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1

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

2

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

3

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

4

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

5

ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

6

Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986.

Czakainski, M.

1986-06-01

7

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

8

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of th1-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately after the accident. (orig.)

9

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

10

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

11

Radiation exposure: cytogenetic tests - Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimate thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

12

The accident in the Chernobyl reactor. Scenario and impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution is based to a great extent on the comprehensive report of the Radiation Protection Commission on the 'Impacts of the reactor accident in Chernobyl' on the Federal Republic of Germany. There is another detailed report meanwhile by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection on the radiation exposure of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany following the Chernobyl accident. Dealt with are the accident scenario, activity release, atmospheric transport of released activity, activity concentrations in air, soil and water in the Federal Republic of Germany, radiation exposure of the German population and appropriate evaluations, and radiation exposure and effects on health in the Soviet Union. (orig./HSCH)

13

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

14

Radiation impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radiation monitoring to study the effect of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the contamination of the environment in Hungary comprised radioactivity determinations of aerosols, of samples of fallout, surface and drinking water, plants, milk and meat as well as the monitoring of human beings. Time dependent dose rates and activity concentrations based on total ?-disintegration and ?-spectrometric measurements are given. The spatial distribution of radioactivity in Hungary is determined. According to calculations of internal and external radiation exposures of the population, the effective dose increment in Hungary due to the Chernobyl reactor accident is regarded to be about 1 mSv. (V.N.)

15

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

16

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

17

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

18

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

19

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

20

The Chernobyl reactor accident - provisional results and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Those involved at present in the analysis and estimation of consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are in a dilemma: While a worried and uncertain Western German public is calling for information the Soviet Union was practicing a rigorously restrictive information policy. Both the severity of the reactor accident and the complexity of events do urgently require the acquisition and evaluation of facts which will provide the basis for an objective factual discussion of issues and possible measures. The paper abstracted is trying to assess the alleged causes of the accident and estimate possible consequences. However, all attempts of that kind are based but on incomplete and dubious information as of May 21st, 1986. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
21

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

22

Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

23

Chernobyl - ten years after. The reactor accident and the safety of RBMK reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication presents a comprehensive but concise documentation of the reactor accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. All relevant aspects are addressed in a manner and language that can be understood by the general reader with some background in scientific literature reading. The topics are: causes of the accident; safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants (core design, shutdown systems, engineered safety systems, reactor containment, accident analysis and management system, operational control); safety of the reactor units 1,2 and 3 of the Chernobyl reactor; safety of the sarcophagus; radioactive conramination levels and radioactive wastes on site; the radiobiological situation in the affected areas; health effects of the accident; continued operation of RBMK-type nuclear power plants. Conclusions are drawn with respect to nuclear power plant operation and nuclear safety and radiological safety in Germany. (HP)

24

Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

25

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

26

First consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article first summarizes the facts known at the time, about the causes and events at Chernobyl, and continues with a discussion of the consequences such as the long-term effects of the radioactive contamination of the area affected, radiation-induced carcinogenesis, and latency periods. The lack of reliable and safe information on the effects of low-dose irradiation, and possible radiation effects to be expected in regions far away from the reactor site are dealt with together with the question of whether there is a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer development, and what would happen if the F.R.G. were to experience such an accident on its own territory. The author finally discusses arguments raised against his own view of the situation and points to another type of damage observable in the country, namely the psychological stress created by the upsurge of fear of the atomic energy. (MG)

27

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, 131I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom 131I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab

28

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were 131I, /sup 134,137/Cs, and 103Ru/103Rh. The median 131I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of 134Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable 137Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10-6 for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10-6 to 4.2 x 10-5 with 95% of the risk attributable to 137Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs

29

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

30

Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

31

Fallout in the Mainz area from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident in air, rainwater, soil and grass are reported. The concentrations of 16 radionuclides of the elements Nb, Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, I, Cs, Ba and Ce were obtained by ?-ray spectroscopy. In a few samples the ?- and ?-emitters 89,90Sr, 238,239Pu and 242Cm were measured by radiochemical techniques. From several isotopic ratios information on the status of the reactor is derived: end of the chain reaction, exposure time of the fuel, and contribution of plutonium fission. The relative concentrations of varius fission products in aerosol, soil, and grass were found to be identical whereas rainwater showed an enrichment of Mo, Ru, Te and I compared to Cs and Ba during the first week. The composition of the airborne fallout is compared with the calculated inventory and the reported release pattern. The elements are found to fall in four groups: (I) Sb, Te, I, Cs; (II) Mo, Ru; (III) Sr, Ba; (IV) Nb, Ce, Np, Pu, Cm with relative concentrations of roughly 1:10-1:10-2:10-3 compared to the inventory. This indicates a depletion of the less volatile elements in the release from the damaged reactor and during transport. The airborne activity was found to be attached to small particles of ? 1 ?m size. Iodine was present mainly in the form of species not retained by ordinary aerosol filters. Dry fallout has contributed about 75% of the deposition of Cs and Ba and about 50 % of Ru, Te and I with the major deposition during May 2 and 5, 1986. The total deposition of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239Pu is estimated to be 0.02, 1.5 and -4 kBq/m2, which has to be compared with values of 2, 4 and 0.1 kBq/m2, respectively, measured before the accident. (orig.)

32

The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

33

Atmospheric impact of Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of meteorological conditions on radioactivity transport from Chernobyl through Europe to Hungary was analyzed. Based on the half-lives of the radionuclides environmental radioactivity concentrations could be prognostized. Radioactivities due to the accident were compared with those measured in the fifties when the non-proliferation treaty had not been concluded. (V.N.)

34

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

35

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

36

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

37

Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

38

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

39

Air radioactivity at selected stations in Norway after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities of 103Ru, 131I and 137Cs in air and in precipitation samples at some Norwegian stations after the Chernobyl reactor accident are reported. Two periods of increased radioactivity occured. In the first period the total airborne radioactivity increased up to three orders of magnitude over the normal background. As expected 131I was the predominant radionuclide in the plume from Chernobyl. The measurements show that a few stations with contionuous monitoring of radioactivity in air would have been sufficient to detect the transport into Norway of radioactive material from the accidental release at Chernobyl

40

Estimation of internal exposure of four Japanese travellers to fission products released from the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive release from the reactor accident at Chernobyl provided unexpected exposure of four Japanese travellers. The internal contamination was measured with a whole-body counter. They happened to stay at a distance of 300 km north of Chernobyl immediately after the accident. In this paper, the results of an estimation of the internal dose to the four Japanese are described. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

42

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

43

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The examination of the radioelements in macromicetae taken in the area of Como's Groane and in other areas near Lakes of Como and Maggiore and a few samples in Pine' di Trento are reported. A number of samples has been collected and analyzed at Joint Research Center, Ispra. A sampling of many pieces has been picked up by the Circolo Micologico Plinio il Vecchio and by the Unita' Sanitarie of Como and Varese. The various samples are subdivided for specie and the denomination for each one of them is given. The foundamental sampling is dated atumn 1986, a second sampling is made in autumn 1987. Gamma spectrometry has revealed the presence of many radiosotopes due to the Chernobyl fall-out. as Cs137, Cs134 and Ag110 (metastable); levels of Potassium 40, a natural radioactive element have been also measured. A discussion of results is presented and the comparison among data of the 1986 season and the 1987 one

44

Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated

45

Comparison of radionuclides levels from the Chernobyl reactor accident and from global fallout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests have been carried out at this laboratory since the mid-fifties. Consequent to the Chernobyl reactor accident in the USSR in April 1986, similar studies were carried out. A number of fairly active samples were collected from commercial aircraft which had flown over the USSR soon after the accident. The studies provided detailed information on differences in the composition of fallout from the accident and long term radiation exposures likely to accrue from the Chernobyl fallout as opposed to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. This paper presents the results and their interpretation on the above aspects. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

46

The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

47

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed. (UK)

48

Uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the reactor accident at Chernobyl, radioactive material was released to the atmosphere and was carried with the winds to many parts of Europe. Specifically some quantities of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in air have reached the European countries and exposed the population to internal radiation via inhalation. As a result of the fallout, these radionuclides were also taken by people via the food chain, this soon became the most significant exposure pathway. To determine the level of internal contamination, people were monitored for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. Personal monitoring was performed on citizens (or visitors) of the European countries outside the Soviet Union or those who happened to visit the Soviet Union during or immediately after the Chernobyl accident. This paper gives a summary of the personal monitoring reported mainly by Canada, Finland, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The paper also gives a summary of the techniques used today to assess internal contamination and in particular, it elaborates on the two methods which were used to measure uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident. For these two methods (whole body or thyroid direct count and activity in urine) the paper summarizes the main physical, metabolic and radiological parameters for I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. These parameters help to put the two methods of personal monitoring into perspective and to convert the reported data on personal monitoring into internal radiation doses

49

MESORAD dose assessment of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive material to the atmosphere. This report describes the results of an assessment of the doses near the site (within 80 km) made at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using the MESORAD Dose Assessment model. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Athey, G.F.; Davis, W.E.

1989-12-01

50

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5. The three-day interval between the incident and its discovery outside the USSR caused great apprehension. This chain of events indicates the very important role for the nuclear medicine physician, the medical physicist and their colleagues. It is likely that this medical specialty area is staffed by personnel who are best qualified to interpret these findings and to determine the necessary course of action both for patients and the general public. The nuclear medicine specialist can provide valuable input in estimating the radiation dose impact resulting from such an incident. This estimate may be accomplished either by combining measured activity levels with the physiological and physical factors involved; or by actual in vivo counting and quantitation of radioactivity in individuals exposed to radionuclides. From the measured activities in air, water and food, and assumed intakes for various age groups, doses can be estimated both for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. In vivo measurements of radionuclides can be performed with conventional instrumentation used routinely in nuclear medicine laboratories

51

The general public's attitude towards nuclear power after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of three public opinion polls made within two years after the Chernobyl reactor accident revealed a deep feeling of insecurity in the population which did not disappear or diminish in the time from the first to the third survey, but instead was stirred up again by the affairs in the nuclear industry. Other than former accidents in a nuclear facility, as the one at Harrisburg for example, the Chernobyl reactor accident - from the subjective point of view of many citizens - had effects of a dimension exceeding the political level, and reaching into the normal sphere of life of anybody. Torn between two contravening feelings, namely the wish to get rid of the nuclear energy risk as soon as possible, and the fear that this might mean farewell also to the amenities of a life as a free consumer, the population gave into the strategy of suppression, so that there is verbal protest against the hazards of nuclear energy, but no will to really give up the advantages of a comfortable life created by modern technologies. (orig./HP)

52

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

53

Analysis of space-time core dynamics on reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regarding reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, core dynamics has been analyzed by COMIC code which solves space-time dependent diffusion equation in three-dimension taking spatial thermohydraulic effect into account. The code was originally developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), however, has been modified to include light water as coolant, instead of helium, for analysis of the accident. In the analysis, emphasis is placed on spatial effects on core dynamics. The analyses are performed for the cases of modeling the core fully and partially where 6 fuel channels surround one control rod channel. The result shows that the speed of applying void reactivity averaged over the core depends on the power and coolant flow distributions. Therefore, these distributions have potential to influence on the value and the time of peak power estimated by calculation. (author)

54

Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

55

Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project 'Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ''Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'', giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.)

56

Chernobyl accident and Danmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

57

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

58

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

59

Concentration of radioactive cesium in imported foods and contribution by Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclides in imported foods consumed in Hokkaido were examined by germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The values of radioactive cesium (137Cs+134Cs) concentration of 480 samples collected during 1989-1999 were lower than the temporary limit (370 Bq/kg). These values of 441 samples (92%) were lower than 1 Bq/kg. The maximum values of 137Cs and 134Cs were 62.4 Bq/kg, 3.8 Bq/kg in black tea imported from China. From the relation between concentration of 137Cs and cesium unit, the contribution from Chernobyl reactor accident was estimated qualitatively on 24 samples with higher values than 0.40 Bq/g-K. Based on the concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs detected in 16 samples, the contribution of 137Cs from this accident were calculated. (author)

60

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

 
 
 
 
61

Standby after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

62

Radioactivity measurements in Krakow surroundings in the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from different laboratories of the Institute of Nuclear Physics was formed to set a crash program of measurement of water and food contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The main contaminants in the first days were 131I and 132Te which were superseded later on by 104Ru, 137Cs and 134Cs. The highest value of contamination of surface waters by 131I was attained in the Vistula river on the 2-nd of May with 530 Bq/dm3. Also measurements of food contamination by 131I,134Cs, 137Cs and 137Te were carried out. The additional effective dose equivalent related to Chernobyl accident received by the population of Krakow region in May 1986 was estimated at 0.45 mSV (45 rem). Another rise of 134Cs + 137Cs content up to 46 Bq/dm3 in cows milk was observed during March and April 1987 and was probably explicable by the use of hay harvested in June 1986. (author)

63

Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

64

Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 ?Sv, child-140 ?Sv, baby-130 ?Sv, [total body] adult-0.2 ?Sv, child, baby-0.4 ?Sv, external exposure; 7 ?Sv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 ?Sv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 ?Sv. (author)

65

131I content in canine thyroids in the Warsaw urban area after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of 131I were determined in the thyroids of 20 dogs from Warsaw submitted to euthanasia between May and September 1986. The animals were living with humans and were in similar way exposed to contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. After calculation of the radioactivity for May 10th the contamination was found to range from 142.9 to 1372.9 Bq. These values corresponded to the contamination of human thyroids as reported by Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection in Warsaw. From the begining of May to the end of November the number of operations performed in dogs for pathological thyroid hyperplasia was six times higher than in the preceding time period. 5 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

66

Additional radiation dose to a site as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The court decision discussed in this article states that, assesing a site's radiation level for compliance with the dose limits given in section 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchVO), take calculations have to include and take into account radioactive effluents from normal operation of other plant in that area, but not radiation doses emanating from accidents such as the Chernobyl reactor blow-up. (BVerwG, decision of May 23, 1991 - 7 C 34/90). The judgement of the Federal Court of Administration is the result of an action commenced in October 1986, to prevent approval of the second partial licence for the Brokdorf nuclear power plant (which was to licence nuclear commissioning and test operation, specified normal operation, and use of MOX fuel elements). (orig./HP)

67

Observation of radioactive fallout in Hiroshima caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl has caused detectable radioactive contamination not only in Europe, but also in Japan. We have measured gamma-ray energy spectra of radioactivities in aerosol sample, rainfall, tap water and ground water in Hiroshima. On the air filter, twenty nuclides, 95Zr, 95Nb, 99Mo, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Rh, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129Te, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba and 140La were observed. Maximum concentration of 131I in air was observed on 8 May with amount of 0.20 Bq/m3. In this paper, radioactivity measurements for two weeks were reported. Comparison of radioactive fallouts in Hiroshima with those in Europe were given, and difference of the fallouts, mainly volatile fission poroducts, from those of the nuclear test was shown. (author)

