operations. These facilities are sometimes in close proximity to commercial poultry operations and biosecurity barriers occasionally fail. The poor husbandry practices often used in these small flocks make them a potential reservoir for rare diseases such as trichomoniasis and also for disease organisms that are devastating to commercial poultry. PMID:8719231
Reeves, Charles A.
Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)
Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul
In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)
Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)
Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L
Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs. PMID:26319520
郜文辉; 曾普华; 潘敏求; 唐珍
目的:探讨益气化瘀解毒含药血清对鸡胚尿囊膜血管生成的影响.方法:取孵育7d的种蛋制成CAM模型,加入益气化瘀解毒整方高、中、低3个剂量组的含药血清,继续孵育3d,固定标本,拍照,计数新生毛细血管数目.结果:高、中、低剂量组与不含药血清组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P＜0.05)；高、中剂量组与低剂量组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P＜0.05)；高、中剂量组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P＞0.05)结论:益气化瘀解毒方能抑制CAM血管新生,具有抗血管生成作用.%Objective: To study the influence of prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and eliminating toxin on serum chicken embryos allantoic membrane angiogenesis. Methods :Eggs incubated for 7d were made into CAM model,joined high,medium and low doses of the serum containing medicine,and they were continuely to incubate for 3d. The specimens were fixed,took pictures,and the number of new blood capillary was counted. Results:The high,medium and low dose groups and no medicine group comparison differences were statistically significant (P 0. 05 ). Conclusion : The prescription of strengthening Qi and resolving stasis and e-liminating toxin can inhibit CAM angiogenesis, and has the antiangiogenic effect.
This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...
Protein phosphorylation was examined in whole cell extracts from normal and avian sarcoma virus-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. The addition of serum or epidermal growth factor to serum-starved normal cells resulted in increased 32P labeling of a Mr 30,000 protein. In extracts from cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of Schmidt-Ruppin virus, subgroup A, and grown at the permissive temperature, the protein was phosphorylated regardless of serum starvation. This Mr 30,00...
Yang, Hanchun; Chen, Sheng; White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Walker, Robert; Meng, Jianghong
Escherichia coli isolates from diseased piglets (n = 89) and chickens (n = 71) in China were characterized for O serogroups, virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. O78 was the most common serogroup identified (63%) among the chicken E. coli isolates. Most isolates were PCR positive for the increased serum survival gene (iss; 97%) and the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin gene (tsh; 93%). The O serogroups of swine E. co...
Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Sharif, S; Prescott, J F
Little is known about immunity to necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens. A recent study of broiler chickens showed that protection against NE was associated with infection-immunization with virulent but not with avirulent Clostridium perfringens.In the current study, six secreted antigenic proteins unique to virulent C. perfringens that reacted to serum antibodies from immune birds were identified by mass spectrophotometry; three of these proteins are part of the VirR-VirS regulon.
Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .
Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;
500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum...... reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection....
Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and
Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers
N. A. Sani
Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the seroprevalence of avian leukosis virus (ALV in exotic broiler chickens and Nigerian local chickens in Zaria, Nigeria, a total of 600 sera (300 from exotic broiler chickens and 300 from Nigerian local chickens, obtained from the live bird market in Zaria, Nigeria, were tested for ALV p27 antigen by the antigen capture-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ac-ELISA technique. The age range of the Nigerian local chickens sampled in this study was 6 – 24 months, while that of the exotic broiler chickens used in this study was 2-3 months. Fourteen out of the 300 sera obtained from the exotic broiler chickens tested positive to ALV p27 antigen, which represents 4.70%, while 180 of the 300 Nigerian local chicken sera were confirmed positive to the antigen, representing 60.00%. Thirteen (92.86% of the fourteen sera from the exotic broiler chickens were lowly positive (ELISA Units range of 10-20% to ALV p27 antigen, while only one (7.14% serum sample was moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with an ELISA Unit of 29.33%. Of the 180 sera from the Nigerian local chickens that tested positive to ALV p27 antigen , 79 (43.89% were lowly positive with ELISA Units ranging from 10.67% to 21.33%, while 101 (56.11% serum samples were moderately positive to ALV p27 antigen with ELISA Units ranging from 28.0% to 73.33%. A higher seroprevalence of ALV was detected in Nigerian local chickens than the exotic broiler chickens. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 345-348
As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa
Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will
Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh, during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. A total of 480 blood samples from chickens were collected from different upazilas (sub-districts of Bhola district. The sampling considered the types of chicken (backyard and commercial layer, age groups (pullet, adult and old and seasons (summer and winter. On the basis of the serum plate agglutination test, 55.83% (n=268/480 chickens were found positive for MG. The MG infection was higher (62.5% in backyard chickens as compared to those being reared in commercial farming systems (53.61%. With respect to age groups, the prevalence was highest in pullets (60.63% followed by adults (55.63% and old chickens (51.25%. Moreover, chickens reared in winter showed higher prevalence of MG (60.42% as compared to those reared in summer (51.25%. In conclusion, MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Bhola district, Bangladesh. Appropriate strategies should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.
