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Sample records for chernobyl reactor accident

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

  2. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG)

  3. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  4. The reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl, was the first major catastrophe in the peaceful utilizaion of nuclear energy - however, it was a regional and not a global catastrophe. Chernobyl has shown that the most alarming and genuinely catastrophic consequences of such an accident were that large areas of the affected region were uninhabitable for a long period due to the radioactive fall-out. The effects caused by this to living conditions for very many people have had significant social, psychological and economic effects. (orig.)

  5. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

  6. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  7. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabsChernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal synd

  8. Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

  9. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH)

  10. Present review of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of the accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986 are discussed. The IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group has reconsidered the root cause of the accident in the report INSAG-7. The shortcomings in the neutron physics characteristics of RBMK-type reactors were the positive void reactivity coefficient and the possibility of positive scram. The operating reactivity margin concept is seen as inappropriate for complete assurance that the control rod configuration secures fully adequate reactor protection. Two earlier accidents at RBMK reactors, a fuel channel failure at Leningrad 1 in 1975 and a fuel failure at Chernobyl 1 in 1982, had indicated weaknesses in the characteristics and operation of RBMK units. IAEA organized a consultants' meeting on void reactivity effects in RBMK reactors in Moscow 1995. In the meeting the phenomena influencing the void reactivity effects in RBMK reactors in Moscow 1995. In the meeting the phenomena influencing the void reactivity coefficient, the calculational tools and the status of experimental determination of the void reactivity coefficient in operating RBMKs were discussed. (orig.) (3 figs.)

  11. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  12. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

  13. Reactor accidents. Chernobyl and Three Miles Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the facilities at Chernobyl and TMI, as well as of the course of the accidents is given. Supplementary information relates to the quantities and types of radionuclides released and to the size of the group of persons concerned. (DG)

  14. Effects in Switzerland of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April 1996 saw the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The current article takes advantage of this occasion to present, from today's point of view, a summary appraisal of the radiological effects that this accident had in Switzerland, and to show how the warning and monitoring organisation in existence at the time coped with the event. (orig.)

  15. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

  16. Implications of the Chernobyl accident for US reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident that occurred at unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986, was the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. Thirty-one workers and emergency personnel died and more than 200 were hospitalized as a result of this event. Approximately 135,000 persons within 30 km around the reactor were evacuated, and radioactive debris was spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. There was much public concern generated around the world, and an increased risk of fatal cancer in the world;s population is possible as a result of exposure to Chernobyl fallout. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the major lessons that the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) believes can be learned from the Chernobyl accident. The IDNS has identified five major areas where implications can be drawn from Chernobyl for US reactors: (a) administrative controls, (b) reactor design, (c) containment, (d) emergency planning, and (e) severe accident phenomena. It is clear that administrative controls in place at Chernobyl did not work

  17. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

  18. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

  19. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  20. Lessons for Germany from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl reactor accident, conclusions for Germany are being translated into action. They comprise the creation of the legal and administrative preconditions for a uniform assessment of exposure situations and concerted recommendations to exposed persons within the framework of precautionary radiation protection and nuclear disaster relief. Measuring to determine the levels of event-related and dose-relevant nuclides in environmental media is being extended. A communication infra-structure for real-time information of the population is to be established and international agreements on mutual information in the case of nuclear accidents are to be concluded. (DG)

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radioactivity monitoring is done in Bavaria by a system of monitoring stations distributed over the Land, and by the reactor remote monitoring systems. After the Chernobyl reactor accident, measuring activities have been intensified, and by the end of 1986 there have been available about 35.000 measured data records on radioactivity in the air, in water, land, and food and animal feeds. The report in hand presents the data measured in tables and explains their significance with regard to environmental radiation exposure. (DG)

  2. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

  4. Radioactivity of eggs due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident wash-out of radionuclides and deposition on vegetation caused a distinct increase of radioactivity of eggs. Exposure of the consumers of contaminated eggs was insignificant. (orig.)

  5. Radioiodine in the Tarapur environment due to Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioiodine due to Chernobyl accident fallout was first detected at Tarapur on 14th May in animal thyroids. This led to a complete study of 131I in all environmental matrices. The paper describes the levels of 131I in different environmental samples and reveals that the radiation hazard to the public due to Chernobyl accident fallout 131I activity levels are insignificant. (author)

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

  7. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 104 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  8. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG)

  9. Evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident (as of May 30, 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact presentation of information, as available on May 30, 1986, including the design of the Chernobyl reactor, the presumed course of events and causes of the accident, and radiological consequences. (HP)

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  12. The comparison of environmental radioactive contamination following nuclear test explosions and the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of environmental radioactive contamination following nuclear test explosions and the reactor accident in Chernobyl was made. Although there are wide local variations of the Chernobyl fallout in Slovenia it is generally comparable to that of the nuclear explosions. (author) 3 tabs.; 6 refs

  13. Nuclear technology and reactor safety engineering. The situation ten years after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years ago, on April 26, 1986 the most serious accident ever in the history of nuclear tgechnology worldwide happened in unit 4 of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl in the Ukraine, this accident unveiling to the world at large that the Soviet reactor design lines are bearing unthought of safety engineering deficits. The dimensions of this reactor accident on site, and the radioactive fallout spreading far and wide to many countries in Europe, vividly nourished the concern of great parts of the population in the Western world about the safety of nuclear technology, and re-instigated debates about the risks involved and their justification. Now that ten years have elapsed since the accident, it is appropriate to strike a balance and analyse the situation today. The number of nuclear power plants operating worldwide has been growing in the last few years and this trend will continue, primarily due to developments in Asia. The Chernobyl reactor accident has pushed the international dimension of reactor safety to the foreground. Thus the Western world had reason enough to commit itself to enhancing the engineered safety of reactors in East Europe. The article analyses some of the major developments and activities to date and shows future perspectives. (orig.)

  14. The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

  15. The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

  16. The radiation burden in Austria from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the radioactivity levels in Austria after the Chernobyl accident, in air, grass, milk and different meats as a function of time. A table of the Austrian legal activity uptake limits, for 290Sr, 131J, 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru and 106Ru provide standards of comparison. For 1986 the integral burden for the population is estimated to be 30 mrem. (G.Q.)

  17. The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements in Denmark following the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. The results of the measurements as of 3 May show that the effect of the accident on Danish territory is comparable to 2 weeks of natural background radiation. The report has been prepared on behalf of a coordinating committee established by Danish authorities after the accident. The coordinating committee is chaired by the National Agency of Environmental Protection and consists of representatives from the National Board of Health, the National Food Agency, Risoe National Laboratory, the Civil Defense, the Meteorological Institute and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The report measurements were performed by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (part of the National Board of Health) and by Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

  18. Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.)

  19. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  20. Radioactivity, radiation exposure and health effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure totalling from external irradiation, inhalation and ingestion is assessed. This assessment gives the mean effective life-time dose equivalent for the FRG. Data indicate the radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl reactor accident to be a small but additional hazard. (52 references to literature). (DG)

  1. Measures taken by the authorities in the Bavarian Capital Munich after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl initially elevated the radiation exposure level in the Munich region. The author reports the activities of the radiation protection commissioner of the Bavarian Capital Munich, food legislation measures (at home and abroad) and disposal problems (sewage sludge, filters from air-conditioning and ventilation systems, and play grounds). (DG)

  2. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  3. Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated

  4. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

  5. Radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident to the large lakes of southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the first year after the reactor accident is calculated. (orig.)

  6. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the most severe in the nuclear industry. The accident caused the rapid death of 31 power plant employees and firemen, mainly from acute radiation exposures and burns, and brought about the evacuation of 116,000 people within a few weeks. In addition, about half a million workers and four million members of the public have been exposed, to some extent, to radiation doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. A large number of radiation measurements have been made since the accident in order to reconstruct the doses received by the most exposed populations. On the basis of currently available information, it appears that: (1) average doses received by clean-up workers from external irradiation decreased with time, being about 300 mGy for the persons who worked in the first three months after the accident, about 170 mGy for the remainder of 1986, 130 mGy in 1987, 30 mGy in 1988, and 15 mGy in 1989; (2) the evacuees received, before evacuation, effective doses averaging 11 mSv for the population of Pripyat, and 18 mSv for the remainder of the population of the 30 km zone, with maximum effective doses ranging up to 380 mSv; and (3) among the populations living in contaminated areas, the highest doses were those delivered to the thyroids of children. Thyroid doses derived from thyroid measurements among Belarussian and Ukrainian children indicate median thyroid doses of about 300 mGy, and more than 1% of the children with thyroid doses in excess of 5000 mGy. A description is provided of the epidemiological studies that the National Cancer Institute has, since 1990, at the request of the Department of Energy, endeavoured to undertake, in cooperation with Belarus and Ukraine, on two possible health effects resulting from the Chernobyl accident: (1, thyroid cancer in children living in contaminated areas during the first few weeks following the accident, and (2) leukaemia among workers involved in clean-up operations at the reactor site in 1986 and 1987. (author)

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB)

  8. Analysis of space-time core dynamics on reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, core dynamics has been analyzed by COMIC code which solves space-time dependent diffusion equation in three-dimension taking spatial thermohydraulic effect into account. The code was originally developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), however, has been modified to include light water as coolant, instead of helium, for analysis of the accident. In the analysis, emphasis is placed on spatial effects on core dynamics. The analyses are performed for the cases of modeling the core fully and partially where 6 fuel channels surround one control rod channel. The result shows that the speed of applying void reactivity averaged over the core depends on the power and coolant flow distributions. Therefore, these distributions have potential to influence on the value and the time of peak power estimated by calculation. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  10. The general public's attitude towards nuclear power after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of three public opinion polls made within two years after the Chernobyl reactor accident revealed a deep feeling of insecurity in the population which did not disappear or diminish in the time from the first to the third survey, but instead was stirred up again by the affairs in the nuclear industry. Other than former accidents in a nuclear facility, as the one at Harrisburg for example, the Chernobyl reactor accident - from the subjective point of view of many citizens - had effects of a dimension exceeding the political level, and reaching into the normal sphere of life of anybody. Torn between two contravening feelings, namely the wish to get rid of the nuclear energy risk as soon as possible, and the fear that this might mean farewell also to the amenities of a life as a free consumer, the population gave into the strategy of suppression, so that there is verbal protest against the hazards of nuclear energy, but no will to really give up the advantages of a comfortable life created by modern technologies. (orig./HP)

  11. Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, B J; Cranley, K

    1987-01-01

    Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Nor...

  12. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  13. Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project 'Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ''Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident'', giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  14. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

  15. Evidence for an increase in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Scherb, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) associated with Chernobyl fallout. Maternal age-adjusted DS data and corresponding live birth data from the following seven European countries or regions were analyzed: Bavaria and West Berlin in Germany, Belarus, Hungary, the Lothian Region of Scotland, North West England, and Sweden from 1981 to 1992. To assess the underlying time trends in the DS occurrence, and to investigate whether there have been significant changes in the trend functions after Chernobyl, we applied logistic regression allowing for peaks and jumps from January 1987 onward. The majority of the trisomy 21 cases of the previously reported, highly significant January 1987 clusters in Belarus and West Berlin were conceived when the radioactive clouds with significant amounts of radionuclides with short physical half-lives, especially (131)iodine, passed over these regions. Apart from this, we also observed a significant longer lasting effect in both areas. Moreover, evidence for long-term changes in the DS prevalence in several other European regions is presented and explained by exposure, especially to (137)Cs. In many areas, (137)Cs uptake reached its maximum one year after the Chernobyl accident. Thus, the highest increase in trisomy 21 should be observed in 1987/1988, which is indeed the case. Based on the fact that maternal meiosis is an error prone process, the assumption of a causal relationship between low-dose irradiation and nondisjunction is the most likely explanation for the observed increase in DS after the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:22162022

  16. Report of the Land Berlin: The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents in detail the activities of the Berlin Senate administrations for the protection of the population after the reactor accident and outlines the consequences that have already resulted or are still to be expected for the people and the environment in Berlin. The radiation control guidelines and the provided instruments enabled the Berlin Senate to encounter the sudden accident with a fast and unbureaucratic crisis management. The special geopolitical situation of Berlin made it possible to set up a comprehensive control and measuring program for imported food. This report shows that all the measures required in connection with Chernobyl were taken by the Berlin Senate and that there is an effective precautionary program. (orig./HSCH)

  17. Concentration of radioactive cesium in imported foods and contribution by Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides in imported foods consumed in Hokkaido were examined by germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The values of radioactive cesium (137Cs+134Cs) concentration of 480 samples collected during 1989-1999 were lower than the temporary limit (370 Bq/kg). These values of 441 samples (92%) were lower than 1 Bq/kg. The maximum values of 137Cs and 134Cs were 62.4 Bq/kg, 3.8 Bq/kg in black tea imported from China. From the relation between concentration of 137Cs and cesium unit, the contribution from Chernobyl reactor accident was estimated qualitatively on 24 samples with higher values than 0.40 Bq/g-K. Based on the concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs detected in 16 samples, the contribution of 137Cs from this accident were calculated. (author)

  18. The reactor accident at Chernobyl': identification of radionuclides in fallout in Niigata City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fallout caused by the accident of Chernobyl' nuclear reactor has been monitored in Niigata City (April 30 - June 3, 1986). Twelve muclides (131I, 132I, 129Te, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 99mTc, 140La, 140Ba) were identified in aerosol samples. The same nuclides plus 7Be were identified in rain-water. Gaseous and particle-bound 131I were separately trapped on a glass filter and a charcoal filter, respectively. Results indicate 50 - 60 % of atmospheric 131I is gaseous and the rest is particle-bound. Chloroform extraction of rain-water revealed that 40 - 60 % of 131I in the rain-water sample exists in the form of IO3- and 131IO3-(131IO4-)/131I- seemed to increase with the lapse of time after the accident. (author)

  19. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  20. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  1. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  2. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  3. Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

  4. Radioactivity measurements in Krakow surroundings in the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from different laboratories of the Institute of Nuclear Physics was formed to set a crash program of measurement of water and food contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The main contaminants in the first days were 131I and 132Te which were superseded later on by 104Ru, 137Cs and 134Cs. The highest value of contamination of surface waters by 131I was attained in the Vistula river on the 2-nd of May with 530 Bq/dm3. Also measurements of food contamination by 131I,134Cs, 137Cs and 137Te were carried out. The additional effective dose equivalent related to Chernobyl accident received by the population of Krakow region in May 1986 was estimated at 0.45 mSV (45 rem). Another rise of 134Cs + 137Cs content up to 46 Bq/dm3 in cows milk was observed during March and April 1987 and was probably explicable by the use of hay harvested in June 1986. (author)

  5. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ? Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ? Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  6. 131I content in canine thyroids in the Warsaw urban area after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of 131I were determined in the thyroids of 20 dogs from Warsaw submitted to euthanasia between May and September 1986. The animals were living with humans and were in similar way exposed to contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. After calculation of the radioactivity for May 10th the contamination was found to range from 142.9 to 1372.9 Bq. These values corresponded to the contamination of human thyroids as reported by Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection in Warsaw. From the begining of May to the end of November the number of operations performed in dogs for pathological thyroid hyperplasia was six times higher than in the preceding time period. 5 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  7. On the situation in the areas of the Soviet Union affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station on April 26, 1986 is the event with the most severe consequences in the history of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. Five years later, the experts and the public, both national and international, are still far from having obtained a complete overview of the radiological situation in the immediate and more distant environment of the destroyed plant. Copious information about measurements conducted by the Soviets, but also by international agencies, has produced partly contradictory findings, all of it extremely fragmentary about partial aspects of the disaster. This summary report about the situation written from a radiobiologist's point of view covers such aspects as the failure of the policy which had sought to put a ban on the dissemination of information; the levels of contamination; a radiological assessment of the 35 rem concept; the issue of generally higher morbidity; and the necessary measures of support and assistance. (orig.)

  8. Public responses to the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Renn, Ortwin

    1990-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk management efforts in the early aftermath of the disaster, the dose savings achieved by protective actions were roughly proportional to the magnitude of the nuclear threat. The accident itself and the pol...

  9. Change of attitude and behaviour of the West-German population after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the West-German population has shown to be much more aware of the hazards emanating from environmental pollution and chemical or radioactive contamination of food. It could be observed that, on the whole, consumption of important basic food has been reduced, so that the population's supply with various, significant nutrients is expected to deteriorate. The nutrients to be mentioned in this context are primarily calcium, riboflavin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid. Investigations over the period May to July 1986 show that the reactor accident's impact on the food consumption behaviour subsides only slowly, and it remains to be seen to what extent changes and fluctuations in the population's nutritional behaviour will have to be taken as 'normal'. Hence some sort of nutritional deficiency can be expected among certain groups of the population, either temporarily or over a prolonged period. A National Survey of Food Consumption currently in preparation will yield more detailed insight into the whole process. (orig./MG)

  10. The Chernobyl Accident: Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the former Soviet Union in 1986 exposed large numbers of people in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia to radioactive iodines, principally I-131 which concentrates in the thyroid gland (Hatch, et al. 2005; Cardis and Hatch, 2011).

  11. What did change in the FRG after the Chernobyl reactor accident? On the situation in churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses in detail the implications of the reactor desaster of Chernobyl both in terms of social ethics and theology and demonstrates processes within the churches and official church statements. (DG)

  12. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  13. Radioactivity measurements of water, milk and dairy products, vegetables and grass from the surroundings of Cracow on the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of radioactive contamination of water and food products were carried out shortly after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Using the measured values, the committed effective dose equivalent for adult population of Cracow was estimated. (author)

  14. Health hazards to the population of Hamburg, due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of cancer incidence within a time period of 50 years are stated and in brackets for comparison the cancer deaths within a time period of 50 years based on the Hamburg cancer register for 1985: 1) Pulmonary cancer 0-2 (47 100) 2) Thyroid (thyroida. 3) Hepatic cancer 1-69 (5 700) 4) Leucaemia 3-609 (8 850) 5) All cancer diseases 3-609 (259 000). Presuming that all cancer diseases caused by the Chernobyl accident lead to death and taking into consideration the total cancer risk of the next 50 years, the number of cancer deaths increases at maximum by a little more than one five hundredth (0.23%) As concerns the genetic risk, it is to be noticed that the estimated numbers of 1 to up to 55 cases per generation above all refer to the minor modifications of hereditary factor. With regard to severe hereditary diseases within the next two generations the health authority estimates that in comparison to the single case of clinical importance caused by the reactor accident there are 1760 spontaneous hereditary diseases. (orig./HP)

  15. Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  16. Impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the territories of the former German Democratic Republic in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several reports by SAAS (the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the German Democratic Republic) have been discussing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident through 1989. Only a summary had been published for 1989 in the environmental radioactivity annual report. Institut fuer Umweltschutz had been in charge of the publication of a more detailed account as part of the 'environmental report' but the project was abandoned since the institute was wound up as of October 1990. The report under review concludes the separate German Demoncratic Republic reporting by publishing the part of the manuscript on environmental contamination caused by artificial radionuclides which gives the 1989 situation on the basis of the previous results on the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The appendix lists the SAAS reports published in the past. (orig./BBR)

  17. The Chernobyl Accident: Collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A special note is made of the extraordinary leadership of the late Dr. Elaine Ron, who helped shape and oversee the conduct of the NCI-Chernobyl program. The late Dr. Geoffrey Howe of Columbia University also made invaluable contributions to this research. We also wish to acknowledge Drs. Gilbert Beebe, Jacob Robbins, and Terry Thomas, who were involved from the earliest days following the accident and continued to provide scientific input until the time of their respective deaths.