68

Aspects of environmental monitoring by British Nuclear Fuels plc following the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident arrived in West Cumbria on 2 May 1986. The environmental monitoring facilities of the British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield reprocessing plant were used to monitor radioactivity in air, deposition on grass and on soil and concentrations in milk. The distribution of deposition between sampled grass and soil was affected by heavy rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud. Measurements of radioactivity in milk at a lowland farm on the coastal plain resulted in a critical group effective dose of 0.64 mSv up to the end of July, but additional doses are expected to result from the use of silage during the winter. Comparisons are made between these doses from milk consumption and those predicted from the data available shortly after the deposition of the radioactivity on the pasture. (author)

69

Chernobyl accident and Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

70

Radioactivity in persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were 131I, sup 134,137/Cs, and 103Ru/103Rh. The median 131I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of 134Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable 137Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10-6 for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10-6 to 4.2 x 10-5 with 95% of the risk attributable to 137Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs

71

Radioactivity measurements of water, milk and dairy products, vegetables and grass from the surroundings of Cracow on the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of radioactive contamination of water and food products were carried out shortly after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Using the measured values, the committed effective dose equivalent for adult population of Cracow was estimated. (author)

72

Environmental radioactivity around Tokai-Works after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl, environmental samples of air, rain water and agricultural and marine products were collected and analyzed by gamma- and alpha-spectrometry. The highest concentrations of 131I in the environmental samples were as follows: 1.0 x 10-1 Bq m-3 (aerosol-associated in air); 3.0 x 10-1 Bq m-3 (gaseous in air); 2.1 x 102 Bq kg-1 (plants); 1.4 x 101 Bq litre-1 (milk). Other nuclides such as 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, sup(129m)Te, 132I/132Te, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba/140La, 141Ce and 144Ce were also observed in various environmental samples. sup(110m)Ag was only detected in marine products such as cephalopoda and shellfish. sup(239,240)Pu and 241Am originating from the accident were not identified. Based on the monitoring results at one dairy farm, we have derived an equation to model the transport of 131I from pasture grass to milk. This equation was then applied to the data from two other farms around Tokai-Works and the calculated 131I activities in milk were compared with those measured. The equation shows good predictive capabilities for quantification of the peak concentrations of 131I in milk but underestimates longer-term activities. (author)imates longer-term activities. (author)

73

Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident; Lehren aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktorunfall fuer Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG) [Deutsch] Aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktorunfall werden Konsequenzen in Deutschland umgesetzt. Sie umfassen die Schaffung gesetzlicher und administrativer Voraussetzungen fuer eine einheitliche Beurteilung von Belastungssituationen und abgestimmten Verhaltensempfehlungen bei der Strahlenschutzvorsorge und fuer den nuklearen Katastrophenschutz. Die Messungen zur Bestimmung der ereignis- und dosisrelevanten Nukliden in den Umweltmedien werden ausgeweitet. Kommunikationseinrichtungen zur Echtzeitinformation der Bevoelkerung sollen geschaffen und internationale Vereinbarungen ueber die gegenseitige Information bei Stoerfaellen in Kernkraftwerken getroffen werden. (DG)

Vogl, J. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen, Muenchen (Germany)

1996-07-01

74

Health hazards to the population of Hamburg, due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of cancer incidence within a time period of 50 years are stated and in brackets for comparison the cancer deaths within a time period of 50 years based on the Hamburg cancer register for 1985: 1) Pulmonary cancer 0-2 (47 100) 2) Thyroid (thyroida. 3) Hepatic cancer 1-69 (5 700) 4) Leucaemia 3-609 (8 850) 5) All cancer diseases 3-609 (259 000). Presuming that all cancer diseases caused by the Chernobyl accident lead to death and taking into consideration the total cancer risk of the next 50 years, the number of cancer deaths increases at maximum by a little more than one five hundredth (0.23%) As concerns the genetic risk, it is to be noticed that the estimated numbers of 1 to up to 55 cases per generation above all refer to the minor modifications of hereditary factor. With regard to severe hereditary diseases within the next two generations the health authority estimates that in comparison to the single case of clinical importance caused by the reactor accident there are 1760 spontaneous hereditary diseases. (orig./HP)

75

Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models established after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments reported were carried out for a verification of existing, dynamic radioecological models, especially of the ECOSYS model. The database used for the verification covers the radioactivity concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131 measured after the Chernobyl reactor accident in foodstuffs and environmental samples, the results of field experiments on radionuclide translocation after foliar uptake or absorption by the roots of edible plants. The measured data were compared with the model predictions for the radionuclides under review. The Cs-134 and Cs-137 translocation factors which describe the redistribution of these radionuclides in the plant after foliar uptake were experimentally determined by a single sprinkling with Chernobyl rainwater, and were measured to be the following as a function of sprinkling time: winter wheat, 0.002-0.13; spring wheat, 0.003-0.09; winter rye, 0.002-0.27; barley, 0.002-0.04; potatoes, 0.05-0.35; carrots, 0.02-0.07; bush beans, 0.04-0.3; cabbage, 0.1-0.5. The weathering half-life of the radionuclides in lettuce was determined to be ten days. Transfer factors determined for root absorption of Cs-137 were measured to be an average of 0.002 for grains, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. There was an agreement between the ECOSYS model predictions and the measured radioactivity concentrations of the corresponding radionuclides. (orig./HP)lides. (orig./HP)

76

Reactor physical and thermohydraulic aspects of the accident with unit four in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this symposium report an analysis is given of the reactor physics and thermohydraulics during the period of nearly two minutes in which the nuclear excursion came about at 25 April 1986 from 1h22 to 1h23.45 in the Chernobyl-4 reactor. (Auth.)

77

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

78

Effusion and spreading of contamination caused by the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides a description of the effusion and spread of contamination caused by the Chernobyl-4 accident this report also contains a treatment of the radiologic follow up, the corresponding health effects and measures been taken. The content is based on the official evaluation report drawn up by the Soviet authorities on behalf of the IAEA 'Post-accidents review meeting' held in Vienna from August 24 to 28, 1986 and also on the presentation and discussions which have taken place during the conference. The facts presented in this contribution are solely related to the situation in the Soviet Union. (Auth.)

79

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the issues involved in the public health measures and the use of KI in a reactor accident have been reviewed. It is suggested that the widely applied risk estimates for induction of human thyroid cancer by radioiodine are probably too high since they are generally derived from x-radiation of children and since 131I seems less carcinogenic per gray than external radiation. The adult protective action guideline currently recommended by the FDA of 0.25 Gy (25 rad) for KI administration may be overly conservative. If KI is to be used, 1 Gy (100 rad) to the thyroid for adults and .50 Gy (50 rad) for children may be a more appropriate action level. For maximum effectiveness, KI must be taken immediately before or at the time of exposure, a requirement producing major distribution problems. The logistics of KI distribution are complex and seem to limit its use to special situations. Significant side effects can occur from iodide ingestion, although they are not likely to be frequent with the KI dose proposed. In most accident scenarios, the overall gain from KI use seems to be marginal. In considering KI use as public health measure, the authors are confronted with the problem of establishing sound public policy in the absence of sufficient scientific information and in the face of conflicting and often unrealistic perceptions. It is hoped that new and useful information can be obtained from the study of the effects of the Chernobyl accident where KI was us of the Chernobyl accident where KI was used for a few days in the population in the immediate vicinity of the reactor

80

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
81

Radioactivity measurements in the Lake of Constance after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of measured values reported, the experts interpret the situation in this important water reservoir from the perspective of water protection, and with a view to the long-term, future effects of the radioisotopes from the Chernobyl fallout on the entire ecosystem in that region. Main items discussed are: radioactivity uptake by the lake water in the months April and May 1986, radioactivity distribution and deposition in the lake (water, sediments, suspended matter, plankton, fish), and the effects on the latter, particularly the sediments. The final chapter discusses the experience and knowledge gained with other waters in the F.R.G. that have taken up radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. (DG)

82

Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl Reactor accident on the Biota of Swedeish Streams and Lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in elevated levels of radionuclides in the air space above Sweden, which were then washed into Swedish lakes and streams. Before suspended particles stripped the water column, the concentration of /sp137/Cs in small Swedish lakes was in the order of 10-40 Bq/l. This level of radioactivity should result in a negligible increase in the external exposure rate. However, by August 1986 increased levels of radioactivity were found at all trophic levels of freshwater ecosystems from algae to top carnivore, and from the available data the levels of radioactivity are still increasing. The calculated dose rate for the aquatic biota caused by the two cesium isotopes, /sp134/Cs and /sp137/Cs, is about 25 times higher than natural levels. While acute effectrs of the Chernobyl fallout on freshwater biota are unlikely, the long term ecological effects bear watching

83

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

84

Teratological evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in Hungary after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly distribution of pregnancy outcomes such as induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, newborns with birth weight under 2500 g, isolated congenital anomalies, identified multiple congenital anomaly syndromes including fetal radiation syndrome, and unidentified multiple congenital anomalies was evaluated in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident until Apr 1987. Only a somewhat higher rate of newborns with birth weight under 2500 g in May and June, 1986 was detected. It may have been due to premature labour caused by anxiety. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

85

Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

86

Monitoring of radioactivity in sewage and sewage sludge - the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, the Institute has measured, inter alia, the levels of radioactivity in sewage, sewage sludge and ash from sludge incineration at Berlin sewage works. It was seen that with the beginning of rainfall after the accident, there was a sudden rise in the concentration of fission products in sewage, and, with a certain lag, also in sludge and ash after the date of 7 May 1986. Later on, values dropped again. It follows from these examinations that sewage as well as ash from sewage sludge incineration can be disposed of at tipping sites without any additional precautionary measures. The same is true of the agricultural use of sewage sludge. (orig./PW)

87

Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury

88

Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

1986-08-08

89

The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its implications of world-wide food trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor disaster of 26 April 1986 caused not only destruction, death, injury, and high level radioactive contamination in the zone around the nuclear power plant - it also caused wide-spread low level contamination in many countries of Easter and Central Europe. It is shown that although populations outside the disaster area were not exposed to serious danger, the confusion that arose not only among the general public but also among regulatory agencies, caused tremendous difficulties for food manufacturers and the food trade. 2 refs., 3 tabs, 3 figs

90

Conclusions from the consequences of the reactor accident of Chernobyl for Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to abate the possibility, and to diminish the consequences of a serious reactor accident, the following measures are proposed and explained: (1) Establishment of an international reactor safety conference. (2) Establishment of a law on precautionary radiological protection on a national level. (3) In Bavaria: Extension of the radioactivity monitoring network to cover the whole area of Bavaria, enhancement of the information systems, establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial coordination board, research activities. (TRV)

91

Action level for imported food in Japan after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Apr. 1986 caused a widespread release of radionuclides to environment. As a result of food movement in international trade, it was necessary to decide action level of radionuclides for food imported in Japan. The action level was derived from the following basic principle: Dose equivalent should be less than one third of 0.5 rem/year for whole body exposure. Assuming that the composition of representative radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in imported food are equal to those of fallout in Japan and consumption of internal food products reduces total intake of radionuclides to 35 %, action level indicated by sum of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations was estimated to be 370 Bq/kg. From Nov. 1986 to Sep. 1987, it was observed that twenty samples in imported food contained radioactivity exceeding the action level. (author)

92

A study of the effects of exposure on cleanup workers at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident using multiple end points.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood samples were collected from 192 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup after the April 26, 1986, nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine. These samples, together with samples from 73 individuals living in Russia but not involved in Chernobyl cleanup activities, were collected during September 1991 to May 1996 and shipped to the U.S. for evaluation by three bioassays: cytogenetic analysis based on chromosome painting, HPRT mutation analysis and glycophorin A (GPA) variant analysis. Univariate statistical analyses of the results of each bioassay (including adjustments for age, smoking status and estimated precision of the bioassay) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations and HPRT mutant T lymphocytes among the exposed individuals compared to the controls (P homozygous, N/N, variant cell frequency. Multivariate analysis of variance of the subset of 44 exposed and 14 unexposed individuals with measurements from all three bioassays found elevated frequencies of chromosomal translocations and HPRT mutants, and reduced frequencies for both GPA end points among the exposed persons compared to the controls. However, none of these differences, considered singly or in combination, was statistically significant (although statistical power is low due to small sample sizes). Mean estimated dose, based on cytogenetic response, for those exposed was 9 cGy (range 0 to 51 cGy) and was less than that estimated by physical dosimetry (25 cGy). Correlation between the end points of the bioassays and estimated physical dosimetry was low (r < 0.2); the only significant correlation found was for physical dose estimate and dates worked at Chernobyl (r = 0.4, P < 0.01), with those working soon after the accident receiving greater estimated doses. PMID:9355872

Moore, D H; Tucker, J D; Jones, I M; Langlois, R G; Pleshanov, P; Vorobtsova, I; Jensen, R

1997-11-01

93

Reduction of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and seaweed by cooking. [Fallout, Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decontamination ratios of /sup 131/I were obtained from leafy vegetables samples and an edible seaweed sample (Papenfussiella kuromo) after cooking. Samples obtained in Akita City were contaminated with fallout /sup 131/I from the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The decontamination ratio of /sup 131/I content in washed spinach samples to that in raw materials was 0.83 +- 0.21. The ratio of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and edible wild grass samples boiled in water to that in washed samples was 0.51 +- 0.19 on an average. The overall decontamination ratio for leafy vegetables was 0.42 +- 0.19, while the decontamination ratio after cooking was 0.68 for the seaweed sample.

Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.

1987-03-01

94

Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used

95

Radioactive contamination of vegetation and soil after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between October 1986 and May 1988 plant and soil samples have been collected mainly in the FRG. The contamination with radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 was measured ?-spectroscopically using a Ge(-Li)-Detector. Six months after deposition the following radionuclides were still detectable in plants and soil: 95Tc, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 125Sb, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs and 144Ce; in 1988 the two radionuclides 137Cs and 134Cs represented 90% of the total radioactivity left. In 1986 higher plants contained 22 to 5,370 Bq/kg dryweight of radiocesium; in 1987 radioactivity differed between 9 and 15,800 Bq/kg dry weight. The deposition of radionuclides in West Germany proved to be extremely heterogeneous. Within one kilometer variations up to 30-fold occured. Mountain sites were contaminated higher than valleys located nearby and the southern part of Germany more than the western parts. Two years after the Fallout 70% of the soil radioactivity has remained in the uppermost centimeter and 95% has not moved deeper than 5 cm. Transfer phenomena from soil to plant by root uptake of radionuclides were not detectable. Changes in the contamination patterns which have taken place within the last years must be due to climatic and physical processes (translocation of dust and water). (orig.)(orig.)