Following whole irradiation of 16-day-old chicken embryos with 770 R, ammonia concentration in blood serum and uric acid concentration in serum and tissue increase distinctly, whereas only a small change in concentration of urine in blood serum and tissue homogenate was noted. Following irradiation glutamic acid concentration in blood serum and glutamine concentration in serum and tissue also increased noticeably. Similarly the content of creatine in blood serum increased as a result of irradiation although no deviation from control values were noted in the tissue. When embryos are irradiated with increasing doses from 420 to 980 R, ammonia concentration in blood serum and also uric acid concentration in blood serum and tissue increase linearly with dose whereas no dose dependence could be observed for the content of urine in blood serum and in tissue. These results show that the increased amounts of ammonia produced upon irradiation are detoxified by the formation of uric acid, glutamic acid and glutamine. Furthermore, elimination of ammonia is also possible through creatine synthesis. (orig.)
J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding
Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.
Ghirlanda, Stefano; Jansson, Liselotte; Enquist, Magnus
We trained chickens to react to an average human female face but not to an average male face (or vice-versa). In a subsequent test, the animals showed preferences for faces consistent with human sexual preferences (obtained from university students). This suggests that human preferences arise from general properties of nervous systems, rather than from face-specific adaptations. We discuss this result in the light of current debate on the meaning of sexual signals, and suggest further tests o...
Morpurgo, B; Dean, C E; Porter, T E
Somatotrophs become a significant population by day 16 of chicken embryonic development. We have previously demonstrated that an earlier induction of GH cell differentiation is possible with the addition of day 16 embryonic serum to cultures of day 12 pituitary cells, an age when somatotrophs are rare. The present study was designed to identify the blood-borne signal(s) responsible for the serum activity, using reverse hemolytic plaque assays to identify individual GH-secreting cells. The activity was found to be a heat-stable, ether-soluble compound(s) that is bound or inhibited by a trypsin-sensitive protein. The extent of GH cell differentiation was greater (P estradiol, corticosterone, and progesterone. However, the estradiol receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, while abolishing the effect of estradiol, had no effect on the induction of differentiation by day 16 serum. In contrast, RU486, a specific glucocorticoid receptor antagonist in chickens, blocked the stimulatory effects of corticosterone, progesterone, and day 16 serum on somatotroph differentiation. We next tested whether the active compound in day 16 embryonic serum was corticosterone, the predominant glucocorticoid in chickens. Incubation of day 16 serum with corticosterone antiserum, but not control antiserum, suppressed day 16 serum-induced GH cell differentiation. Therefore, we conclude that corticosterone is the blood-borne signal capable of stimulating somatotroph differentiation in vitro. The present findings together with previous reports indicate that somatotroph differentiation during embryonic development may result from an increase in circulating glucocorticoid concentrations. PMID:9348174
The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided
Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT has been recognized in chicken in Indonesia and incriminated as a possible additional causative agent in respiratory disease complex. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA has been developed for the seroepidemiological study of ORT infection in chickens. Ten weeks old chickens are injected with 0.5 ml of killed O. rhinotracheale emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant at a concentration of 109 CFU/ml. Hyperimmune sera and non-reactive control sera were used to standardized the ELISA for ORT infection. Optimum condition for the ORT ELISA was antigen dilution 1/800, serum dilution 1/100 and 1/4000 conjugate dilution. Optical density cut-off point was determined by using 31 serum samples from 2 broiler farms. Cut-off for negative serum was 0.27 (mean + 3 standard deviation. With these optima, 187 chicken sera from broiler, layer and broiler breeder farms were collected and screened. Seroconvertions were detected from broiler and layer farms in Magelang district, Central Java (Bojong I, Paremono, Bojong II, Keblukan and a broiler breeder farm in West Java. The seraconvertion were 0, 10, 94, 88 and 100 percents respectively. These figures show that the prevalence of O. rhinotracheale infection in chicken in layer and breeder farms were very high.