  18. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 ?Sv for whole body and 40 ?Sv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  19. Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models established after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments reported were carried out for a verification of existing, dynamic radioecological models, especially of the ECOSYS model. The database used for the verification covers the radioactivity concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137, I-131 measured after the Chernobyl reactor accident in foodstuffs and environmental samples, the results of field experiments on radionuclide translocation after foliar uptake or absorption by the roots of edible plants. The measured data were compared with the model predictions for the radionuclides under review. The Cs-134 and Cs-137 translocation factors which describe the redistribution of these radionuclides in the plant after foliar uptake were experimentally determined by a single sprinkling with Chernobyl rainwater, and were measured to be the following as a function of sprinkling time: winter wheat, 0.002-0.13; spring wheat, 0.003-0.09; winter rye, 0.002-0.27; barley, 0.002-0.04; potatoes, 0.05-0.35; carrots, 0.02-0.07; bush beans, 0.04-0.3; cabbage, 0.1-0.5. The weathering half-life of the radionuclides in lettuce was determined to be ten days. Transfer factors determined for root absorption of Cs-137 were measured to be an average of 0.002 for grains, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. There was an agreement between the ECOSYS model predictions and the measured radioactivity concentrations of the corresponding radionuclides. (orig./HP)

  20. Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  1. The evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident by the help of the Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The germinal mutagenic consequences or radioactive fall-out deposition from the Chernobyl accident in Hungary was evaluated in the ongoing program on the population-based Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations. The surveillance is based on three groups of indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies (indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations), Down syndrome (an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations) and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities (indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations). Cases with indicator conditions were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. After the diagnostic accuracies were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the latter group was evaluated for evidence of new mutations. The analysis did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary. (author)

  2. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

  3. Radioactivity in total diet before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity in total diet samples (1-day rations of adults) has been determined in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1960. Average intake of cesium-137 was 8.9 Bq per day and per person (Bq/d.p) in 1964, 0.15 in 1985, 4.2 in 1986, 7.2 in 1987, and 2.0 in 1988. Cesium-134, not measurable in pre-Chernobyl fallout, averaged 2.0 Bq/d.p in 1986, 3.0 in 1987, and 0.6 in 1988. Intake of strontium-90 was in the same range as in the years preceding the Chernobyl accident. It is estimated that the total effective equivalent dose for adults due to ingestion of Chernobyl-released radionuclides, including iodine-131, will be 0.14 ± 0.08 mSv. (orig.)

  4. The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its consequences in the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sets of subjects are examined and analysed against the background of the obligation of the media to provide information. These are questions of the extent of the information on the accident at Chernobyl, the separation of factual reports and opinionative ones, the thought-out nature of the representation by supporters and opponents and the slide from reporting on the danger from radioactive clouds to a debate on leaving the nuclear economy. (DG)

  5. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  6. Effusion and spreading of contamination caused by the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides a description of the effusion and spread of contamination caused by the Chernobyl-4 accident this report also contains a treatment of the radiologic follow up, the corresponding health effects and measures been taken. The content is based on the official evaluation report drawn up by the Soviet authorities on behalf of the IAEA 'Post-accidents review meeting' held in Vienna from August 24 to 28, 1986 and also on the presentation and discussions which have taken place during the conference. The facts presented in this contribution are solely related to the situation in the Soviet Union. (Auth.)

  7. A review on contamination and emergency response actions in USSR, European countries and Japan in the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident occurred in the Chernobyl No.4 reactor on April 26, 1986 became the largest accident of nuclear reactors so far as the quantity of release of radioactive substances was very much, and the wide area contamination over the whole Northern Hemisphere was brought about. Consequently, the revision over wide ranges, such as the desigh and operation of nuclear reactors and the response at the time of emergency, was to be urgently demanded. As to this accident, many reports have been already made. In this report, the contamination and the response carried out at the time of emergency including the state in Japan are mainly described. The contents of this report are based on the data sent from the international organizations, the results of measurement by the organizations in respective countries, the publication by USSR at the IAEA expert conference in August, 1986, and the data published in respective countries by research institutes. The state in respective countries after the accident, the radioactivity contamination due to the accident in USSR, European countries and Japan, the diffusion and move of radioactive substances, the countermeasures to the accident such as the estimation of exposure dose, scientific investigation, the evacuation of people and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. The accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl constituted the largest release of radioactivity ever recorded in a single technological accident. It was caused by a combination of design and management errors, and produced a highly variable pattern of fallout, strongly correlated with local rainfall. Even at 1500 km, fallout in some places far exceeded the levels recorded during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The burden of 31 acute deaths was surprisingly small, and was limited to emergency workers who had to cope with the fire at the plant. The cost of potential chronic health effects, including as many as 28,000 cancers worldwide, in contrast, is surprisingly large, and is localized in Soviet Europe and non-Soviet Europe in approximately equal parts. The author discusses how the pattern of dispersion and exposure due to Chernobyl demands reconsideration of emergency planning for nuclear power stations, not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the West. Revised emergency plans should involve the combination of decentralized and centralized response efforts capable of providing not only acute risk management but also adequate protection against chronic exposure, particularly via ingestion

  9. Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

  10. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Vaesterbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in a didactic manner the technical and historical elements allowing to understand the risks and consequences of a nuclear accident. The main accidents which took place in France, US, Ukraine and Japan are analyzed. Content: 1 - Physics of nuclear accidents - reactor accidents; 2 - Accidents of the beginning of the nuclear era: Windscale (1957), Santa Susana (1959), Idaho Falls (1961), Saint Laurent des Eaux A1 (1969); 3 - The Three Mile Island accident; 4 - the Chernobyl accident; 5 - the Fukushima accident: hydrogen explosion; how about France?; 6 - Conclusions and perspectives; Appendix 1: the INES scale; Appendix 2: deterministic approach of barriers dimensioning: application to PWR reactors; the incident/accident classes; the deterministic safety criteria; Appendix 3: history of significant nuclear reactor accidents in the world; Bibliography; Index. (J.S.)

  12. Teratological evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in Hungary after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly distribution of pregnancy outcomes such as induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, newborns with birth weight under 2500 g, isolated congenital anomalies, identified multiple congenital anomaly syndromes including fetal radiation syndrome, and unidentified multiple congenital anomalies was evaluated in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident until Apr 1987. Only a somewhat higher rate of newborns with birth weight under 2500 g in May and June, 1986 was detected. It may have been due to premature labour caused by anxiety. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  13. Monitoring of radioactivity in sewage and sewage sludge - the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the Institute has measured, inter alia, the levels of radioactivity in sewage, sewage sludge and ash from sludge incineration at Berlin sewage works. It was seen that with the beginning of rainfall after the accident, there was a sudden rise in the concentration of fission products in sewage, and, with a certain lag, also in sludge and ash after the date of 7 May 1986. Later on, values dropped again. It follows from these examinations that sewage as well as ash from sewage sludge incineration can be disposed of at tipping sites without any additional precautionary measures. The same is true of the agricultural use of sewage sludge. (orig./PW)

  14. R[ionuclide transport after the Chernobyl reactor accident and derivation of r[ioecological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since due to the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl r[ionuclides arrived in the vicinity of Aachen, the enhancement of the local dose rate, the deposition of the different r[ionuclides on ground and vegetation and the transport of the r[ionuclides into the environment were measured. Partly the measurements were continued until today. Very informative time sequences of the specific activity in grass, food, cow's milk, beef, in the different plants, trees, ploughed soil and undisturbed soil, mushrooms, game, in humans etc. resulted. During different private and official journeys in the old Laender of the Federal Republic of Germany surface covering measurements of the 134Cs and 137Cs activity deposited on grass land at different places were carried out. These data were implemented into a map on ground contamination in 1986 in Germany, published in 1991 by the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene of the Federal Public Health Department in Berlin. Transfer factors soil-grass were measured in the whole Federal Republic of Germany analyzing grass samples which were partly taken at the same time. A large amount of r[ioecological parameters could be derived from the different time sequences. These are in particular: The deposition velocity for iodine and particle bound r[ioanuclides on grass and in forests, the rainout coefficient in dependence of the precipitation intensity, the retention factors on grass, the biological half-life time on grass, the transfer factor soil-grass in dependence of time, the transfer factor food-milk during the pasture period and during stable stay, the transfer factor food-beef, the transfer factors in eatable mushrooms, the translocation factor of cesium in cereals etc. A multi-compartment model was developed to calculate the specific Cs activity in cow's milk and beef. The specific activity in milk can be calculated sufficiently exact using a simple single compartment model. The correlation of the specific Cs activity in spruce branches, mykorrhiza mushrooms, forest honey and roe and red deer meat is remarkable. The single time sequences show a fairly closed picture of the transport of the r[ionuclides in the environment which could be measured in Aachen with normal expenditure. These were in particular: 103Ru, 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs. Most of the measured values were summarized in voluminous tables and diagrams. (orig.)

  15. Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury

  16. Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-08

    The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

  17. Chernobyl accident- causes, sequence and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 25, 1986 was initiated a sequence of events which culminated in the world's worst nuclear power reactor accident. The accident occurred because of a rare combination of design deficiencies, human errors and complacency. The accident led to a thorough review of the safety aspects of not only the RBMK reactors of Soviet design but also the other types of reactors designed in the Soviet Union. The trend of designing advanced reactors, with passive safety features, also received a boost. Subsequent to the accident, the RBMK safety issues have been thoroughly reviewed by various agencies and a number of steps have been taken to improve the system safety. The engineering aspects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig

  18. The reactor accident at Chernobyl and its implications of world-wide food trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl reactor disaster of 26 April 1986 caused not only destruction, death, injury, and high level radioactive contamination in the zone around the nuclear power plant - it also caused wide-spread low level contamination in many countries of Easter and Central Europe. It is shown that although populations outside the disaster area were not exposed to serious danger, the confusion that arose not only among the general public but also among regulatory agencies, caused tremendous difficulties for food manufacturers and the food trade. 2 refs., 3 tabs, 3 figs

  19. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. Informative report prepared on behalf of the IAEA meeting, Vienna, August 25-29, 1986. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRS has revised the German translation of part 1 of the report on the Chernobyl reactor accident. The translation is technically clear and intelligible and contains the current technical terms. The report comprises a description of RBMK-1000, a chronological description of the accident, the analysis of the accident, the causes of the accident, measures preventing the further development of the accident as well as measures controlling the radioactive contamination of the environment and the population. The report discusses immediate emergency measures improving the safety of RBMK-type nuclear power plants and deals with recommendations for nuclear safety engineering. (DG)

  20. Comparison of fallout in rain due to the Fukushima and Chernobyl reactor accidents and the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fallout in rain due to the Fukushima reactor accident was monitored for about two months (from March 20 to May 23, 2011) in Higashi-Hiroshima city, Hiroshima, Japan. Gamma-ray spectra measured with a low background HPGe spectrometer showed clear evidence of the following fission products: 131I, 137Cs, and 134Cs. 131I was observed on March 27 and April 8, while 137Cs and 134Cs were observed on March 27, April 18, and April 22. The 131I, 137Cs, and 134Cs activity concentrations in rainwater collected in Hiroshima reached 0.44 Bq/L on April 8, 0.17 Bq/L on April 18, and 0.15 Bq/L on April 18, respectively. Several samples of rainwater collected in Chiba (Kashiwa) on March 21, April 11, and May 12, Tokyo (Nerima) on March 21 and April 11, Osaka (Hirano) on April 8, Nara (Kitakatsuragi) on April 9, and Fukushima (Fukushima) on April 19, were also measured using our spectrometer. Our results from the Fukushima reactor accident were compared with measurements taken after the Chernobyl reactor accident as well as analyses of the black rain that was caused by fallout from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. (author)

  1. New findings on the causes of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident developed in the course of a test to find out whether the plant internal power supply works if feed-in from the national network fails. Major effects of the test on reactor behaviour were not expected. The chronology of events is described on the basis of the operational journal and computer protocol print-out. The most important safety-related deficits of the reactor type are summarized. (DG)

  2. Chernobyl - the consequences of the maximum credible accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although regional in dimension, the MCA that happened on 26 April 1986 in the Chernobyl reactor station has gained global significance. The authors of the book are experts in radiation medicine and present their experience in the diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by ionizing radiation, referring whenever applicable to the Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences in present-day life. (orig.)

  3. Reduction of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and seaweed by cooking. [Fallout, Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.

    1987-03-01

    Decontamination ratios of /sup 131/I were obtained from leafy vegetables samples and an edible seaweed sample (Papenfussiella kuromo) after cooking. Samples obtained in Akita City were contaminated with fallout /sup 131/I from the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The decontamination ratio of /sup 131/I content in washed spinach samples to that in raw materials was 0.83 +- 0.21. The ratio of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and edible wild grass samples boiled in water to that in washed samples was 0.51 +- 0.19 on an average. The overall decontamination ratio for leafy vegetables was 0.42 +- 0.19, while the decontamination ratio after cooking was 0.68 for the seaweed sample.

  4. Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.)

  5. MLAM assessment of radionuclide air concentration and deposition for the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of air concentrations and depositions estimated for Europe by a multi-layer, three-dimensional, meso-alpha-scale model, MLAM. Information is provided on the atmospheric transport of the effluent plume from the damaged reactor, surface air concentrations, and wet and dry deposition. Numerous measurements were made after the accident, and in some countries the observations may be sufficient to determine general air concentration and deposition patterns. Where measurements are available, modeled values are compared with them. However, there are large areas in Europe where such measurements are not available, and it is in these areas that modeling provides additional aid in determining the impact of the accident. The purpose of the paper is to provide insight into areas of possible deposition where measurements are not available. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  6. The Chernobyl Accident: Leukemia Study (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years after a 1988 agreement between the United States and the USSR to cooperate in the area of nuclear reactor safety, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH undertook to develop a study of leukemia risk among Ukrainian men potentially exposed to external radiation during clean-up operations (e.g., liquidators) following the Chernobyl accident. Responsibility for the study resides in the Radiation Epidemiology Branch of NCI.

  7. Radioactivity concentrations in Bavarian surface water after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special investigation programme for monitoring radioactive immissions, which was primarily concerned with drinking water, initially led to the discovery of high rates of precipitate pollution by I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Te-132. Since initial investigations had revealed no increases in total alpha and tritium values, gamma-spectrometric determinations were effected exclusively for single nuclides. Later on, a considerable accumulation of the nuclides Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ru-103 was discoverd in the sediments of surface bodies of water and in sewage sludges. The effects of the reactor accident on surface water are still being monitored in a long-term metering programme. (DG)

  8. Artificial radioactivity in the vicinity of St. Marianna University School of Medicine after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, rain water and atomospheric dust were monitored for their possible contamination by artificial radionuclides on the roof of the building of our medical school from April 30 through June 8, 1986. Radiological monitoring was also performed on cabbages obtained from a nearby field, city water, cow's milk produced in Kanagawa Prefecture and human milk obtained from a volunteer living in Kawasaki. Our campus and the nearby area were exposed to 131I from May 2 through 22 by rainfall and from May 1 through 15 by atomospheric dust. In particular, rain water on May 4 and May 5 contained 7600 pCi (282 Bq)/l and 6000 pCi (222 Bq)/l, respectively. The cabbage specimen obtained on May 7 was contaminated by 131I with 808 pCi/kg wet weight, but another specimen obtained on June 6 was not contaminated by any detectable amounts of 131I. No radioactivity was detected in city water during the period monitored. Cow's milk and human milk contained, as a total of ?-radioactivity, 1412 pCi (52 Bq)/l and 915 pCi (34 Bq)/l, respectively. However, parallel determinations on their potassium concentrations revealed that these radioactivities were due entirely to natural 40K. The degree of radiological contamination in and around our campus following the Chernobyl accident was mostly below the action levels above which the governments of several countries involving Japan would take preventive measures against possible radiation damages. Although 131I radioactivities contained in the rain water of the first week of May, 1986 significantly exceeded the action level for this radionuclide, their effects on human health were considered negligible and undetectable in the vicinity of our school. (author)

  9. Radioactivity: The town of Marburg after the Chernobyl reactor accident. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong rainfalls between the 3rd and 5th of May 1986 in the Marburg area brought down the atmospheric radioactivity from the reactor accident. Due to variations in time and intensity, the washout led to different levels of soil radioactivity uptake in the area, so that the eastern part of the Marburg Landkreis accumulated a higher dose than the western part. The additional dose to the thyroid of the adult population in that area, received in the first few days of May, is assessed to be 15 mrem, and about 30 mrem to infants, due to the inhalation of iodine-131, more significant is the dose due to incorporation of radioactivity via the food chain (e.g. Cs-137 and Sr-90), as the radionuclides are accumulated in the body, and part of them will rest there as a lifelong incorporated source of radioactivity. However, there is no acute health hazard to be feared by the population in West Germany, as a result of the reactor accident, but the dose commitment will result in an increase of cancer rate over the next 30 years, which cannot be assessed. (orig./DG)

  10. Nuclear reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI (Three Mile Island), and Windscale. January 1974-September 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radio ative contamination of the environment. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  11. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  12. Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

  13. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  14. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  15. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  16. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on the Bremen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 2 of the report gives an outline of the design of the RBMK-1000 reactor and its inventory of radionuclides at the time the accident happened, together with a brief scenario of possible events leading to the accident, and an assessment of total radionuclide release. Chapter 3 explains the measurement campaigns made in the Bremen area in the given period and the consequences to be drawn from measured data up to present time. The measuring campaigns are described by a full-test report, graphical illustration, and a table of measured data. The information covers all data collected from onset of radioactivity release up to the 9th of Sept. 1986. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of dose commitment by the Bremen population, on the basis of measured radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Chapter 5 discusses the possible health hazard to the population in accordance with current knowledge of radiation exposure and its effects. Chapter 6 summarizes and interprets the results, and chapter 8 presents definitions of concepts and terminology. (orig./HP)

  17. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S2 layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 105 kBq m-2. Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S2 and S3 layers. The angle of microfibrils in S2 layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S2 layer and unusual pattern of the S3 layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree. - The angle of microfibrils in the S2 layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl incident was changed

  18. The Chernobyl Accident: Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  19. Accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, a large accident occurred in No.4 plant of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine, USSR. This accident was an unprecedented one in the history of atomic energy development in view of any of the state of reactor damage, the number of casualties, the amount of radioactivity release and so on, and gave a large shock to the whole world. Also in Japan far away, the radioactive substance that seemed to be originated from the accident was detected though a minute amount. In the countries of Europe as well as the surroundings of the Power Station, the contamination with radioactive substances was serious, and the measures such as the limitation of intake and the limitation of distribution of foods were taken. The international conference was held for five days from August 25 at IAEA, and USSR made the report on the accident. Respective countries and international organization began the evaluation of the accident and the work to extract the lessons based on this report. However, as to the details of the accident, still many unknown points remain. The No.4 plant is RBMK-1000 type, graphite moderated, boiling light water cooled, pressure tube type of 1000 MWe output. The features of the damaged reactor, the course of the accident, and the evaluation of the accident and the lessons are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  1. Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even s

  2. Radioactivity monitoring by the official monitoring stations in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This official report presents a governmental declaration of the prime minister of NRW, Mr. Rau, concerning the reactor accident at Chernobyl, and a joint declaration of ministers of NRW, concerning the impact of the accident on the Land NRW. These statements are completed by six official reports on radioactivity measurements carried out by the official monitoring stations of the Land and by the KFA Juelich. These reports inform about methods, scope, and results of the measuring campaigns accomplished by the Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik (ZFS), the public materials testing office (MPA), the Chemisches Untersuchungsamt, the Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall, and the KFA Juelich. (DG)

  3. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG)

  4. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of nuclear power to meet increasing energy demands in many parts of the world. In 2001, after taking note of the conflicting views on the results of the accident, I called for the creation of a Chernobyl Forum, inviting the world's foremost scientific experts to conduct an exhaustive assessment of the health, environmental and social impacts of the accident. As with all IAEA programmes, we emphasized an impartial, fact based approach to the analysis of this difficult and highly charged topic. I was pleased that, after a long period of careful analysis, the parties involved - including the World Health Organization and seven other specialized United Nations agencies, as well as the Governments of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine - were able to achieve consensus on the set of authoritative reports that were issued last September. But the Chernobyl Forum had another purpose as well. My hope was that, by giving clear, impartial answers about the accident and its effects, we would be able to focus more effectively on present and future needs. Better international cooperation on assistance to the people and regions affected by the accident. Smarter approaches to safe food production and effective health care. Enhanced investments in the people concerned, in ways that would give them control over their own livelihoods. In short, it was my hope that, by answering questions about the past, we could restore a vision of a brighter future for the regions concerned. And that remains my hope. We will not soon forget the Chernobyl accident. We will not forget the emergency workers who gave their lives. We will not forget the health and environmental consequences. And we should never forget the lessons we learned regarding nuclear safety and international cooperation. In remembering the Chernobyl accident, we should renew our determination to ensure that such a tragedy will not happen again. But we must also remember the survivors, the individuals and communities who seek to move forward with their lives and the lives of their children. At this time of remembrance, they too deserve our att

  5. Consequences of the accident at Chernobyl-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the accident occurred at the Chernobyl-4 nuclear generating unit on April 26, 1986, the Soviet authorities took two days to report it. The accident happened in the course of some experiments at the beginning of the annual routine revision, in the course of which there was first a power drop and then a power excursion. At the IAEA meeting in the autumn of the same year, the Soviet side reported as the cause of the disaster maloperation combined with deficiencies in the conceptual design of RBMK reactors. Today it is taken for granted that the reactivity increment initiating the power excursion was brought about by the insertion of the control rods and shutdown rods, as the rods of the RBMK reactor line, because of their faulty design, under certain circumstances will not bind reactivity but release it when inserted. In this way, the chain reaction is not stopped, but accelerated. This phenomenon is called positive scram effect. (orig.)