96

Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

97

The accident of Chernobyl's nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Soviet Union announced six major improvement measures for preventing another accident of the RBMK type nuclear reactor. The present study is aimed at technical evaluation of these measures. The structure, performances, nuclear-heat hydraulic power characteristics (coolant void coefficient, dynamic characteristic parameters, graphite exothermic reaction, etc.) of the Chernobyl's nuclear reactor are examined to determine the plant behaviors from 1 : 19 on April 26 until the accident and after 1 : 23 : 04. By using the FATRAC code and the EUREKA-2 code, which have been proposed previously, analysis is made of the changes in neutron flux, recirculation flow rate, steam separator pressure, water supply rate and steam separator water level for the period before the accident, and changes in thermal output, overall reactivity, void reactivity, Doppler reactivity and control reactivity for the period after the accident. Results show that the two codes can reproduce the values announced by the Soviet Union. Detaled analysis is also made for the above-mentioned parameters after the accident under various assumed conditions. Based on these analyses, some measures are proposed to effectively prevent serious damage under the same accident conditions as experienced in Chernobyl. (Nogami, K.)

98

The Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

99

Nuclear accidents - Chernobyl, a warning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is one of a number prepared by the Swedish KAMEDO organisation, a name derived from the Swedish for ''Organising Committee for Disaster Medicine''. The main task of KAMEDO, a State-supported institution, is to send qualified observers to the site of major disasters, their resultant reports being widely distributed on a national basis. In the following presentation, the author provides information on the Chernobyl nuclear accident based largely on a personal visit to Moscow, Kiev and the Chernobyl region in 1987. Amongst areas examined are the fire-fighting resources available prior to the accident, the mishap and its immediate results, the way the firemen fought and contained the conflagration, the resultant radiation injuries and general exposure levels, methods of treatment, and the evacuation of the people in the surrounding region. (author)

100

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

elf-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

 
 
 
 
101

Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S2 layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 105 kBq m-2. Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S2 and S3 layers. The angle of microfibrils in S2 layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S2 layer and unusual pattern of the S3 layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree. - The angle of microfibrils in the S2 layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl incident was changed

102

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on the Bremen area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chapter 2 of the report gives an outline of the design of the RBMK-1000 reactor and its inventory of radionuclides at the time the accident happened, together with a brief scenario of possible events leading to the accident, and an assessment of total radionuclide release. Chapter 3 explains the measurement campaigns made in the Bremen area in the given period and the consequences to be drawn from measured data up to present time. The measuring campaigns are described by a full-test report, graphical illustration, and a table of measured data. The information covers all data collected from onset of radioactivity release up to the 9th of Sept. 1986. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of dose commitment by the Bremen population, on the basis of measured radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Chapter 5 discusses the possible health hazard to the population in accordance with current knowledge of radiation exposure and its effects. Chapter 6 summarizes and interprets the results, and chapter 8 presents definitions of concepts and terminology. (orig./HP)

103

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

Kouts, H.

1986-09-24

104

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

105

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

106

Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

107

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book seven of the most significant accidents in the history of nuclear power are examined in detail, identifying root causes and looking for common features. In the cases analysed at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Windscale, SL-1, NRX, Fermi and Lucens, it is shown that the root causes of these accidents were not design flaws or the mistakes of individual operators, however much these may have affected the accident sequence. The root causes were rather deep-seated failings in the institutions involved in the operation of the nuclear plant -failings which allowed the adoption of flawed designs, the provision of inadequate operator support and guidance, and a dangerous overconfidence in the technology. (author)

108

Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

109

Radioactivity monitoring by the official monitoring stations in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This official report presents a governmental declaration of the prime minister of NRW, Mr. Rau, concerning the reactor accident at Chernobyl, and a joint declaration of ministers of NRW, concerning the impact of the accident on the Land NRW. These statements are completed by six official reports on radioactivity measurements carried out by the official monitoring stations of the Land and by the KFA Juelich. These reports inform about methods, scope, and results of the measuring campaigns accomplished by the Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik (ZFS), the public materials testing office (MPA), the Chemisches Untersuchungsamt, the Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall, and the KFA Juelich. (DG)

110

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

111

The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

2011-02-15

112

Radioactive iodine and cesium in Bavarian citizens after the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the radiation risk and to improve the procedure of prognostic estimations of a follow-up study of whole body radioactivity in human beings living in Munich or in an area within 100 km distance from it was initiated after the accident. A total of about 200 persons were examined. After the accident some of them changed their normal diet to avoid excessive intake of radioactivity, some continued their normal way of nutrition. Within 4 weeks following the accident special attention was paid to the measurement of 131I. One week after the accident the mean total body content of 131I was about 300 Bq. Subsequently it decreased with a halftime of 9.2 days. The total body content of 137Cs and 134Cs began to increase significantly 4 weeks after the accident. 14 weeks after the accident a plateau was reached at a level of 14 Bq 137Cs and 7 Bq 134Cs per kg body weight. This plateau was kept until 30 weeks after the accident. A second increase of the Cs radioactivity was observed in January 1987 due to the increasing radioactivity in milk and meat. This is a result of the use of contaminated hay harvested within the period right after the accident as winter feed for cattle. The dose equivalent commitment based on the authors measurements of 137Cs and 134Cs in 1986 ranged from 0.04 to 0.1 mSv

113

Activities, projects and emergency planning etc. at the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in connection with the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) is the competent authority for radiation hygiene in Norway according to Act No.1 of 18 June 1938 and regulations given pursuant to the act. Legislation on duties specific to radiological emergencies in general has not been issued in Norway. The report describes how SIS organized the fallout survey and summarizes the different projects implemented by the institute after the Chernobyl accident. Furthermore, the institutes view on an alert system for detection of radiactive contamination and on emergency planning for radiation accidents is expressed

114

The modern Saamish reindeer husbandry in Sweden after the reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large parts of the reindeer herding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout deposited mainly between 62 and 66 n.lat. by heavy rain-and snowfalls between April 28-30, the fjell and boreal forest regions of north-western Jaemtland and south-western Vaesterbotten being the home of 500 reindeer Saamis, organized in 19 Saamebys, and being the winter- and summer reindeer grazing areas for about 100000 reindeer worst contaminated, with a maximum soil contamination of 60000 Bq/m2 Cs137 along a line Gaevle-Gaeddede. The socio-economic effects and consequences of Chernobyl have on the hand changed the daily and yearly work routine patterns by applying early slaughter and feeding programs. On the other hand it has shown the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry in particular and of Saami culture and livelihood in general. It has also pointed out the influence of the state compensation payments have helped the mostly hit Saamebys to survive economically and the Saami herders to preserve their ethic identity and specific way of life. The measure of introducing a strict radioactivity limit should be fixed internationally. In reindeer meat where the average annual consumption is as low as 200 g per person a limit as low as 300 pr 1500 Bq/kg is in fact ineffective in reducing cancer risks but it has proved disastrous for the reindeer meat market

115

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

116

Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.)

117

The Chernobyl accident ten years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM a fire and explosion occurred at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Complex, located in the Ukraine, that resulted in the destruction of the reactor core and most of the building in which it was housed. Several environmental impacts resulting from the accident will be discussed in this paper, which will include the effects on plant and wild life, radioactive waste generated and stored or disposed of, effects of evacuations relating to residents within the subsequently established 10km and 30km control zones, impacts of the emergency containment structure (sarcophagus), and potential effects on world opinion and future development of nuclear power. As an immediate result of the fire, 31 people died (2 from the fire ampersand smoke, and 29 from excessive radiation); 237 cases of acute radiation sickness occurred; the total fatalities based upon induced chronic diseases as a result of the accident is unknown: more than 100,000 people were evacuated from within the subsequently established 30 km control zone; in excess of 50 million curies of radionuclides that included finely dispersed nuclear fuel, fragments of graphite, concrete and other building materials were released from the reactor into the environment; an estimated one million cubic meters of radioactive waste were generated (LLW, ILW, HLW); more than 5000 tons of materials (sand, boron, dolomite, cement, and lead) were used to put the fire out by helicopter; shutdown of the adjacent power plants were performed; and other environmental impacts occurred. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit No 4 is an RBMK-1000. It initiated operations in 1983, it was a 1000 MWe with a power output of 3200 MW(th), the reactor core contained 190 MT of fuel, with 1659 assemblies (plus 211 control rods), the average burnup rate was 10.3 MWd/kg, and the reactor operated on a continuous basis with maintenance and fuel reload performed during operations

118

The Chernobyl accident: causes, effects and measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In consequence of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the department for Nuclear Technology of the Dutch Royal Institute of Engineers (KIVI) organized three symposia (at 7th October 1986, 30th October 1986 and 20th January 1987). This book is a collection of the analyses and conclusions which were presented and discussed during these symposia and which give a survey of the technical and managerial aspects of the Chernobyl accident relevant for the Netherlands. (Auth.)

119

Transformation of a reactor graphite from the Chernobyl accident release in biogeochemical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essence is given of specially worked out methods for thermochemical division of organic and inorganic carbons under conditions of subtle sprout nest of the dispersed graphite by soil fungi. Five species are revealed of micromycetes which are intensively growing up on the radioactive graphite substrate. It is shown that these species of soil fungi preferably employ 14 C when the only source of carbon is the reactor graphite

120

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

 
 
 
 
121

Official announcement of an executive agreement between Federal German Government and Land governments, concerning payment of compensation for reasons of equity, for losses as result of the Chernobyl reactor accident; and announcement of the pertinent administrative directive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany and the Lands concluded an executive agreement on compensation to be paid for reasons of equity, for losses incurred as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and on the pertinent administration directive defining general principles of fair compensation for losses induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident (Fair Compensation Directive). The directive will be issued by each Land government for its province, and published in the pertinent regional, official gazettes. The full texts of the executive agreement and the Fair Compensation Directive are given below. (orig.)

122

Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131I and later by 137Cs. 90Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 105 Bq/m2. At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and alsoey are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG)

123

US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

1992-04-01

124

XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

125

Plutonium in air at Warsaw after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As reported in 1986 by USSR the total initial core inventory of Chernobyl reactor was of about 4·1019 Bq of over 50 different radioisotopes at the time of accident. 1-2·1018 Bq of total activity was estimated to be released to the atmosphere. 239'240Pu and 238U are those with the longest half life time of released radioisotopes to the environment. The total core inventory of transuranium elements in Chernobyl reactor and calculated their release as for the date of 6th of May is presented in this paper

126

The Chernobyl accident and its implications for the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book describes the 1986 accident at Chernobyl to a USSR RBMK boiling water, graphite moderated pressure tube reactor and the sequence of events that led to what has been described as the worst accident in the world. It gives a description of the technical and operational steps that occurred during and after the accident. The release of radioactivity into the environment is covered, and the large scale post-accident measures in the USSR and Europe described in detail. The book examines the nuclear power industry in the UK

127

Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

128

Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.)

129

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

130

Impact of 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known 134Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. 137Cs and 134Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8±0.2 and 0.27±0.01 Bq m-3, respectively. 137Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16±0.04 Bq m-3, which is a 33±2% increase over the previous levels. 137Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4±0.5 TBq for 137Cs, of which 4.3±0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00±0.04 TBq for 134Cs. Activation and fission products such as 106Ru, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs and 144Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02±0.25 and 0.20±0.03 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 134Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio 134Cs/137Cs equal to 0.20±0.04 (1987). 137Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51±0.08 Bq kg-1. Therefore, 137Cs specific activity had increased 100±40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan shoreline did not have a significant effect on the water radioactivity levels, since they were confined to the immediate vicinity of the site. 134Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio in water samples from the vicinity of Vandellos NPP was found to be 0.11±0.01, which is twice the mean observed in the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters, namely 0.057±0.003 (1988-1991), and were in good agreement with the value observed in samples of Posidonia oceanica collected from the same location, namely 0.107±0.004. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

131

Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan shoreline did not have a significant effect on the water radioactivity levels, since they were confined to the immediate vicinity of the site. {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in water samples from the vicinity of Vandellos NPP was found to be 0.11{+-}0.01, which is twice the mean observed in the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters, namely 0.057{+-}0.003 (1988-1991), and were in good agreement with the value observed in samples of Posidonia oceanica collected from the same location, namely 0.107{+-}0.004. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

1999-05-01

132

The Chernobyl accident - Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signalled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 am on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safety accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to contain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10-13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

133

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

134

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a we issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

135

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

136

The Chernobyl accident and nuclear safety in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature and purpose of the Watt Committee on Energy is explained. Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986, the Watt Committee appointed a working group to study civil nuclear safety in the UK. This is the interim report of that working group. The report looks at the international aspects of the Chernobyl accident, the key aspects of the RBMK reactor design, then gives a description of the accident to find out why it happened. The consequences for the USSR and the UK, and the implications for the UK and the world at large are then considered. The aims of the final Watt Committee report, the designs and operational practices used in the nuclear power industry, especially in the UK, will be considered to contribute to the maximum attainable safety of these operations. (UK)

137

A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 ?Sv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 ?Sv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

138

Latest report about health effects of the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After twenty years of Chernobyl accident, the international conference was hold in Kyiv, Ukraine, 24-26, April in 2006. During the conference WHO declares the paper named health effects of the Chernobyl accident. The report look back the nuclear accident in the history, and then recite conclusion about health effects of the Chernobyl accident, which from doses received from the Chernobyl accident, thyroid cancer, non-thyroid solid cancer, leukemia, mortality, cataract and cardiovascular disease. The report is considered as milestone events in the studying of health effects of Chernobyl accident. (authors)

139

Whole body measurements in children and adults in the area of Munich after the reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident of Chernobyl whole body measurements of radioactivity were conducted in inhabitants of the area of Munich. On May 6th the whole body retention of I 131 was 300 Bq decreasing with a half time of 8-9 days. A steady increase of radiocesium was only detected four weeks after the accident. After 100 days a dynamic equilibrium was achieved at a level of 13 Bg per kg body weight for Cs 137 and approximately 6.5 Bq/kg for Cs 134. A significant influence of age and sex on radiocesium concentration could not be observed. For adults a radiation dose to the thyroid of 0.8 mSv was estimated due to I 131. From the whole body retention of radiocesium an effective dose equivalent of 0.07 mSv was estimated up to the end of 1986. On single occasions doses of up to 3 times have been observed within the population examined. (orig.)