Godoy, Alecia; Icard, Alan; Martinez, Mellisa; Mashchenko, Anna; García, Maricarmen; El-Attrachea, John
Two glycoproteins of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), gI and gB, were expressed in baculovirus and purified for the development of ILTV recombinant protein-based ELISAs. The ability of gB and gI ELISAs to detect ILTV antibodies in chickens vaccinated with viral vector vaccines carrying the ILTV gB gene, Vectormune FP-LT (the commercial fowlpox vector laryngotracheitis vaccine) and Vectormune HVT-LT (commercial turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine), was evaluated using serum samples from experimentally vaccinated and challenge chickens. The detection of gB antibodies in the absence of gI antibodies in serum from chickens vaccinated with FP-LT indicated that the gB ELISA was specific for the detection of antibodies elicited by vaccination with this viral vector vaccine. The gB ELISA was more sensitive than the commercial ILTV ELISA to detect seroconversion after vaccination with the FP-LT vaccine. Both gI and gB antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from chickens at different times postchallenge, indicating that the combination of these ELISAs was suitable to screen serum samples from chickens vaccinated with either recombinant viral vector FP-LT or HVT-LT vaccines. The agreement between the gI ELISA and the commercial ELISA to detect antibodies in serum samples collected after challenge was robust. However, further validation of these ELISAs needs to be performed with field samples. PMID:23901757
Hoshino, S.; Wakita, M.; Kobayashi, Y. (Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)); Kakegawa, T.; Suzuki, M. (Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan))
The present investigation was undertaken to see if exogenous thyroid hormone could stimulate cartilage sulphation in vivo and in vitro in sex-linked dwarf chickens. L-thyroxine or L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine injection for 7 consecutive days stimulated in vivo /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ incorporation into trachea cartilages of the dwarf chicken. Both thyroid hormones added to the incubation medium with or without 2,5% dwarf chicken serum also stimulated in vitro /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2-/ incorporation into pelvic rudiment from 11-day chick embryos. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormones, like insulin-like growth factor I, might be responsible for the reduced growth rate of dwarf chickens. (author).
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determinate the effect of propolis as a feed additive on the serum bilirubin and albumin content of female and male chickens. Broiler chickens hybrid Hubbard JV (n=500 were divided into five groups in each gender (control – C and four experimental groups E1 – E4. Experimental chickens received a propolis extract in feed mixture in various doses (E1 – 150 mg/kg; E2 – 450 mg/kg; E3 – 600 mg/kg; E4 – 800 mg/kg. The group that received feed without propolis addition served as the control. Contents of albumin and bilirubin were determined with spectrophotometer. Supplementation of the diet with propolis in the dose of 600 mg/kg significantly (P<0.05 increased albumin content in male chickens. Propolis addition to diets may be a source for antioxidant capacity in human and animals.
Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D; Escobar, Jeffery
The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...
The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [14C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat
Avirutnan, Panisadee; Hauhart, Richard E; Marovich, Mary A;
-dependent activation of the complement cascade neutralized insect cell-derived West Nile virus (WNV) in cell culture and restricted pathogenesis in mice. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of MBL in infection by dengue virus (DENV), a related flavivirus. Using a panel of naïve sera from mouse strains...... lower levels. Our studies suggest that allelic variation of MBL in humans may impact complement-dependent control of DENV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that causes a spectrum of clinical disease in humans ranging from subclinical infection to dengue...
Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter;
homozygotes (P = 0.53). Death incidence per 10,000 person. yr was 235 in noncarriers compared with 244 in heterozygotes (P = 0.44) and 274 in deficiency homozygotes (P = 0.12). After stratification by specific cause of hospitalization or death, only hospitalization from cardiovascular disorders was increased...... conclusion, in this large study in an ethnically homogeneous Caucasian population, there was no evidence for significant differences in infectious disease or mortality in MBL-deficient individuals versus controls. Our results suggest that MBL deficiency is not a major risk factor for morbidity or death in...
Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras; REMEDIOS D. CATAMIN; Delia A. Paragados; AILEEN C. DE LA CRUZ
Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefu...
GUO Dong-chun; QU Lian-dong; SUN Yan; ZHANG Ai-qin; LIU Jia-sen; LU Yan; LIU Pei-xin; YUAN Dong-wei; JIANG Qian; SI Chang-de
Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, enzoonotic pneumonia and swine atropic rhinitis. Two iflamentous hemagglutinin genes, fhaB1 and fhaB2, are the potential virulence factors. In this study, an inactivation fhaB1 mutant of P. multocida in avian strain C48-102 was constructed by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The virulence of the fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain was assessed in chickens by intranasal and intramuscular challenge. The inactivation of fhaB1 resulted in a high degree of attenuation when the chickens were challenged intranasally and a lesser degree when challenged intramuscularly. The fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain were investigated their sensitivity to the antibody-dependent classical complement-mediated killing pathway in 90%convalescent chicken serum. The fhaB1 mutant was serum sensitive as the viability has reduced between untreated serum and heat inactivated chicken serum (P<0.007). These results conifrmed that FhaB1 played the critical roles in the bacterial pathogenesis and further studies were needed to investigate the mechanism which caused reduced virulence of the fhaB1 mutant.
Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina S; Pleidrup, Janne; Permin, Anders; Schou, Torben W; Jungersen, Gregers; Fink, Dorte R; Juul-Madsen, Helle R
Increasingly large numbers of poultry are held in production systems with access to outdoor areas. In these systems intestinal helminths are found with flock prevalences of up to 100%. Helminth infections influence chicken health negatively, which is why the following investigation has been performed. In the present experiment, 20 chickens of two inbred chicken lines containing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes, B14 and R5, were inoculated with 500 embryonated Ascaridia galli eggs. The A. galli-specific IgG titres of serum samples and the excretion of A. galli eggs in chicken faeces were measured for a period of 81 weeks. The level of excreted A. galli eggs measured as eggs per gram chicken faeces (EPG) varied greatly between chickens in each line. Significant differences were found between the two lines and with the R5 chickens reaching the highest levels. Likewise, the A. galli-specific IgG titres in serum differed significantly between the two lines, and an inverse relationship between infection level (EPG) and antibody titres was found. Although this inverse relationship suggests that humoral immunity may be involved in protection against A. galli infection, the high antibody titres did not prevent continued infection. PMID:22981407
Oakley, Brian B; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Kogut, Michael H; Kim, Woo K; Maurer, John J; Pedroso, Adriana; Lee, Margie D; Collett, Stephen R; Johnson, Timothy J; Cox, Nelson A
The domestic chicken is a common model organism for human biological research and of course also forms the basis of a global protein industry. Recent methodological advances have spurred the recognition of microbiomes as complex communities with important influences on the health and disease status of the host. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiome focusing on spatial and temporal variability, the presence and importance of human pathogens, the influence of the microbiota on the immune system, and the importance of the microbiome for poultry nutrition. Review and meta-analysis of public data showed cecal communities dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroides at the phylum level, while at finer levels of taxonomic resolution, a phylogenetically diverse assemblage of microorganisms appears to have similar metabolic functions that provide important benefits to the host as inferred from metagenomic data. This observation of functional redundancy may have important implications for management of the microbiome. We foresee advances in strategies to improve gut health in commercial operations through management of the intestinal microbiota as an alternative to in-feed subtherapeutic antibiotics, improvements in pre- and probiotics, improved management of polymicrobial poultry diseases, and better control of human pathogens via colonization reduction or competitive exclusion strategies. PMID:25263745
Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat
Dyar Adil Morad AL-Barwary
Full Text Available Infectious Bronchitis (IB is one of the most important viral diseases of poultry and it causes major economic losses in poultry industry. The study was conducted to detect Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers chicken farms in Duhok Governorate. To achieve this goal two tests have been used throughout the study protocol Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. One hundred and eighty Serum samples were collected from 11 chicken farms including (120 samples from 9 symptomatic non vaccinated chicken farms, (30 samples from one asymptomatic vaccinated chicken farm and another (30 samples from one asymptomatic non vaccinated chicken farm and screened for the presence of IBV antibodies by ELISA kit. The total RNAs were extracted from tracheal tissues using RNX TM-Plus reagent (Cinnagen,Iran. Eighty serum samples were positive: 50/120 (41.6% sample were symptomatic non vaccinated, another 30/30 (100% were asymptomatic vaccinated chickens samples, and the remaining samples (100 were negative by ELISA , including 70 /120 (58.4% from symptomatic non vaccinated chickens, and 30/30 (100% from asymptomatic non vaccinated chickens. The molecular detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus by use of RT-PCR was applied to extract RNAs from tracheal tissues. The test was performed on (80 symptomatic non vaccinated chickens and 36 vaccinated and non vaccinated chickens. Detection was performed using universal types of primers including XCE2+ and XCE2- 80 symptomatic chickens were examined by RT-PCR (50 with positive ELISA and 30 with negative ELISA results, 36 (44.4 % have detectable IBV-cDNA and the remaining 44 (55.6% did not have detectable IBVcDNA. Another 36 (18 asymptomatic vaccinated and 18 non vaccinated chickens were examined by RT-PCR, 8 (22.2% have detectable IBV-cDNA, and the remaining 28 (77.8% were negative. This study has determined the presences of IBV in flocks of Duhok
Mushi, E Z; Binta, M G; Chabo, R G; Itebeng, K
This study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6 +/- 6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28 +/- 0.56 kg and 1.70 +/- 0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected. PMID:17137053
Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6Â±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28Â±0.56 kg and 1.70 Â±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.
Del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad
Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrient malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells containing parasite antigens (Ags) represents a promising alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis, but is restricted in its commercial application due to limitations on production scale-up for mass immunization programs. Here, we report the biochemical and physiologic characteristics of exosomes derived from serum of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens and their feasibility for inducing protective immunity to experimental coccidiosis. Exosomes isolated from the serum of E. tenella-infected chickens contained a subset of protein Ags found in the intact parasite. Serum-derived exosomes containing these E. tenella Ags localized to the intestine and spleen following intramuscular injection into naïve chickens. In vitro ELISPOT assays revealed increased numbers of IL-2-, IL-4-, IL-6-, and IFN-γ-secreting cells in the intestine and spleen of exosome-administered chickens, compared with vehicle controls. Pre-immunization of chickens with serum exosomes from E. tenella-infected chickens increased both body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, and reduced both fecal parasite shedding and gut lesion scores following parasite infection, compared with vehicle controls. Finally, immunization with CD80(+) serum exosomes stimulated greater numbers of cytokine-producing cells, and higher levels of protective immunity to E. tenella infection, compared with CD80(-) exosomes. These results suggest the possibility of producing an effective, parasite-free vaccine against avian coccidiosis under field conditions using serum-derived CD80(+) exosomes containing parasite Ags. PMID:27270382
Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline; Woods, Anne
A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...
... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...
肖蕴祺; 黄炎冰; 吴晶; 倪迎冬; 赵茹茜
[目的]研究kisspeptin-10对无血清培养的鸡卵泡颗粒细胞孕酮分泌的作用及可能机制.[方法]选取200日龄处于产蛋高峰期的伊莎蛋鸡,于排卵前剖腹收集F1卵泡,分离纯化颗粒细胞,于含胎牛血清培养基中培养24 h,换成无血清培养基稳定培养24 h后,用不同浓度的Kp-10、U73122、EGTA等单独或共同处理细胞,收集细胞上清,放射免疫学方法检测培养基中孕酮含量.[结果](1)通过免疫细胞化学方法,显示颗粒细胞上有Kp-10免疫活性样物质的阳性表达；(2)Kp-10处理可显著增加无血清培养的颗粒细胞的活力,100 nmol·L-1时可显著促进孕酮的分泌(P＜0.05)；(3)与对照组相比,2μmol·L-1 U73122(磷脂酶C抑制剂)对孕酮的分泌无显著影响(P＞0.05),而0.5、2μmol·L-1 U73122能显著降低Kp-10对孕酮分泌的促进作用(P＜0.05)； (4)钙离子阻断剂Verapamil( 1-100 μmol·L-1)呈剂量依赖性降低孕酮的分泌,于100μmol·L-1时达显著降低水平(P＜0.05)；与1 μ mol·L-1Verapamil单独处理组相比,100 nmol·L-1 Kp-10与1μmol·L-1 Verapamil同时处理可显著增加孕酮的分泌,而与10、100 μ mol·L-1Verapamil共同处理不能逆转其对孕酮分泌的抑制作用(P＞0.05),且胞内钙离子含量与上清液中孕酮分泌水平相一致； (5)与100 nmol·L-1 Kp-10处理组相比,1和5mmol·L-1 EGTA共同处理时孕酮分泌显著降低,当再加入1.5 mmol·L-1 Ca2+时孕酮分泌量显著增加.[结论]Kp-10促进体外培养的鸡卵泡颗粒细胞孕酮的分泌,其机制可能与胞内Ca2+信号通路有关.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) on progesterone (P4) secretion in cultured granulose cells of chicken follicles. [Method] Two-hundred-day ISA laying hens were sacrificed before the expected time to ovulation. The follicles (Fi) were collected and the granulosa cells were isolated and cultured in serum medium
Abolfazl Ghaniei; Manoochehr Allymehr; Ali Moradschendi
Objective:To demonstrate seroprevalence of avian invluenza (H9N2) subtybe in broiler chickens in Northwest of Iran. Materials:A total of 310 blood samples were collected from 25 broiler flocks in slaughterhouses of West Azarbayjan, Iran. Serum samples were subjected to haemagglutination inhibition test. Results:The test showed 40.6%of positive serums. Mean antibody titer of avian influenza virus differed between geographical locations in this survey. Conclusions:High prevalence of avian influenza virus antibodies in serum of birds emphasize that avian influenza has an important role in respiratory complexes in broiler chickens in this region, and probably throughout Iran. Biosecurity measures, monitoring and surveillance programs, and to some degree vaccination are effective tools to prevent introduction of H9N2 infection and its economic losses.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb and packed cell volume concentration (PCV. Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken.
Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972
Chicken infected with caecal coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) was used to evaluate the effect of coccidiosis on the pharmacokinetic and bioavailability of amoxicillin. The level of amoxicillin was estimated by high-performance chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability. For i.v. injection of amoxicillin, Vd and CL were 0.29 and 0.27 (mg/kg)/(μg/mL)/h, respectively. Compared with healthy chicken, intravenous injection of amoxicillin in the infected chicken showed higher distribution and elimination constants, delayed clearance and statistically significant higher AUC and MRT. Oral administration in healthy chicken was accompanied by rapid absorption and high bioavailability with Tmax , Cmax and F about 1.03 h, 3.26 μg/mL and 40.2, respectively. Furthermore, oral administration in the infected chicken produced higher mean absorption time, delayed Tmax, lower Cmax, smaller AUC value and lower bioavailability (16.76). Based on these results, monitoring and adjustment of amoxicillin dosing could be practiced during the presence of coccidiosis. The measured Cmax values suggest the administration of 1.3-folds of the normal dose to maintain the normal maximal serum concentrations of amoxicillin in chicken infected with caecal coccidiosis. PMID:25623275
Deqing Li; Xuan Dong; Chengtai Ma; Zhizhong Cui; Peng Zhao
To investigate the Avain leukosis virus infection status in China native chicken flocks, 2530 serum samples from 26 kinds of China native chickens were collected and detected using the Avian Leukosis Virus Antibody Test kit (ALV-A/B) and Avian Leukosis Virus Antibody Test kit-Subgroup J (ALV-J). The results showed that among 2530 sera samples 118 samples were positive for ALV-A/B, 332 samples were positive for ALV-J and 35 samples were positive for both ALV-A/B and ALV-J. The positive rate fo...