  6. Radiation epidemiology after the Chernobyl accident. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present proceedings give a review of epidemiological studies conducted into the reactor accident in Chernobyl comprising both the results of several studies carried out in the former Laender of the Federal Republic of Germany and results from those three Republics of the former Soviet Union which were most seriously affected, i.e. Russia, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine. Whilst the results obtained in Germany indicated no appreciable health effects in these regions, those from the three Republics directly affected suggest that the radiation exposure did have health impacts on the population. These include first of all an increased incidence of thyroid tumours in children as reported especially from Byelorussia. However, this was observed in Russia and the Ukraine as well, though not to the same extent. The report also considers the psychological situation of the population concerned. Additionally it is emphasized that the WHO is strongly interested in research as to the health effects of the reactor accident. (orig.)

  7. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  8. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the environment in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great number of research projects and measuring campaigns have been studying the impact of the Chernobyl fallout over Europe in the last few years. There is ample information available by now on the detectable effects on the different spheres of the environment, and also on the synergistic effects of the fallout, the natural radioactivity in the environment, and other man-made sources of radioactivity (such as nuclear weapons tests, radioactive effluents from nuclear power plant). Most of these studies are concluded today, so that a conclusion can be drawn in this contribution. (orig./BBR)

  9. MLAM assessment of air concentration, deposition, and dose for Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide estimates for the areas in Europe affected by the accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station which resulted in the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere

  10. Activities, projects and emergency planning etc. at the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in connection with the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) is the competent authority for radiation hygiene in Norway according to Act No.1 of 18 June 1938 and regulations given pursuant to the act. Legislation on duties specific to radiological emergencies in general has not been issued in Norway. The report describes how SIS organized the fallout survey and summarizes the different projects implemented by the institute after the Chernobyl accident. Furthermore, the institutes view on an alert system for detection of radiactive contamination and on emergency planning for radiation accidents is expressed

  11. Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparitive analysis uses model data and data derived from field experiments. The translocation factors for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in edible plants have been determined after spraying of fields with Chernobyl fallout rainwater, considering the time of irrigation in relation to plant growth, and are shown to be the following: 0.002 - 0.13 in winter wheat, 0.003 - 0.09 in spring wheat, 0.002 - 0.27 in winter rye, 0.002 - 0.04 in barley, 0.05 - 0.35 in potatoes, 0.02 - 0.07 in carrots, 0.04 - 0.3 in bush beans, 0.1 - 0.5 in cabbage. The weathering half-life in lettuce is 10 days. The transfer factors for Cs-137 uptake by the roots have been determined to be 0.002 on the avarage for grain, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. The measured data agree well with the radioecological concentration data predicted by the ECOSYS model for post-Chernobyl radionuclide distribution. Some results of the verification study could be used to improve the results of the ECOSYS model by modification of certain parameters. (orig./HP)

  12. Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

  13. The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

  14. Increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of soil radioactivity in Cologne has been measured in a private garden with a relatively simple device suitable for use in schools. By sheer accident, the author had measured a gamma spectrum of the soil on April 4, 1986, and thus had a pre-accident spectrum available for comparison with the one made on May 10, 1986. The comparison has been made using the Cs-137 spectrum. Analysis has been made using a 4K multichannel analyser with automatic dead-time correction, added to an APPLE IIe. (DG)

  15. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG)

  16. Observations on the radioactive fallout originated from the reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April a large amount of radioactive materials was accidentally released from the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in USSR. At the beginning of May the radioactivity was also detected at first at Chiba city in Japan, soon later at many places in country; the whole country was covered with radioactive plume transported from Chernobyl. In Higashi-Osaka city district radioactivity was found in air-borne dust at dawn of 4 May. The health physics group at Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University in Osaka analysed ? and ? radioactivities in a large amount of environmental samples, such as air-borne dust, rain water, vegetations, milk on the market, tap water and Biwa-lake water etc. Gamma-ray spectral analyses and gross ? analyses were carried out for the above samples and nuclides of fission products such as 131I, 132I, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 99Mo(99mTc), 132Te, 140Ba and 140La etc. were detected. Maximum 131I concentrations in air-borne dust, rain water, milk on the market, tap water, vegetations and Biwa-lake water etc. were 2.45 pCi/m3 (0.0907 Bq/m3), 118 pCi/l (4.37 Bq/l), 91.4 pCi/l (3.38 Bq/l), 20 pCi/l (0.74 Bq/l), 7.9 x 103 pCi/kg fresh weight (292 Bq/kg fresh weight) and 0.81 pCi/l (0.0300 Bq/l), respectively. Thereafter average radioactivity concentrations in air-borne dust, rainwater, tap water and milk on the market etc. gradually declined to the normal value or below detectable limit. However, nuclides of long half-lives were expected to remain in vegetations and soils. After administration of 131I through milk, the radioactivity concentration of which is 91 pCi/l (3.4 Bq/l), internal exposure is calculated to be 8.6 mrem/y (0.086 mSv/y), referring the guide-line issued by Japan Atomic Energy Commission for the purpose of exposure estimation near nuclear power stations. (J.P.N.)

  17. Analysis of the accident in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused by inadequate makeup of the reactor cooling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on October 11, 1991 was the result of unauthorized connection of the TG-4 turbogenerator, which was shut down for repairs, into the grid (in the off-design asynchronous engine mode), and this resulted in a serious fire in the machine room and subsequent failure of systems which are important for safety and which ensure the design mode of reactor cooling: These were primarily failures of the feed and emergency feed pumps and failure of the BRU-B control valve, which regulates steam release during cooling

  18. Contamination of the air and other environmental samples of the Ulm region by radioactive fission products after the accident of the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since April 30, 1986, the radioactivity of the fission products released by the accident of the Chernobyl reactor has been measured in the air of the city of Ulm. The airborne dust samples were collected with flow calibrated samplers on cellulose acetate membrane filters and counted with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. Later on, the radioactivity measurements were expanded to other relevant environmental samples contaminated by radioactive atmospheric precipitates including grass, spruce needles, mosses, lichens, various kinds of food, drinking water, asphalt and concrete surface layers, municipal sewage sludge and sewage sludge ash. This paper reports the obtained results. (orig.)

  19. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better comprehension of the material presented, some basic facts and terms are first explained, followed by a brief description of the accident scenario. The impact on the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg is then explained by a review of the time-dependent deposition of the fallout, of the various compositions of the radioactive aerosols deposited in the different areas, by a detailed evaluation of measured data taken in free air, soil, waters, and food, and by an assessment of the resulting radiation exposure. (DG) With 23 coloured figs., 24 tabs

  20. Impact of 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known 134Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. 137Cs and 134Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8±0.2 and 0.27±0.01 Bq m-3, respectively. 137Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16±0.04 Bq m-3, which is a 33±2% increase over the previous levels. 137Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4±0.5 TBq for 137Cs, of which 4.3±0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00±0.04 TBq for 134Cs. Activation and fission products such as 106Ru, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs and 144Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02±0.25 and 0.20±0.03 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 134Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio 134Cs/137Cs equal to 0.20±0.04 (1987). 137Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51±0.08 Bq kg-1. Therefore, 137Cs specific activity had increased 100±40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan shoreline did not have a significant effect on the water radioactivity levels, since they were confined to the immediate vicinity of the site. 134Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio in water samples from the vicinity of Vandellos NPP was found to be 0.11±0.01, which is twice the mean observed in the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters, namely 0.057±0.003 (1988-1991), and were in good agreement with the value observed in samples of Posidonia oceanica collected from the same location, namely 0.107±0.004. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131I and later by 137Cs. 90Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 105 Bq/m2. At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG)

  2. Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  3. Radiation-biological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper points out essential aspects of the actual or potential impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on human health in the areas immediately affected. In particular, radiation-induced diseases in the population are pointed out, which were caused by radioactive iodine. Epidemiological studies try to establish an increased incidence of leukaemia, lymphomas, and thyroid gland tumours. (DG)

  4. The effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the surface waters in West Germany. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was only a very short time delay between the release of radioactivity from the reactor and the washout or fallout in different parts of West Germany, which has led to surface water contamination at different levels, detected and monitored by the WSV water monitoring network. The radioactivity measurements at the various sampling stations are reported and shown in tables, giving levels and time-dependent changes of radioactivity uptake in the various regions. A very extensive measuring programme for water monitoring has been carried out in West Berlin. At a very large number of sampling stations at lakes, rivers and channels, water and sediment samples have been taken at regular intervals in the period between beginning of May and October 1986, and have been analysed for the relevant radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137). The measured data have been reported to the coordinating center in evaluated, tabular form. Comprehensive data of this kind have been sent to the coordinating center by the Lands Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Hesse, covering primarily the period May to July. Some other measuring data reported from Rhineland Palatinate, North-Rhine Westphalia and the Saarland, taken at irregular intervals and over a shorter period of time, are also given in this survey. (orig./DG)

  5. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external ? dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on fresh milk supplies and other foods; the removal of grazing cattle from pastures; instructions to wash fruit and vegetables and the issue of stable iodine. We are currently carrying out a preliminary assessment of the radiation doses to individuals and the population as a whole in the European Community from Chernobyl, the final results will be published by the Commission of the European Communities. Later we will be extending this to other European countries

  6. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  7. The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

  8. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  9. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  10. Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan shoreline did not have a significant effect on the water radioactivity levels, since they were confined to the immediate vicinity of the site. {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in water samples from the vicinity of Vandellos NPP was found to be 0.11{+-}0.01, which is twice the mean observed in the Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters, namely 0.057{+-}0.003 (1988-1991), and were in good agreement with the value observed in samples of Posidonia oceanica collected from the same location, namely 0.107{+-}0.004. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. The Chernobyl accident. Occurrence, causes and backfitting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power station was able to occur because of the major deficits in engineered safeguards design of the RBMK line of reactors: Faulty core design; unsuitable shutdown system; absence of automatic shutdown criteria; insufficient protection against reactor protection measures being blocked by the reactor operators. The sequence of accident events was started and aggravated by a faulty experimental program; insufficient experience in, and preparation for, the experiment of the personnel; and violations of important rules by the operating crew. (orig./UA)

  13. On radioactivity measurements of water, milk and dairy products, vegetables and grass from the surroundings of Krakow on the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident, prompted by the Director General of the Governmental Atomic Agency (PAA), an informal group consisting of members of laboratories from the Institute of Nuclear Physics began to measure the radioactivity of food products from the surroundings of Krakow. The highest values of contamination of water from rivers by 131I were attained in the Vistula river on 2-nd of May (530 Bq/dm3). The values levelled down by the end of May amounting to 2 Bq/dm3. The contamination of dairy products was highest for sheeps white cheese, where highest values reached 19 kBq/kg of 131I, whereas the highest values of 131I radioactivities from cows milk were 650 Bq/dm3. The decrease of radiation levels was faster than governed by radioactive decay only. The additional half-life corresponding most probably to washing out of 131I from sheep food amounted to 10 days. Measurements of food contamination by 134Cs, 137Cs and 132Te were also carried out. The additional effective dose equivalent during the month of May for the population related to the Chernobyl accident was estimated at 0,45 mSv (45 mrem). 14 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs. (author)

  14. Realism and myths of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is one of the scientific-publicistic book on the Chernobyl accident. It contains earlier unknown facts and cases as well as analysis of modern scientific data. The book gives an information on complex medical and social problems resulted from the accident occured in April, 26, 1996

  15. A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 ?Sv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 ?Sv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

  16. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  17. Legislative consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident has underlined the limits of national legislation as an instrument for the regulation of the nuclear industry. It illustrates the need for co-operation among states and the potential of any nuclear accident for transborder damage. The aftermath of the accident has revealed the essential role of international organisations in providing guidance for national rule-making (NEA)

  18. U.S./Belarus/Ukraine joint research on the biomedical effects of the Chernobyl Reactor Accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute has negotiated with the governments of Belarus and Ukraine (Ministers/Ministries of Health, institutions and scientists) to develop scientific research protocols to study the effects of radioactive iodine released by the Chernobyl accident upon thyroid anatomy and function in defined cohorts of persons under the age of 19 years at the time of the accident. These studies include prospective long term medical follow-up of the cohort and the reconstruction of the radiation dose to each cohort subject's thyroid. The protocol for the study in Belarus was signed by the US and Belorussian governments in May 1994 and the protocol for the study in Ukraine was signed by the US and Ukraine in May 1995. A second scientific research protocol also was negotiated with Ukraine to study the feasibility of a long term study to follow the development of leukemia and lymphoma among Ukrainian cleanup workers; this protocol was signed by the US and Ukraine in October 1996

  19. Mean radiation load and risk for human health in the Federal Republic of Germany as a result of the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed figure data on the radioactive loads in air, soil and food in the Federal Republic of Germany was used to assess the mean radiological load as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Calculations were based on measurement data available from 1986 and, in part, 1987; future load could be assessed by a simulation programme for soil-to-plant transfer. Accordingly, total consequential dose is 140 mrem (effective) or 310 mrem (thyroid) as the Federal German mean. The collective dose for the Federal Republic of Germany is some 8.6 mil. person/rem. This results in a health risk totalling between 4,700 to 14,000 cancer cases. (orig./HSCH)

  20. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar The lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is not a most hazardous ones. Such psychological effects of the Chernobyl accident resulted from the lack of public information, the stress of relocation and the fear that any radiation exposures are damaging. Those affected people are believing that illnesses of all kinds are due to radiation. The spreading of such mistaken did influence on general public disapproval of Nuclear Power. This presentation includes also the data of real consequences for the health of concerned population

  1. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 2. Medical-biological and genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health variations in people subjected to irradiation resulted from the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Participants of the Chernobyl accident response and human populations (children and adults) residing at contaminated areas were under consideration. Genetic radiation effects due to the Chernobyl accident were separately considered. 24 refs.; 37 figs.; 17 tabs

  2. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  3. Chernobyl victims: realistic evaluation of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective assessment of early and delayed medical consequence of the Chernobyl accident is presented. Mortality of people due to acute radiation disease, burns and mechanical injuries are attributed to the early effects. Oncological and genetic diseases are considered as the delayed effects. Delayed radiation effects on the residents of contaminated territories were estimated by epidemiologic examination taking into account the dose due to radioactive fallout. Certain regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine were mostly exposed to contamination. Contamination density by 137Cs is considered and radiation doses due to natural sources and Chernobyl accident are compared. Disease incidence is analysed for carcinoma and genetic diseases. Health hazard caused by non-radiation accidental factors (psychological stress, victim psychology thrusting, groundless evacuation) is assessed

  4. Infant leukaemia after the Chernobyl accident; and reply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, J.; Kaletsch, U. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Petridou, E.; Trichopoulos, D. [Harvard Center for Cancer Prevention, Boston, MA (United States); Dessypris, N.; Flytzani, V.; Haidas, S.; Kalmanti, M.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.

    1997-05-15

    In a correspondence concerning the incidence of infant leukemia in Germany and Greece, a disagreement is aired over the possible link between increased incidence and the fallout from Chernobyl reactor accident. Data are presented to demonstrate that observations made in Germany show no link between in utero exposure to ionising radiation from the fallout and increased infant leukemia. This conflicts with the findings published earlier by other researchers working on observations made in Greece. These researchers defend their initial conclusions. (UK).

  5. The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

  6. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

  7. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  8. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  9. Medical problems after the Chernobyl's accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health hazards after Chernobyl are discussed according to the official data for the ex-USSR. The problems of some individuals participating in elimination of accident consequencies, as well as of the populations of the three most badly affected ex-Sovjet republics are analyzed. An estimation of the expected stochastic effects for the Bulgarian population is shown. 6 refs

  10. Revisiting Chernobyl accident:what were the causes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally stated, particularly in the West, that the Chernobyl accident was the result of a specific Soviet political and economic system, and that such an accident could not happen in the Western reactors. The reality is much more complicated. A careful examination of events that lead to the accident reveals that there were several different factors contributing to it. If any one of these factors were absent, there would have been no accident, or it would have been only a minor incident. Three of these factors were related to the reactor design, two to the preparation of the experiment, three to the judgment of the operators, judgments made under pressure and in a hurry, and at least one to the management..The management factor is perhaps the most controversial and interesting. One popular interpretation is that the accident was the result of excessive bureaucracy and individual irresponsibility. Some examples of mismanagement in other areas of human activity are quoted in this paper. They illustrate that similar mistakes occur quite frequently all around us, not only in the Soviet Union. The overall analysis of the Chernobyl accident confirms what scientists and engineers have known for a long time. It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to develop a new technology without making mistakes, some of which may be fatal. (author)

  11. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) is always looking for research fellows to join our team of investigators. There are numerous opportunities to evaluate research related to Chernobyl. It must be noted that these studies will probably not result in a first author publication for post-doctoral fellows. However, there are many research projects that do afford such an opportunity at REB.