140

Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

 
 
 
 
141

137Cesium and 134cesium in roe deer from north and middle Hesse (Germany) subsequent to the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is reflected by the concentration of these substances in the tissues of so-called open-quotes biological indicators,close quotes animals such as game and fish that are wholly dependent upon their environment and therefore display environmental contamination with xenobiotics. The extent and the temporal development of the xenobiotic burden to the environment and food chain can be monitored by measuring concentration of xenobiotics in muscle tissue of biological indicators. The present report describes the contamination of muscle tissue from 396 roe-deer from north and middle Hesse (Germany) after the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26, 1986. 15 refs., 3 figs

142

Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

143

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

144

Chernobyl accident genesis and its syndrome abatement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical aspects of nuclear power engineering develoopment in the USSR are considered in brief. The reasons of occuring situation, which resulted in the Chernobyl-4 accident are analyzed. Possible directions of nuclear power development in our country including processing with stopped NPP as the first measure, are shown

145

Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

146

Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

147

Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

148

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early on April 26, 1986, a major accident occurred at Unit 4 or the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR. The plume of airborne radioactive fission products from the accident was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence northerly toward Scandinavia on April 26-29 and into Central Europe on April 29-30. It continued to spread and reached Japan and Korea on May 3 and the US on May 7. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data, which were obtained directly from official reports, have been utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Preliminary calculations indicate that the external collective dose equivalent to the population (approximately 1.75 x 108) in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident will be about 4 x 106 person-rem and that about half this population dose will be received by the smaller population (approximately 6 x 107) who were downwind or Chernobyl within the USSR during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week

149

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

150

Nuclear security in the European Communities following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the actions that have already been initiated, under the auspices of the Commission for the European Communities as a consequence of experiences following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The aim of these undertakings is to minimize health hazards in the case of potential threatening amounts of radioactivity in the atmosphere. They cover the areas of prevention of food contamination, improved information dissemination, monitoring, international cooperation, research programming, safety standards, legislation and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (AB)

151

The impacts of the Chernobyl accident on Austria's economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the whole of Europe was affected by radioactive immissions. What was the actual magnitude of radiation exposure for the Austrians, and what are the consequences? Were the official regulations and measures that caused losses worth several thousand millions of schillings to the Austrian economy really necessary? Who bears the responsibility for this damage? This article attempts to give an answer to these questions. (Auth.)

152

Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

153

Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

154

Computer simulation of the initiation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer simulation of RBMK-1000 reactor discloses the interactions between neutron physics and thermohydraulics in the plant status which gave rise to the accident on April 26, 1986. This improves our understanding of the initiation of the event as described by the USSR in the report submitted at the IAEA Experts Meeting. As the data base available is still incomplete, the computer simulation cannot claim to render the accident events in the Chernobyl-4 reactor in an absolutely faithful way. However, it does reveal systemic inadequacies, the repair of which is to be one of the purpose of the backfitting measures said to be conducted in RBMK-1000 reactors after the accident. (orig./HP)

155

Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... Email This Document Share Special Report Decades Later, Chernobyl Accident Yields Clues to Leukemia Risk Studies of cleanup workers from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant have revealed a link between ...

156

Executive order of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Reactor Safety, on remedial radiation protection with regard to agricultural produce contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC Council Directive no. 1707/86, on import regulations for agricultural produce from non-member countries after the Chernobyl reactor accident prohibits the import of agricultural produce exceeding a given limit of radioactive contamination. The substantive law of this EC Directive is announced to become part of the Federal German law in accordance with the section 6, sub-sec. (1), no. 2, and sub-sec. (2), first sentence, and section 7, sub-sec. (1) and (4), and section 7, sub-sec. (2), no. 2, and sub-sec. (4) of the Act on Remedial Radiation Protection. (orig./HP)

157

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

158

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ..gamma.. spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ..cap alpha.. spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident.

Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

1987-04-01

159

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident to reactor 4 at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986 provided an opportunity to mount a wide range of investigations on the dispersion processes following a major atmospheric release of radionuclides. At Harwell measurements were made in air, rain, soil, grass, some foodstuffs and in staff of the laboratory. Radionuclides in the atmosphere were monitored through the existing network of air and rain stations used to sample fall-out from nuclear weapon testing both in the UK (in collaboration with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)) and world-wide. Deposition on the ground was determined from analysing soil samples, including many obtained from outside the UK throughout the northern hemisphere. A limited number of grass samples were examined from the immediate vicinity of Harwell, and a variety of foodstuffs were accepted from elsewhere for analysis. Most of these analyses were carried out using high resolution ? spectrometry with germanium detectors. A limited number of analyses for actinides using ? spectroscopy were undertaken, but generally the quantities of these radionuclides in the samples were too small to justify extensive use of this method. A small group of staff volunteered for measurement of radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid and additional measurements were carried out with the whole-body monitor on a standard group routinely measured at Harwell. The early measurements at Harwell were reported to the World Health Organisation and, through the NRPB, to government departments. However, the resulting international and national compilations of raw data are of limited value because the precise details of the measurements were inevitably absent. A more comprehensive account of the Harwell measurements, mainly those available up to the end of October 1986, is provided here as a contribution to a more systematic international evaluation of the consequences of the accident. (author)

160

Measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs by gamma spectrometry in some italian soils following the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration as well as the vertical distribution of 134Cs and 137Cs were determined in several soil samples subsequently to the Chernobyl accident. The soil samples were selected in some representative geomorphological situation in Apulia that is a region of Italy. Both undisturbed and cultivated soils were considered. The total deposition of 137Cs as due to the Chernobyl accident was estimated and the obtained results were also controlled by measurements of the radioactive fall-out in rain and snow during 1986 and 1987. Also the deposition of 239,240Pu during 1986 and 1987 was measured

 
 
 
 
161

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

162

The Chernobyl accident: its causes and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident occurred during the night of April 26th. Its exact causes were only known at the end of the month of August when an international conference, proposed by the Soviets, was held in Vienna. The Chernobyl reactor, which was moderated by graphite and cooled by water, had several weak points. A crew, which was carrying-out tests, cancelled six safety devices, some of which were essential. In these conditions, the reactor went out of control and this led to two explosions and a serious fire. The fire spread to the graphite and a part of the radioactivity in the reactor escaped into the atmosphere. The consequences of this accident which were well controlled by the authorities were serious in the neighbourhood of the reactor: 31 dead, 100 000 people evacuated and contaminated soil. The radioactive cloud resulting from the accident, pushed by the wind, travelled across Europe and provoked worry everywhere. In fact, the risks from such small doses of radioactivity are not significant; an evaluation of such risks is given in this article in comparison with the effects of small doses of chemical products which although they have analogous effects are considered as being inoffensive

163

Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

164

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

165

Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident of April 1986, there has been a continual increase in the numbers of reported cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma. An EC-supported consortium to study the pathology and molecular biology of the thyroid cancers is being coordinated from the University of Cambridge. This paper reports the findings of this study so far, together with its recommendations for further studies. (author)

166

The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. PMID:21345660

Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

2011-05-01

167

First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

168

Non-budgetary expenditure from fund 0615, item 68101 - compensatory payments in accordance with sec. 38(2) Atomic Energy Law, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident - within the fiscal year 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Minister of Finance agrees, according to section 38 subsection 2, to grant a further non-planned sum of up to 22 Mio. DM for claims of compensation. Expenses up to 200 million DM have already been granted. According to the recent development and the yet outstanding claims, total expenses of up to 222 million DM shall arise in this sector. (HSCH)

169

Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

170

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

171

Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models established after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Experimentelle Verifizierung dynamischer Radiooekologiemodelle in der Folge von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The experiments reported were carried out for a verification of existing, dynamic radioecological models, especially of the ECOSYS model. The database used for the verification covers the radioactivity concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131 measured after the Chernobyl reactor accident in foodstuffs and environmental samples, the results of field experiments on radionuclide translocation after foliar uptake or absorption by the roots of edible plants. The measured data were compared with the model predictions for the radionuclides under review. The Cs-134 and Cs-137 translocation factors which describe the redistribution of these radionuclides in the plant after foliar uptake were experimentally determined by a single sprinkling with Chernobyl rainwater, and were measured to be the following as a function of sprinkling time: winter wheat, 0.002-0.13; spring wheat, 0.003-0.09; winter rye, 0.002-0.27; barley, 0.002-0.04; potatoes, 0.05-0.35; carrots, 0.02-0.07; bush beans, 0.04-0.3; cabbage, 0.1-0.5. The weathering half-life of the radionuclides in lettuce was determined to be ten days. Transfer factors determined for root absorption of Cs-137 were measured to be an average of 0.002 for grains, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. There was an agreement between the ECOSYS model predictions and the measured radioactivity concentrations of the corresponding radionuclides. (orig./HP).

Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.; Stocke, H.; Paretzke, H.G.

1991-01-01

172

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

173

The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

174

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

175

State of the analyses of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in unit 4 was due to major weaknesses in the engineered safeguards of the RBMK reactor plus grave acts of mal-operation. One important reason for the power excursion was the positive void coefficient, which can lead to prompt supercriticality in certain plant states. No technical measures existed to ensure that such power excursions are safety brought under control. Instead, they were to be avoided chiefly by the observation of operating instructions. This was the reason why the erroneous behavior of the personnel had such grave consequences. In the light water reactors used in the Federal Republic of Germany power excursions with the possibility to destroy the fuel are excluded by the physical design and the inherent characteristics of the reactors. The findings made as a result of investigations of the Chernobyl accident show no reasons for reassessing the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP)

176

Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

177

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

178

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods es. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc

179

Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

180

Chernobyl accidents observed on Ryukyu Islands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was all of sudden that the atomic power plant accident occurred at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. Tremendous amount of radionuclides as fission product has been scattered into the atmosphere and caused enormous atmospheric contaminations not only on the European countries but also throughout the world. The radionuclides induced from the accident were also observed on Okinawa Island on May 5, 1986, two days after the observation on Japan mainland. The observed radionuclides are such as Mo-99, Te-132, I-131, 132, Cs-134, 137 and Ru-103 which were also observed on Japan mainland. The atmospheric contaminations were observed for almost a month showing 3 times of the contaminations on May 6, 15 and 24. The several survived nuclides are positively circulating, being accompanied with Jet Stream, throughout the would on the Northern Hemisphere. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Radiation safety following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status and development of the nuclear industry in Russian are intimately linked with the Chernobyl accident. The Three Mile Island-2 accident, 1979, USA turned out to be a strong impetus to revising approaches to ensuring nuclear safety. The Gosatomnadzor of Russian was established under the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 1991 an pursued the activities of its predecessor Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR aimed at improving the permissive and inspection activities. In contrast to its predecessors (Gosatomenergonadzor of the USSR, Gospromatomnadzor of the USSR), the Gosatomnadzor of Russia has been entitled with the responsibility both to regulate and supervise safety not only at NPPs, but also in the whole nuclear industry, including nuclear materials and fuel cycle facilities

182

Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

183

Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

184

Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

185

On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

186

Perinatal mortality after Chernobyl. - Excess perinatal deaths, stillborns and malformations in Germany, Europe and highly exposed regions of Germany and Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1987, the year following the Chernobyl accident, perinatal mortality was significantly increased in Germany as well as in Poland. The numbers of excess perinatal deaths were 317 and 320, respectively. Monthly data from Germany, Poland and the region of Zhitomir, Ukraine, exhibit a significant association between perinatal mortality and the delayed caesium concentration in pregnant women with a time-lag of seven months. In addition to an increase in 1987, perinatal mortality in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus show a second rise beginning in 1989 which can be related to the action of strontium. The cumulative effect from strontium outweighs the effect of caesium in 1987 by more than a factor of 10. Monthly data of malformation rates in newborn were only available for the State of Bavaria, Germany. No increase is observed in 1987 in the Bavarian average. But at the end of 1987, seven month after the highest caesium concentration in pregnant women in April and May 1987, a highly significant dependency of malformation rates on caesium soil contamination is found. There is a growing awareness of many lasting detrimental health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor eruption in large parts of central, eastern and northern Europe. A flexible synoptic spatial-temporal method based on logistic regression is suggested for the analysis of official national as well as district by district reproductive failure data. The main idea is to model a spatial-temporal annual or monthly data set by adjusting for country or region specific trend functions and either to test for local or global temporal jumps or broken sticks (change-points) associated with the years 1986 or 1987 or, alternatively, to test for a spatial effect of regionally stratified exposure or dosimetry data on reproductive outcome. In numerous official data sets of central, eastern, and northern European countries or regions absolute or relative increases of stillbirth proportions after 1986 were observed. Those purely temporal change-points are supported by results of ecological exposure-response analyses involving the spatial dimension represented by region specific exposure data. (orig.)

187

Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models after the Chernobyl reactor accident; Experimentelle Verifizierung dynamischer Radiooekologiemodelle in der Folge von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The comparitive analysis uses model data and data derived from field experiments. The translocation factors for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in edible plants have been determined after spraying of fields with Chernobyl fallout rainwater, considering the time of irrigation in relation to plant growth, and are shown to be the following: 0.002 - 0.13 in winter wheat, 0.003 - 0.09 in spring wheat, 0.002 - 0.27 in winter rye, 0.002 - 0.04 in barley, 0.05 - 0.35 in potatoes, 0.02 - 0.07 in carrots, 0.04 - 0.3 in bush beans, 0.1 - 0.5 in cabbage. The weathering half-life in lettuce is 10 days. The transfer factors for Cs-137 uptake by the roots have been determined to be 0.002 on the avarage for grain, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. The measured data agree well with the radioecological concentration data predicted by the ECOSYS model for post-Chernobyl radionuclide distribution. Some results of the verification study could be used to improve the results of the ECOSYS model by modification of certain parameters. (orig./HP). [Deutsch] Die ermittelten Cs-134/Cs-137 Translokationsfaktoren, welche die Umverteilung dieser Radionuklide nach Blattaufnahme in verschiedene Pflanzenteile beschreiben, betrugen nach einer einmaligen Bespruehung mit Tschernobyl-Regenwasser in Abhaengigkeit vom Bespruehzeitpunkt fuer Winterweizen 0.002 - 0.13, Sommerweizen 0.003 - 0.09, Winterroggen 0.002 - 0.27, Gerste 0.002 - 0.04, Kartoffeln 0.05 - 0.35, Karotten 0.02 - 0.07, Buschbohnen 0.04 - 0.3 und Kohl 0.1 - 0.5. Die Abwitterungshalbwertszeit bei Kopfsalat wurde mit 10 Tagen bestimmt. Transferfaktoren fuer die Aufnahme von Cs-137 ueber die Wurzel betrugen fuer Getreidekorn im Mittel 0.002, fuer Kartoffeln 0.002 sowie fuer Weisskohl 0.004, Buschbohnen und Moehren 0.003 und fuer Kopfsalat 0.007. Die Prognosen des Radiooekologiemodells ECOSYS nach Tschernobyl fuer die Aktivitaetskonzentrationen der entsprechenden Radionuklide stimmen gut mit den tatsaechlich gemessenen Werten ueberein. Einige Erkenntnisse fuehrten zur Modifizierung einzelner Parameter des Modells fuer noch bessere Prognosen der Aktivitaetskonzentrationen in Nahrungsmitteln. (orig./HP).

Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.; Stocke, H.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

1992-08-01

188

137 Cesium in the reindeer lichen (Cladina Stellaris) from the lake Rogen district before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The retention and distribution of the artificially produced radionuclide 137Cs have been studied in undisturbed natural carpets of the lichen Cladina Stellaris (syn. Cladonia Alpestris) collected in the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden in 1986 and 1987. Comparison with an earlier study from the 60's and 70's in the same area of 137Cs-concentration in lichen have been performed. Samples were fractionated on spot and later analysed by gamma spectrometry in the laboratory. We have verified the effective half-life of old caesium to about 8 years in the top layer. 137Cs concentration in the top 3 cm layer is now almost 2 kBq/kg compared to a total of about 2.5 kBq/kg. A maximum in 1966 of 1.4 kBq/kg was found as a total in the old study. The Rogen area was less affected by the Chernobyl fall-out than many other parts of Sweden. Because of different mass content, comparisons with radioactivity concentration in Bq/m2 is also performed. (au)

189

External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

190

The Chernobyl accident - impact on Western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs

191

Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

192

Public relations and the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

193

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

194

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

195

Chernobyl - accident scenario and plant design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of the information provided by the Soviet Union at the IAEA meeting was made, in collaboration with the GRS. It refers to the description of the plant including the safety systems, the course of the accident, the encapsulation of the reactor and the consequences regarding the collective dose to be expected in the 50 years to come. (orig.)

196

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil ?e. Tagg values for Soil ? autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

197

Chernobyl: recovery operations and the entombment of Reactor 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The immediate actions taken following the accident at the Chernobyl-number 4 reactor in April 1986 are described. These included actions to put out the fires, initial medical aid and the dropping of sand, lead, dolomite and boron onto the reactor from helicopters. Following this the chamber below the damaged reactor core was filled with concrete to prevent any further explosions or meltdown. The reactor was subsequently entombed in steel and concrete. The evacuation of the surrounding area is also mentioned. (U.K.)

198

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which mayrus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminate

199

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m-2) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg-1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg-1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of 137Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the 137Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of 137Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg-1 (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg-1. Until now the effective half-life of 137Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg-1, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg-1. (orig.)

200

Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

 
 
 
 
201

Radiation damage aspects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power stations. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 x 104 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years. (author)

202

Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

203

Radiation consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief overview of the meteorological and weather situation in Hungary in the time following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the contamination of the atmosphere, of soil, and of surface waters are presented. The contamination of food and the incorporation of radioactive iodine and cesium in human organism were measured. The radiation burden of population was estimated. (R.P.)

204

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accideradionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

205

Satellite change detection of forest damage near the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial amount of forest within a few kilometers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor station was badly contaminated with radionuclides by the April 26, 1986, explosion and ensuing fire at reactor No. 4. Radiation doses to conifers in some areas were sufficient to cause discoloration of needles within a few weeks. Other areas, receiving smaller doses, showed foliage changes beginning 6 months to a year later. Multispectral imagery available from Landsat sensors is especially suited for monitoring such changes in vegetation. A series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images was developed that span the 2 yr following the accident. Quantitative dose estimation for the exposed conifers requires an objective change detection algorithm and knowledge of the dose-time response of conifers to ionizing radiation. Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation's Hyperscout trademark algorithm is based on an advanced, sensitive technique for change detection particularly suited for multispectral images. The Hyperscout algorithm has been used to assess radiation damage to the forested areas around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

206

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

207

Americium and curium deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

241Am and 244Cm were analysed from peat samples collected in Finland immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The separation method included co-precipitation, anion exchange and extraction chromatography. Activities of 241Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The activity of Chernobyl-derived 241Am varied between 0.0115 and 9.32 Bq/m2 and that of 244Cm from 2 (reference date 1.5.1986). The origin of 241Am in Finland is predominantly from atmospheric nuclear tests. However, the geographical distribution of Chernobyl-americium is uneven and depending on a location even 100% of 241Am in peat originated from the Chernobyl accident. The deposition pattern of Chernobyl-derived 241Am and 244Cm resembles that of other refractory nuclides, such as 95Zr, 141Ce and 239,240Pu. (orig.)

208

Regulation concerning claims for compensation and their adjustment in accordance with sec. 38, sub-sec. 2 Atomic Energy Act, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident (Regulation on Compensation)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl is a nuclear accident within the meaning of sec. 38, sub-sec. 2 Atomic Energy Act (liability of operator). However, since heavy difficulties and unacceptable burdens are to be expected for any one in the FRG trying to seek compensation for losses by the way defined in this legal provision, the Federal German Government decided to adjust losses on a national level, in accordance with the Regulation issued. Claims for compensation can be put forward for losses such as: (1) Destruction and confiscation of products and produce. (2) Restrictions on the milk market. (3) Damage occurred as a result of prompt intervention in business. Various annexes to the Regulation define criteria for compensatory payments available for milk, leaf vegetables and lettuce, and application forms. (HP)

209

Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

210

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

211

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

212

Radioactive residues from nuclear accidents in Kyshtym and Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive contamination of lands is one of the most dangerous forms of environmental pollution in Russia. In total up to 25% of Russia's territory has been subjected to some form of radioactive contamination, mainly owing to the large radiation accidents of Kyshtym (1957) and Chernobyl (1986). Data are presented on radioactive contamination of lands in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident and Karachai dust storm (1967) and in the European part of the Russian Federation following the Chernobyl disaster. A brief description is provided of the RADLEG information system, which collects data on radiation accidents and radiation contamination in the Russian Federation. (author)

213

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

214

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

215

Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation. PMID:22048494

Jargin, Sergei V

2011-12-01

216

Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

217

Resuspension in contaminated soils by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the CIEMAT contribution to the multinational project CHECIR-ECP 1 Contamination of surfaces by resuspended material. Ten research organisations participated in this study, six of them from european countries. The project is one of the sixteen projects carried out under an Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, signed in June 1992 by the EC and representatives of the three affected republics, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The work is addressed to the collection of experimental data in order to make dose estimations from the resuspension pathway. The experimental activities were carried out in several contaminated areas in the surrounding of the Chernobyl reactor site, under natural conditions (wind resuspension) and simulating human activities (agricultural and traffic). The main conclusion obtained was that, at the time of the project, the doses from resuspension are small, even for potential risk groups such as agricultural workers, in comparison with the doses from other exposure pathways. (Author)

218

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

219

Unbudgeted expenditure in chapter 1602, unbudgeted title 68112-2/3 of indemnification to be paid by the Federal Government to contribute to the compensation to be paid according to the General Guideline on Compensation for Losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information by the Federal German Minister of Finance, approval of DM 125 mill. as an unbudgeted expensure, to be used for compensation of losses as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Two thirds of the payments to be borne by the Federal Government, and one third by the Land government carrying through the compensation procedure. (HSCH)

220

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

 
 
 
 
221

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

222

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

223

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

224

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

1991-01-01

225

A documentation presented by the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, on the impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident and the measures taken. Vol. 1-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first volume of the documentation starts with basic facts and data of environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in general and then proceeds to discussions of the specific problems resulting from the reactor accident. The reactor accident scenario is described, and the impacts are explained, as well as measures taken by the EC, the German Federal Government, and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The concept and strategies set up by the Land government for improving precautionary and emergency measures within the framework of disaster control are explained. The second and third volumes present measured data taken from April to August 28, 1986 (2nd volume) and from August 29, 1986 to end of February, 1987. The data measured in the various regions of the Land are arranged by government districts, administrative county, and date. (HP)

226

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

227

Fall-out pattern in Norway after the Chernobyl accident estimated from soil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. Preliminary estimates of the Chernobyl fall-out of some other ? emitters are also given. The results clearly demonstrate that certain areas in Norway have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fall-out of 137Cs and 134Cs in Norway is estimated to be 2300 +- 200 TBq and 1200 +- 100 TBq respectively. This is approximately 6% of the caesium activity released from the reactor. (author)

228

Preliminary report about nuclear accident of Chernobylsk reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preliminary report of nuclear accident at Chernobyl, in URSS is presented. The Chernobyl site is located geographically and the RBMK type reactors - initials of russian words which mean high power pressure tube reactors are described. The conditions of reactor operation in beginning of accident, the events which lead to reactor destruction, the means to finish the fire, the measurements adopted by Russian in the accident location, the estimative of radioactive wastes, the meteorological conditions during the accident, the victims and medical assistence, the sanitary aspects and consequences for population, the evaluation of radiation doses received at small and medium distance and the estimative of reffered doses by population attained are presented. The official communication of Russian Minister Council and the declaration of IAEA general manager during a collective interview in Moscou are annexed. (M.C.K.)

229

Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

230

Radioactive contamination of vegetation and soil after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Radioaktive Kontamination von Pflanzen und Boden nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between October 1986 and May 1988 plant and soil samples have been collected mainly in the FRG. The contamination with radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 was measured {gamma}-spectroscopically using a Ge(-Li)-Detector. Six months after deposition the following radionuclides were still detectable in plants and soil: {sup 95}Tc, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce; in 1988 the two radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs represented 90% of the total radioactivity left. In 1986 higher plants contained 22 to 5,370 Bq/kg dryweight of radiocesium; in 1987 radioactivity differed between 9 and 15,800 Bq/kg dry weight. The deposition of radionuclides in West Germany proved to be extremely heterogeneous. Within one kilometer variations up to 30-fold occured. Mountain sites were contaminated higher than valleys located nearby and the southern part of Germany more than the western parts. Two years after the Fallout 70% of the soil radioactivity has remained in the uppermost centimeter and 95% has not moved deeper than 5 cm. Transfer phenomena from soil to plant by root uptake of radionuclides were not detectable. Changes in the contamination patterns which have taken place within the last years must be due to climatic and physical processes (translocation of dust and water). (orig.).

Niemann, L.; Jahnke, S.; Feige, G.B. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9/4 - Botanik/Pflanzenphysiologie)

1989-01-01

231

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

232

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

233

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya, I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

234

How mobile robots have helped at Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mobile robots at several recent accidents including Chernobyl is described. The robots assumed, with varying degrees of success, many of the tasks and missions that are normally conducted by the emergency response team. Lessons learned from the experiences, together with operational and performance problems are discussed. (U.K.)

235

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

236

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

237

Estimation of explosion energy yield at Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: About the physical nature of Chernobyl NPP accident hitherto does not exist the generally accepted version. The main version is that this explosion has chemical nature - blast of the hydrogen formed in reactor under high temperature as a result of reactions of water with zirconium and other elements. The alternative version is based on admission of nuclear mechanism of large instant energy yield. The arguments in favor of nucleic nature of the explosion for the first time were received by specialists of the Khlopin Radium Institute on the base of atmospheric xenon activity measurement and isomeric 133Xe / 133mXe ratio definition. These data were received during the period since April 22 to 6 May of 1986 by means of ?-spectrometric analysis of xenon samples, prepared from the industrial krypton-xenon mix, produced at the Cherepovets Metallurgical Plant. Arrival of the air masses polluted by the accidental release of Ch. NPP in Cherepovetc region was observed during the period since April 28 to 2 May. Received values of 133Xe and 133mXe isomeric relations are enough homogeneous to allow the determination of its average value (22.4 ± 3.4) recalculated to the date of accident and to use it for estimation of explosive energy yield value. For this purpose the special computer program evaluating the values of these rations taking into account the reactor power change before damage and different contribution of explosive and different contribution of explosive energy yield. It should be emphasize that carried out estimations do not allow the receiving of the absolute value of energy yield. This approach allows only the estimation of its relative value normalized by mean value of reactor power in period before the accident. Obtained estimation of explosive energy yield gives value of about 105 -106 Joule/Watt. If formally refer this result to nominal power of the reactor (before its reductions) that brings value of absolute explosive energy yield about 3 1014 - 3 1015 Joule (70 - 700 kt) that not comparable with actual scale of NPP destruction. This result allows to suppose the extremely unhomogeneous distribution of the neutron flux in active zone at the moment of the explosion and to estimate the part of fuel involved in explosive process as 0.01-0.1 % of the total fuel. (author)

238

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS; 10 Jahre nach der Tschernobyl-Katastrophe. Schilddruesenkrebs und andere Folgen fuer die Gesundheit in der GUS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zehn Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe im Atomkraftwerk Tschernobyl stellen in den betroffenen GUS-Republiken staatliche und internationale Organisationen betraechtliche gesundheitliche Auswirkungen in den verschiedenen Gruppen von Betroffenen fest. Eine dramatische, ueber 100fache Erhoehung von Schilddruesentumoren bei Kindern in Belarus ist durch papillaere Schilddruesenkarzinome verursacht, die durch aggressives und frueh metastasierendes Wachstumsverhalten auffallen. Die Zahl der Neuerkrankungen von Erwachsenen mit Schilddruesenkrebs lag 1995 bereits vierfach ueber dem Mittelwert vor 1986. Im Oblast Gomel hat sich von 1986 bis Ende 1995 die Zahl der Kinder mit Diabetes mellitus verdoppelt. Die inzwischen tatsaechlich aufgetretenen Faelle von Schilddruesenkrebs, insbesondere bei Kindern, uebertreffen die auf den ueblichen Annahmen zum Strahlenrisiko basierenden Prognosen bei weitem und deuten auf eine erhebliche Unterschaetzung des Strahlenrisikos und der Tschernobyl-Folgen hin. (orig.)

Lengfelder, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Demidschik, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Demidschik, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, K. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany); Rabes, H. [Pathologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Birukowa, L. [Endokrinologisches Dispensaer und Schilddruesenzentrum, Gomel (Belarus)

1996-04-12

239

German safety technology in comparison with the Chernobyl reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident in Chernobyl (1986) occurred during an experiment with the turbine generator in the power plant based on series of operational faults including the by-pass of shut-down signals that caused a strong power increase up to 100 times the nominal power. The overheating of the nuclear fuel caused the burst of the fuel cans inducing a fuel-water reaction with impulsive pressure buildup with the consequence of the reactor hall demolition and the radionuclide release into the environment. The RBML reactor would not have been licensed in Germany due to the more restricted safety requirements. The articles summarizes the differences between the RBMK reactor and the German LWRs with respect to the containment, the control rod, the void coefficient and the emergency cooling. The authors consider the German safety culture in nuclear power plants as worldwide leading.