... 9 CFR 381.170(a)(1). ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...
Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.
Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.
Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to ...
Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken p...
Chickens were irradiated in a 6deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.)
Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout
Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...
Linder, S.; Zuckerman, S H; Ringertz, N R
Activation of chicken globin gene transcription has been demonstrated in chicken erythrocyte--rat L6 myoblast heterokaryons. The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides. No fetal globin mRNA or globin polypeptides were detected. Heterokaryons between chicken erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cells or hamster BHK cells also synthesized adult chicken globins.
Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua
Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection. PMID:27232188
Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .
LI; Jia; PAN; Qiuzhen; LI; Junying; HAN; Hongbing; SUN; Shu
The chicken embryo is a classic model used to investigate embryonic development, gene expression, and tissue differentiation, and is also an important research tool in studying the animal functional genomics. The whole blastoderms of fresh unincubated eggs from White Leghorn chickens were collected with a paper ring, mechanically broken into small pieces and cultured in medium. Then the small pieces would develop into blastocyte-like structures (BLS), which could be facilitated by an addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the primary culture and their diameter was nearly doubled from 12 to 24 h. The additional yolk had no positive effect on the development in the first 12 h but encouraged the BLSs attaching and inner cells differentiating instead in 24 h. The inner cells of the BLS showing a high alkaline-phosphatase activity similar to those in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and also expressing a large amount of the specific stage embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1) on the surface, which was known to be the characteristic of non-differentiated mouse and avian ES cells, could finally differentiate into nerve-like cells, fibroblast cells and so on in the medium. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) facilitated the cells' proliferation and prevented differentiation in the suspended culture of the BLSs. So we drew the conclusion that the BLS obtained from broken blastoderm can be used to amplify avian ES cells so as to initiate a new method of producing transgenic chickens.
Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras
Full Text Available Traditional native chicken delicacies like lechon and adobo are very common dishes in a rural Filipino folks’ dining table. As the family economic standing improves, meat becomes a main item in a family diet, dishes like fried chicken and chicken nuggets have also become part of the family choices of chicken dishes in their meal. Intensification of the production of native Darag chicken would lead to optimization of food technological output for the university which will hopefully be a potential one town-one product (OTOP of the municipality.
Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)
Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A
Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential. PMID:26895245
Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to monitor the effect of propolis extract on selected parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorides of Hubbard JV chickens. Chickens were divided into five groups (C, control; E1 – E4, experimental groups. Experimental chickens (n=10 in each group received propolis in feed mixture in various doses as follows: E1 – 150 mg.kg-1; E2 – 450 mg.kg-1; E3 – 600 mg.kg-1; E4 – 800 mg.kg-1. Feeding period lasted 42 days. Propolis preparation caused a significant (P<0.05 decrease of serum phosphorus and magnesium content. Other parameters were not influenced (P>0.05 after propolis treatment.
Ionising radiation induces stable free radicals in chicken bones and in the shell of chicken eggs which can be detected, by the electrons spin resonance (ESR) technique, well beyond the shelf-life of the food and can be used for dosimetry. The method usually adopted to evaluate ''a posteriori'' the dose given during the ionising radiation treatment of food, is the dose additive method. To assess the dose, the ESR signal amplitude of the irradiated food (bone or egg shell in the present case) is measured and then the dose-effect relationship is obtained by re-irradiating the sample with some additive doses (usually of 1 kGy). The dose-effect curve is back-extrapolated and the initial given dose determined. At the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS), Rome, Italy, a research programme was approved two years ago aimed to, (1) study new methodological approaches for ESR dose assessment, and (2) analyse the factors which may influence the ESR readout of irradiated chicken bones and chicken egg shells. (author)
M. G. Saeed
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was assessment of gross and microscopic pathological changes resulting from sub acute and sub chronic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride CCl4 (99.5% in the liver of chicken and its relation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels. The approximate lethal dose in three weeks old chickens was equal to (994 mg/kg i.p.. In the sub acute toxicity experiment the given dose was (497 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for one week, the liver of treated animals with CCl4 grossly appeared pale and mottled with white yellowish color patches represent the necrotic tissue, the histopathological changes was severe hepatitis with infiltration of inflammatory cells specially heterophiles and diffused coagulative necrosis. In sub chronic toxicity experiment the dose was given (248.5 mg/kg i.p. twice a week for eight weeks, in gross appearance the liver was severely congested, the histopathological changes was hypertrophy of hepatocytes, hyperplasia of lining epithelium of bile ducts and chronic venous congestion, growth depression and significant decreased in the body weight of the treated animals also noticed at this experiment in compared with control group, a significant increased in (ALT and (AST activities also recorded. The results suggests that pathological changes and response of the chicken’s liver to the CCl4 toxicity relatively differs from other laboratory animal models like rats and mice when used approximate dose in the same duration of exposure, so it didn’t appear fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver of chickens, therefore it can't use chickens as a model to induce experimental fibrosis or liver cirrhosis when treated with CCl4 according to the dose and duration of exposure of this study.