  12. Collection, documentation and assessment of data measured in the Federal Republic of Germany after the reactor accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative for the Federal Republic of Germany, regions were selected that showed a lesser (Hesse) and higher (Bavaria) contamination. The contamination in individual environmental media (milk, i.a.) was demonstrated by values measured and assessed on a prognostic model and subsequently compared with each other. The intake was then evaluated on the basis of food basket and total body measurement data for determining the dose for various age groups and regions. Against those from food baskets, the doses derived from total body measurements were generally lower by 20-60%. This indicates change in consumption habits, adherence to recommendations and the effect of countermeasures, particularly in the higher contaminated southern region of the Federal Republic of Germany. The intake and dose assessments were compared to those measured during the time of contamination from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests. External radiation exposure and cumulative dose from fallout due to nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident were calculated. In 1986, the radiation exposure from external sources and from ingestion in consequence of the reactor accident had reached in the region of highest contamination (County of Berchtesgaden) 40%, in the lesser contaminated region (Hesse) about 5% of the average natural radiation exposure. (orig./HP)

  13. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  14. IAEA report on assessment of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at Unit 4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant, extensive activities have been conducted to mitigate radiological consequences, on the public, associated with radioactive materials released during the accident. Among numerous decisions on protective measures, the decisions on long-term protective measures, in particular relocation, have been subjected to concerns and anxieties of the public, leading to social and political arguments in the three republics which were, are and will continuously be affected by the accident. Corresponding to this difficulty, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to perform an international assessment of criteria established by the USSR authorities and an evaluation of protective measures on the public. This paper summarises the results of international assessment undertaken by the International Chernobyl Project under the direction of the International Advisory Committee, and includes such items as environmental contamination, exposure to the public, health effect and protective measures. (author)

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  16. Exposure of trees to radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the contribution to the exposure to radiation due to radionuclides on or in the trees was considerably increased. The increase in the proportion of Cs 137 of the radioactivity contained in the leaves or needles can exceed the factor 100, compared with the time before the accident. However, the total radiation exposure remains in the range of variation of natural exposure to radiation so that radiation damage to trees in the area of West Germany cannot be shown. The increase in artificial radioactivity related to the area of West Germany is large compared with the contribution from nuclear establishments. (orig.)

  17. Environmental radioactivity and water supply. Pt. 3. The contamination of surface waters in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident, german surface waters have been monitored in numerous positions over a long period of time. The highest concentrations of iodine 131 occurred in the lower german region of the Danube river with more than 200 Bg/l whereas the Rhine river had the lowest concentrations. The sudden rise of the radioactivity of the river water have been followed by a slower decrease but nevertheless much faster than the radioactive decay. Probably this is caused by the interaction with river sediments. For the german lakes and reservoirs it was very important whether the water masses have been stratified or not when the radioactive cloud arrived. Where this was the case, the radioactive contaminants remained predominantly in the upper layer, the epilimnion for a long period of time

  18. Probability of double nuclear bursts in the Chernobyl reactivity accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions are made for potentially existing double nuclear bursts in a reactivity accident in reactors having positive void reactivity coefficients, with a typical example being taken from the Chernobyl accident case. A brief discussion is first made on the physics backgrounds of reactivity coefficient consisting of Doppler, void, and moderator temperature effects. Three dimensional spatial kinetic analyses are then made to study the case of the Chernobyl reactivity accident, where the emphasis is on the effect of uniform and non-uniform void generation in the core during the accident. The result with uniform void generation indicated that the reactor could have become quite unstable to induce an uncontrolled power surge. The initial local void, depending on its spatial area, would also result in an uncontrolled power surge with an initial local void expanding into the global core. In this case, some parts of the core quickly attained the fuel melting temperature, while the rest of the core remained well below it. Under such circumstances, there would be a good reasoning for the local initial core damage, leaving other part of the core uninfected and still ready for the second power surge. The speculating discussions have been tried to explain the background situations for the potential double nuclear bursts, and also for the two witnessed explosions given in the accident report(1). (author)

  19. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  20. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  1. First report of the task group on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events surrounding the accident at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR are examined. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor and the Soviet Union's nuclear power program. A scenario of the cause of the accident is presented. The major long-term consequence is an risk of cancer. The estimated collective dose of several hundred thousand person-sieverts could lead to several thousand deaths from cancer, spread over the next 30 or 40 years

  2. The Chernobyl Accident: Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  3. The Chernobyl Accident: Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov What's Inside Home About the Accident Studies Ukrainian Thyroid Study Belarusian Thyroid Study Leukemia Study Dosimetry Selected Publications Research Staff Collaborators Oversight Research

  4. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection.

  5. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  7. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  8. Determinations of cesium-134, cesium-137 and potassium-40 as a measure of intrauterine exposure to rays and contamination of human milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain better insights into the degree of intrauterine exposure to rays after the Chernobyl reactor accident, placental measurements of the activity levels of cesium-134 and cesium-137 were carried out in 125 expectant mothers from the Munich area using four thallium-activated sodium iodine crystal detectors. The lower limit of detection determined for this technique was 1-2 bq/kg. Parallel tests were performed on human milk samples to establish their contents of cesium-137 and potassium-40. The ultrapure germanium detector used for this purpose measured levels down to a detection threshold of 1 bq/l. In a total of 13 placentae (10 %) and 56 milk samples (57%) the activity of cesium-137 was found to be so low as to preclude detection. The highest values measured were 18.6 bq/kg for the placentae and 10.6 bq/l for the milk samples. The activity concentrations of potassium-40 were frequently seen to exceed those of cesium-137, the highest value determined here being 73.6 bq/l. The author has come to the conclusion that the alleged increases in radiation levels remain within the range of variations generally expected to occur with natural radiation. Mothers are not discouraged from breast-feeding, even though their attention must be drawn to the fact that the rates of malignant diseases and genetic damage tend to rise on a global scale. (KST)

  9. Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

  10. The Chernobyl accident: consequences and their overcoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time, the accident consequences considered in this report show that the problems born by the Chernobyl catastrophe on April 26, 1986 will remain actual for long

  11. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ? The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ? We note the great effect of ?-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ? We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ? The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  13. Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles. Monitoring of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incremental contribution to the gamma dose rate in intertidal areas from Chernobyl was highest in areas of high deposition but this did not persist and an upper estimate to the dose by this route was about 0.025 mSv. Levels in low deposition areas were much less, so that overall no significant exposure occurred due to beach occupancy. The collective dose commitment from Chernobyl fallout in marine pathways is tentatively estimated to be 30 man Sv. Almost all of this is due to consumption of sea fish and to the caesium radionuclides, but due to maximising assumptions in the calculation this is likely to be an overestimate. The collective dose commitment from freshwater fish is very difficult to assess with confidence but can be conservatively set at less than 1 man Sv at which level it is not significant. (UK)

  14. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

  15. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  16. Consequences and experiences - ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 26 April 1986. the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union, near the present borders of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.Material released into the atmosphere dispersed and eventually deposited back on the surface of the earth,were it was measurable over the whole northern hemisphere. Millions of people and all segments of life and economy have been affected by the accident. Radioactive contamination has reached several tens of MBq/m2 in the area of 30 km diameter around the reactor in 1986., and plants and animals have been exposed to short lived radionuclides up to external doses of several tens of Gy. In the early phase after the accident, 237 persons were suspected to have acute radiation syndrome as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, but diagnoses has been confirmed in 134 cases. In that phase 28 person have died as a consequence of exposure. There are significant non - related health disorders and symptoms, such as anxiety, depression and various psychosomatic disorders attributable to mental stress among the population in the region

  17. Cancer incidence in children after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report prepared within the framework of the radiobiological environmental monitoring programme in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the radiological contamination in Bavaria after the Chernobyl accident on childhood cancer was evaluated. According to caesium 137 in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in four regions with different contamination levels. The malignancies selected for analysis were: Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, tumors orginating in the embryonic period, tumors of the central nervous system and thyroid cancer. The temporal changes in the incidence of the selected tumors in the four regions were compared with the temporal changes in the rest of the Federal Republic of Germany (old laender). In addition, it was investigated, whether the tumor incidence after the Chernobyl accident showed a trend in connection with the degree of contamination. The results of the study neither show significant differences in the tumor incidence of regions with different contamination levels, nor are they indicative of a trend in the incidence in relation with contamination. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that the Chernobyl accident caused an increase in childhood cancer. Considering the latency periods of malignant diseases, however, a final evaluation is not yet possible. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of operators' actions in Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a retrospective analysis of operators' actions in Chernobyl accident by Performance Evaluation of Teamwork. Based on Internal information, which includes descriptions and analyses of nuclear power plant with RBMK-1000, Chernobyl accident timeline, implemented experiment, events and actions, a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of probable and possible operators'actions is made

  19. The Chernobyl accident has changed our life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents news paper articles and other contribution written by female authors, showing openly their determination to fight for their conception of life, and to put up opposition against the arguments and attitudes of men who so far have dominated events and developments in science, technology, and politics. The fear and worries of the women and mothers after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in great detail, explaining their view in contrast to the male world believing in science and technology, and showing the reasons why women have started to take a new turn, fighting for recognition of their conception life. (DG)

  20. The Chernobyl active phase: why the ''official view'' is wrong [Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a new investigation into the active phase of the Chernobyl accident are summarised. This phase is defined as the period from the initial destruction of the core to the puzzling and very sharp drop in environmental radionuclide release about nine days later. The research was carried out at Chernobyl over 18 months in cooperation with scientists living there. Its objective was to examine the reliability of the official Soviet presentation at the IAEA post-accident review conference in August 1986. In order to reconstruct the events, four new spheres of information were brought together: a reappraisal of the effectiveness of the accident management actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident; a description of the remains of the reactor building and the solidified corium; results of radiochemical analyses of the melted fuel; and an analysis of radioisotope release dynamics. An alternative explanation for the bathtub shaped release curve has been arrived at and a rough release estimate made which confirms suspicions that the amount of radioactivity released into the environment was greater than that officially reported. (UK)

  1. Medical demographic consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demographic study was made of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone around the nuclear power plant and of the population living in areas over which the radioactive cloud passed and over which the plume was formed. For the farmers evacuated from 11,655 homes in the Chernobyl region, 7,000 new houses, built in the Kiev region, had already been provided within 5 months of the accident, and by the summer of 1987 another 5,000 houses were available. A study of the resettlement of the population carried out a year after the accident showed that more than 60% of those evacuated continued to live in the regions from which the evacuation had taken place; about 5% were resettled in other republics, and 20% within their own republic. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  3. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Perinatal mortality after Chernobyl. - Excess perinatal deaths, stillborns and malformations in Germany, Europe and highly exposed regions of Germany and Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, the year following the Chernobyl accident, perinatal mortality was significantly increased in Germany as well as in Poland. The numbers of excess perinatal deaths were 317 and 320, respectively. Monthly data from Germany, Poland and the region of Zhitomir, Ukraine, exhibit a significant association between perinatal mortality and the delayed caesium concentration in pregnant women with a time-lag of seven months. In addition to an increase in 1987, perinatal mortality in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus show a second rise beginning in 1989 which can be related to the action of strontium. The cumulative effect from strontium outweighs the effect of caesium in 1987 by more than a factor of 10. Monthly data of malformation rates in newborn were only available for the State of Bavaria, Germany. No increase is observed in 1987 in the Bavarian average. But at the end of 1987, seven month after the highest caesium concentration in pregnant women in April and May 1987, a highly significant dependency of malformation rates on caesium soil contamination is found. There is a growing awareness of many lasting detrimental health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor eruption in large parts of central, eastern and northern Europe. A flexible synoptic spatial-temporal method based on logistic regression is suggested for the analysis of official national as well as district by district reproductive failure data. The main idea is to model a spatial-temporal annual or monthly data set by adjusting for country or region specific trend functions and either to test for local or global temporal jumps or broken sticks (change-points) associated with the years 1986 or 1987 or, alternatively, to test for a spatial effect of regionally stratified exposure or dosimetry data on reproductive outcome. In numerous official data sets of central, eastern, and northern European countries or regions absolute or relative increases of stillbirth proportions after 1986 were observed. Those purely temporal change-points are supported by results of ecological exposure-response analyses involving the spatial dimension represented by region specific exposure data. (orig.)

  5. Main lessons based on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the main lessons of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and the liquidation of its consequences in the area of the nuclear reactors safety operation, any major accident management, liquidation accident consequences criteria, emergency procedures, preventative measures and treatment irradiated victims, the monitoring methods etc. The special emphasis is put on the questions of the emergency response and the antiaccidental measures planning in frame of international cooperation program

  6. Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models after the Chernobyl reactor accident; Experimentelle Verifizierung dynamischer Radiooekologiemodelle in der Folge von Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.; Proehl, G.; Stocke, H.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1992-08-01

    The comparitive analysis uses model data and data derived from field experiments. The translocation factors for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in edible plants have been determined after spraying of fields with Chernobyl fallout rainwater, considering the time of irrigation in relation to plant growth, and are shown to be the following: 0.002 - 0.13 in winter wheat, 0.003 - 0.09 in spring wheat, 0.002 - 0.27 in winter rye, 0.002 - 0.04 in barley, 0.05 - 0.35 in potatoes, 0.02 - 0.07 in carrots, 0.04 - 0.3 in bush beans, 0.1 - 0.5 in cabbage. The weathering half-life in lettuce is 10 days. The transfer factors for Cs-137 uptake by the roots have been determined to be 0.002 on the avarage for grain, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. The measured data agree well with the radioecological concentration data predicted by the ECOSYS model for post-Chernobyl radionuclide distribution. Some results of the verification study could be used to improve the results of the ECOSYS model by modification of certain parameters. (orig./HP). [Deutsch] Die ermittelten Cs-134/Cs-137 Translokationsfaktoren, welche die Umverteilung dieser Radionuklide nach Blattaufnahme in verschiedene Pflanzenteile beschreiben, betrugen nach einer einmaligen Bespruehung mit Tschernobyl-Regenwasser in Abhaengigkeit vom Bespruehzeitpunkt fuer Winterweizen 0.002 - 0.13, Sommerweizen 0.003 - 0.09, Winterroggen 0.002 - 0.27, Gerste 0.002 - 0.04, Kartoffeln 0.05 - 0.35, Karotten 0.02 - 0.07, Buschbohnen 0.04 - 0.3 und Kohl 0.1 - 0.5. Die Abwitterungshalbwertszeit bei Kopfsalat wurde mit 10 Tagen bestimmt. Transferfaktoren fuer die Aufnahme von Cs-137 ueber die Wurzel betrugen fuer Getreidekorn im Mittel 0.002, fuer Kartoffeln 0.002 sowie fuer Weisskohl 0.004, Buschbohnen und Moehren 0.003 und fuer Kopfsalat 0.007. Die Prognosen des Radiooekologiemodells ECOSYS nach Tschernobyl fuer die Aktivitaetskonzentrationen der entsprechenden Radionuklide stimmen gut mit den tatsaechlich gemessenen Werten ueberein. Einige Erkenntnisse fuehrten zur Modifizierung einzelner Parameter des Modells fuer noch bessere Prognosen der Aktivitaetskonzentrationen in Nahrungsmitteln. (orig./HP).

  7. On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

  8. Reviewing ecosystems affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the resulting population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project is intended to yield information on the current radiological situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout. Environmental materials of particular interest are game, mushrooms, berries, and forest stands in the most heavily affected forest ecosystem of the Bavarian forest area called Bayerischer Wald. This area has been intensively monitored in the period from 1988 until 1994, so that the development up to the current radiological situation can be analysed. Activities under the research project will encompass: Measurement of the radioactive contamination of specimens of the game population in the Bodenmais forest area of 7 500 hectares. Measurement of seasonal variations of the radiocesium activity in various indicator plants of the food chain of the game population. Soil sampling and radioactivity measurement at 2 cm depth intervals. The measuring work will be carried out in two areas which have been earmarked for monitoring over the last eight years (B1 and B2). The measured results will be compared with earlier data, and long-term space and time-dependent information on the transfer of radiocesium in the forest ecosystem under review will be derived. (orig./CB)

  9. Chernobyl: Lessons learned one decade after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power generating reactor in May 1986 was the largest event of its kind in terms of radionuclides released, size of contaminated areas, and corresponding counter measures. In the Ukraine alone, over 50 thousand square kilometers are contaminated effecting more than 2.4 million people in 2,200 settlements. In the ten years since this event, there are new data concerning characteristics of the radionuclides released. This includes dispersion into the environment and migration into ecosystems, as well the physio-chemical characteristics hot particles. On the most contaminated areas (up to 1015 Bq km-2) anomalous genetic effects have been found. In the Ukraine and Belorussua, a significant increase in thyroid cancer has been observed. This information will have important implications for emergency planning and accident response in the future

  10. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

  11. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

  12. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  13. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which parameters were driving the computed results. The mean external effective dose for all individuals in the cohort due to exposure to radiocontamination from the Chernobyl accident between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009 was found to be 1.2 mSv; the geometric mean was 0.84 mSv with a geometric standard deviation of 2.1. The mean value is well below the mean external effective dose expected due to typical background radiation (which in the United States over this time period would be 12.0 mSv). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the greatest driver of the distribution of individual dose estimates is lack of specific information about the daily behavior of each individual, specifically the portion of time each individual spent indoors (and shielded from radionuclides deposited on the soil) versus outdoors (and unshielded).

  14. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Environmental stress reactions following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread public anxiety and pessimism about the Chernobyl accident appears to be out of all proportion to the radiation induced health effects. The concept of stress is invoked to explain the widespread damage to general health and well-being. Stress can be defined as the process by which adverse mental experiences have negative effects on bodily functions. The mechanism is physiological, mediated through the autonomic nervous system and the endocrinological system. The International Chernobyl Project study was conducted by the International Advisory Committee in 1990 and published by the IAEA in 1991. The study found significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas for symptoms attributable to stress; 45% (30% in 'clean' areas) of the people believed that they had an illness due to radiation exposure. The level of general health was found to be low and almost all ailments were attributed by the population to radiation. These effects (confirmed by other studies) were compounded by poor public understanding of radiation; initial secrecy; subsequent lack of effective communication; and the collapse of the centralize political and economic systems. Distrust of 'authorities' is widespread. One important study using a regression method has shown that 'economic situation' and 'attitude to the future' are better predictors of stress symptoms than contamination level. 61 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  17. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  18. Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

  19. Chernobyl. The reactor accident and the oncologic situation ten years on. Too early to give exact statement on the outcome of the MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to delayed evacuation and delayed oral iodine administration, thyroid tumor incidence continues to strongly grow since the accident. Two thirds of the children who developed thyroid tumors were below the age of five, and only very few were past the age of nine. According to calculated prognoses published by the WHO, the Chernobyl accident is expected to induce in Belarus alone up to 3000 additional thyroid cancers in children. Until today, 424 cases are documented. Russian epidemiologists assess the final number of cases to come up to as much as 5000. Almost all thyroid tumors observed are of the fastly growing and very aggressive type. Many of the tumors in the children need additional, post-surgery treatment, i.e. 99 of the 424 patients so far had to undergo radiotherapy after surgery. (orig./MG)

  20. The Chernobyl Accident: 25 Years of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine. In addition to 28 near-term deaths due to radiation, the accident resulted in the exposure of 5 million people in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine to fallout from the accident, principally radioiodines.