240

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the seath due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

 
 
 
 
241

Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of 137Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m2. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of 134,137Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of 137Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic differences as well as larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation, using the urinary concentration of 137Cs only. The yearly effective dose from external and internal irradiation to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages studied between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was, on average, 30-50% of the total effective dose during that period. The effective dose from external irradiation decreased on average 15% per year, while the effective dose from internal irradiation varied, depending to a great extent on dietary habits and especially the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be around 100 mSv with the assumption that the effective dose will decrease by only the physical decay of 137Cs (2% per year) after 1999. Individuals may receive considerably higher effective doses, up to 0.5 Sv during a life-time considering the large spread in dose values among individuals

242

Whole-body counter measurement of the contamination of persons exposed following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporated radioactivity arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident has been measured by whole body counter on 4 persons coming from Eastern European countries, among them one from Kiev, and on a person living near Chernobyl, in August 86. According to the results computer, the highest 131I intake (in Kiev) corresponds to 92,5 kBq (2,5?Ci); incorporation in a foetus was demonstrated and the whole body activity expressed in counts/m2 body surface was not proportional to the distance between the place of residence and Chernobyl. Use of 'iodine pills', change in alimentary habits and the fact of leaving the contaminated zone sooner, diminished altogether the absorbed radioactivity. 10 refs

243

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

244

Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident: Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1990 to 1998, estimations of the effective dose due to irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia. The villages, situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant received deposition of 137Cs in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq m-2 due to the accident in 1986. The body burden of 137,134Cs was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of caesium radionuclides, together with in vivo measurements using a portable detector. The external effective dose was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent (TL)-dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms grown in the area. During pregnancy the biological half-time of caesium was 54% of that before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq L-1) to that in the mother's body (Bq kg-1) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from urine samples showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the caesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion introduced systematic differences and a larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation. The yearly effective dose to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was 30-50% of the total effective dose. The external effective dose decreased on average 15% per year, while the internal effective dose varied, depending to a great extent on the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be 100 mSv assuming that the effective dose will decrease by only the physical decay of 137Cs (2% per year) after 1998. Individuals may receive considerably higher effective doses, up to 0.5 Sv during a life-time considering the large spread in dose values among individuals.

Thornberg, Charlotte

245

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

246

Examination of the destructive forces in the Chernobyl accident based on NSRR experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible causes of the destruction of the Chernobyl reactor core were examined by making use of the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) experimental results concerning the destructive forces generated by a fuel failure. A complementary experiment with Chernobyl reactor conditions was performed in order to observe the fuel failure behavior and the resultant vessel pressure rise, etc. Also, generation of hydrogen from the fuel rod cladding and the consequent system pressure rise were estimated based on the experiments. These examinations led to the conclusion that the most probable cause of the core pressure tube rupture in the accident was a static pressure rise due to rapid energy release from fragmented fuel. Other phenomena such as the hydrogen generation and molten fuel contact to the tube wall might have contributed to the tube rupture. The water hammer force is also estimated to have been large enough to break tubes even using conservative assumptions. (orig.)

247

Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

248

Accident at the Chernobyl AES and its consequences. Data prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Conference (25-29 August 1986, Vienna)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant describes the plant and associated RBMK-1000 reactors and gives a chronology of the development of the accident. The causes of the accident are discussed as well as an analysis of the process of development of the accident. Also discussed are measures adopted to increase power plant safety and prevent development of similar accidents

249

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

250

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the {sup 137}Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author).

Kryshev, I.I. [Institut Ehksperimental`noj Meteorologii, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

251

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

252

Analysis of the Chernobyl accident from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many researchers have reported that the root cause of the Chernobyl accident has not been clarified still now. Since many of them discussed the accident without a precise thermal-hydraulic investigation, thermal-hydraulic calculations coupled with neutronic calculations have been done on the basis of the recorded result at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Plant configurations and operational conditions were given to the code on the basis of reported result and published papers. Calculation could trace plant parameters from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion without any discrepancies measured at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Reactivity slightly smaller than 1? by the positive scram is concluded as a possible direct cause of the accident, which acts as a trigger to increase the reactor power. Other possibilities as a trigger of the accident such as cavitation in pumps and pump coast-down were investigated. The importance of the calculation from the stable condition is also described in this paper in order not to bring unnecessary assumptions into the calculation

253

Compensation for damage in the case of transfrontier reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses possibilities to recover in German and Soviet courts claims for the compensation of damage for a German citizen arising from the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Concerning the claims for damage suffered in the Federal Republic of Germany he investigates possible breaches of bilateral or multilateral international agreements and of universal international law by the Soviet Union. (WG)

254

Nuclear power after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes

255

Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

256

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

257

Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

258

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

259

Serious reactor accidents reconsidered  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

260

Radioactivity in the food chain: report of measurements of radioactivity in the food chain in the Netherlands after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, 2 May - 31 July 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During May 1986, after the Chernobyl accident, c.a. 30.000 measurements have been performed of I-131 and Cs-137 contamination in the food chain. In this report the radioactivity-concentrations are presented for grass, milk, meat and thyroids, eggs, fish, vegetables, fruits, game, cattlefood and muds. 11 figs.; 30 tabs

 
 
 
 
261

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

262

Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

263

Disturbances of mnestic functioning in victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with mnestic disturbances in 98 victims of Chernobyl accident. A statistically significant decrease in attention and memory (in particular of long-term verbal and visual ones) was found. The considerable asthenisation of patients and the insufficiency of active attention as well as the possible disturbances in turnover of some neurotransmitters which promote the consolidation of engrams (dophamin and norepinephrine) may underline the above disorders

264

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

265

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

266

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

1998-12-01

267

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in ppromotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

268

Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

1986-10-01

269

Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

270

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

271

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

272

The Chernobyl accident. Multidimensional simulations to identify the role of design and operational features of the RBMK-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

273

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

274

Consideration on accident scenario in Chernobyl nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the IAEA expert conference on the assessment after accident held in Wien from August 25 to 29, 1986, the course of operation resulted in the accident and the state of accident of No.4 plant in Chernobyl nuclear power station were published in detail by USSR. However, how the abnormal power rise arisen in No.4 plant developed to the graphite fire which scattered radio-activity over wide areas as well as Europe was not explained. It is considered that the data enough for the analysis were perhaps not gathered. Based on the first report of this accident made by USSR on May 14, 1986, at IAEA, the authors carried out the quantitative examination by the analysis using the dynamic characteristic analysis code EUREKA and the use of the experimental data on fuel breaking of NSSR, and made a series of the accident scenario from the abnormal power rise to the graphite fire. This accident scenario does not contradict the report in August this time, and explains the phenomena of the accident from the results of analysis without discrepancy, therefore, it was decided to publish the scenario. The outline of the accident scenario, the abnormal power rise, the rupture of pressure tubes in primary cooling system, the generation of hydrogen gas, the second explosion of hydrogen, the graphite fire, and the jumping-up of the core top shield plate are reported. (Kako, I.)

275

Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscaperibution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

276

Transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr to flour, bran and straw from wheat, rye, barley and oats during the years 1982, 1986 (reactor accident at Chernobyl) and 1987 by field measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specific activity of 137Cs and 90Sr from the global fallout, as well as from the fallout after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, was determined in flour, bran and straw from wheat, rye, barley and oats as well in the corresponding soils (Cambisol). The results show that the activity of 137Cs, but not of 90Sr, in the plant material was considerably higher in 1986, and still to some extent in 1987, compared to 1982. For 137Cs and 90Sr, as well as for most cereal samples, the activity in the bran and straw was significantly higher than in the flour. Determination of stable potassium and calcium in all samples revealed that this enrichment is, to a large extent, the result of a comparable enrichment of these elements in brans and straw. The plant/soil concentration ratios, averaged over all cereals, were for 137Cs (1982 and 1987): flour 0.026±0.018; bran 0.079±0.042; straw 0.055±0.027. For 90Sr (1982, 1986, and 1987): flour 0.19±0.095; bran 0.70±0.23; straw 2.35±0.82. (orig.)

277

Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

278

Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

2014-02-01

279

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

280

Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
281

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bioindicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides Cs-134, Cs-137, Ru-103, Ru-106 and Ag-110m were detected in F. vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of Cs-137 varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northern most locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg dw at the south east coast. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and Tc-99 the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily cesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (au)

282

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

283

Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

284

Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

285

Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji [Inst. of Environmental Systems, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

2000-05-01

286

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

287

Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident and its consequencies prepared for IAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information on the accident at the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP and its consequences prepared for IAEA on the basis of the conclusions made by the Government commission constituted for investigating the accident causes and implementing the necessary emergency and reconstruction measures is given. The accident with reactor core disruption and partial destruction of the building Lappened on 26.04.86 at 1 hour and 23 minutes. The accident occurred before reactor shut-down for planned repairs during the testing of one of turbogenerators. The design features of the RBMK-1000 reactor plant, its main physical characteristics and parameters of the NPP safety system are considered. The chronology of the accident development and the results of analysis carried out using a mathematical model are given. The causes of the accident are analyzed. The measures for preventing the accident development and lessening its consequences as well as those for the environment radioactive contamination control and sanitary provisions are described in detail. The conclusion is made that the original cause of the accident is highly improbable combination of disorder and errors in operational conditions made by the personnel of the power unit. It is emphasized that development of the world nuclear engineering, besides advantages in the field of power supply and natural resources conservation, incurs also damages of international character. Among these are transboundary radioactivity transport, in particular, during serious radiation accidents and the danger of international terrorism and specific radiation hazard of nuclear objects under war conditions. All this defines the key necessity of deep international cooperation in the field of nuclear power engineering and its safeguarding

288

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

2006-06-15

289

Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

290

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

291

Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

292

International programme on medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Belorussian state register of persons irradiated as a result of accident at Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aims and tasks of the Byelorussian State Register of persons irradiated in result of Chernobyl accident are described, as well as its organizational structure, organization of information collection, automated information processing system. 2 figs, 1 tab

293

Radionuclides behaviour in the PO river ecosystem (N. Italy) after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident to reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Societ Union several health and regulatory organizations in Italy monitored the environmental matrices of special interest from the radiological point of view (milk, vegetables, etc.). In particular the availability within ENEL of radioecological methodologies made it possible to start a research programme to evaluate the processes of radionuclide distribution and transport in the PO river ecosystem. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the mains finding of this programme

294

Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; Strahlenbiologische Folgen des Unfalls von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG) [Deutsch] Wesentliche Aspekte der tatsaechlichen oder moeglichen gesundheitlichen Folgen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl in den unmittelbar betroffenen Gebieten werden dargestellt. Insbesondere wird auf strahleninduzierte Gesundheitsschaeden in der Bevoelkerung eingegangen, die durch das Radiojod entstanden sind. Epidemiologische Untersuchungen versuchen ein erhoehtes Auftreten von Leukaemien, Lymphomen und Schilddruesentumoren nachzuweisen. (DG)

Kellerer, A.M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Strahlenbiologisches Inst.]|[GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie

1996-07-01

295

Determination of strontium-90 in various kinds of water after Chernobyl accident in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a consequence of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, 1986, the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased above the level recorded earlier. Depending on the amount of precipitation the deposition of radioactive fallout showed great differences. Many water samples collected during the period of April 29 to May 30 in Vienna, Lower Austria and Steiermark were analyzed for 90Sr. The 90Sr concentration was not higher than the maximal permissible value (0.004-0.4 nCi 1-1) except for rain water (8.69+-2.3). (author)

296

Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

297

Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

298

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

299

Ukrainian NPP instrumentation and control systems after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main factors that contributed to the development of I and C systems of Ukrainian NPPs after 1986. The period of time after the Chernobyl accident is divided into three phases: 1986-1991, when the implementation of typical WWER-1000 I and C design was continued; 1992-2000, when the regulatory system on nuclear and radiation safety was formed in Ukraine; and 2001-2010, when numerous new digital NPP I and C systems were designed by national companies and implemented at Ukrainian NPPs. The main problems related to NPP I and C systems are indicated

300

Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

 
 
 
 
301

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider the approved reports... as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three most affected countries, regarding the environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system.' This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning the environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is being published by the WHO

302

Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

303

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

304

Genomic instability in children born from the Chernobyl accident victims  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It seems in all probability that the radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of cell genome. Evidence has been presented in the previous reports of our laboratory that a chromosome instability could be found out in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and in children from the regions with a high radiation level. Data on a chromosome instability in children born from the Chernobyl victims are presented in this paper. We investigated women in 1986 within the limits of 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power station. Children born from these women were a main subject of our studies. In some cases an examination of their fathers was also carried out. It seems to us that a genetic instability transmitted from the parents is realized as an increased sensitivity to the different environmental factors, including an enhanced radiation level, chemical mutagens et al. Latent hereditary disturbances in these children probably appear later as a result of their contact with mutagens of a different nature. (authors)

Komar, V.; Koliubaeva, S.; Monakhov, V.; Bejenar, V. [CentralInstitute of Roentgenology and Radiology, Central Research, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Medical Radiobiology

1997-03-01

305

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

306

Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

307

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

308

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

309

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

310

Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional hae those already affected any additional harm and confusion

311

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears tollow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

312

Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

313

Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab

314

Monitoring on influence of Soviet chernobyl accident on environment of some regions of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the monitoring results of some environmental samples from Gansu provinces and Qinshan aera of Zhejiang Province and the cities of Beijing, Shenyang and Baotou after the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The samples collected included air, fallout, rain water, reservoir water, plants and soil and the wipping samples of international and domestic airlines were also measured. Analyese were made by using low background Ge(Li) ? spectrometer with anti-coincident shield and by radiochemical methods for 89Sr, 90Sr and Pu contents in some samples. The results indicate that the radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl accident arrived to Beijing area on May 2, 1986. Generally speaking, the concentration of radioactive cloud in north China was greater than that in south China. Fission products were found in wipping samples taken from airplanes flying over Europe and Asia. The radioactivity level of the samples taken from European air-line was considerably higher than that from Asian airline. The main fission products found in different samples were as follows: 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, 132I. The ratio of 137Cs to 134Cs was about 2. The partial effective dose equivalent commitment of preliminary estimation to the public in Beijing area from the accident was 11.3 ?Sv. The contribution of the external exposure was 7.9 ?Sv. The contribution of the internal exposure was 3.4 ?Sv