Tissues were collected, over a 10-year period, from broiler chickens diagnosed with severe H-SMS at the Georgia Poultry Lab, in Oakwood, GA. All samples were stored in tissue culture media, with antibiotics and 15% fetal bovine serum, in an ultra-cold freezer @ -80F. Specimens were homogenized,...
Dwyer, Edward J.
The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from the "Chicken…
This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.
Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A
An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens. PMID:19096064
Ferdushy, T; Schou, T W; Norup, L R; Dalgaard, T S; Thamsborg, S M; Nejsum, P; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Kyvsgaard, N C
SUMMARY Acquired resistance against Ascaridia galli infection was studied in seventy-two 18-week-old white Leghorn chickens allocated to six groups (G1-G6). In order to understand the population dynamics following trickle-infection (100 eggs per chicken twice weekly), chickens of subgroups of G1 were necropsied 3 days after 1, 6 or 12 inoculations (G1A, G1B and G1C respectively), while G2-G4 were inoculated for 6 weeks. G2 was necropsied 4 weeks after the last inoculation. The number of established larvae increased initially (between G1A and G1B) but decreased after repeated inoculations (G1C, G2). G3, G4 and G5 were used to measure the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment and to monitor the acquisition of resistance following a challenge infection. At week 7 G3, G4 and G5 were treated with flubendazole for 7 days in the feed. Two weeks after treatment the chickens in G4 and G5 were challenged with 500 eggs. G6 was left as uninfected control. Necropsy at week 10 after first inoculation revealed a lower establishment rate, an impaired development and a more posterior localization of the larvae in G4 (trickle-infected-treated-challenged) compared with G5 (treated-challenged). IgY level in serum reached noticeable level at 14 dpi in G2 and G4 chickens, and in G4 chickens IgY level further increased after challenge infection. The study provides evidence that acquired resistance against A. galli in chickens leads to a significant yet incomplete protection against re-infection. PMID:25003836
Li, Bing; Wei, Kai; Yang, Shifa; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Yongbing; Zhu, Fujie; Wang, Di; Zhu, Ruiliang
Co-infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), which can cause suppressed immunity and vaccination failure, frequently occurs in chicken flocks in China. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS) and propolis (PP) have been proven to possess immune modulatory effects and improve the immune effects of vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the immune modulatory ability of TPPPS and PP on chickens co-infected with immunosuppressive viruses. Prior to the study, chickens were artificially established as REV and ALV-J co-infection models. Four randomly assigned groups of these immunosuppressed chickens were successively administered with TPPPS, PP, mixture of TPPPS and PP (TPPPS-PP), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for three days. At nine days old, the four immunosuppressed groups, as well as one normal group, were inoculated with the attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. During the monitoring period, the indices of immune organ weight, lymphocyte transformation rates, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, IL-2 and IFN-γ secretions, serum antibody titers of ND vaccine, and viral loads in spleens were determined. The results showed that chickens administered with TPPPS, PP, or TPPPS-PP could significantly enhance the levels of the above immune parameters compared to chickens in the PBS group. We observed the strongest immunity in the TPPPS-PP group, which indicates that the combination of TPPPS and PP versus TPPPS or PP alone, could generate better effects on improving the immune system effectiveness of immunosuppressed chickens. PMID:25450885
Deng, G; Zhang, Y; Peng, X; Guo, D; Li, C
1. B- and M-mode echocardiography was used to compare cardiac function in broilers with spontaneous ascites syndrome with that of normal chickens. 2. Thirty ascitic chickens and 15 normal chickens aged three, 4, 5, and 6 weeks from the same flock (180 birds in total) were examined. They were restrained gently in a natural standing position, and echocardiographs were obtained from a 7.0-MHz linear transducer placed on the left pectoral apterium. Indices of cardiac structure and functioning were calculated from the echocardiographs, and some were normalised to body weight. Heart rate was also measured. 3. All cardiac structural indices in both ascitic and normal chickens increased with age. Compared with normal chickens, right ventricular diameter at the end of systole in ascitic chickens was greater at 4, 5 and 6 weeks of age. Ventricular septal thickness at the end of both systole and diastole was greater in ascitic chickens at 5 and 6 weeks. Left ventricular free wall thickness at the end of diastole was less in ascitic chickens at 3 weeks. However, all the structural indices decreased with age after normalisation with body weight. 4. The heart rate of ascitic chickens was lower at 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Normalised left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in ascitic chickens at 4, 5 and 6 weeks, as was normalised right ventricular fractional shortening. Incrassation of the ventricular septum (Delta T), which changed little in normal chickens, was less at 4, 5 and 6 weeks in ascitic chickens. Left ventricular fractional shortening, right ventricular fractional shortening and Delta T were all negatively correlated with ascites heart index at all ages. 5. Taken together the results suggest heart failure of both ventricle, but that right ventricular dysfunction is more extensive than left ventricular dysfunction. We suggest that secondary pulmonary hypertension would result in these ascitic chickens due to volume overload. PMID:17190684