  1. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  2. Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

  3. Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

  4. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG)

  5. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  6. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  7. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

  8. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Wesse the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refsThe accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by We

  9. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of 137Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors)

  10. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

  11. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  12. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA)

  13. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  14. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  15. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  16. The Chernobyl accident and its implications for operators of civil nuclear power plant in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of the accident at the Chernobyl reactor on 26 April 1986 are first identified. In particular, the design features responsible for the accident are noted. A list of the violations of safety rules and the consequences of the violations is drawn up. The lack of understanding on the part of the reactor operators as to how the plant operated is mentioned. The questions of why this mismanagement of the plant by the operators was possible and why it led to catastrophe are then considered. Aspects of plant design -specific design features and design safety principles are discussed. The lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident so far as the UK plant operators are concerned are discussed. (UK)

  17. On the terminology ''super GAU''. Fukushima and Chernobyl were catastrophic nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution is concerned with the terminology ''super GAU''. The GAU - maximum credible accident - is a design based accident, thus the accidents in Fukushima Daiichi and Chernobyl were catastrophic accidents. Not every core melt accident has the consequence of major fission product release, the international nuclear event scale INES with 7 steps is supposed to describe the severity of a reactor accident. In case of beyond-design base accident appropriate repair and emergency measures are of extreme importance to avoid fission product release.

  18. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes the current controversial discussions in the public about the utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G., which has gained so much emotional impetus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The accident scenario and the causes of the disaster are outlined in order to show the difference between facts and conditions there, and design and conditions in our country, especially with regard to the LWRs. The main reason launching the disaster, it is said, lies in non-observance of orders and operating instructions; the article underlines the system of design features and instructions that has been established, and multiply checked, for reactor stations in the F.R.G., in order to prevent undue interference with the design-based safety equipment. Due to the high safety standard of the nuclear power plants in the F.R.G., Chernobyl cannot be used as an argument against further utilisation of nuclear energy in the F.R.G. (HSCH)

  19. A documentation presented by the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, on the impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident and the measures taken. Vol. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the documentation starts with basic facts and data of environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in general and then proceeds to discussions of the specific problems resulting from the reactor accident. The reactor accident scenario is described, and the impacts are explained, as well as measures taken by the EC, the German Federal Government, and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The concept and strategies set up by the Land government for improving precautionary and emergency measures within the framework of disaster control are explained. The second and third volumes present measured data taken from April to August 28, 1986 (2nd volume) and from August 29, 1986 to end of February, 1987. The data measured in the various regions of the Land are arranged by government districts, administrative county, and date. (HP)

  20. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  1. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident in 26.04.86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real causes of the Chernobyl accident are analysed, incidentally the whole complex of factors of nuclear power plant potential hazard concerning their design and operation (before and after the Chernobyl accident) was revealed. 412 refs

  2. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (Lunds, Lasarett (SE)); Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (XA). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity); Bulos, A. (Philippines Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (PH)); Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G. (Nice Univ., 06 (FR))

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am could not be detected in water or algae, {sup 242}Cm was the dominant {alpha} emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated.

  3. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240Pu and 241Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242Cm was the dominant ? emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  4. Chernobyl. Five hard years. The collection of materials on the liquidation works after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP during 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper reviews the whole period starting from design and construction of the Chernobyl NPP up to acceptance and realization of long-term programs linked with the elimination of the accident consequences. Attention is focused on the peculiarities of RBMK type reactors, on the accident reasons and circumstances, on the activity of the state bodies and establishments linked with elimination of the accident consequences. Review presents information on the accepted All-Union programs to eliminate long-term effects of the CNPP accident and those linked with problems concerning social protection of the accident victims. Refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

  6. Preliminary report about nuclear accident of Chernobylsk reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary report of nuclear accident at Chernobyl, in URSS is presented. The Chernobyl site is located geographically and the RBMK type reactors - initials of russian words which mean high power pressure tube reactors are described. The conditions of reactor operation in beginning of accident, the events which lead to reactor destruction, the means to finish the fire, the measurements adopted by Russian in the accident location, the estimative of radioactive wastes, the meteorological conditions during the accident, the victims and medical assistence, the sanitary aspects and consequences for population, the evaluation of radiation doses received at small and medium distance and the estimative of reffered doses by population attained are presented. The official communication of Russian Minister Council and the declaration of IAEA general manager during a collective interview in Moscou are annexed. (M.C.K.)

  7. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  8. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

  9. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  10. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  11. Preliminary calculation of the plume rise for the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of plume rise for the Chernobyl accident is made on assumption that at 1.23 a.m. on 26 April 1986 the reactor core started burning from the top in a cylindrical shape with radius at half of the core diameter and continued burning until it reached the bottom. Briggs formulae for a buoyant plume with the rise limited by ambient stability and ambient turbulence are used with the assumptions of atmospheric stability in inversion and neutral condition respectively. The results illustrate that even with very conservative assumption of the burning rate, the plume would rise beyond the inversion layer and penetrate the inversion layer to the mixed layer having turbulence domination. Therefore the plume rise calculated with the assumption of turbulence stability would give the more realistic results. If the core was burnt with the burning rate of about 7-12 cm/hr, the plume rise from the accident would be in the range of 650-1100 m

  12. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  13. Fall-out pattern in Norway after the Chernobyl accident estimated from soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. Preliminary estimates of the Chernobyl fall-out of some other ? emitters are also given. The results clearly demonstrate that certain areas in Norway have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fall-out of 137Cs and 134Cs in Norway is estimated to be 2300 +- 200 TBq and 1200 +- 100 TBq respectively. This is approximately 6% of the caesium activity released from the reactor. (author)

  14. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident a monitoring and control center has been brought about in Hungary that has organized both an efficient nuclear environmental surveillance in the country and co-ordination of decision making on the basis of the results of measurements. After listing the organizations that took part in environmental surveillance, the paper presents some characteristic results of the measurements, describes the most important measures taken, and gives estimates concerning additional exposure of the Hungarian population due to the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  16. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab

  17. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  18. Lessons of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insensitivity of radiation without measuring apparatus and health outcome observed in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are major sources that make people fear the possible late effects of radiation exposure attributable to nuclear power plant accident. However, the health conditions of people in the last 20 years around Chernobyl indicated the necessity to review the risk assessment suggesting that effects of radiation exposure may considerably be different between the atomic bombing and nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  19. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  20. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  1. Objectivity and subjectivity on nuclear information about Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the Chernobyl's accident are reviewed. The results of medical and epidemiological surveys show few health's effects among exposed populations; however, the medias report falsely a lot of medical and environmental heavy consequences. The knowledge of the true consequences of this accident, and of the basics of radiobiology and radioprotection allows to relativize the nuclear risk and, more generally ionizing radiations. (author). 27 refs

  2. The accident at Chernobyl and outcome of pregnancy in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Harjulehto, T.; Aro, T.; Rita, H; Rytömaa, T; Saxén, L.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in Finnish women after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. DESIGN--Geographic and temporal cohort study. SETTING--Finland divided into three zones according to amount of radioactive fallout. SUBJECTS--All children who were exposed to radiation during their fetal development. Children born before any effects of the accident could be postulated--that is, between 1 January 1984 and 30 June 1986--served as controls. I...

  3. Legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident was a challenge to lawmakers and lawyers. This paper reviews the different aspects under which it has tested the legal system governing the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, regulations protecting the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation proved to be inadequate and had to be amended (NEA)

  4. Medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of statistical medical data in Ukraine, published results of conferences and reports of ' Pripyat '. Scientific and Technical centre is presented. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident and effectiveness of under taken measures are evaluated. Principles of profilactics and treatment of diseases and recommendations on these problems are formulated

  5. Biological Effects 10 years after the Chernobyl NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of Chernobyl accident were analyzed. The mortality of infants in some towns in Poland was presented. The increase in the incidence of neoplasms, blood diseases and endocrine diseases infants was observed in 1986-1988. The increase in number of the Down syndrome during this time period was remarkable. Also the first notifications of neoplasms showed the trend to an increase

  6. Remote medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In result of global radio-ecological disaster at the Chernobyl NPP in Armenia there has appeared a great 'risk group' of persons, who had participated in liquidation of the accident consequences. The results of medical observation of this cohort carried out in dynamics in Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine and Burns during 25 years are brought in the work

  7. Childhood leukemia in Belarus before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood leukemia (ICD 204-208 [1]) incidence rates in the different regions of Belarus are reported for a period before and after the Chernobyl accident (1982-1994). There are, at this point, no recognizable trends towards higher rates. (orig.). With 13 figs

  8. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author)

  9. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  10. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic differences as well as larger spread in the calculated values of the {sup 137}Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation, using the urinary concentration of {sup 137}Cs only. The yearly effective dose from external and internal irradiation to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages studied between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was, on average, 30-50% of the total effective dose during that period. The effective dose from external irradiation decreased on average 15% per year, while the effective dose from internal irradiation varied, depending to a great extent on dietary habits and especially the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be around 100 mSv with the assumption that the effective dose will decrease by only the physical decay of {sup 137}Cs (2% per year) after 1999. Individuals may receive considerably higher effective doses, up to 0.5 Sv during a life-time considering the large spread in dose values among individuals.

  11. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of 137Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m2. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of 134,137Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of 137Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic differences as well as larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation, using the urinary concentration of 137Cs only. The yearly effective dose from external and internal irradiation to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages studied between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was, on average, 30-50% of the total effective dose during that period. The effective dose from external irradiation decreased on average 15% per year, while the effective dose from internal irradiation varied, depending to a great extent on dietary habits and especially the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be around 100 mSv with the assumption that the effective dose will decrease by only the physical decay of 137Cs (2% per year) after 1999. Individuals may receive considerably higher effective doses, up to 0.5 Sv during a life-time considering the large spread in dose values among individuals

  12. Radioactivity levels of trees before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident as well as in vitro determinations of cesium to evaluate leaf uptake and deep zone distribution in adaxial leaf cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the aim of the study described here to investigate into radionuclide concentrations in various species of trees encountered in forests that are detectable over prolonged periods of time after the Chernobyl accident. Separate radionuclide measurements for the individual tree organs (leaves, needles and branches of different ages, wood, fruit and semen) permitted conclusions to be drawn as to the fate of the isotopes under investigation. A survey is given of the distribution of invading radionuclides, changes over time and their migration into newly grown parts of trees. The findings are evaluated in the context of measurements made in comparable samples obtained before the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

  13. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  14. The roots of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disaster at Chernobyl did not happen only due to human failure. The development was supported by the Soviet mental attitude to science and technology, according to which projects of Soviet scientists and technologists are regarded to be infallible. From the Russian point of view, there is no reason to reconsider the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (WG)

  15. Childhood leukaemia in Romania and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the WHO recommendations, we focused our study on short-term consequence of the Chernobyl accident on childhood leukaemia. The present study was designed to show whether the frequency of leukaemia has increased during the time period following the nuclear accident. We studied the frequency of childhood leukaemia, its geographical distribution in Romania, and the possible changes of this distribution after the Chernobyl accident. For the period before the accident (1981-1985), the distribution of the cumulative mortality from leukaemia is shown. The mortality for the entire country was 13.54/100,000 for all age-groups (14.92 for the 0-4 years old age group, 15.68 for the 5-9, and 10.13 for 10-14). After the Chernobyl accident, the geographical distribution of cumulative mortality from childhood leukaemia has somewhat changed. The rate for the entire country was 13.24/100,000 (13.72 for 0-4 years old, 16.64 for 5-9 years old, and 9.83 for 10-14 years old). Four districts showed a greater increase of the mortality rate. The age distribution of the mortality in these districts during the two time periods, is shown. (author)

  16. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for Hungary are summarised. The territory of Hungary was unevenly contaminated by radioactive fallout after the accident at Chernobyl. A nationwide survey was instituted to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in different environmental media and in the food chain. As final consequence the average dose equivalent for Budapest residents due to internal plus external exposure was estimated to be about 150 ?Sv in the first year after the accident and 450-500 ?Sv was predicted over 50 years. From the series of assumptions made, the uncertainty in these values is quite high and the doses received by different individuals can vary considerably. (author)

  17. Determination of field related transfer factors for Cs-137 and Sr-90, from the fallout of the reactor accident in Chernobyl (USSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artner, Christoph; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Horak, Othmar; Mueck, Konrad

    1991-05-01

    The plant ground transfer factor (TF) is defined. The resulting activity of the ground after radionuclide distribution causes a measurable absorption of both isotopes, Cs-137 and Sr-90, by the plants and allows to obtain TF in field conditions. Two hundred specimens of various plants were chosen. The corresponding ground specimens were taken from a zero to twenty centimeters ground layer. A survey of Cs-137 TF of various plants is given. The TF's for Sr-90 are, at least, an order of magnitude higher than those for Cs-137. In most cases, the correlation between Cs-137 TF and the measured ground activity concentration is negative. The TF's obtained for Cs-137 and Sr-90 are, in general, comparable with data which were determined long before the reactor accident by various tests with artificially contaminated grounds.

  18. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Overview of EC coordinated radioecological research after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncontrolled release of radionuclides coming up after the Chernobyl accident has led to a large number of scientific and political activities to assess the contamination of the environment and the consequences for the population. A large scale of measures were deployed attempting to mitigate the consequences and initiatives were launched to follow the fate of the radionuclides in and around the Chernobyl area. Some of these efforts are described in this paper, summarizing which way radioecologists had chosen to evaluate the problem, to compare the scientific culture existing in East and West, to sharpen their views on the fundamentals of radioecology and to test their knowledge in the real field. (author)

  20. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at late dates after the Fukushima accident. PMID:23210176

  1. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  2. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search of ways for correction of the diseases; delayed radiobiological and radioecological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus; experimental development and scientific-and-engineering projects (development of special technologies and means for decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes, technologies for a safety of industrial activity in the contaminated territories, technologies of production of special medicinal preparations and food additives, etc.); detection, rescue and preservation of a historical and cultural heritage in regions having suffered after the Chernobyl accident. The institutes and establishments of a National academy of sciences of Belarus, Academy of agrarian sciences, Ministry for public health, Ministry for education and other ministries and departments took part in performance of researches. The new, original results allowing to estimate objectively medical, ecological and a socio economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to develop a number of measures for their minimization are submitted

  3. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J; D. Kunkel; Lawrence, M. G

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous ...

  4. Nuclear power after Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, J F

    1987-05-01

    The causes and progress of the accident at Chernobyl are described, and a comparison between the Chernobyl accident and the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station is made. Significant similarities between Chernobyl and Three Mile Island include complacency of operators and industry, deliberate negation of safety systems, and a lack of understanding of their plant on the part of the operators, which shows the critical importance of the human element. The Chernobyl accident has implications for nuclear power in the United States; it will affect the research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, regulation of Department of Energy reactors, new reactor designs, and public attitudes. PMID:3576192

  5. Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 1. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident, radiation monitoring, protection measures and their efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategy of the development of native nuclear power engineering is analysed concerning the Chernobyl accident. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP are considered. Attention is paid to the problems of radiation monitoring of personnel and human population. Radiation accident dynamics and radiation protection measures are discussed. Decontamination problem is analysed as well as its efficiency. 255 refs.; 5 figs.; 19 tabs

  7. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of 137Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

  9. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  10. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  11. Blood coagulation in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine blood coagulation status of the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences. A total of 117 young men were examined who participated int he liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences mainly in 1986 and 1987. The mean dose for those who worked in 1986 was 26 rem, that for 1987 10 rem. Blood coagulation status was studied by coagulography and thromboelastography. The results were processed for groups with consideration for the predominant disease. Moderately expressed changes in coagulogram, variously directed, were detected. A clear tendency to hypercoagulation was established form the integral tromboelastogram parameters. The changes were more expressed in patients with erosive gastroduodenitis. Shifts in blood coagulation took a latent course without clinical manifestations of the DIC syndrome or local thrombosis. A tendency to hypercoagulation in the liquidators seems to be caused by chronic stress. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base

  13. Compendium of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's research projects related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchok, H L; Chieco, N [comps.

    1986-10-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor power station in the USSR on April 26, 1986, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) initiated a number of research projects as follows: (1) selected sites in both the Deposition and Surface Air networks were alerted and their sampling protocols adjusted to accommodate the anticipated arrival times and activity concentrations of the Chernobyl debris; (2) a number of cooperative programs involving field work, sampling, analysis and data interpretation were set up with institutions and scientists in other countries; (3) EML's Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ, as well as the roof of the Laboratory in New York City, provided bases for sampling and measurements to study the radionuclide concentrations, radiation levels, physical characteristics and potential biological implications of the Chernobyl fallout on the northeastern United States; and (4) the resulting fallout from the Chernobyl accident provided an 'experiment of opportunity' in that it enabled us to study fresh fission product deposition using collection systems resurrected from the 1950's and 1960's for comparison with current state-of-the-art methodology. The 13 reports of this volume have been entered separately into the data base.

  14. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  15. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, K.; Rahola, T.

    1990-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the correspond...

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  18. Chernobyl accident causes: Overview of studies over the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years have passed since the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP and during this time its causes have been investigated by many teams of scientists both in Russia and abroad. This paper reviews such efforts over the past decade. Russian studies of 1986 through 1990 were covered in a paper presented at the European Nuclear Society Conference in Paris in March, 1991. 30 refs, figs

  19. Human minisatellite mutation rate after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci has been studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation was found to be twice as high in the exposed families as in the control group. Mutation rate in the Mogilev families was correlated with the level of caesium-137 surface contamination, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. (author)

  20. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  1. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m-2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

  2. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  3. Radiation measurement of some materials in Egypt after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological measurements of rain water, cress, and milk before and after Chernobyl nuclear power accident have been carried out. The results show that Egyptian environment was affected by the accident, but the increase of radioactive contamination was small and below the permissible. The paper suggests methodological procedures for measuring the growth activity in the studied materials. It offers also a simplified diagram for automatic national radiological monitoring station to measure the environmental background radiation by a routine way for detection any increase of radioactivity rapidly. This station enables the responsibles to take rapid and optimum decisions in time to lessen the environmental radiological contamination. (orig.)

  4. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  5. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  6. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  7. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents

  8. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  9. Chernobyl: Endless horror. Late effects of the reactor catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years after the accident, the people of Chernobyl are trying to live a normal life, but the problems resulting from the catastrophe have not been solved. Some of them are just starting to emerge. (orig.)

  10. Setting up a specialized centre for rendering therapeutical and prophylactic aid to the Chernobyl accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of examination and observation dynamics are presented of the patients participated in the Chernobyl accident response. Data were obtained in the Tomsk Regional Center on rehabilitation and disease treatment and prevention of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response. It was shown that the diagnosis and treatment of this category of population required the combined purposeful approach. It is recommended to create the regional special centres on rendering therapeutic-preventive service and rehabilitation of participants of the Chernobyl accident response

  11. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  12. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  13. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 ?R h-1 [1 ?Sv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  14. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabachny, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends.

  15. The Chernobyl accident and the radiation protection of population (problems of safety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a comprehensive survey of the environmental consequences and of the impact on human populations, nine years after Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. First, the paper recalls the immediate effects of the accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, and the extend of the atmospheric, surface and ground water contamination. A detailed survey of gamma dosimetry has been carried out around the Ukrytie encasement which contains all main radioactive sources and materials of Unit 4. The Ukraine State Committee on Chernobyl Affairs was organized in 1990 for the planning and coordinating of all works for accident consequences liquidation and for the management of the population social defense program and compensation of victims and workmen. Up to day, about 200000 people was resettled from contaminated territories. This has raised several problems of housing, infrastructures, food supplying and so on. The accident health effects on population, such as organ diseases, psychic disturbances and general loss of health, are summarized. The paper focusses on the general lack of high qualified specialists of different science and manufacture branches and on the lack of pharmaceuticals, equipments etc during emergency situation. During the post accidental stage, a series of regulations and intervention levels for protecting the public to radiations exposure was introduced by the Health Ministry of USSR, and in 1991 the Conception of population safety inhabitancy in the contaminated territories as a result of Chernobyl accident was confirmed by the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian SSR. (J.S.). 7 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs., 2 appends

  16. Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

  17. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. PMID:24189103

  18. Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

  19. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  20. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

  1. The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

  2. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  3. The Chernobyl Accident: Thyroid Study (Belarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years after an initial agreement was reached between the United States and the USSR in 1988, to cooperate in the area of nuclear reactor safety, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) undertook to develop long-term studies of thyroid cancer among exposed children in Ukraine and Belarus.

  4. The Chernobyl Accident: Thyroid Study (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years after an initial agreement was reached between the United States and the USSR in 1988, to cooperate in the area of nuclear reactor safety, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) undertook to develop long-term studies of thyroid cancer among exposed children in Ukraine and Belarus.

  5. Radioactivity measurements in air over Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Frank; Graziani, Giovanni; Stanners, David; Girardi, Franco

    A comprehensive European data set of radioactivity in air caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is presented. For the first 2 weeks after the beginning of the release, levels of particulate I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 (85 locations) and of total I-131 (10 locations) are given. All data are stored in a computerized data base. For the first time the passage of the Chernobyl cloud over Europe is mapped after re-averaging the time histories in each location to produce coherent daily concentrations. Cs-134/Cs-137 ratios were analyzed: the 'European' average ratio calculated from 1239 samples is 0.55, with a standard deviation of 0.25.

  6. Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

  7. Liver functional status in participants of Chernobyl accident liquidation in late period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in liver of participants of Chernobyl accident liquidation on dependence from zone contamination are determined. Conditionally the territory adjoining to Chernobyl Nuclear Plant was divided into three zones: 1. Hazard zone of contamination includes territory with radius 15 km around reactor; 2. Zone of strong intensity of contamination - from 15 up to 30 km; 3. Zone of temperate intensity of contamination - over 30 km. Results of functional tests were processed by methods of variation statistics. Values of globulins-gamma-1,2 for these groups in dependence on being at zones were compared with control group. It was determined, that activity of antibodies test of blood serum is most sensible from aminotransferase under liver injures

  8. Evaluation of three somatic genetic biomarkers as indicators of low dose radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this study were to assess three biomarkers of genetic effect for their individual and collective ability to detect and estimate radiation exposure in Russian Chernobyl clean-up workers. Work assignments were planned to limit dose to 0.25 Gy. The three biomarkers employed were chromosome translocations detected in lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and mutation at two genes, glycophorin A (GPA) in red blood cells detected by flow cytometry and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) in lymphocytes detected by selective cell culture. Samples were obtained from 1992 to 2000. The time between exposure at Chernobyl and sample acquisition was 5 years. The lymphocyte assays detected an elevation over controls in average outcomes in clean-up workers: translocation rates were 46% higher when adjusted for age and smoking and HPRT mutant frequencies were 16% higher when adjusted for age. The GPA assay did not detect an exposure effect. The results indicate that measuring frequency of translocations by FISH is preferred for low dose radiation, retrospective biodosimetry. (author)

  9. Food monitoring for radioactivity concentrations after the Chernobyl accident: Consequences for the citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively contaminated food accounts for most of the radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Hence, food low in radiation will allow to kerb exposure. Precautions include a general identification of radioactivity contents in food commodities by industry and trade as well as preferential supply of pregnant women, nursing mothers and young children with low-activity food. Such food would have an acceptable level of 10 Bq Cs 137/kg. Private precautions are needed for as long as the government fails to initiate corresponding measures. (DG)

  10. Radionuclides behaviour in the PO river ecosystem (N. Italy) after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the accident to reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Societ Union several health and regulatory organizations in Italy monitored the environmental matrices of special interest from the radiological point of view (milk, vegetables, etc.). In particular the availability within ENEL of radioecological methodologies made it possible to start a research programme to evaluate the processes of radionuclide distribution and transport in the PO river ecosystem. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the mains finding of this programme

  11. Second summarizing progress report of radioactivity measurements after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains continued measurements of the environmental impact in the Netherlands of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, April 26 1986. The monitoring was carried out on behalf of the Dutch government. Transport and precipitation of the radioactivity emitted in the USSR are considered. Measurements are presented of the radioactivity in the Dutch environment, in the food chain and in products. Radiation exposure of man is also discussed. This report covers the measuring results during the period May 13 - June 20 1986. (G.J.P.)

  12. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident (131I, 140Ba /140La, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Nb, 95Zr, 137Cs and 134Cs). They accumulate the long-living 90Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than 137Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of 137Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of 137Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of 137Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more 137Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of 137Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by 137Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of 137Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of 137Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  13. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination by {sup 137}Cs is one of the principal abiotic influences on the accumulation of this radionuclide by fungi. Specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in fruit bodies of fungi vary from several hundred to several million Bq/kg of fresh weight. Due to the spotted pattern of radioactive contamination, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs can be higher in fruit bodies of fungi collected outside Chernobyl alienation zone than in those collected within it. (authors)

  14. Transgenic plants are sensitive bioindicators of nuclear pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the genetic consequences of radioactive contamination originating from the Nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl on indigenous populations of plants and animals, it is essential to determine the rates of accumulating genetic changes in chronically irradiated populations. An increase in germline mutation rates in humans living close to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site, and a two- to tenfold increase in germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl have been reported. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic irradiation on plant genomes. Ionizing radiation causes double-strand breaks in DNA, which are repaired via illegitimate or homologous recombination. The authors make use of Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying a ?-glucuronidase marker gene as a recombination substrate to monitor genetic alterations in plant populations, which are caused by nuclear pollution of the environment around Chernobyl. A significant increase in somatic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies was observed at nuclear pollution levels from 0.1--900 Ci/km2, consistent with an increase in chromosomal aberrations. This bioindicator may serve as a convenient and ethically acceptable alternative to animal systems

  15. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  16. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  19. Chernobyl NPP accident elimination experience and exposure regulation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radiation on the human and actions related to liquidation of consequences resulted from Chernobyl NPP unit 4 accidents considered in this article. Realistic and mythical consequences of the exposure are shown. Basic methodological approaches to forming radiation safety standards were proposed. The conclusion was made that the radiation safety standards shouldn't take for a basis the linear non threshold model, and provisions, which are included in the exposure regulation, should take into account socially-psychological perception by he society of the activity related to radiation sources

  20. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  1. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman (editor in chief); Axel Rydberg

    1990-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water ...

  3. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  4. The animal kingdom in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monograph has the review and analysis of data on the problem of estimation of the Chernobyl accident effect on animal world of the Republic of Belarus. Questions of ionizing irradiation influence on organisms, populations and ecosystems are considered. Features of radionuclides accumulation by the animals of various systematic groups are investigated. Characteristic of the parasitological situation in the 30-km zone is given, the effect of secondary radioecological factors stipulated by exception of economic activity in zone of alienation and moving away on forming of fauna complexes is analysed. The book is designed on zoologists, radio ecologists, experts in the field of nature protection. (authors). 326 refs., 35 tabs., 39 figs

  5. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  6. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1996, the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant led to the release into the atmosphere of considerable quantities of radionuclides. Most contaminated regions were in the southern Belarus, northern Ukraine and Bryansk and Kaluga regions of Russia. Main population groups exposed to the radioactivity released during the accident were the personnel at the Chernobyl plant and the rescue teams present on-site during the first hours, the cleanup workers (numbering about 600000) who participated in the decontamination and cleaning operations in the 30 km zone around the site, the residents of the same zone who were evacuated (numbering about 115000) and the inhabitants of contaminated zones (?1 Ci/km2). Dose and dose rate levels as well as exposure pathways differ from one population group to another. A review of scientific articles published in the international literature till 1998 has been carried out. Apart the 28 deaths due to acute radiation sickness which occurred in the personnel of the plant and rescue teams within several days or weeks after the accident, two main public health consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been observed. First an unprecedented epidemic of thyroid cancers was detected in children first in 1992 in Belarus then in the Ukraine and to a lesser extent in Bryansk region. The spontaneous incidence of these tumours was multiplied by 100 in most contaminated regions. Although the role of the accident in this epidemic is now recognised, questions are raised regarding the respective role of radioactive agents and other environmental or genetic factors, and its evolution in the future. Regarding other kinds of solid cancers and leukemia, no excess has been clearly demonstrated in the residents of contaminated areas nor in liquidators. Second, results of available epidemiological investigations show an increased risk of psychological distress in residents of highly contaminated areas, evacuated people and liquidators but have not demonstrated severe psychiatric consequences. An increased psychological distress has also been demonstrated in other radiological accidents and disasters. It indicates a degradation of individual well-being and health and may increase health care demand and health risk behaviours. It should thus be regarded as an important consequence on public health. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

  8. The nature of reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  9. Analysis of fluid-structure interaction and structural response of Chernobyl-4 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an accident occurred at the Chernobyl-4 Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. A post accident meeting was held in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. In mid-July 1986, the DOE formed a team to analyze the accident, including experts from the national laboratories such as Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal was to assess the information's plausibility, provided analytical support to the US delegation during the post-accident review meeting and obtain a technical understanding of the accident. Detailed analyses of the team work are given in Ref. 1 (DOE, 1986). The accident at Chernobyl-4 occurred during the running of a test to determine a turbogenerator's ability to provide in-house emergency power after shutting off its steam supply. The accident was the result of a large, destructive power excursion. The major design related factor in the accident was the large positive void coefficient of reactivity. This feature, not present in the US reactors, means that an increase in power is likely to lead to an increase in reactivity which will further increase power, and finally result in the destructive accident. 5 refs., 11 figs

  10. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 ?Sv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 ?Sv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 ?Sv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  11. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lelieveld, J; D. Kunkel; Lawrence, M. G

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of ma...

  12. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  13. Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

  14. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  15. Transport of radioactive particles from the chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Roy; Valkama, Ilkka; Toivonen, Harri

    After the Chernobyl accident large and highly radioactive particles were found in several European countries. Particles > 20 ?m in aerodynamic diameter were transported hundreds of kilometres from the plant, and they were sufficiently active (> 100 kBq) to cause acute health hazards. Here, a particle trajectory model is used to identify the areas of large particle fallout. Effective release height of the particles and atmospheric phenomena related to their transport are investigated by comparing particle findings with locations given by trajectory calculations. The calculations showed that in the Chernobyl accident either the maximum effective release height must have been considerably higher than previously reported (> 2000 m) or convective warm air currents may have lifted radioactive material upwards during transport. Large particles have been transported to other areas than small particles and gaseous species. The particulate nature of the release plume must be taken into account in dispersion and transport analyses. Air parcel trajectories alone are not necessarily sufficient for identifying the fallout area of radioactive material.

  16. Cancer morbidity among the emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on human health of exposures to ionizing radiation have long been the subject of dispute. In this paper we focus on the primary cancer morbidity in the cohort of 8745 men who worked in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1990 and were followed since exposure up to 1995. The official dosimetry data, mostly falling in the range of 0-25 cSv, are available for 75% of ameliorators. Annual cancer morbidity rates turned out to increase rapidly. However, trend analysis in the age-specific subgroups provides evidence that the observed temporal gradients are to be attributed to the ageing (regression coefficients for the age groups of 40-44; 45-49; 50-54 are 0.201; 0.793 and 1.223, correspondingly). In the five-year age groups cancer morbidity of the emergency workers (EWs) makes no statistically significant differences with that of the male populations of Russia and St-Petersburg. No evidence of an association between radiation dose and cancer morbidity was observed. The highest primary cancer morbidity is registered among those EWs, who arrived to Chernobyl region within 360 days followed the accident and had been working there during less than 30 or more than 180 days. The follow-up of the cohort is to be continued. (author)

  17. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  18. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  19. Monitoring on influence of Soviet chernobyl accident on environment of some regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the monitoring results of some environmental samples from Gansu provinces and Qinshan aera of Zhejiang Province and the cities of Beijing, Shenyang and Baotou after the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The samples collected included air, fallout, rain water, reservoir water, plants and soil and the wipping samples of international and domestic airlines were also measured. Analyese were made by using low background Ge(Li) ? spectrometer with anti-coincident shield and by radiochemical methods for 89Sr, 90Sr and Pu contents in some samples. The results indicate that the radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl accident arrived to Beijing area on May 2, 1986. Generally speaking, the concentration of radioactive cloud in north China was greater than that in south China. Fission products were found in wipping samples taken from airplanes flying over Europe and Asia. The radioactivity level of the samples taken from European air-line was considerably higher than that from Asian airline. The main fission products found in different samples were as follows: 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, 132I. The ratio of 137Cs to 134Cs was about 2. The partial effective dose equivalent commitment of preliminary estimation to the public in Beijing area from the accident was 11.3 ?Sv. The contribution of the external exposure was 7.9 ?Sv. The contribution of the internal exposure was 3.4 ?Sv

  20. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab

  1. Core-melting accidents in Chernobyl and Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication deals with the essences of the reactor accident in Chernobylsk and the conclusions to be drawn from these with regard to reactor safety. Therein the technical differences between the reactor types in the West and the East play an important role. Also attention is spent to the now generally accepted philosophy that by simplification and making use of proven technologies, a further deminishing of the risks can be achieved step by step. In ch.'s 2 and 4 the origin and course of the accidents in respectively Chernobylsk and Harrisburg are analyzed; in the analysis of the Chernobylsk accident also date have been used which were provided by the Sovjet-Union, supplied with results of studies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In ch. 3 this information is compared with the insights which have grown at KEMA about these on the base of reactor physical and thermohydraulic considerations and of computer calculations reproducing the course of the accident. An important question is if, and if so: to which extent, an accident such as the one in Chernobylsk also can take place in the West. In order to answer that question as accurate as possible the consequences of core meltings accidents and the risk for such an accident taking place are pursued. In ch. 6 the legal frameworks are indicated by which the risk may be limited and by which eventually yet occurring damage may be arranged. Ch. 7 finally deals with the lessons which the accidents in Chernobylsk and Harrisburg have learnt us and with the possible consequences of these for the further application of nuclear power in the Netherlands. (H.W.). 105 refs.; 42 figs.; 17 refs

  2. The contamination of farming areas by air-borne radioactivity due to the accident in the Chernobyl power plant, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming as an area-intensive branch of national economy was affected most by the reactor accident in Chernobyl. Although the I 131 contamination of milk was a short-lived transitory result of air-borne radioactivity, the contamination of the soil with the long-lived radionuclides Cs 137, Cs 134 and Sr 90 requires careful observation of the soil-plant-food exposure pathway. The author describes the measures and precautions taken by the Bavarian State Institute. (DG)

  3. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  4. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  5. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  6. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

  7. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

  8. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (author

  9. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  10. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  11. Past accidents with core degradation in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains a detailed review of the accidents in the Canadian NRX research reactor (1952), the British Windscale reactor (1957), the American SL-1 reactor (1961), the Swiss experimental nuclear power station of Lucens (1969), the TMI-2 nuclear power station in the United States, and the Soviet nuclear power plant of Chernobyl (1986). Although large amounts of radioactive substances had been released from the degraded reactor cores, activity discharges into the environment were so low in each of the cases that health hazards could be excluded to all practical intents and purposes. Detailed investigations of those accidents reveal most of them to have been caused by a combination of design faults and operators' errors. However, also lack of proper instrumentation played a major role, as this kept important information from the operating crews. (orig./HP)

  12. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  13. Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielitz, U. [Laboratorium Umweltanalysen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of {sup 137}Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average {sup 137}Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest {sup 137}Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T{sub agg}) for soil {yields} plant and soil {yields} flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T{sub agg} values for Soil {yields} autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} to 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T{sub agg} values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T{sub agg} for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the {sup 137}Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the {sup 137}Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the {sup 137}Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg{sup -1}. There was no significant change in the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.) [German] Seit 1988 wurde, im Rahmen mehrerer Forschungsvorhaben, die Cs-137 Aktivitaet in rund 7.000 Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Wildtieren bestimmt, um die Dynamik des Nuklids in Waldoekosystemen zu untersuchen. Die Arbeiten wurden hauptsaechlich in einem Bergfichtenwald in Bodenmais (Bayern) und einem Eichenwald in Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) durchgefuehrt, wo unguenstige Bodenparameter und Standortfaktoren relativ hohe Radiocaesium-Aufnahmeraten in Biomedien bedingen.Kennzeichnend fuer die untersuchten Waldoekosysteme ist die grosse Variabilitaet der Cs-137 Aktivitaet innerhalb einer Art und zwischen den Arten. In Bodenprofilen aus den drei Untersuchungsgebieten befanden sich im Jahr 2000, durchschnittlich noch 56% des Cs-137 Inventars in den obersten 10 cm und 93% in den obersten 20 cm. In den untersuchten Pflanzenarten nahm Cs-137 Aktivitaet von 1987 bis 1994 signifikant ab, wobei sich die Kontamination seit 1995 nur noch wenig veraenderte. Bei acht Pflanzenarten aus zwei der Untersuchungsgebiete betrug die mittlere effektive Halbwertzeit -5,3 Jahre (Minimum -3 Jahre, Maximum -24 Jahre). Pilze aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Bodenmais hatten 2000, wie ueblich, die hoechsten Cs-137 Messwerte. Die Werte der aggregierten Transferfaktoren (T{sub ag}) fuer den Uebergang von Cs-137 Boden {yields} Pflanze oder Boden {yields} Fleisch schwankten um mehrere Groessenordnungen, z.B. bei den autotrophen Pflanzenarten, von 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} bis 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. Auf den Dauerprobeflaechen B1 und F1 wurden viel hoehere Transferfakto

  14. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  16. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

  17. Development of a method for the retrospective reconstruction of the thyroid dose for children in Belarus after the reactor accident of Chernobyl by determination of the 129I-concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl, a pronounced rise in childhood thyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the shortlived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. As there were only a few direct measurements performed to measure the iodine activity in thyroids, other methods had to be developed to reconstruct the thyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. First approaches to this task were performed by the determination of caesium deposition densities on ground which were correlated to a few available measurements of 131I in soil samples. But soon it had to be realized that this approach was not appropriate for a consistent retrospective dose reconstruction due to the patchy depositions patterns and the different release and transport mechanisms between caesium and iodine. For a new approach it was suggested to determine the 129I concentration in soil by introducing a newly developed extraction procedure that produces samples which can be measured for 129I by means of Accelerator Mass-spectrometry (AMS). Both techniques were sequentially applied to soil samples taken during two successive field-expeditions to Belarus. They are discussed in detail in this thesis. To assess the thyroid dose the concentration of 131I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated thyroid dose to certain age groups of various resistance areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalization of a correlation between the137Cs - deposition density and a few 131I measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I - deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the l29I - method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0,5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (author)

  18. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  19. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  20. Radiocesium contamination in soil due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different cereal cultivated fields (rice, maize/wheat, wheat/barley) were selected and soil samples were collected in order to study the behaviour of the radiocesium deposited over the crops after the Chernobyl accident fall-out (April 1986) together with its distribution at different ground depths. For each field, soil samples were removed during the sowing (Oct-Nov '86), in Spring (Apr '87) and during the harvest time (June-Sept '87). The 40K concentration and stable potassium content in soil was also evaluated by nuclear spectrometry and by atomic absorption spectrometry. Beside soil sample measurements, the cultivated cereals produced in the 1986 harvest (rice, maize, wheat) were analyzed to evaluate the deposited contamination, and in order to evaluate the contamination during the growth and naturation we also analyzed whole plants (roots, stalks, grains) of the cultivated cereals (rice, wheat, barley) in 1987. Results are presented and discussed. (author) 9 refs.; 9 figs.; 8 tabs

  1. Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

  2. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  3. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  4. Health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews the sequence of the accident, the radiation exposures of different population groups and various short and long term health and environmental consequences to the surroundings and to other affected areas.. Radioactivity related deaths have occurred most frequently among the rescue and cleaning up personnel. The pollution problems in Scandinavia and Norway in particular, are pointed out with emphasis on the health and environmental aspects. However, the long term consequences for the Belarus' population and the natural surroundings of Chernobyl are unknown but an increase in possibly radiation related chromosomal changes and mutations are observed and may cause various defects and species alterations as well as health problems both to human beings and the environment

  5. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131I, 132Te, 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89Sr and 90Sr. Very quickly, 137Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137Cs, 103+106Ru, 110m Ag and 90Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg-1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  6. Short-Term Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident: Lessons for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1988-01-01

    The author of this article discusses the world's most serious nuclear accident to date: the Chernobyl nuclear accident of April 1986. His major focus is on the short-term medical consequences of the accident, including reduction of exposure to persons at risk, evaluation of persons potentially affected, dosimetry, and specific medical interventions.

  7. Health implications of the Chernobyl accident for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimations of Chernobyl-related accidental exposures to the Bulgarian population indicated the doses received to be low-level. Possible deviations in individual subjects were likewise held to be within the low-level range. It was thus inferred that appearance of nonstochastic, threshold effects which become manifest after doses of a certain magnitude, were not to be expected as such effects are known to require doses well in excess of those attributable to the accident. So it is difficult to explain the increase in nonmalignant thyroid pathology noted for 1986 and 1987 and particularly marked in children, according to a recent analysis covering the period 1980-1990. The characteristics of radiation exposure experienced by the Bulgarian population point only to possible stochastic effects (carcinogenic or genetic) and some types of damage incurred during embryonic development. As regards carcinogenic risk predictions indicated that any accident-related malignancies would hardly be statistically demonstrable in a setting of high spontaneous frequencies. Attention is now centered on leukemias in children, myeloid leukemia in adults and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. No increase has been noted for the 1986-1990. Radiation-related lung cancer and breast cancer have a latent period of some 20-30 years, so that looking for them at this time does not appear to be warranted. Thyroid cancer which is closely related to 131-iodine exposure has thus far shown no elevation across the country. With respect to the genetic risk carried by the Chernobyl accident for our population predictions based on internationally accepted criteria indicated it to be extremely low-level in term of severe genetic effects. Our retrospective analysis of incidence of spontaneous abortions in 1986 and 1987 as well as of stillbirths, congenital malformations, perinatal and neonatal infant mortality in 1987 and 1988, revealed no deviations attributable to accidental radiation exposure. The group at highest risk from the accident was that of pregnant woman. The period from 8 to 15 gestation weeks has been found to be highly vulnerable to ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children. Adults have not demonstrate also any association between the morbidity levels and radiation factor: the level of hemoblastoses incidence rates correlate more with the level of chemical contamination of the environment that still plays a leading role in carcinogenesis. However, radionuclides do facilitate carcinogenesis development: the persons evacuated from radionuclide contaminated areas to radionuclide - free, but the severely chemically polluted ones, demonstrate 5 and more fold increase of tumour morbidity

  9. Legislative reactions of the European Community and its Member States after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on the enactment of regulations, directives and decisions of the European Communities after the Chernobyl accident as a basis for legislative measures of the EC-Member States. (orig./HP)

  10. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  11. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  12. Reactor accidents remain unpredictable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several sessions the enquete commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the Bundestag has dealt with two of the required ''risk-orientated analyses'' of the fast breeder reactor SNR-300 immediately after its summer vacation. The studies arrive at quite different results which can hardly be compared because of their great methodological differences. The deputies and experts in the commission find it hard to give a determined resolution to the Bundestag until the fixed date of 24th September whether the construction of the Kalkar nuclear power plant is to be continued or whether the parliament should make a political decision against it. However, the Bundestag is not competent for reactor licensing - that belongs to the competences of the Laender - but serious objections of the Bundestag with regard to safety would not remain without influences on the atomic licensing procedure. (orig.)

  13. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  14. Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

  15. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  16. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  17. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  18. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  19. Severe reactor accidents reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences to the environment of airborne releases of radioactive materials after a severe accident at a nuclear power plant are reported. In addition to the radioactive contamination of the environment, health effects due to the exposure to ionizing radiation from the dispersed radioactive materials are considered. Detrimental health effects have been studied at two sites: Moerdijk and a fictitious reference site. No acute fatalities are expected. Less than 100 cases of acute non-fatal illnesses are expected when countermeasures are taken into consideration, and averaging over all possible weather conditions. For specific weather conditions (appearing 5% of the time) 0 to 1000 cases are expected, whereas for the remaining other weather conditions no cases of illness due to radiation are expected. When no countermeasures are taken, the average number of acute non-fatal illnesses is 2000. For late lethal effects (tumours) the individual risk is calculated as maximal 0.15% for those living within 15 km of the damaged nuclear power plant, and maximal 0.05% for those living in the contaminated area beyond this region. For comparison: the general risk of death by cancer is more than 30% at present in the Netherlands. 50 refs.; 17 figs.; 19 tabs

  20. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  1. Studies of severe accidents in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 10 to 12 November 1986 some 80 delegates met under the auspices of the CEC working group on the safety of light-water reactors. The participants from EC Member States were joined by colleagues from Sweden, Finland and the USA and met to discuss the subject of severe accidents in LWRs. Although this seminar had been planned well before Chernobyl, the ''severe-accident-that-really-happened'' made its mark on the seminar. The four main seminar topics were: (i) high source-term accident sequences identified in PSAs, (ii) containment performance, (iii) mitigation of core melt consequences, (iv) severe accident management in LWRs. In addition to the final panel discussion there was also a separate panel discussion on lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. These proceedings include the papers presented during the seminar and they are arranged following the seminar programme outline. The presentations and discussions of the two panels are not included in the proceedings. The general conclusions and directions following from these two panels were, however, considered in a seminar review paper which was published in the March 1987 issue of Nuclear Engineering International

  2. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p<0.001) differences on intelligence scale of exposed children: the full scale IQ and verbal IQ are lower in exposed versus non exposed children. Differences on performance IQ are non significant (p>0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

  3. The radioactive contamination of waters in Bavaria following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident of Chernobyl gave rise to high contents of radioactive nuclides especially I-131, I-132, Te-132, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in rainfalls at the end of April and first days of May in Bavaria. In the vicinity of Munich total amounts of radioactivity up to and sometimes more than 35,000 Bq/l could be detected in rainwater. Mainly in southern parts of Bavaria wash-out, fall-out and wash-off led to overall radionuclide concentrations of up to about 1,000 Bq/l in waste water and up to some 100 Bq/l in surface water. In groundwater from which more than 95% of potable water in Bavaria originates, generally no contamination could be detected. (orig./PW)

  4. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  5. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  6. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  7. Possible causes of Chernobyl nuclear accident and uncertainties (fuzziness) in estimating causal relations, range of exposed doses and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible causes of Chernobyl accident was reviewed and fuzziness in the estimation of related radiation matters was discussed. The accident occurred in April 26, 1986 in the Chernobyl atomic power station. From the day before, a test of the reactor, which was pointed out to be too risky, had been started and for the test, operators had repeated errors and violations, which resulting in the rapid elevation of power output within several seconds. At the accident, there were 4 x 1019 Bq radioactivities in the reactor core, from which 100% of radioactive rare gas like Xe and Kr, 10-20% of volatile radioisotopes like I and Cs and 3-6% of fire-resistant ones were released. The above proportion is said to have +/-50% errors which are possibly the estimated ones not by the statistical probability but by the experts. In discussing the accident in a giant facility, a small error probability does not always show the good reliability and for analysis of the reliability, fuzziness theory should be used on the error possibility. Therefore, whether the medical findings can be related with the dose estimated later by the probability, is a difficult problem and the fuzzy theory might be useful. (K.H.)

  8. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

  9. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  10. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  11. Radiocesium in lichens and reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rissanen

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available After the Chernobyl accident the sampling and measuring program of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety was intensified both for surveillance and research purposes. The deposition pattern of radionuclides was more complicated than from the global fallout after the nuclear weapons tests. The radioactive deposition was very unevenly distributed in Lapland, as also in the rest of Finland. Fortunately, the amounts of deposition in Lapland were only about one-tenth of the corresponding amount of deposition in southern Finland. In 1986-87 the mean concentration of Cs-137 in lichens and in reindeer meat increased to about the same level as in 1972-73 or to about 30 per cent of the maximum levels found in 1964-65 after the nuclear weapons tests. The activity concentrations in reindeer tissues vary according to season. In winter, reindeer eat considerable amounts of lichens with high radiocesium concentrations. In summer, lichens are replaced by other forage such as leaves from trees, green plants, etc. The ratio of Cs-137 concentration in reindeer meat between summer and winter is about 0.2. The mean concentration of Cs-137 in meat for consumption from the slaughtering period 1986-87 was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight. After that time concentrations started decreasing since no new fallout was deposited.

  12. Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

  13. Study of genomic abnormalities in blood mononuclears of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigations of genome mutations in blood mononuclears in 120 persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response and exposed to radiation within 5.1-75.0 cGy are presented. Studies were performed in 7-9 years after the accident. The data obtained are used for identifying risk groups by oncohematological diseases

  14. Alpha-emitting radionuclide contents in food samples as related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a preliminary survey to establish intake of ?-emitting nuclides, in particular 239,240Pu, from a daily diet for inhabitants living near the Chernobyl reactor site, some kinds of food samples including total diet samples were collected in the Chernobyl (Ukraine) area and in the Ibaraki prefecture (Japan). Plutonium-239 and 240 were determined together with naturally occurring ?-emitters 226Ra and U isotopes (234U, 235U and 238U) by ?-spectrometry after chemical separation. In most of the samples studied, 239,240Pu was less than the detectable amount, but in some mushrooms from the Ukraine it was found to be 41.6 mBq kg-1 (wet mass) with a high activity ratio (o.58 ± 0.08) of 238Pu/239,240Pu, indicating that nearly 100% of the 239,240Pu attributable to the accident. Concentrations of 226Ra and 238U varied largely, depending on the samples. The measured activity ratios of 235U/238U for some samples showed the isotopic composition of natural uranium. (author). 18 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Radioactivity in surface air and precipitation in Japan after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive plumes from the Chernobyl reactor accident first passed over Japan on 3 May 1986. Measurements of 103Ru, 131I and 137Cs in rainfall and airborne dust collected at Chiba near Tokyo show that, in fact, at least two or more kinds of plume arrived during May. Their altitudes were calculated to be about 1500 m in early May and 6300 m in late May. Radionuclides detected in 33 precipitation samples collected by the network of radiation monitoring stations from 1 to 22 May were 7Be, 89Sr, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, sup(110m)Ag, 125Sb, sup(129m)Te, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. The radiation was characterized by higher levels of the volatile nuclides, such as 103Ru, 132Te, 131I and 137Cs, than fallout levels in nuclear weapons testing, and by activity ratios of 0.48 and 14 for, respectively, 134Cs/137Cs and 89Sr/90Sr, as on 26 April. the fallout activity was higher in Northwestern Japan, the average depositions of 90Sr and 137Cs in Japan from 1 May (or 30 April) to 22 May being 1.4 Bq m-2 and 95 Bq m-2, inventories which are 14 and 550 times higher than the pre-Chernobyl values. (author)

  16. 239, 240Pu concentration in contaminated european foods imported to Japan following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the foods contamination with artificial nuclides, 239,240Pu, released from the Chernobyl accident, radioactivities of plutonium in imported European foods which exceed the interim intervention level for screening (134Cs+137Cs; 370 Bq/kg) in Japan were determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. Among three spices, one laurel leaf, one savory leaf and one thyme, in 13 food samples, 239,240Pu were found to be in the range of 52 to 85 mBq/kg. The results shows that 239,240Pu/137Cs and 239,240Pu/90Sr radioactivity ratios in those spices are respectively the levels of 10-4-10-5 and 10-3 which are almost equal to the radioactivity ratios in the releases from the Chernobyl reactor. Effective dose equivalent received by the general public was calculated to be 8.9x10-4 mSv. This value is less than 0.1% of the annual effective dose equivalent received from natural sources, 2.4x10-3 Sv. (author)

  17. Accident analysis in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

  18. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

  19. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

  20. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life. PMID:25813138

  1. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the NucNet summary report on the Chernobyl accident, which has been compiled as an unbiassed document based on data obtained from the British Nuclear Industrial Forum and British Nuclear Fuels plc. The topics treated encompass the current situation at Chernobyl, a description of the accident, its consequences including the new Ukrainian data of the number of casualties, and safety of the RBMK reactor design. (P.A.)

  2. Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, a preliminary compared approach of their sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is too early to draw a definitive account of the sanitary impacts of the Fukushima accident but the author tries to assess them by comparing with Chernobyl accident. It appears that the sanitary consequences will be far less dramatic because of lower radiation doses and efficient counter-measures taken quickly after the accident such as evacuation of contaminated areas and restriction about the consumption of food produced locally. (A.C.)

  3. Analysis of the Chernobyl accident taking core destruction into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer modeling of neutron-physical and thermohydraulic processes has been used extensively in the analysis of the Chrenobyl accident. In most works the first phase of the accident (up to the moment of destruction of the fuel) is studies. These studies have revealed serious deficiencies of RBMK reactors that resulted in a n nonroutine state with catastrophic consequences during operation: a large positive steam reactivity coefficient and a defect in the construction of the control rods, specifically, the possibility of a reactivity increase as a result of displacement of water to the core bottom when the safety and control rods are inserted in the process of stopping the reactor. The important role of the last factor has been noted in many investigations. In some works a large power burst was obtained during modeling, neglecting the effect of the rods, as a result of other external actions, for example, cavitation. Calculations performed using three-dimensional neutron-thermohydraulic programs with maximum use of accessible initial information have shown that both factors are important. If one of them artificially excluded, it is impossible to obtain the power burst which explains the explosion

  4. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  5. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

  6. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant stress injury, as a result of exposure to radiation and lead. PMID:19526314

  7. Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

  8. Measured particle bound activity size-distribution, deposition velocity, and activity concentration in rainwater after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the transport of radionuclides in the environment of Aachen, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measurements include activity concentrations and activity size-distributions in the air for 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, and deposition on the ground and vegetation for 131I and 137Cs. Besides gaseous iodine species, all nuclides were particle bound. Deposition velocities derived from the measurements are given, together with activity concentrations in rainwater and the scavenging coefficient. The results are compared with calculations from models of dry and wet deposition. (U.K.)

  9. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in 1986-1988 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are reviewed. Airborne radioactivity, radionuclides in deposits, in situ measurements of external gamma radiation, and radionuclides in foodstuffs and water are discussed. Of the over thirty nuclides initially identified from air samples, only 137Cs and 134Cs can presently be detected. The concentration of 137Cs has decreased slowly, currently being about ten times higher than it was before the Chernobyl accident. In deposition the ratio of 137Cs to 90Sr varied at different sampling stations from 10 to 110, from 3 to 70 and from 5 to 60 in 1986, 1987 and 1988, respectively. On 1 October 1987 the mean value of 137Cs surface activity for the 461 municipalities was 10.9 kBq/m2, the population weighted mean environmental dose rate being 0.037 ?Sv/h. The distribution pattern of 137Cs fallout also represents the distribution of other volatile nuclides in Finland. The pattern of non-volatile nuclides is related to the distribution of hot particles. In almost all terrestrial foodstuffs the maximum radiocaesium contents were found in 1986. Since then the annual decrease in agricultural products has been substantial. Efficient uptake from the soil mostly explains the radiocaesium contents of wild berries and mushrooms. In predatory fish maximum values of 137Cs were reached in 1988 at the latest. Milk and beef made the dominant contribution to dietary intakes in the first fallout year. In the second year, the contribution of natural products to intakes almost equalled and in the third year exceeded that of agricultural produce. (author). 15 refs, 14 figs

  11. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  12. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  13. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  14. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

  15. Health effect predictions from the Chernobyl accident for the Bulgarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of Bulgaria's territory from atmospheric transfer of radioactive products released by the disrupted Chernobylsk reactor is discussed. The mean effective doses derived are given. To predict health implications for the population use was made of the risk coefficients and approaches proposed in ICRP Publication 60 (1990). As regards stochastic effects, estimations indicated: 1) cancer with fatal outcome: a total of 363 cases occurring over 50 to 70 years (the lifetime of a generation); 2) nonfatal (curable) cancer: a total of 107 cases; 3) serious heritable effects: a total of 80 cases. Calculations of radiation doses involved two major assumptions: at the time of the accident people were continuously staying at their permanent place of residence; they were mostly consuming food of local origin. The predicted health consequences are of a probabilistic nature and serve to make comparative evaluations with other sources of radiation exposure, and as guides for epidemiologic studies. It is such studies that will enable to evaluate the harm actually incurred at the time of Chernobyl accident. (author)

  16. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: Volume 1, Main report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report (NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  17. Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United Sates: Volume 2, Appendix - Public comments and their disposition: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report(NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

  18. Psychological studies of children affected by the Chernobyl accident made during their stay in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the psychological, medical and social effects of the Chernobyl accident on children who live in the Chernobyl area. 404 children were studied in the age group of 11 to 17 years who spent the holidays in Cuba. The special objective of the study was to estimate in the light of the accident their personal characteristics, their mental health and their psychosocial adaptation. Different psychological tests were performed and the data were evaluated and compared with similar research carried out by other research groups. 12 refs

  19. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  20. Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

  1. Management of medical assistance provided to participants of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident consequences liquidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently in the Republic of Moldova there are 2675 people who had suffered from sequelae of Chernobyl accident. In the paper the morbidity (incidence and prevalence), disability and mortality among participants in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences for the period of 2007-2010 were studied. The analysis of morbidity among 'liquidators' during 2007-2010 in the Republic of Moldova reveals the decline of incidence and prevalence due to better monitoring, opportune diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. Cancer and cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for 'liquidators'.

  2. Reactor accidents and nuclear catastrophes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming some preliminary knowledge of the fundamentals of atomic physics, the book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on the human organism. In order to assess the potential hazards of reactor accidents and the extent of a nuclear catastrophe, the technology of power generation in nuclear power stations is presented together with its potential dangers as well as the physical and medical processes occurring during a nuclear weapons explosion. The special medical aspects are presented which range from first aid in the case of a catastrophe to the accute radiation syndrome, the treatment of burns to the therapy of late radiolesions. Finally, it is confirmed that the treatment of radiation injured persons does not give rise to basically new medical problems. (orig./HP)

  3. Chernobyl, 16 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

  4. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

  5. Accident analysis for PRC-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer codes, calculation models, transient results, sensitivity research, design improvement, and safety evaluation used in accident analysis for PRC-II Reactor (The Second Pulsed Reactor in China) are introduced. PRC-II Reactor is built in big populous city, so the public pay close attention to reactor safety. Consequently, Some hypothetical accidents are analyzed. They include an uncontrolled control rod withdrawal at rated power, a pulse rod ejection at rated power, and loss of coolant accident. Calculation model which completely depict the principle and process for each accident is established and the relevant analysis code is developed. This work also includes comprehensive computing and analyzing transients for each accident of PRC-II Reactor; the influences in the reactor safety of all kind of sensitive parameters; evaluating the function of engineered safety feature. The measures to alleviate the consequence of accident are suggested and taken in the construction design of PRC-II Reactor. The properties of reactor safety are comprehensively evaluated. A new advanced calculation model (True Core Uncovered Model) of LOCA of PRC-II Reactor and the relevant code (MCRLOCA) are first put forward

  6. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products (including 70-100 P Bq of 137Cs). The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet 'system' performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and 'dingoes tending the sheep'

  7. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  9. Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

  10. Cancer incidence in population of the Bryansk and Belgorod regions after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptive analysis of 150,000 new cancer cases registered in 1980-2000 in the Bryansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia, radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in different levels, has been carried out. Gender, age at diagnosis, demographic changes and other factors were taking into account. It was demonstrated, that the structure and dynamics of cancer incidence had similar features in two Regions after the accident. It is supposed that low dosed acted as promoters of carcinogenesis

  11. Long term radiocesium contamination of fruit trees following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium contamination form the Chernobyl accident of fruits and leaves from various fruit trees was systematically studied form 1990-1995 on two agricultural experimentation farms in Northern Greece. The results are discussed in the framework of a previously published model describing the long-term radiocesium contamination mechanism of deciduous fruit trees after a nuclear accident. The results of the present work qualitatively verify the model predictions. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  13. Emergency planning practices and criteria in the OECD countries after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This critical review has been prepared at the request of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on the basis of information collected from Member countries on their emergency planning practices and criteria, and on changes being considered as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. This information was officially provided to the Secretariat in response to a questionnaire. Other material has also been used, such as official papers describing national practices and reports presented at meetings organised by the NEA. In these cases the sources are given in the list of references. The information in this report reflects the situation in the Member countries at the end of 1987 and it might well be that additional changes were introduced in the emergency planning practices and criteria of several countries after the answers were sent to the Secretariat. It should also be noted that several of the questions were mainly relevant to nuclear power reactor operations. However, the basic philosophy for emergency planning is general, i.e. radiological criteria, emergency organisation, medical assistance, information to the public, etc., and applies in similar ways to different emergencies. Therefore, the information in the report should be valid for different types of radiological emergencies, although emphasis is placed in the report is on nuclear power reactor emergencies. For non-nuclear power Member countries the information refers mainly to plans to cope with other types of radiation emergencies, and to emergencies of a transboundary origin. Finally, the information covers only the off-site part of emergency planning, apart from some reflections in Chapter 1 on on-site emergency planning and the measures taken at nuclear facilities to prevent an accident or mitigate its consequences

  14. Effect of natural ?-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2, and >5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, ?-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture ?-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural ?-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or ?-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of ?-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans ?-carotene, ?-carotene, but not 9-cis ?-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural ?-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.)

  15. Safe energy instead of a risky technology. 20 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986 initiated a social and political process which in 2000 resulted in the nuclear phase-out agreement between the Federal government and the electric power industry. This agreement should not be put in permanent doubt but should be implemented, and efforts should be made to ensure sustainable power supply without atomic energy. (orig.)

  16. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  17. Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

  18. Results of liver puncture biopsy in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident with hepatic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides review of data on study of liver damage under radiation impact. Liver structure in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was studied. It is determined that in patients with hepatic pathology occurs, in the future, structural alterations from the side of the liver after being under conditions of low dose ionizing radiation impact. (author)

  19. Pathology of the reproductive system and thyroid of women liquidators of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of the annual health follow up of the 100 women-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident performed by Republic centre of medical rehabilitation and balneotherapy have been analyzed. The high frequency of thyroid disease as well as the reproductive system pathology revealed: they were detected in 96% and 87% patients correspondingly. Oncological diseases were detected in 25% of studied cohort. (authors)

  20. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  1. Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

  2. Intervention during late phase of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: Gained experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various measures, introduced to reduce external and internal radiation doses of inhabitants of territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, are described. Average annual doses are given. It is concluded that while factors such as reduction of psychoemotional tension need to be explored, risk coefficients for chronic exposure at low doses should be specified. (author)

  3. Analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in Spain after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plants, CSN launched special surveillance devices to monitor radioactive contamination through the values provided by the various networks and environmental monitoring programs. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the results corresponding to the exposure pathways and matrices in which contamination is detected. (Author)

  4. Environment and population threat of nuclear power industry in the light of accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment and population threat of nuclear power industry and fossil-fuel power plants is shortly described. The fission product release, contamination and radiation doses after Chernobyl accident are presented. The neoplasm deaths and environment losses are assessed. The conclusions are given. (A.S.)

  5. Medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident: substantiation of problem, overcoming experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report of Director General of RCRM, AMS of Ukraine, Corresponding Member of AMS of Ukraine Prof. V.G.Bebeshko at the session of National Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine on 27.11.2003 efforts of 17 years work in overcoming medical consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident are summarized and perspectives for future research are designed

  6. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on radioactivity in Swedish reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout radiocesium is effectively transferred to reindeer and the transfer is highly dependent on the season. The reduction of radiocesium from the soil-pasture-reindeer ecosystem has occurred with a higher rate after the Chernobyl fallout than after the nuclear weapons tests. Effective countermeasures have helped to prevent contamination of reindeer meat intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, the fallout from Chernobyl will probably remain a problem for reindeer husbandry in the contaminated parts of Sweden for a least 20 more years. 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Chernobyl: sorting fact from fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine is discussed, taking into account that details of the course of events have not yet been released by the USSR. The present picture that seems to be emerging of the events surrounding the accident is described. The features of the Soviet RBMK-1000 reactor are examined in connection with possible causes of the accident. A description is given of the USSR nuclear power programme, with reference to the RBMK and VVER reactors. (UK)

  8. Report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Protection of Nature and Reactor Safety, on the reactor accident of Chernobyl, its repercussions, and precautions taken or to be taken - including addenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, the publication contains the following chapters: 1) Monitoring of environmental radioactivity; 2) analysis of propagation processes; 3) control and measuring points of the Federal Laender to monitor environmental radioactivity; 4) determination of the local dose rate; 5) concentration of radioactivity in air and soil (graphs); 6) up-to-date knowledge of events, measures; 7) nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (review of technical safety); 8) interim report of the Committee on Reactor Safety - Reaktorsicherheitskommission - for preliminary evaluation; 9) interim report of the Committee on Radiation Protection - Strahlenschutzkommission - for assessment and evaluation of the effects. (HP)

  9. Implications of the Fukushima Accident on Research Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary findings of Fukushima accident show that there is no evidence of major human errors as in previous accidents in the nuclear power industry, namely, Three Mile Island (USA) and Chernobyl (Soviet Union), and that the initiating event, a natural catastrophe of extraordinary magnitude, caused a long term loss of the normal power supply producing the failure of each defence-in depth barriers with the final release of radioactive material to the atmosphere. It is worth noticing that the direct damage caused in Japan by the earthquake and tsunami far exceeded any damage caused by the accident at the nuclear plant. In the light of this event the question whether safety systems of research reactors will cope with this type of scenarios arises. The objective of this works is to present an overview of the current practice commonly used in the safety analysis in research reactors and to assess the capability to mitigate conditions from a beyond-design-basis event like the one occurred at Fukushima power plant. (author)

  10. The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

  11. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer calves exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations were analysed in 1222 peripheral blood lymphocytes from 24 reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L., calves from central Norway, where considerable fallout form Chernobyl accident had occurred, and in 1532 lymphocytes from 26 calves from three different districts in Northern Norway which were not affected by fallout from the accident. Three dicentries, two rings, and three translocations were detected in calves from the exposed area, while no dicentrics, nor rings and only one translocation were detected in the control calves. The frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome deletions did not significantly differ between the two groups. Although the present study is based on a limited number of observations, the radioactive burden in the exposed reindeer, and the differing character of the chromosome aberrations in the two groups, might indicate that certain genetic effects have occurred as a result of the Chernobyl accident in Norwegian reindeer in the most contaminated areas. (21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tbls.) (au)

  12. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  13. Procedure on reconstruction of external dose to evacuees at Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external dose estimation on the Chernobyl accident was carried out using sugar left in two houses at Pripyat-city from before the accident. The external dose to the people evacuated from Pripyat-city after the Chernobyl accident has been estimated using both a data from the sugar-electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimeter and information on the type of buildings and the exposure rates there. In this work, the procedure of the dose estimation for the evacuees in Pripyat-city be reported. Furthermore, the sugar-ESR method will be discussed. The present result good agree with one reported from USSR to IAEA. It has been certified that small crystalline sugar such as granulated sugar is one of the most useful dosimeter in the emergency for the public. (author)

  14. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  15. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  16. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  17. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  18. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  19. The Chernobyl accident and its direct and late effects an surface bodies of water in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects on the tritium content (monthly composite samples) of German surface waters could not be detected. After the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, however, the increased radioactive content in the Rhine and the Moselle could easily be detected in the samples of May 1986 by means of the residual ? determination. The Sr-90 contents of up to 0.010 Bq/l measured in the Rhine and the Moselle were only slightly higher than the values measured in 1985. For the nuclide ratio Sr-89/Sr-90, measured in rainwater samples, a value of 18.7 ±8.7 (n=10) was determined. An extraordinary high nuclide content was observed in the solids contained in water (suspended matters, sediments). Cs-137 contents of up to 6000 Bq/kg TM were measured in suspended matter samples from the Moselle (monthly composite samples). A careful analysis of the activity quotient, adjusted to decay, measured in different German river areas on samples of suspended matters, sediments, and - with restrictions - of rainwater, showed a distinct increase in South-North direction. This regional fractionation can obviously be set in correlation with the local conditions of the place of release. (orig./DG)

  20. Radionuclides variation in macro lichens in Estonia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident has wide-scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used macro lichens belonging to the Cetraria and Cladina genera for the investigation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr fallout and migration in the system plant-soil. Systematic field collections were made in the Rumpo Botanical Sanctuary on Vormsi island(West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve) and in Koljaku reserve (Lahemaa National Park, LNP) during 1986-89, additional data for comparison were collected in the Caucasus, Spitsbergen, Yamal peninsula, the Urals and Baikal lake reserve, and from various regions of the european part of USSR. The maximum concentrations of radionuclides of caesium and strontium in macro lichens exceeded those known from literature for the Arctic areas during the period of nuclear testing. In 1986 the highest concentration of '137 Cs in Estonia - 6.2 kBq/kg was measured in the Cetraria islandica in LNP. In Rumpo Sanctuary the highest concentrations of caesium radionuclide were estimated in July 1986 - 4.5 for Cl.rangiferina and 4.4 kBq/kg for C.cucullata. Radiocaesium content decreased rapidly in the following years. The highest rate was established for Cl.rangiferina - 12.5 in three years. The absolute values of radiostrontium content in the four investigated lichen species before and after the Chernobyl accident do not differ considerably. The decrease of 90 Sr concentration is more evident for Cl. rangiferina - from 62 in July 1986 to 15 Bq/kg in October, 1988. The same trend is obvious for the radionuclides store: in July 1986 the store of 137 Cs in the lichen cover was maximum, 1.7 kBq/m2, and then decreased continuously reaching 0.23 kBq/m2 in 1989. The highest store of caesium in soil radionuclide was reached in october 1987 - 4.1 kBq/m3 x 0.02. (author). refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  1. CANDU reactors safety under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactors relevant to accidents are set first by inherent properties of the design and secondly by the nuclear safety/licensing approach. The five barriers for fission products (FP) retention (the most significant radioactivity source from the point of view of biological effects) are described. The safety systems preventing failures and protecting against radioactive release, respectively are presented. The accidents classified in single and dual accidents are defined and described. The radioactive releases inside and outside containment following the important accidents are presented. (Author)

  2. Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

  3. Airborne Cesium-137 in Finland after the Chernobyl accident based on the measurement of archived air filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The huge pressure and explosions in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident caused a release of artificial radionuclides into the atmosphere. 10 - 20 % of the volatile nuclides, e.g. 137Cs, present in the reactor inventory was distributed into the environment. The energy released in the hydrogen explosion and heat produced by burning graphite and decaying fission products caused the radioactive debris to reach considerable altitudes, where high wind speeds were prevailing. This caused the debris to spread quickly in the atmosphere. The plume was distributed practically all over the northern hemisphere, its advance being monitored both by measurements and by airmass trajectory calculations. The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has collected weekly aerosol samples for radioactivity monitoring purposes at ten stations in Finland since the 1960s'. The samples are measured at the FMI's laboratory e.g. for long-lived beta activity (total beta activity five days after the end of sampling). This long-lived beta activity consists of lead-210 and artificial beta emitters. After the measurement the samples are archived. In 2001 a number of filters, which were collected soon after the Chernobyl accident, were retrieved from the archive and analysed for 137Cs with scintillation gamma spectrometry. (orig.)

  4. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  5. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

  7. Radioactive compounds in Norwegian nutrition after the Chernobyl accident; Radioaktive stoffer i norske matvarer etter Tsjernobyl ulykken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The newsletter presents results from studies of various nutrients produced in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. The focus is on caesium in milk, cattle, sheep, goats, reindeer and fresh water fish. Some agricultural aspects are mentioned.

  8. Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report on project phase 1 and annex to the report on phase 1: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bilateral project of Belarus and Germany was commissioned on 1.04.1993 and is placed under the scientific guidance of the Gemeinschaftsausschuss Strahlenforschung. In the framework of the project part devoted to ''therapy and medical training'', covering the period from 1.04.1993 until 31.03.1996, all in all 99 children from Belarus suffering from advanced-stage tumors of the thyroid received a special radio-iodine therapy in Germany. In about 60% of the children complete removal of the tumor was achieved. Another task of the project was to train over the reporting period 41 doctors and physicists from Belarus in the fields of nuclear medical diagnostic evaluation and therapy of thyroid tumors. The project part ''biological dosimetry'' was to investigate the role of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes, and whether their presence in the lymphocytes permits to derive information on the radiation dose received even several years after the reactor accident. The scientists also examained the role of the micronuclei in follow-up examinations of the radio-iodine therapy. Further studies used the relatively large number of tumors in the children, as compared to the literature available until the accident, to examine whether there are specific mutation patterns to be found in tumot suppressor genes (p-53) in thyroid tumors which might be used as indicators revealing radiation-induced onset of tumor growth. The project part ''retrospective dosimetry and risk analysis'' was in charge of detecting information answering the question of whether the release of I-131, suspected to be critical nuclide, really was the cause of enhanced incidence of thyroid tumors in the children. The project part ''coordination and examination center at Minsk'' was to establish and hold available the support required by the GAST project participants. (orig./CB)

  9. Genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident in the populations of Byelorus zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, various long-term surveys have been made on congenital malformations, abnormal embryos and fetuses, multiple congenital malformations and others in Byelorus zones. This report introduces the outcome of these surveys. Legal abortuses at the gestation of 5-12 weeks and newborns were reviewed for teratogenetic and mutagenic analyses. Approximately 50 kinds of abnormal diseases were observed in legal abortuses; urogenital system disease was the most common, followed by gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. There was no significant difference in malformation frequency in legal abortuses in Minsk and Gomel before and after the Chernobyul accident. There was neither specific teratogenetic effect nor fetus growth that was thought to be attributed to radiation exposure directly due to the Chernobyl accident. However, the incidence (per 1000 deliveries) of children born with obligatory registered malformations was increased in all Byelorus zones. This tendency was noticeable especially in the newborn born in the zone of cesium-137 of 15 Ci/km2 (555 kBq/m2), which was much more than that expected by the ICRP. The correlation between some congenital malformations and ionizing radiation has been shown only indirectly by an increase in dominant hereditary abnormality in the contaminated areas. Further collection of materials, registration and statistical analysis will provide more reliable information to evaluate genetic aftermath of the Chernobyl accident objectively. (N.K.)

  10. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  12. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  13. On the occasion of the 20-th anniversary of the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: medical consequences in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indices of the health state and the morbidity structure of the inhabitants of Armenia who took part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences are considered. The epidemiological analysis shows that nervous system diseases and cardiovascular diseases lead among of sickness of armenian liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. The role of other factors (smoking, alcohol and social-economic situation) influencing on the health Indies of examined persons is discussed

  14. Demographic situation in the Kaluga region for 1976-1992. Possible consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the demographic situation in different areas of the Kaluga region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, during 1976-1992. The following indices received the particular attention: the composition of population, size of population, birth rate, mortality, child mortality. It is shown that during the investigated period no variations of the size of population, of the mortality and of the increment of population resulted from the Chernobyl accident were detected

  15. Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    H. D. Sletten; Bye, K.; I.M. H. Eikelmann

    1990-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are ...

  16. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological principles and criteria need detailed clarification. The specific aspect of this phase is the problem of social protection and social rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories has been considered as a combination of measures directed at improvement of environmental conditions and the quality of life. While planning decontamination for the long term, it is important to take into account the contribution of external dose to the total (external and internal) dose. The materialization of the social aspect is a very important characteristic of this phase. Unfortunately, in spite of all the efforts, the negative consequences of the accident have not been completely overcome. Nevertheless, the data array that has been accumulated since the accident allows unbiased assessment of not only the errors but also the achievements of the stupendous work on minimization of the consequences of the accident and drawing conclusions important for the future. (author)

  17. Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

  18. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  19. Facility for Modelling Reactor Accidents

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development and Fabrication for an Experimental Facility Supllementary Equipment and Control System and MonitoringSystem Relating to Simulation of VVER (PWR) Severe Accident Scenarios and Tests of Fuel Assemblies and Fuel Rods as well as Their Elements

  20. The effects on the thyroid of exposed populations following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radio-iodine during the nuclear accident at Chernobyl appears to have caused a rise in thyroid anomalies, including cancer, in the exposed population. Uncertainty about the extent of this increase is causing the population some anxiety. A WHO symposium of Soviet and other scientists met to see whether a more precise assessment could be made of the effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid disorders. They established that a long-term, large-scale epidemiological study should be initiated: the required dosimetric data already exist, and the collection of the relevant health data should begin. To ensure the comparability of all these data, the affected Soviet republics should collaborate closely. More training for Soviet researchers and health care workers, as well as greater collaboration with foreign scientists, should maximize their capacity to launch a successful study and set up the most appropriate health care programmes