315

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

316

Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

317

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

318

20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

319

Of topical interest since the Chernobyl accident: Cesium transport in soil as a function of water movement and soil type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article shows that the radioactive cesium released by the Chernobyl reactor accident most probably will not reach the groundwater by passing down to deeper soil layers, as it is quite strongly bound in the upper layers. But the cesium from the fallout has reached the soil layers where plants take root, and also is available in the soil in soluble form, so that cesium transfer to man via the food chain is a problem to be considered and observed. (orig./HP)

320

The nature of reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

 
 
 
 
321

Nuclear power generation in Eastern Europe and the role of the West European nuclear industry. - Ten years after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is a fact that most of the reactors of the RBMK type and the WWER 440-230 design line in Eastern Europe will continue operation until the end of their designed service life. However, the authorities and organisations in Russia, Latvia and Ukraine, who were the leaders in reactor technology development in the East, should now adopt and perform the European and bilateral programmes for retrofitting. The European Commission should get a management organization to support and coordinate the tasks and activities under the TACIS and PHARE programmes, in order to ensure optimal appropriation of means and money offered. Nuclear liability and indemnification in Eastern countries operating nuclear reactors should be placed on a satisfying, legal basis. (HP)

322

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

323

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

h, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

324

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

2006-07-01

325

Characteristics of radioactive particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sample of radioactive particles that were released in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and deposited on a nearby wood surface was analyzed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed the chemical composition of different particles to be either uranium, cerium and lanthanum, or zirconium. The latter two types of particles also contained aluminum, silicon, calcium, phosphorus, and chlorine that were probably derived from high-temperature interactions of fuel with concrete and steel structures of the reactor. The major gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with the particles are 95Zr-95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru-106Rh, 134Cs, 137Cs, 141Ce, and 144Ce-144Pr. When selected particle samples were placed in aqueous media, all radionuclides were slow to dissolve, showing an average dissolution half-time of about 160 days. The particle samples studied die not contain the radionuclides, 131I or 140Ba-140La, which were frequently reported as being abundant in samples collected at more distant locations throughout Europe. The authors concluded that if these particles were inhaled by people near the reactor site, the largest portion of the radiation dose would be delivered to lung tissue. 8 references, 5 figures

326

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

327

Fallout of transuranium elements following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident was investigated through the analysis of carpets of lichen- and moss-samples and also air-filters and precipitation. The impact of transuranium elements was small compared to that of radiocesium. The deposition of 239+240Pu was, as for other actinides, inhomogeneously distributed and ranged from 0.1% to 100% of the inventory in 1986 from nuclear detonation tests. The activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was between 10-3 and 10-6 in comparison to 10-2 for nuclear test fallout. The activity ratios of 241Pu, 242Cm, 238Pu, 243+244Am and 239+240Pu were about 86, 14, 0.47, 0.14 and 0.13 respectively, but large variations were observed. The results from Sweden were compared with those found in South Finland, Denmark and Southern Europe. The deposition over Scandinavia originated from the initial explosion at Chernobyl, which contained relatively higher amounts of actinide elements than the second emission, which occurred a few days later and was a result of actions taken to bring the fire under control. (author) 22 refs.; 8 figs

328

Fallout of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition of transuranium elements in Sweden following the Chernobyl accident was investigated through the analysis of carpets of lichen- and moss- samples and also airfilters and precipitation. The impact of transuranium elements was small compared to that of radiocaesium. The deposition of 239+240Pu was, as for other actinides, inhomogeneously distributed and ranged from 0.1% to 100% of the inventory in 1986 from nuclear detonation tests. The activity ratio 239+240Pu/137Cs was between 10-3 and 10-6 compared to 10-2 for nuclear test fallout. The activity ratios of 241Pu, 242Cm, 238Pu, 243+244Cm and 241Am to 239+240Pu were about 86, 14, 0.47, 0.14 and 0.13 respectively but large variations were observed. The deposition over Scandinavia originated from the initial explosion on April 26, 1986, at Chernobyl, which contained relatively higher amounts of actinide elements that the second emission, a few days later, which was a result of actions taken to bring the fire under control. (au) (22 refs.)

329

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

330

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

331

Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

332

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

333

Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg-1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137Cs. The ratio between the 137Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m2) was approximately one. Measurements of 137Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137Cs influxes. (Author)

334

Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

335

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

336

Radioactive contamination in Nijmegen rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, rainwater was collected in the Nijmegen area during the first three weeks of May 1986. The radionuclides found in the water were 131I, 132Te, 132I, 140La, 134Cs, 137Cs and 103Ru. On the first rainy day, an activity concentration of 9 kBq l-1 was measured, with specific activities of 2.7 kBq l-1 for 131I and 2.3 kBq l-1 for each of 132Te and 132I. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was ? 55 GBq. Fresh spinach picked in Nijmegen on 7 May had an activity of 1.5 kBq kg-1. (Auth.)

337

Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the counhus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

338

Severe accidents in nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

339

A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

340

NGU's follow-up after the Chernobyl accident and their utilitarian value in future preparedness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes how the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) organized and made public its fallout survey after the Chernobyl accident. NGU's view on their future share in Norwegian radiation protection preparedness and monitoring is expressed

 
 
 
 
341

Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

342

The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

343

A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in environmental radioactivity in many countries. This paper considers the U.K. situation, and from preliminary monitoring measurements, major routes of population exposure are identified and quantified. U.K. exposures are mostly within variations in natural background radiation levels to be found in Europe, except for the thyroid dose likely to have been received by young people in the north of the U.K. From reported measurements of 131I in milk, it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. Ways in which this exposure component could have been reduced and criteria governing decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of 131I in milk as a population exposure route is a common feature with Chernobyl and the 1957 Windscale accident and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-siting policy. (UK)

344

Iodine-131 thyroid uptake results in travelers returning from Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid screening measurements for 131I were performed on 58 travelers returning from Eastern and Western Europe to Boston after the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986. The travelers consisted of both Americans arriving home after business or vacation and European nationals visiting relatives in the Boston area. For purposes of dosimetry the population was divided into three subpopulations--adult (greater than 18 yr old), children (less than or equal to 18 yr old), and two individuals, 17 and 26 wk pregnant. Seventy-four percent of the population had detectable quantities of 131I thyroid burdens, ranging from 1 nCi (37 Bq) to 900 nCi (33,300 Bq). The highest adult radiation dose equivalent was 5.18 mrem (51.8 mSv). The children, however, had considerably higher dose equivalents with one infant receiving 37 rem (370 mSv). Several other children were above 1 rem (10 mSv). The fetal dose equivalents were less than 14 mrem (140 mu Sv). The presence of rain dominated those testing positive for 131I. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated a wide range of Europe and a large population subsequently ingested radioactivity. The children exhibited the highest thyroid radiation dose equivalents of the individuals monitored in the present study. The significance of this is presently unknown

345

Calculation-experimental method for determination of radionuclide composition of the radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method for determination of the radionuclide composition in soils after the Chernobyl NPP accident is suggested. The method is based on using of the calculated radionuclide composition in the reactor core before the accident as well as experimental measurements. The paper presents description of the computer code and gives a comparison of the obtained results with known theoretical and experimental data. On the example of the plutonium isotopes the possibility for the calculated determination of the isotopes activities of some isotope in soils through the measured activity of any other isotope is shown

346

Fissions quantity of heavy nuclides in the material containing fuel of destroyed reactor of the Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculation data on the quantity of spontaneous fissions of heavy nuclides and their fissions induced by neutrons in fuel of destroyed reactor of the Chernobyl NPP after accident and following years have been presented. The calculation of distribution of fissions on a depth of fuel are given. The underlying data and calculation method are described. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

347

The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

348

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to co nsid

349

Study of Chernobyl ''hot'' particles and fuel containing masses: implications for reconstructing the initial phase of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a detailed study of uranium phases in the matrix of fuel-containing masses (Chernobylite) and in ''hot'' particles formed during the accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant are reported here. The data are compared with those for uranium phases obtained experimentally under laboratory conditions. It is shown that an interaction between nuclear fuel and structural zirconium metal in the initial stage of the Chernobyl NPP accident took place before the explosion of the core. This process occurred during an extremely short time interval and was accompanied by formation of the phases Zr-U-O and UOx with a Zr impurity. Evidence is obtained that before the moment of explosion a temperature ?2500-2600 C was reached in a local section of the reactor, where the melting of the Zr-U-O phase and, partly, of the UOx with Zr impurity phase took place. (orig.)

350

Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

351

Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

352

Past accidents with core degradation in thermal reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article contains a detailed review of the accidents in the Canadian NRX research reactor (1952), the British Windscale reactor (1957), the American SL-1 reactor (1961), the Swiss experimental nuclear power station of Lucens (1969), the TMI-2 nuclear power station in the United States, and the Soviet nuclear power plant of Chernobyl (1986). Although large amounts of radioactive substances had been released from the degraded reactor cores, activity discharges into the environment were so low in each of the cases that health hazards could be excluded to all practical intents and purposes. Detailed investigations of those accidents reveal most of them to have been caused by a combination of design faults and operators' errors. However, also lack of proper instrumentation played a major role, as this kept important information from the operating crews. (orig./HP)

353

Tolerance to physical load in victims of Chernobyl accident with hypertension disease (the data 15 year after the accident)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved 210 participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up. Fifteen years after the accident, threshold power (Wt) and total volume of the work (TVW) reached the proper values for the given age and body mass in 70% of cases. More significant limitation of TPL was observed in stage II hypertension

354

Reactor accidents of four decades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the period between 1942 and June 30, 1982. A detailed description and a comparative analysis of reactor accidents and chemical-processing-plant excursions are presented. The analysis takes into account the following points: causes (design, maintenance, operation); events (initiating event and sequence of events); consequences (environmental impacts, personnel effects and equipment damages). (author)

355

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

356

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in comparison with those of the Kyshtym and Windscale radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report briefly sets out the main features involved in the accidental releases of radioactive substances at Chernobyl, Kyshtym and Windscale, and the radiation conditions developing as a result. We outline the dynamics of the transfer of radioactive substances via the ''soil-plant-animal-man'' food chain, and compare the processes involved in internal and external exposure of the people who stayed on in the radioactively contaminated regions. In the Chernobyl and Windscale nuclear reactor accidents iodine and caesium were mainly responsible for irradiation of the local population. In contrast, the explosion at the storage facility for liquid radioactive waste in the Urals contaminated the area with a mixture of one-year-old fission products, and the long-term ecological effects stem mainly from the presence of strontium-90 in foodstuffs. The report traces the true dynamics of (and predicts future) individual and collective doses to Russia's inhabitants. The latest radiological data are used to estimate the incidence of long-term stochastic effects of a carcinogenic, genetic and teratogenic nature. (author)

357

Measurement of internal contamination with radioactive cesium released from the Chernobyl accident and enhanced elimination by Prussian Blue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A serious accident occurred in No. 4 reactor of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986, as a result of which considerable quantities of radioactive materials were released to the environment. Fifteen members of a Chinese Foreign Trade Exhibition Group were working at Sofia and Profdef, Bulgaria, from 19 April to 23 May 1986. During 5-10 May they occasionally found a rise in ? background dose rate with a FD-301 dosimeter, which indicated that it might be contaminated with radioactive material released from the Chernobyl-4 reactor. Fifteen internally contaminated Chinese persons were monitored from 12 to 21 June 1986 in Beijing. The results of measurements and the effect of Prussian Blue on the rate of elimination of radiocesium are described

358

Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

359

Reactor accidents remain unpredictable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several sessions the enquete commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the Bundestag has dealt with two of the required ''risk-orientated analyses'' of the fast breeder reactor SNR-300 immediately after its summer vacation. The studies arrive at quite different results which can hardly be compared because of their great methodological differences. The deputies and experts in the commission find it hard to give a determined resolution to the Bundestag until the fixed date of 24th September whether the construction of the Kalkar nuclear power plant is to be continued or whether the parliament should make a political decision against it. However, the Bundestag is not competent for reactor licensing - that belongs to the competences of the Laender - but serious objections of the Bundestag with regard to safety would not remain without influences on the atomic licensing procedure. (orig.)

360

CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explains the geographic distribution of the maximum values measured, the nuclide composition of immissions, the time-related deposition of I-131 on grass, and the time-related concentrations of I-131 and Cs-137 in milk. Radiological evaluations are presented, especially with regard to the full lifetime dose to be expected. (DG)

362

Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

363

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited. (author)

364

Consequences of radioactive fallout - Experience acquired from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents considerations on the nature of protection measures which were taken following the Chernobyl accident. Six methods used in Belarus aiming at reducing the radionuclide concentration in soils are listed which resulted in a reduction by a factor of 1.5 to 2 of the contamination levels in different agricultural products after 1986. A table is given showing the continuous decrease between 1986 and 1991 in the amount of sold meat and milk on market having doses exceeding the admissible values. In 1994 an increase in the ratio of contaminated products is explained as being due to investment reduction and to augmentation of transfer coefficients produced by an extremely hot summer. In conclusion it is stressed that lifting and removing the superficial layers of contaminated soils proved to be an inefficient method of decontaminating vast areas. Certain lands will not be cultivated for long as no protective action can be conducted to get them returned to agriculture. If one forgives for an instant the natural decay it seems that never one can get rid of the radioactivity. An artificial reduction methods should be supported by an international experience in the field

365

Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

K. Rissanen

1990-09-01

366

Core degradation in pressurized water reactors during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past years, risk studies on both the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl accidents analyses have confirmed that severe accident prediction on nuclear power plants is a major significant issue. The main part of this issue first concerns the understanding of what occurs, second the evaluation of consequences and finally the elaboration of accident management measures. Accident initiators in light water reactors are ranged in two broad classes; namely, core uncovery accidents and reactivity insertion accidents. For the former, a large core degradation may arise, for the latter only a part of the core may be altered. In core uncovery accidents, which are characterized as slow developing accidents, the most influential mechanical mechanisms for core degradation are (a) clad ballooning and rupture, (b) failure of control rods and subsequent effects, (c) embrittlement of fuel rods and finally (d) crust formation and failure. The modeling in the main severe accident codes is often based on empirical approaches (lumped parameters) strongly connected to the experimental results. In the reactivity insertion accidents which are characterized as fast developing accidents, fuel and cladding expansion with possible interaction (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction) are the main mechanical mechanisms involved. The modeling in the codes is based on sound mechanical principles taking into account the latest experimental findings for the mechanical properties of the in-core materials. This paper, after a brief description of the overall in-vessel phenomena occurring during severe accidents on pressurized water reactors, gives an overview of the major thermomechanical aspects of the core degradation. (authors). 8 figs., 26 refs

367

Studies of severe accidents in light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 10 to 12 November 1986 some 80 delegates met under the auspices of the CEC working group on the safety of light-water reactors. The participants from EC Member States were joined by colleagues from Sweden, Finland and the USA and met to discuss the subject of severe accidents in LWRs. Although this seminar had been planned well before Chernobyl, the ''severe-accident-that-really-happened'' made its mark on the seminar. The four main seminar topics were: (i) high source-term accident sequences identified in PSAs, (ii) containment performance, (iii) mitigation of core melt consequences, (iv) severe accident management in LWRs. In addition to the final panel discussion there was also a separate panel discussion on lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. These proceedings include the papers presented during the seminar and they are arranged following the seminar programme outline. The presentations and discussions of the two panels are not included in the proceedings. The general conclusions and directions following from these two panels were, however, considered in a seminar review paper which was published in the March 1987 issue of Nuclear Engineering International

368

[The neuromediatory system in liquidators of the radiation accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station].  