Two cell lines, named KCEK and KCEL, were established from chicken embryonic kidney and lung. The basal culture medium was newly developed and the cell growth medium consisted of K1999 supplemented with 10% heat inactivated chicken serum. Both cells were well adapted to grow in vitro and more than 50 passages have been made so far. Once the cell lines were established the cells were easily adapted to grow in other growth media supplemented with fetal calf serum. Neither tumor formation in chicks nor P52 avian leucosis common antigen was detected in these cells. However, the oncogene analysis on these cells has not been performed yet. Both cells were permissive hosts for the Aujeszky's disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus. PMID:21213599
Dimitrichka Dimitrova; Anna Arnaudova-Matey; Petar Dilov; Geno Angelov; Tandju Mehmedov; Toni Todorov; Denka Kushvalieva; Dimitrina Nikolova; Valija Dilova
The pharmacokinetics of ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate was investigated in broiler chickens after intravenous injection and crop intubation. The iron compounds were injected intravenously in v. brachialis. After 20-day “wash-out” period the ferrous methionate and ferrous sulphate were administered again by an elastic silicone tube into the crop. The serum concentrations of the iron were determined with bioanalyser. Two pharmacokinetic approaches were used – compartmental and non-comp...
Aslı Zungur; Berker Nacak; Meltem Serdaroglu
Model system chicken emulsions were prepared by replacing 5, 10, 15 and 20 % beef fat with chicken skin. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and pH were determined in raw and heat processed emulsions. Emulsion samples were evaluated for cooking characteristics, TBA values and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). Addition of chicken skin decreased fat content and increased moisture and protein content of emulsion samples. Chicken skin replacement significantly increased water holding capacity and cooking ...
Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens and small ruminants in particular play importantsoci-economic roles in developing countries. Production of village chickens is a source of easy and regular income for rural farmers in developing countries in general and inBurkina Fasoin particular. Unfortunately efforts to improve this production system were not very effective and village chickens still h...
Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Kwon; Sul, Woo Jun
Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host....
Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades
Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...
Deogade; A H; Zanjad; P. N.; Ambadkar; R. K. and Raziuddin; M
Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0...
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of two organic acids (acetic and citric acid inclusion on serum parameters and the level of antioxidant status of broiler chickens. Some organic acidifiers reduce the growth of many intestinal bacteria, reduce intestinal colonisation and reduce infectious processes, decrease inflammatory processes at the intestinal mucosa, increase villus height and function of secretion, digestion and absorption of nutrients. Broiler chickens hybrid Ross 308 (n=180 were divided into 3 groups: one control (C and two experimental groups (E1, E2. Experimental animals received acetic and citric acid per os in water in single dose 0.25% for 42 days. After 42 days of feeding blood samples were collected (n=10 in each group. Significant decrease of serum triglycerides in citric acid group when compared with the control group was recorded. Acetic acid administration resulted in increased sodium level. Significant increase of albumin content in both experimental groups and increase of bilirubin content in citric group was recorded. Acids administration had no significant effect on other serum and antioxidant parameters. Acetic and citric acid had no harmful influenced on internal milieu of broiler chickens. The research on the field of organic acid will be worthy of further investigation.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with 6 chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or gut barrier failure (GBF group. During the first 13 d, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn-soy starter diet. On d 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet and GBF chickens were switched to rye-wheat-barley grower diet. In addition, on d 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At d 21 and d 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At d 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05 by a GBF model when compared with CON group at d 21 and d 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. An increase (P <0.05 in serum endotoxin, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, as well as interleukin (IL-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF-β4 and fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP 6 mRNA levels were increased in GBF birds compared to CON; however, FABP2 mRNA levels were decreased (P <0.05 in GBF birds compared to CON. Occludin was numerically reduced by 24% (P = 0.107 and mucin 2 (MUC2 was reduced by 29 % (P = 0.088 in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β and TGF-β4 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens.
Tati Ariyanti; Supar
Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...
Buza, Teresia J; Kumar, Ranjit; Gresham, Cathy R; Burgess, Shane C.; McCarthy, Fiona M
Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually...
Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R
Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin were significantly (pchickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (pchickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised. PMID:25049746