Science.gov (United States)

The condition of mediatory systems, those of serotonin-, dopamin- and cholinergic, were studied in liquidators of the accident at the Chernobyl power station 15 year after the accident during the reaction of rosette-formation. The results showed an activated status of the studied serotonin- and cholinergic systems. PMID:15881126

Bykova, A A; Sedinina, N S

2005-03-01

369

Environmental radioactivity in the soil of the Republic of Korea one decade after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During Chernobyl accident a large amount of radionuclides were released into atmosphere and added to atmospheric nuclide inventory from weapons tests. In early May of 1986 in South Korea, radioactivities such as 1-131 and Cs-137 were detected in surface air and rain water. That indicated that Chernobyl debris spreaded to far Eastern Asia. In the present time, the long-lived radionuclides have been deposited on the soil of Korean peninsular resulted from Chernobyl accident as well as from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Meanwhile, it has been reported that isotopic properties in fallout differ significantly, depending on their origin. Several studies have reported that plutonium isotopic ratio, Pu-238 to Pu-239,240 in particular, in fallout originated from Chernobyl accident was quite different from the ratio in global fallout from nuclear tests and burnup of SNAP-9A satellite using Pu-238 as energy sources. As soil, in terrestrial environment, is a principal reservoir of man-made radionuclides, a study on isotopic characteristic in soil can give some information on how Chernobyl accident is effecting on Korean environment. In this study, the vertical inventory of radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239,240 and Cs-137, and their isotopic ratios in soils were investigated to estimate the contribution of Chernobyl derived-nuclides to Korean environment

370

Reactor accidents: iodine supplements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This editorial discusses whether stable iodine should be given to block thyroid uptake in a population at risk from radioiodine intake after a reactor incident. It is concluded that the best interests of the public would be served by the administration of a single dose of potassium iodide (or iodate) to a population at risk immediately a release of radioiodine occurs, followed by evacuation if found necessary once measurements are available. Management of contaminated personnel and people remaining in an area of significant contamination appears less certain. Continued blocking of thyroid uptake may be achieved by the use of potassium iodide 50 mg 12-hourly (or 150 mg once daily), but further research is required to establish the risks associated with long term thyroid blockade. (U.K.)

371

Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

372

Estimation Of 137Cs Using Atmospheric Dispersion Models After A Nuclear Reactor Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear energy will continue to have an important role in the production of electricity in the world as the need of energy grows up. But the safety of power plants will always be a question mark for people because of the accidents happened in the past. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which happened in 26 April 1986 was the biggest nuclear accident ever. Because of explosion and fire large quantities of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere. The release of the radioactive particles because of accident affected not only its region but the entire Northern hemisphere. But much of the radioactive material was spread over west USSR and Europe. There are many studies about distribution of radioactive particles and the deposition of radionuclides all over Europe. But this was not true for Turkey especially for the deposition of radionuclides released after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the radiation doses received by people. The aim of this study is to determine the radiation doses received by people living in Turkish territory after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and use this method in case of an emergency. For this purpose The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate meteorological conditions after the accident. The results of WRF which were for the 12 days after accident were used as input data for the HYSPLIT model. NOAA-ARL's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory) dispersion model HYSPLIT was used to simulate the 137Cs distrubition. The deposition values of 137Cs in our domain after Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident were between 1.2E-37 Bq/m2 and 3.5E+08 Bq/m2. The results showed that Turkey was affected because of the accident especially the Black Sea Region. And the doses were calculated by using GENII-LIN which is multipurpose health physics code.

Simsek, V.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.

2012-04-01

373

Radioactivity in surface air and precipitation in Japan after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive plumes from the Chernobyl reactor accident first passed over Japan on 3 May 1986. Measurements of 103Ru, 131I and 137Cs in rainfall and airborne dust collected at Chiba near Tokyo show that, in fact, at least two or more kinds of plume arrived during May. Their altitudes were calculated to be about 1500 m in early May and 6300 m in late May. Radionuclides detected in 33 precipitation samples collected by the network of radiation monitoring stations from 1 to 22 May were 7Be, 89Sr, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, sup(110m)Ag, 125Sb, sup(129m)Te, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. The radiation was characterized by higher levels of the volatile nuclides, such as 103Ru, 132Te, 131I and 137Cs, than fallout levels in nuclear weapons testing, and by activity ratios of 0.48 and 14 for, respectively, 134Cs/137Cs and 89Sr/90Sr, as on 26 April. the fallout activity was higher in Northwestern Japan, the average depositions of 90Sr and 137Cs in Japan from 1 May (or 30 April) to 22 May being 1.4 Bq m-2 and 95 Bq m-2, inventories which are 14 and 550 times higher than the pre-Chernobyl values. (author)

374

Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

375

Development of a method for the retrospective reconstruction of the thyroid dose for children in Belarus after the reactor accident of Chernobyl by determination of the 129I-concentration in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl, a pronounced rise in childhood thyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the shortlived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. As there were only a few direct measurements performed to measure the iodine activity in thyroids, other methods had to be developed to reconstruct the thyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. First approaches to this task were performed by the determination of caesium deposition densities on ground which were correlated to a few available measurements of 131I in soil samples. But soon it had to be realized that this approach was not appropriate for a consistent retrospective dose reconstruction due to the patchy depositions patterns and the different release and transport mechanisms between caesium and iodine. For a new approach it was suggested to determine the 129I concentration in soil by introducing a newly developed extraction procedure that produces samples which can be measured for 129I by means of Accelerator Mass-spectrometry (AMS). Both techniques were sequentially applied to soil samples taken during two successive field-expeditions to Belarus. They are discussed in detail in this thesis. To assess the thyroid dose the concentration of 131I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant releaseusing the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated thyroid dose to certain age groups of various resistance areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalization of a correlation between the137Cs - deposition density and a few 131I measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I - deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the l29I - method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0,5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (author)

376

Inclusion of serious accidents in the containment design of new reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of beyond design basis accidents was intensely and expansively studied in connection with the introduction of in-plant emergency measures as an additional safety level. Probabilistic safety analyses show impressively the gain in safety realizable by in-plant emergency measures. Research work on the phenomena of serious accidents, including those leading to a complete core meltdown, has been done since the beginning of reactor safety research parallely to studies of the problems involved in design basis accidents. Over the last few years the importance of analyzing accident-related phenomena and their possible consequences has increased. This development has been intensified both by the TMI and Chernobyl reactor accidents and by the demand for taking into account serious accidents in the design of new reactors. Summarizing it is said that available operating experience and findings from research and development projects constitute a well-balanced basis for the development of the new light water reactor. (orig.)

377

Radioactivity of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986 radioactive fallout was carried by air currents to most parts of Europe. The radioactive air currents reached Finland on April 27. Immediately after the arrival of such air in Finland, contamination of people by radioactive nuclides began via inhalation of this air. The ingestion route become important later, when radionuclides were transported via different foodchains to man. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. The results of whole-body counting of six different groups of Finnish people measured during 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl are reported. Three were reference groups measured routinely once or twice annually, two groups were comprised of workers at nuclear power stations and one group consisted of 262 persons not belonging to any other group. The total number of whole-body counting measurements of persons in these groups in 1986 from the end of April to the end of December was 624. In April and May small amounts of 131I were detected in the thyroid. In June the first signs of 134Cs in the body were noticed. At the end of 1986 the mean 134Cs body burden for women and men in the Helsinki reference group was 730 Bq. The mean 137Cs body burden in women and men increased from 150 Bq in June to 1500 Bq in December. The differences in the deposition levels in the five fallout regions into which Finland was divided were reflected in the activity levels of the measured people. The weighted annual mean body burden for people in Finland at the end of 1986 was 370 Bq 134Cs and 820 Bq 137Cs. The maximum body burdens of 134Cs and 137Cs found in Finns in 1986 were 6300 Bq and 13000 Bq, respectively. The mean internal committed effective dose equivalent 0.06 mSv from 134Cs and 137Cs in the body of Finnish people in 1986 was calculated using the whole-body counting results. The total effective dose equivalents are reported elsewhere

378

Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

379

One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

380

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

 
 
 
 
381

Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

382

Chernobyl: tragedy of errors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which were instrumented in producing a catastrophic prompt critical nuclear excursion at Chernobyl 4, on 26 April 1986, are discussed. The basic sequence of events leading to accident is detailed. The future of RBMK reactors is considered together with recommendations from the Vienna post-accident meeting in August. The effects on humans, both short-term and long-term are considered. The processes of cleaning up the Chernobyl Station and the surrounding area is outlined. (UK)

383

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

384

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

385

Interventions after serious reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manifold and promising approaches to active measures to be taken during accidents were studied hypothetically at the HTR which already has outstanding inherent safety properties in respect of afterheat removal. Based on incident scenarios prepared for hypothetical air inleakage incidents, in particular into the core of the HTR module reactor, many and various peripheral conditions for intervention possibilities could be studied. In addition, intervention possibilities appropriate for the respective incidents were examined as to their feasibility and consequences to be expected after their application. From these studies suggestions were derived for verifying experiments. (orig./HP) With 66 refs., 24 tabs., 79 figs

386

Reactor accident plume rise calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equations governing the rise of steam and radioactive contaminant laden plumes which might result from a nuclear reactor accident have been numerically solved. The equations are based on a simple ''top hat'' model of the plume. A parameter sensitivity study was performed in which the plume and atmospheric moisture content, the radioactive heating level, and the initial jet emission angle with respect to the wind were varied. The results are related to formula currently being used in consequence modeling and some changes are recommended

387

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes anum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 {+-} 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses recd by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 {mu}Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

Franic, Z.; Marovic, G. [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia)

2006-07-01

388

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

389

Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

390

Morphological change of lymphocytes nucleus in irradiated person from chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study morphological change of lymphocyte nuclei in irradiated persons in Chernobyl nuclear accident. Methods: Select peripheral blood lymphocytes from irradiated person in the Chernobyl nuclear accident as experiment group to be stained by routine Giemsa method and take 500 cells from each under microscope as samples, observe and record the different pattern morphological changes of lymphocytes nuclei. Results: There are lymphocytes nuclei which have tail in the irradiated persons. According to the different morphological features, describe and record 16 different patterns for the lymphocytes nuclei. Conclusion: The lymphocytes nuclei which have tail in the irradiated persons and probably a marker of irradiation. (authors)

391

National report: United Kingdom. Chernobyl - the aftermath. What can the industry learn from the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author points out that the nuclear industry has suffered a serious blow by the Chernobyl accident and asks the questions: Will nuclear power recover, and how, and when will it recover. The author states why in his opinion nuclear power will recover essentially, and reasons in terms of the future energy scene, national attitudes, and public opinion. The technical lessons from the Chernobyl accident are also evaluated. The conclusion is that the biggest single task facing the nuclear industry is that which concerns public perception. Effective communication is therefore very important

392

Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

393

Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: Consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis.

Verschaeve, L. (Department of Biology, SCK/VITO, Mol (Belgium)); Domracheva, E.V.; Kuznetsov, S.A. (Scientific Center for Haematology, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Nechai, V.V. (General Hospital, Gomel (Belarus))

1993-06-01

394

Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: consequence of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis. PMID:7685485

Verschaeve, L; Domracheva, E V; Kuznetsov, S A; Nechai, V V

1993-06-01

395

Chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of Byelorussia: Consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 35 persons belonging to the 'general population' of Gomel or its surroundings (Byelorussia). This region was heavily contaminated by the nuclear fall-out following the radiation accident at Chernobyl. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations was found in most of the subjects. The type and frequency of the aberrations revealed past and possibly present radiation exposure which could be ascribed to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant about 5 years prior to the analysis

396

Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

397

Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

2006-12-15

398

Countermeasures for radiocesium in animal products in Norway after the Chernobyl accident - techniques, effectiveness, and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine years after the reactor accident in Chernobyl contamination by radiocesium is still a significant problem in sheep and reindeer production in Norway. To reduce the impact of the accident, effective countermeasures had to be developed and implemented. The levels of radiocesium in meat were reduced by a combination of countermeasures such a special feeding, use of cesium binders (bentonite and Prussian blue), and changing of slaughtering time. The countermeasures were labor intensive and expensive. Costs per averted dose per person-Sv were calculated to range from NOK 1,000 to 100,000 (7 NOK = $1 U.S.), with the use of cesium binders being the least expensive and condemnation of meat the most costly. Dietary advise, which did not include any compensation costs, had a cost of NOK 40 per person-Sv. Apart form the rejection of meat in 1986, countermeasures were deemed to be justified on a cost-benefit basis (less than NOK 600,000 per person-Sv). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Brynildsen, L.I. [Norway/Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Olso (Norway); Selnaes, T.D. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authorityk Osteras (Norway); Hove, K. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, As (Norway)

1996-05-01

399

A cytogenetic follow-up of some highly irradiated victims of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follow-up of 10 highly irradiated men, mostly reactor crew, from the Chernobyl accident is described. Their pre-accident medical conditions and relevant medical status approximately 10-13 y later are listed. A comparison is made between estimates of their average whole-body penetrating radiation doses derived from several biological parameters. First estimates were based on their presenting severity of prodromal sickness, early changes in blood cell counts and dicentric chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. In three cases ESR measurements on tooth enamel were also made. Retrospective dosimetry using FISH translocations was attempted 10-13 y later. This showed good agreement for those patients with the lower earlier dose estimates, up to about 3 Gy. For the others, extending up to about 12 Gy, the translocations indicated lower values, suggesting that in these cases translocations had somewhat declined. Repeated chromosomal examinations during the follow-up period showed an expected decline in dicentric frequencies. The pattern of decline was bi-phasic with a more rapid first phase, with a half-life of ?4 months followed by a slower decline with half-lives around 2-4 y. The rapid phase persisted for a longer time in those patients who had received the highest doses. 10-13 y later dicentric levels were still above normal background, but well below the translocation frequencies. (authors)

400

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents