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1

The Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP)

1986-01-01

2

Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

1986-05-06

3

The reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.)

1986-01-01

4

Reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

1990-06-30

5

Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so far. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

1996-01-01

6

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

2003-05-01

7

Radiation exposure: Cytogenetic tests. Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty test subjects who, either during or after the reactor accident of Chernobyl (26th April 1986), stayed at a building site at Shlobin 150 km away, were examined for spontaneously occurring as well as mitomycin C-induced Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). The building site staff, who underwent a whole-body radionuclide count upon their return to Austria (June through September 1986), were used for the cytogenetic tests. The demonstration of the SCE was made from whole-blood cultures by the fluorescence/Giemse technique. At last 20 Metaphases of the 2nd mitotic cycle were evaluated per person. The radiation doses of the test subjects were calculated by adding the external exposure determined on the building site, the estimated thyroid dose through I-131, and the measured incorporation of Cs-134 and Cs-137. The subjects were divided into two groups for statistical analysis: One was a more exposed group (proven stay at Shlobin between 26th April and 31st May 1986, mostly working in the open air) and the other a less exposed group for comparison (staying at Shlobin from 1st Juni 1986 and working mainly indoors). (orig.)

1993-01-01

8

The Chernobyl reactor accident - a non-accidential accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom and independence are reserved but for countries constantly succeeding in maintaining their energy supplies without the help of others. Due to the fact that the political decision makers of the Soviet Union, too, are aware of this truth there is more to the Chernobyl reactor accident than the mere effects of the fallout. The real consequences of the reactor accident had already been anticipated beforehand by the media of the Western world. With the voters already rattled the nuclear phaseout is constantly talked about in all political parties. Once again the law of action passes over to politicians instead of to technology and its responsible experts. Zischka proves this phenomenon in the behaviour towards Soviet reactions having been existed before and shows it to be going back to an old tradition: Already in the reign of the czar the Western neighbours were induced to react in an inadequate manner and thus excert a decisive influence on world politics. The emotional effect of Chernobyl dominates. Unless reason will gain the upper hand the dangers of this emotional effect may turn out to be uncontrollable. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

9

After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.)

1986-01-01

10

Dosimetric aspects of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of total activity released in the accident and the doses received by the various groups of persons are summarised. For the entire evacuated population, average dose to the thyroid ranged from 70 mSv to adults and up to 1 Sv for children and the collective dose to the entire evacuated population is estimated to be 1300 person-Sv. The global collective committed dose is about 2% of the collective effective dose received from all nuclear weapon tests carried out in the atmosphere and 0.5% of the annual collective effective dose received from natural background radiation. The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident on a global scale is considered to be very small. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

1996-01-01

11

The German reactor safety and the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has raised the alarm of many people making them fear both nuclear energy as such and nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The majority, however proved to be ignorant of the totally different reactor design of the Soviet plant as well as of the extremely different safety philosphy. The philosophy, i.e. safety of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany (and other Western countries) has reached a level which according to experts and common sense excludes a similar accident. In an interview Dr. Hans Frewer, member of the Kraftwerk Union management, voices his opinion on the different forms of a nuclear phaseout and points out the economic and ecological consequences. (orig./GL)

1986-01-01

12

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG)

1988-01-01

13

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

14

Elimination of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological consequences of reactor accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station is considered. The Chernobyl's release is compared with the estimated radioactivity having been produced by both the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapons testing programs, as well as with the TMI and the Windscale reactor accidents. The necessity of the Shelter's construction, as well as basic problems in designing the Shelter structure is discussed. At the time of the Shelter's construction, the radiation safety division was created to provide the safety of construction personnel. The organization and main tasks of this division is given in detail. The main stages of the Shelter construction is stated. Today's condition of the Shelter and nuclear fuel inside are also discussed. (author)

1992-03-18

15

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW)

1987-01-01

16

Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

1986-01-01

17

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, a variety of measurements were performed to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. Gamma spectroscopy was used to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels. (author) 11 refs.; 9 figs

1988-07-01

18

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

1987-04-05

19

Radioactivity and radiation load. The Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Association of Radiation and Environmental Research (GSF) on June 6, 1986 held a seminar under the heading ''The Chernobyl reactor accident and the consequences''. Besides explanations regarding radioactivity and natural as well as civilization-dependent radiation load, there were approaches to the assessment of the consequences of the Chernobylsk reactor accident. For the period of 50 years to come the consecutive dose in the Munich area is put at several 100 mrem up to 1 rem per person - in addition to the natural dose of some 10000 mrem for the same period. The amount of the actual load for individual persons depends on age, way of life and alimentation habits. (orig./HSCH).

Koch, G.

1986-07-12

20

Analysis of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A follow-up calculation was made on the accident based on the literature and accident reports published by the USSR. The analysis code system used had models peculiar to a pressure tube type reactor, of which the accuracy had been verified by the experimental facilities at the O-arai Engineering Center and the tests made at the 'Fugen' Nuclear Power Plant. The analysis data were prepared based on plant specifications and its operation history obtained from those published literature and accident reports. The analysis was composed of (1) a calculation of the nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, and the graphite heating and temperature distributions which were the basic data for the follow-up calculation of the accident, (2) an analysis of the plant behavior before the test started, using these basic characteristics, and (3) a follow-up calculation of the power increase which occurred after the test started. The analytical results were found to agree well with the data published by the USSR. It was confirmed from these analyses that the main factors causing the accident were the increased enthalpy at the core entrance caused by the test made at low power level and the increased void fraction due to reduced coolant flow rate, in addition to the nuclear characteristics and performance of the control system peculiar to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH)

1986-06-01

22

Internally deposited fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our work with about 100 subjects resident in eastern Europe (mostly Poland) at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or traveling as tourists, /sup 131/I was readily detectable in the thyroid through mid-June, 1986, and was detectable in some subjects as late as early July, 9 to 10 weeks after the start of the accident. Among 42 subjects who were in eastern Europe on April 26, 1986, and in whom /sup 131/I was detectable, the median activity in the thyroid was 1.4 nCi at the time of measurement. When extrapolated back to April 26 using a single exponential retention function for the thyroid and an 8-day effective half-life, the median activity was 42 nCi. The frequency distribution resembled a lognormal distribution. The extrapolated activities lay between approximately 2 and 1200 nCi. The risk levels derived from these observations of internal radioactivity and my conservative dose projection assumptions are as much as 10 times less than the risk levels published in the lay press during the months following the accident. This underscores the importance of basing risk estimation for internal radioactivity on direct observations. 2 refs., 1 tab.

Schlenker, R.A.

1987-01-01

23

Chernobyl severe reactor accident. Accident causes, accident consequences and overcoming. Safeguards and disposal of the Chernobyl power plant; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report on the Chernobyl reactor accident covers the following topics; (1) the reactor accident: the Chernobyl reactor, sequence of accident events, background, state of the sarcophagus and the power plant site; (2) radiation exposure and consequences for human health: radioactivity release and wide ranging contamination, radiation exposure of affected groups of people, health consequences, impact on Germany; (3) lessons learned; (4) safeguarding and waste disposal of the decommissioned Chernobyl reactor.

NONE

2011-04-15

24

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

25

Economic and political energy aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of nuclear power to total electrical power is approximately 15% worldwide, 25% in the European OECD countries, nearly 40% in Switzerland and in some countries even exceeds 50%. Abandoning nuclear power completely following the Chernobyl accident would cause serious problems not only for electrical power generation but also for the economy in general. (P.G.R.)

1986-09-20

26

The Chernobyl-4 Reactor and the possible causes of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description and information about the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is given. Some comparison elements between the RBMK reactor type and GCR, CANDU, SGHWR and Hanford N reactor types are presented. A scenario of the possible causes of the accident is discussed. (A.F.)

1986-10-07

27

Simulation of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical and structural drawbacks of RBMK reactors that led to the accident at Chernobyl unit 4 are analyzed. They are as follows: positive void reactivity coefficient and defects in the design of the reactor core protection system, Contribution of each drawback to the accident development is assessed. It is shown that the drawback in the design of control rods triggered the accident

2011-01-01

28

The accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed

1986-01-01

29

Radiological effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the lakes of Southern Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect the radiological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident to the large lakes of Southern Bavaria and to assess the radiation exposure of man on the different aquatic pathways, the radioactive contamination of the surface water, the sediments and the fishes was investigated. The dependence of time of the activity concentrations in the tested medias is shown and an outlook is made on the expected further evolution. The radiation exposure of man by swimming, boating and fish consumption in the fast year after the reactor accident is calculated

1988-01-01

30

131I and 137Cs in the environment following the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measured 131I and 137Cs radioactivity in air, on the ground, and in milk at different places throughout the world were compared. It was found that the measured radioactivity could be explained assuming that the radioactive material released during the Chernobyl accident was transported primarily in two segments. The first part was transported at low altitudes, contaminated areas around Chernobyl and extended up to 2000-3000 km. The second part was injected into the troposphere. The time integrated radioactivity concentrations in near-ground air particulates, the integral ground deposition densities and milk concentrations can be described by an exponential decrease as a function of the distance from Chernobyl. The intercept (values near the damaged reactor) and the slopes (describing dispersion conditions) were calculated. The deposition velocities for 131I and 137Cs transported with the two altitude air masses are given. (author) 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

1988-07-01

31

The Chernobyl reactor accident and the aquatic environment of the UK: a fisheries viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monitoring programme undertaken by the Directorate throughout the UK following the Chernobyl reactor accident is described. The results of sampling and analysis of fish, shellfish, seaweed and other materials are discussed. Chernobyl fallout was readily detected in all sectors of the aquatic environment, particularly during May when the highest concentrations were observed. An assessment of the radiological impact of the fallout shows that freshwater fish were the most important source of individual (critical group) exposure though, based on cautious assumptions, the effective dose equivalent is around 1 mSv in a year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from Chernobyl due to aquatic ingestion pathways, predominantly marine fish, is estimated to be 30 man Sv. (author)

1986-01-01

32

Lichens and mosses: biological monitors of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the radioactivity in lichens and mosses has been studied. 137Cs concentrations ranged from about 1070 to 14560 Bq kg-1 in lichens and from 270 to 4750 Bq kg-1 in mosses. Besides the cesium isotopes, some other relatively long-lived fission nuclides, such as 106Ru, 144Ce, 125Sb, and the 110mAg produced by neutron activation were detected and measured. The present data set supports the view that these nonvascular plants can be useful biological monitors of radioactive fallout from not only nuclear weapon tests but also accidents at any nuclear facilities. (author)

1989-01-01

33

The marine impact of caesium-134 and -137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident were detected in UK shoreline seawater very quickly after activity from the accident reached this country. Concentrations were highest in areas adjacent to those where deposition over land was highest, but they declined quickly and did not reach radiologically significant levels in therms of public radiation exposure. Subsequently, the distribution in seawater was investigated further afield. Radio-caesium attributable to the Chernobyl accident was found to be widespread: it was readily distinguished from other sources by having a different 137Cs:134Cs ratio (about 2:1). Its presence was especially noticeable in northern UK waters rather than those to the south; much of the North Sea has been surveyed as well as the Norwegian Sea. Evidence of Chernobyl radiocaesium was found as far north as 700 N and in many of these areas, including the northern North Sea, it overshadowed the effect of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels plc) Sellafield discharges, previously the main source of these radionuclides. (author)

1988-01-01

34

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

1990-11-02

35

MESORAD dose assessment of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive material to the atmosphere. This report describes the results of an assessment of the doses near the site (within 80 km) made at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using the MESORAD Dose Assessment model. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Athey, G.F.; Davis, W.E.

1989-12-01

36

The general public's attitude towards nuclear power after the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of three public opinion polls made within two years after the Chernobyl reactor accident revealed a deep feeling of insecurity in the population which did not disappear or diminish in the time from the first to the third survey, but instead was stirred up again by the affairs in the nuclear industry. Other than former accidents in a nuclear facility, as the one at Harrisburg for example, the Chernobyl reactor accident - from the subjective point of view of many citizens - had effects of a dimension exceeding the political level, and reaching into the normal sphere of life of anybody. Torn between two contravening feelings, namely the wish to get rid of the nuclear energy risk as soon as possible, and the fear that this might mean farewell also to the amenities of a life as a free consumer, the population gave into the strategy of suppression, so that there is verbal protest against the hazards of nuclear energy, but no will to really give up the advantages of a comfortable life created by modern technologies. (orig./HP)

1989-01-01

37

Radionuclide monitoring in Northern Ireland of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Northern Ireland received higher radiation doses due to the radionuclide contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident than did the south of England. Levels of radioactive iodine (131I) and caesium (137Cs) in cows' milk in Northern Ireland increased to 166 and 120 Bq/l respectively in May 1986, but had decreased by factors of one million, and of twenty-five, respectively, by 1 September 1986. The resultant radiation doses represent less than one per cent of those received by a Nor...

Gilmore, B. J.; Cranley, K.

1987-01-01

38

Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB)

1987-01-01

39

Analysis of space-time core dynamics on reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regarding reactor accident at Chernobyl in USSR, core dynamics has been analyzed by COMIC code which solves space-time dependent diffusion equation in three-dimension taking spatial thermohydraulic effect into account. The code was originally developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR), however, has been modified to include light water as coolant, instead of helium, for analysis of the accident. In the analysis, emphasis is placed on spatial effects on core dynamics. The analyses are performed for the cases of modeling the core fully and partially where 6 fuel channels surround one control rod channel. The result shows that the speed of applying void reactivity averaged over the core depends on the power and coolant flow distributions. Therefore, these distributions have potential to influence on the value and the time of peak power estimated by calculation. (author)

1987-01-01

40

Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. PMID:8907638

Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

1996-02-01

42

Scientific recommendations for the reconstruction of radiation doses due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, many studies of the radiation exposure levels and resulting health effects in the countries of the CIS have been conducted. The increasing incidence of childhood thyroid cancers in Belarus and Ukraine has stimulated worldwide multi- and bilateral cooperations with those countries and Russia in order to optimize benefits for those directly affected, but also to enlarge current knowledge of the consequences of reactor accidents. An international workshop on dose reconstruction was held in Bad Honnef, June 6 to 9, 1994, to address the problems which arise in dose reconstruction. The main objectives of this workshop were to bring together the best professional expertise and scientific knowledge and to achieve a better, multi-disciplinary harmonisation of the different scientific approaches. After intensive discussions the participants of this workshop formulated the following scientific recommendations for radiation dose reconstruction. (orig.)

1996-02-01

43

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

1988-01-01

44

Evidence for an increase in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) associated with Chernobyl fallout. Maternal age-adjusted DS data and corresponding live birth data from the following seven European countries or regions were analyzed: Bavaria and West Berlin in Germany, Belarus, Hungary, the Lothian Region of Scotland, North West England, and Sweden from 1981 to 1992. To assess the underlying time trends in the DS occurrence, and to investigate whether there have been significant changes in the trend functions after Chernobyl, we applied logistic regression allowing for peaks and jumps from January 1987 onward. The majority of the trisomy 21 cases of the previously reported, highly significant January 1987 clusters in Belarus and West Berlin were conceived when the radioactive clouds with significant amounts of radionuclides with short physical half-lives, especially (131)iodine, passed over these regions. Apart from this, we also observed a significant longer lasting effect in both areas. Moreover, evidence for long-term changes in the DS prevalence in several other European regions is presented and explained by exposure, especially to (137)Cs. In many areas, (137)Cs uptake reached its maximum one year after the Chernobyl accident. Thus, the highest increase in trisomy 21 should be observed in 1987/1988, which is indeed the case. Based on the fact that maternal meiosis is an error prone process, the assumption of a causal relationship between low-dose irradiation and nondisjunction is the most likely explanation for the observed increase in DS after the Chernobyl reactor accident. PMID:22162022

Sperling, Karl; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Scherb, Hagen

2012-01-01

45

Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the 137Cs internal dose to the Japanese population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Japanese population are assessed, for the one-year period from May 1986, in terms of the internal dose due to 137Cs. First, the dose from 137Cs is assessed, for a group of healthy adult males, on the basis of their observed body burdens of 137Cs determined by whole body counting. The annual individual dose estimate thus obtained is 1.5 ?Sv, which is 6-15% and 3.7% respectively of the doses determined by whole body counting in UK and the Federal Republic of Germany. The temporal change in the average body burden is successfully explained here by a single-compartment model. Secondly, this latter model is used, along with the daily 137Cs intake data for each district in Japan, to calculate the dose for the whole of Japan. The estimates of the population dose and the average individual dose obtained are 148 man Sv, for the population of 120 million, and 1.24 ?Sv, respectively. Although comparatively small, these values nonetheless also include the residual contribution from past nuclear weapon tests. The average annual individual dose of 1.24 ?Sv corresponds to 0.7% of the dose from natural 40K in the body. Although whole body counting indicates that 137Cs burdens were still increasing as of May 1987, it is concluded that, in terms of radiocaesium, the effect of the Chernobyl reactor accident on Japan was negligible. (author)

1988-01-01

46

The reactor accident in Chernobyl. Accident causes, accident consequences and handling, safeguarding and waste removal of the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. 4. ed.; Der Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Unfallursachen, Unfallfolgen und deren Bewaeltigung, Sicherung und Entsorgung des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report covers the following chapters: I. The accident: the Chernobyl reactor, accident sequence and background, state of the sarcophagus and of the NPP site. II. Radiation exposure and health effects: radioactivity release and long-range contamination, radiation risk and radiation exposure of individual groups, health consequences, consequences for Germany. III. Chernobyl and the consequences for the energy carrier nuclear power: international reactions, consequences on public opinion, energy policy and the nuclear power in Germany, knowledge and experiences from the accident. IV. Perspectives for the safeguarding and the waste removal of the decommissioned NPP Chernobyl: the role of nuclear power in Eastern Europe, economic and energy sector in Ukraine, international remedial measures for the safeguarding and waste removal.

Czakainski, Martin; Kinzelmann, Thomas; Pretzsch, Gunter; Wasgindt, Volker (comps.)

2007-06-15

47

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of the air radioactivity collected in the period 26/4-25/5, 1986 after the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the network of the sampling stations and the analysis carried out are briefly described. The meteorological situation responsible for the long-range transport of the pollutants from the place of emission to our country is also shown

1987-01-01

48

Public responses to the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reactor accident at Chernobyl caught many European nations by surprise since most risk management institutions were unprepared for an accident of the magnitude and transnational character of Chernobyl. Although confusion and contradictory advice from these institutions dominated the risk management efforts in the early aftermath of the disaster, the dose savings achieved by protective actions were roughly proportional to the magnitude of the nuclear threat. The accident itself and the pol...

1990-01-01

49

Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-01-01

50

Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

51

Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

1996-01-01

52

[Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv. PMID:3671790

Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

1987-06-01

53

131I content in canine thyroids in the Warsaw urban area after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of 131I were determined in the thyroids of 20 dogs from Warsaw submitted to euthanasia between May and September 1986. The animals were living with humans and were in similar way exposed to contamination after the Chernobyl reactor accident. After calculation of the radioactivity for May 10th the contamination was found to range from 142.9 to 1372.9 Bq. These values corresponded to the contamination of human thyroids as reported by Central Laboratory for Radiation Protection in Warsaw. From the begining of May to the end of November the number of operations performed in dogs for pathological thyroid hyperplasia was six times higher than in the preceding time period. 5 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

1987-01-01

54

Reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant-Block 4. Effects, countermeasures and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings of the Summary Report on the Chernobyl accident issued by IAEA in September 1986 (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG): Summary Report on the Post-Accident Review Meeting on the Chernobyl Accident. Safety Series No. 78-INSAG-1 Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sept. 1986) are updated, reviewing more recent publications providing more complete information on the events both within and outside the plant. The available information on the resulting radioactive pollution of agriculture and the food chain is discussed considering also the consequences for the future in comparison with the other sources of radioactivity in the environment. 21 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

1988-01-01

55

The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Greek marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sampling network was established around the Greek peninsula including the ordinary monitoring stations, as well as some new ones so that a good ecological and geomorphological coverage was succeeded. The artificial radionuclides of the fallout coming from Chernobyl were measured in fish, crustacea, algae, seagrass, plankton and sea urchins as representative marine organisms of each region. There was an immediate response of the organisms to the added pollutants in their environment evidenced by the rise of the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides, up to ten times in some cases concerning some long lived radionuclides measured before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Besides the physical and chemical factors of the environment, as well as the biological parameters of the organisms, the geomorphology and the weathering processing of the region seemed to have a considerable influence on the bioaccumulation of the radionuclides by the various organisms. All the above arguments concern the radioecological aspect while from the radiology point of view the contribution of the polluted seafood to the total dose received by the consumers was negligible in comparison with that via the terrestrial food webs. (H.F.)

1987-01-01

56

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

Jacob, P.

1996-05-01

57

What did change in the FRG after the Chernobyl reactor accident? On the situation in churches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses in detail the implications of the reactor desaster of Chernobyl both in terms of social ethics and theology and demonstrates processes within the churches and official church statements. (DG)

1987-01-01

58

Documents used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

1987-01-01

59

Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

1986-01-01

60

Radioactivity measurements of water, milk and dairy products, vegetables and grass from the surroundings of Cracow on the aftermath of Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of radioactive contamination of water and food products were carried out shortly after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Using the measured values, the committed effective dose equivalent for adult population of Cracow was estimated. (author)

1990-09-17

 
 
 
 
61

Chernobyl accident management actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Management Actions taken during the first days after the Chernobyl accident either proved ineffective or were not fulfilled as reported by the Soviets at the International Atomic Energy Agency Meeting of Experts in Vienna in August 1986. Most significant to source-term analyses and estimates is that it is now believed that approximately 71% of the initial 190.3 tonne UO_2 fuel load was exposed to a high-temperature oxidizing environment because the core was neither covered with various materials thrown from helicopters to smother the fire nor was the core purged with (liquid) nitrogen. Both these actions were originally believed (on the basis of Soviet reports) to have effectively brought the crises to an end. These results seem to support earlier western far-field source term estimates that significantly more volatile radionuclides may have been released as a result of the accident than reported by the Soviets in August 1986. 46 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

1986-08-00

62

Health hazards to the population of Hamburg, due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. Part 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimations of cancer incidence within a time period of 50 years are stated and in brackets for comparison the cancer deaths within a time period of 50 years based on the Hamburg cancer register for 1985: 1) Pulmonary cancer 0-2 (47 100) 2) Thyroid (thyroida. 3) Hepatic cancer 1-69 (5 700) 4) Leucaemia 3-609 (8 850) 5) All cancer diseases 3-609 (259 000). Presuming that all cancer diseases caused by the Chernobyl accident lead to death and taking into consideration the total cancer risk of the next 50 years, the number of cancer deaths increases at maximum by a little more than one five hundredth (0.23%) As concerns the genetic risk, it is to be noticed that the estimated numbers of 1 to up to 55 cases per generation above all refer to the minor modifications of hereditary factor. With regard to severe hereditary diseases within the next two generations the health authority estimates that in comparison to the single case of clinical importance caused by the reactor accident there are 1760 spontaneous hereditary diseases. (orig./HP)

1987-03-01

63

Estimate of the radiation exposure of the Austrian population due to the reactor accident Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl an estimate as objective as possible of the average exposure of the Austrian population in the first year after the accident is attempted. Besides the exposure path of external radiation from the cloud and ground and the exposure due to inhalation the most important path, that caused by ingestion of radionuclides via contaminated food is described in detail. The contribution of various food stuffs to the ingestion dose is described. The effective equivalent dose estimated from the average activity concentration and the average consumption per year of the respective food stuffs amounts to 0.46 mSv for the adult and 0.40 mSv for the one year old infant in the first year. In addition to the dose due to external radiation and inhalation this results in a total dose of 0.53 mSv for the adult and 0.47 mSv for the infant. The ingestion dose estimated in this way poses possibly a substantial overestimation since the whole body activity content measured in numerous whole body counter measurements results in only one third of the dose estimated from food activity concentrations. 18 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

1987-01-01

64

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

2000-05-01

65

Soil contamination in Northern Austria as aftermath of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil contamination caused by the accident at Chernobyl was very uneven distributed in Austria. In late autumn 1986 soil samples from northern Austria were analysed in order to get to know the actual contamination in terms of figures. The extreme values for Cs-137 found were 962 and 73630 Bq/m2 respectively. 3 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

1988-01-01

66

Impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the environmental activity in the eastern part of Lower Saxony  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration curve of Cs-137 as a function of time, monthly mean values of Cs-137 concentrations and activity concentrations in general in the air at ground level in the Braunschweig area are listed. Tables show the specific dry-mass activity of grass samples taken at Braunschweig-Voelkenrode and in the easten part of Lower Saxony in the time period following the Chernobyl reactor accident, referring to the nuclides I-131, Cs-137, and Cs-134. (DG)

1986-01-01

67

A pharmacokinetic approach to investigate the uptake of 137Cs by children after the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight. (orig.)

1989-01-01

68

Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95Zr, 95Nb, 99mTc, 103Ru, 106Ru, 110mAg, 111Ag, 125Sb, 127Sb, 129mTe, 131I, 132Te, 132I, 133I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131I, 137Cs and 134Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131I which was negligible after a few months, 137Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 ?Sv for whole body and 40 ?Sv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

1988-01-01

69

Radiation exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of environmental contamination in the Federal Republic of Germany caused by the Chernobyl reactor accident is characterized by major regional differences. The Juelich region is among those affected less severely. The data measured, in combination with meteorological parameters, allow a number of model assumptions to be verified which are of importance in designing nuclear installations. They include dry and wet deposition processes and activity enrichment in the human body. Despite difficult boundary conditions, agreement was found to be satisfactory, as a rule, while the models were discovered to be very conservative in the decisive question of radioactivity in humans. The fact that the data measured in personnel monitoring were far below those calculated is indicative of the actual contribution made by ingestion to the total dose and, hence, to the collective dose of the public, being even lower than calculated. Regional variations in concentration had less of an impact on the considerable differences in radiation exposure of the German public than the local intensities of precipitations as the cloud passed through. The depositions on the soil and on plants caused by precipitations (wash-out), gave rise to higher peak exposure levels and local fluctuations than did dry depositions. (orig.)

1987-01-01

70

The evaluation of the Chernobyl reactor accident by the help of the Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The germinal mutagenic consequences or radioactive fall-out deposition from the Chernobyl accident in Hungary was evaluated in the ongoing program on the population-based Hungarian Surveillance of Germinal Mutations. The surveillance is based on three groups of indicator conditions: 15 sentinel anomalies (indicators of germinal dominant gene mutations), Down syndrome (an indicator of germinal numerical and structural chromosomal mutations) and unidentified multiple congenital abnormalities (indicators of germinal dominant gene and chromosomal mutations). Cases with indicator conditions were selected from the material of the Hungarian Congenital Abnormality Registry. After the diagnostic accuracies were checked, familial and sporadic cases were separated and only the latter group was evaluated for evidence of new mutations. The analysis did not reveal any measurable germinal mutagenic effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident in Hungary. (author)

1992-03-18

71

The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH)

1986-01-01

72

Neutron kinetics of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical reactor kinetic equations with six groups of delayed neutrons are not solved analytically. Here they are solved numerically with MATLAB and applied to the Chernobyl accident. The results are presented graphically. Now, 20 years after the accident it is important for today's and tomorrow's generations of nuclear engineers to learn not to design reactors with runaway characteristics which can cause an avalanche like power excursion. The Chernobyl type of reactor has a positive void coefficient, which means that when a part of the water is replaced by steam the power will increase. At the Chernobyl experiment the steam content in the coolant channels increased suddenly causing a catastrophic power excursion. The presented analyses gives details about the importance of the magnitude of the void coefficient. Also the delayed neutrons behaviour is described. (orig.)

2006-04-01

73

Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

1987-11-15

74

Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl Reactor accident on the Biota of Swedeish Streams and Lakes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in elevated levels of radionuclides in the air space above Sweden, which were then washed into Swedish lakes and streams. Before suspended particles stripped the water column, the concentration of /sp137/Cs in small Swedish lakes was in the order of 10-40 Bq/l. This level of radioactivity should result in a negligible increase in the external exposure rate. However, by August 1986 increased levels of radioactivity were found at all trophic levels of freshwater ecosystems from algae to top carnivore, and from the available data the levels of radioactivity are still increasing. The calculated dose rate for the aquatic biota caused by the two cesium isotopes, /sp134/Cs and /sp137/Cs, is about 25 times higher than natural levels. While acute effectrs of the Chernobyl fallout on freshwater biota are unlikely, the long term ecological effects bear watching

1986-01-01

75

Feasibility of studies on health effects in western Europe due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl and Recommendations for research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report considers whether studies of health effects related to the radioactive contamination of western Europe caused by the releases from the Chernobyl reactor accident would be useful. The report evaluates the exposure patterns and the dose levels within the European Community, the different health effects that might be induced by such doses, and the likelihood that epidemiological studies could produce scientifically useful information. The report concludes that at the exposure levels experienced in the European Community the study of post-Chernobyl cancer rates in adults and the study of heritable genetic effects in the offspring of those exposed would be unproductive. It also concludes that even a study of childhood cancer following in utero exposure would be unlikely to demonstrate any attributable increase in risk. However, the report recommends that a small epidemiologic survey of childhood cancer be conducted within areas where selected cancer registration was in existence at the time of the Chernobyl accident to check the ability to predict risks from doses of the order received, to contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of childhood leukemia and to allay public anxiety

1990-01-01

76

Multidimensional analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multidimensional analysis of the CHERNOBYL accident was carried out to identify the role of the design and operating features of the RMBK-1000 and thereby identify implications on other reactor concepts. The results show that assumptions regarding the pre-accident fuel burnup and flux distributions are major determinants of the size and shape of the power pulse, especially due to their influence on effective system void reactivity and on the amount, if any, of positive scram reactivity

1988-01-01

77

Teratological evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in Hungary after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly distribution of pregnancy outcomes such as induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, newborns with birth weight under 2500 g, isolated congenital anomalies, identified multiple congenital anomaly syndromes including fetal radiation syndrome, and unidentified multiple congenital anomalies was evaluated in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident until Apr 1987. Only a somewhat higher rate of newborns with birth weight under 2500 g in May and June, 1986 was detected. It may have been due to premature labour caused by anxiety. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

1988-02-28

78

Monitoring of radioactivity in sewage and sewage sludge - the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, the Institute has measured, inter alia, the levels of radioactivity in sewage, sewage sludge and ash from sludge incineration at Berlin sewage works. It was seen that with the beginning of rainfall after the accident, there was a sudden rise in the concentration of fission products in sewage, and, with a certain lag, also in sludge and ash after the date of 7 May 1986. Later on, values dropped again. It follows from these examinations that sewage as well as ash from sewage sludge incineration can be disposed of at tipping sites without any additional precautionary measures. The same is true of the agricultural use of sewage sludge. (orig./PW)

1986-05-07

79

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

1996-04-01

80

Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury

1986-08-08

 
 
 
 
81

Workshop on short-term health effects of reactor accidents: Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-dose early-effects research that has been continued has been done in the context of infrequent accidents with large radiation sources and the use of bone marrow transfusions for treating malignancies, especially leukemia. It thus seemed appropriate to bring together those who have done research on and have had experience with massive whole-body radiation. The objectives were to review what is known about the acute effects of whole-body irradiation, to review the current knowledge of therapy, and particularly of the diagnostic and immunologic problems encountered in bone marrow therapy, and to compare this knowledge with observations made to date on the Chernobyl accident radiation casualties. Dr. Robert Gale, who had helped to care for these casualties, was present at the Workshop. It was hoped that such a review would help those making continuing clinical and pathological observations on the Chernobyl casualties, and that these observations would provide a basis for recommendations for additional research that might result in improved ability to manage successfully this type of severe injury.

1986-08-08

82

R[ionuclide transport after the Chernobyl reactor accident and derivation of r[ioecological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since due to the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl r[ionuclides arrived in the vicinity of Aachen, the enhancement of the local dose rate, the deposition of the different r[ionuclides on ground and vegetation and the transport of the r[ionuclides into the environment were measured. Partly the measurements were continued until today. Very informative time sequences of the specific activity in grass, food, cow's milk, beef, in the different plants, trees, ploughed soil and undisturbed soil, mushrooms, game, in humans etc. resulted. During different private and official journeys in the old Laender of the Federal Republic of Germany surface covering measurements of the 134Cs and 137Cs activity deposited on grass land at different places were carried out. These data were implemented into a map on ground contamination in 1986 in Germany, published in 1991 by the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene of the Federal Public Health Department in Berlin. Transfer factors soil-grass were measured in the whole Federal Republic of Germany analyzing grass samples which were partly taken at the same time. A large amount of r[ioecological parameters could be derived from the different time sequences. These are in particular: The deposition velocity for iodine and particle bound r[ioanuclides on grass and in forests, the rainout coefficient in dependence of the precipitation intensity, the retention factors on grass, the biological half-life time on grass, the transfer factor soil-grass in dependence of time, the transfer factor food-milk during the pasture period and during stable stay, the transfer factor food-beef, the transfer factors in eatable mushrooms, the translocation factor of cesium in cereals etc. A multi-compartment model was developed to calculate the specific Cs activity in cow's milk and beef. The specific activity in milk can be calculated sufficiently exact using a simple single compartment model. The correlation of the specific Cs activity in spruce branches, mykorrhiza mushrooms, forest honey and roe and red deer meat is remarkable. The single time sequences show a fairly closed picture of the transport of the r[ionuclides in the environment which could be measured in Aachen with normal expenditure. These were in particular: 103Ru, 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs. Most of the measured values were summarized in voluminous tables and diagrams. (orig.)

1998-01-01

83

Nuclear-reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI, and Windscale. January 1974-September 1988 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear-reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, and the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radioactive contamination of the environment. (Contains 105 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

1988-01-01

84

The consequences of a serious nuclear reactor accident - Chernobyl; Die Folgen eines schweren Kernreaktorunfalls - Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of the radionuclides emitted from the Chernobyl reactor and their transport within the whole ecosystem of Germany is briefly explained. More exact measurements of the dose equivalent and of the I-131 and Cs 137 activity in cow milk were carried out in the region of Aachen. The consequences for small children and adults are assessed. (DG) [Deutsch] Der Transport der aus dem Tschernobyl-Reaktor emittierten Radionuklide und deren Transport im genannten Oekosystem des Bereichs der Bundesrepublik wird kurz erlaeutert. Genauere Messungen der Aequivalentdosis und der I-131- bzw. Cs-137-Aktivitaet in Kuhmilch erfolgten im Raum Aachen. Ihre Folgen wurden fuer Kleinkinder und Erwachsene abgeschaetzt. (DG)

Bonka, H. [Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik der Rheinisch Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

1993-12-31

85

Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

1988-03-06

86

The reactor accident at Chernobyl, U.S.S.R. Radiation measurements in Denmark. 3. report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In continuation of the reporting of 4 May and 11 May 1986 this report summarizes the radioactivity measurements made during the third and fourth week after the accident at Chernobyl. The data have been collated by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations from measurements made by Risoe National Laboratory and the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. The radioactivity remaining in the air after the first two weeks shows daily variations at low levels without significant contribution to the fall out levels on the ground surfaces. The ground contamination shows a decreasing trend according to radioactive decay and for the plants also according to natural cleaning mechanisms. The radioactive data from the third and fourth week after the accident confirm the previous estimate that the total radiation impact on the Danish area from the accident, including future radiation exposures from the contamination experienced up to now, corresponds at most to approximately one month of natural background radiation. For the time to come the measuring programme and data reporting arrangements will be reorganized with a view to the future long term follow-up of the situation. Thus, this report is expected to be the last in the series of ad hoc reports for prompt dissemination of data on the Danish radioactivity measurements. (author)

1986-05-11

87

Conclusions from the consequences of the reactor accident of Chernobyl for Bavaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to abate the possibility, and to diminish the consequences of a serious reactor accident, the following measures are proposed and explained: (1) Establishment of an international reactor safety conference. (2) Establishment of a law on precautionary radiological protection on a national level. (3) In Bavaria: Extension of the radioactivity monitoring network to cover the whole area of Bavaria, enhancement of the information systems, establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial coordination board, research activities. (TRV)

1987-01-01

88

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report

1986-09-01

89

Follow-up to the accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report updates the status of the nine recommendations arising from the AECB staff review of the Chernobyl accident (INFO--0234). Six of the nine recommendations have been satisfactorily responded to by the Canadian nuclear utilities and are considered to be closed. Any follow-up actions arising from the responses to the recommendations will be addressed as part of the continuing licensing process. Of the remaining three, one concerns the effectiveness of the reactor shutdown systems under unusual circumstances. Satisfactory progress is being made. The other two outstanding items concern reviews of emergency and fire fighting practices. Again, satisfactory progress is being made but the response to the recommendations is not yet complete. Each recommendation is discussed separately in the body of this report

1990-01-01

90

Environmental effects on Rabwah Hills before and after Chernobyl reactor accident via induced gamma activities : (a report)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report consists on the study of the selected area of about 1000 meters from Nuclear Research Lab. of the campus. The depth of the holes dug for this purpose varied from 70 to 80 cms and covered with 2.5 to 3.5 cm diameter cups, the GM tubes were placed at the lower portion of the cups, where there activity was measured in counts/minutes. The tested sample of rock were found to be quartzite with 95% SiO/sub 2/ and minor quantity of Fe, Ca, K and Na. Soil samples appeared to be-mostly high alumina clay. The composition of these sedimentary rocks in similar to Amaceous type. The purpose of the study of this area was to check induced effect (Gamma activity) after Chernobyl reactor accidents. (author)

1994-01-01

91

Reduction of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and seaweed by cooking. [Fallout, Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decontamination ratios of /sup 131/I were obtained from leafy vegetables samples and an edible seaweed sample (Papenfussiella kuromo) after cooking. Samples obtained in Akita City were contaminated with fallout /sup 131/I from the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The decontamination ratio of /sup 131/I content in washed spinach samples to that in raw materials was 0.83 +- 0.21. The ratio of /sup 131/I content in leafy vegetables and edible wild grass samples boiled in water to that in washed samples was 0.51 +- 0.19 on an average. The overall decontamination ratio for leafy vegetables was 0.42 +- 0.19, while the decontamination ratio after cooking was 0.68 for the seaweed sample.

Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.

1987-03-01

92

The Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

93

Strontium measurement results from the Federal Republic of Germany and from Switzerland after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Working Group Environmental Monitoring (AKU) of Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. (Radiation Protection Association) performed an inquiry about the time after the Chernobyl reactor accident concerning the results of strontium-90 measurements carried out for the territories of the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland. The data suppliers listed in the report furnished to AKU results of Sr-90 measurements made on approximately 1000 samples in total. The individual measuring results have been entered into separate tables in a uniform representation. The tables also include the results of Sr-89-measurements as well as the Cs-137/Sr-90 ratios as far as they were available. The results of measurements presented here taken together prove that contamination with Sr-90 of the environmental media including food as a result of the Chernobyl fallout were only low in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland compared with the contamination due to the nuclides I-/131 and Cs-137. The same applies to the amount of Sr-90 transferred into the soil as compared with the level of existing contamination due to nuclear weapons fallout which has accumulated since the 60ies. (orig.)

94

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the issues involved in the public health measures and the use of KI in a reactor accident have been reviewed. It is suggested that the widely applied risk estimates for induction of human thyroid cancer by radioiodine are probably too high since they are generally derived from x-radiation of children and since 131I seems less carcinogenic per gray than external radiation. The adult protective action guideline currently recommended by the FDA of 0.25 Gy (25 rad) for KI administration may be overly conservative. If KI is to be used, 1 Gy (100 rad) to the thyroid for adults and .50 Gy (50 rad) for children may be a more appropriate action level. For maximum effectiveness, KI must be taken immediately before or at the time of exposure, a requirement producing major distribution problems. The logistics of KI distribution are complex and seem to limit its use to special situations. Significant side effects can occur from iodide ingestion, although they are not likely to be frequent with the KI dose proposed. In most accident scenarios, the overall gain from KI use seems to be marginal. In considering KI use as public health measure, the authors are confronted with the problem of establishing sound public policy in the absence of sufficient scientific information and in the face of conflicting and often unrealistic perceptions. It is hoped that new and useful information can be obtained from the study of the effects of the Chernobyl accident where KI was used for a few days in the population in the immediate vicinity of the reactor

1986-11-19

95

Artificial radioactivity in the vicinity of St. Marianna University School of Medicine after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, rain water and atomospheric dust were monitored for their possible contamination by artificial radionuclides on the roof of the building of our medical school from April 30 through June 8, 1986. Radiological monitoring was also performed on cabbages obtained from a nearby field, city water, cow's milk produced in Kanagawa Prefecture and human milk obtained from a volunteer living in Kawasaki. Our campus and the nearby area were exposed to 131I from May 2 through 22 by rainfall and from May 1 through 15 by atomospheric dust. In particular, rain water on May 4 and May 5 contained 7600 pCi (282 Bq)/l and 6000 pCi (222 Bq)/l, respectively. The cabbage specimen obtained on May 7 was contaminated by 131I with 808 pCi/kg wet weight, but another specimen obtained on June 6 was not contaminated by any detectable amounts of 131I. No radioactivity was detected in city water during the period monitored. Cow's milk and human milk contained, as a total of ?-radioactivity, 1412 pCi (52 Bq)/l and 915 pCi (34 Bq)/l, respectively. However, parallel determinations on their potassium concentrations revealed that these radioactivities were due entirely to natural 40K. The degree of radiological contamination in and around our campus following the Chernobyl accident was mostly below the action levels above which the governments of several countries involving Japan would take preventive measures against possible radiation damages. Although 131I radioactivities contained in the rain water of the first week of May, 1986 significantly exceeded the action level for this radionuclide, their effects on human health were considered negligible and undetectable in the vicinity of our school. (author)

1988-01-01

96

Artificial radioactivity in the vicinity of St. Marianna University School of Medicine after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, rain water and atomospheric dust were monitored for their possible contamination by artificial radionuclides on the roof of the building of our medical school from April 30 through June 8, 1986. Radiological monitoring was also performed on cabbages obtained from a nearby field, city water, cow's milk produced in Kanagawa Prefecture and human milk obtained from a volunteer living in Kawasaki. Our campus and the nearby area were exposed to /sup 131/I from May 2 through 22 by rainfall and from May 1 through 15 by atomospheric dust. In particular, rain water on May 4 and May 5 contained 7600 pCi (282 Bq)/l and 6000 pCi (222 Bq)/l, respectively. The cabbage specimen obtained on May 7 was contaminated by /sup 131/I with 808 pCi/kg wet weight, but another specimen obtained on June 6 was not contaminated by any detectable amounts of /sup 131/I. No radioactivity was detected in city water during the period monitored. Cow's milk and human milk contained, as a total of ..beta..-radioactivity, 1412 pCi (52 Bq)/l and 915 pCi (34 Bq)/l, respectively. However, parallel determinations on their potassium concentrations revealed that these radioactivities were due entirely to natural /sup 40/K. The degree of radiological contamination in and around our campus following the Chernobyl accident was mostly below the action levels above which the governments of several countries involving Japan would take preventive measures against possible radiation damages. Although /sup 131/I radioactivities contained in the rain water of the first week of May, 1986 significantly exceeded the action level for this radionuclide, their effects on human health were considered negligible and undetectable in the vicinity of our school.

Kouyama, Hiroshi; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Watabe, Shoji; Hara, Masayuki; Hara, Kazumi; Nakamura, Iwao; Yago, Nagasumi

1988-03-01

97

Nuclear reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI (Three Mile Island), and Windscale. January 1974-September 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1974-September 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout, the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, the sea, the radiation effects on people, and the transfrontier radio ative contamination of the environment. (This updated bibliography contains 164 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-01-01

98

Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

1986-01-01

99

Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

1987-01-01

100

The Chernobyl reactor accident and its effects on the Bremen area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chapter 2 of the report gives an outline of the design of the RBMK-1000 reactor and its inventory of radionuclides at the time the accident happened, together with a brief scenario of possible events leading to the accident, and an assessment of total radionuclide release. Chapter 3 explains the measurement campaigns made in the Bremen area in the given period and the consequences to be drawn from measured data up to present time. The measuring campaigns are described by a full-test report, graphical illustration, and a table of measured data. The information covers all data collected from onset of radioactivity release up to the 9th of Sept. 1986. Chapter 4 describes the assessment of dose commitment by the Bremen population, on the basis of measured radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Chapter 5 discusses the possible health hazard to the population in accordance with current knowledge of radiation exposure and its effects. Chapter 6 summarizes and interprets the results, and chapter 8 presents definitions of concepts and terminology. (orig./HP)

1986-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Late damages after the reactor accident of Chernobyl; Spaetschaeden nach dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is presented on the consequences of the 1986 reactor accident which have become know so far. This report is based on literature data and findings of the Clinical-diagnostic Branch of the Federal Health Office in exposed persons as well as results of major field studies involving medical examinations and measurements in which the author participated. With brief reference to clusters of cases of carcinoma of the thyroid in children which were found particularly in Belarus, a detailed account of which will be given by REINERS, information is presented on radiation exposure levels among the population and staff occupationally exposed during clearing-up operations. The observed increase of certain clinical pictures which may be indirectly related to the accident, has been the reason to present explanatory considerations of the clinical aspects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand von Literaturdaten und von Befunden des Klinisch-diagnostischen Bereiches des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (BGA) an ``Tschernobyl``-belasteten Personen sowie von Ergebnissen groesserer Untersuchungs- und Messaktionen vor Ort - unter Mitwirkung des BGA - wird ueber bisher bekannt gewordene Folgen des Reaktorunfalles von 1986 berichtet. Mit kurzem Hinweis auf die Haeufungen kindlicher Schilddruesenkarzinome, insbesondere in Weissrussland, auf die REINERS in seinem Beitrag im Detail eingehen wird, erfolgen Informationen ueber Strahlenbelastungswerte in der Bevoelkerung und bei den Aufraeumungskraeften. Die Zunahme verschiedener Krankheitsbilder, die moeglicherweise in mittelbarem indirekten Zusammenhang mit dem Unfallereignis stehen, ist Anlass fuer zu erlaeuternde klinische Ueberlegungen. (orig.)

Arndt, D. [Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany). Klinisch-Diagnostischer Bereich

1993-12-31

102

The causes of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

2001-01-01

103

Radioactivity monitoring by the official monitoring stations in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This official report presents a governmental declaration of the prime minister of NRW, Mr. Rau, concerning the reactor accident at Chernobyl, and a joint declaration of ministers of NRW, concerning the impact of the accident on the Land NRW. These statements are completed by six official reports on radioactivity measurements carried out by the official monitoring stations of the Land and by the KFA Juelich. These reports inform about methods, scope, and results of the measuring campaigns accomplished by the Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik (ZFS), the public materials testing office (MPA), the Chemisches Untersuchungsamt, the Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall, and the KFA Juelich. (DG)

1986-01-01

104

Thyroid consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well recognized that the use of external irradiation of the head and neck to treat patients with various non-thyroid disorders increases their risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma years after radiation exposure. An increased risk of thyroid cancer has also been reported in survivors of the atomic bombs in Japan, as well as in Marshall Island residents exposed to radiation during the testing of hydrogen bombs. More recently, exposure to radioactive fallout as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has clearly caused an enormous increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus, Ukraine, and, to a lesser extent, in the Russian Federation, starting in 1990. When clinical and epidemiological features of thyroid carcinomas diagnosed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are compared with those of naturally occurring thyroid carcinomas in patients of the same age group in Italy and France, it becomes apparent that the post-Chernobyl thyroid carcinomas were much less influenced by gender, virtually always papillary (solid and follicular variants), more aggressive at presentation and more frequently associated with thyroid autoimmunity. Gene mutations involving the RET proto-oncogene, and less frequently TRK, have been shown to be causative events specific for papillary cancer. RET activation was found in nearly 70% of the patients who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas following the Chernobyl accident. In addition to thyroid cancer, radiation-induced thyroid diseases include benign thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, with or without thyroid insufficiency, as observed in populations after environmental exposure to radioisotopes of iodine and in the survivors of atomic bomb explosions. On this basis, the authors evaluated thyroid autoimmune phenomena in normal children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. The results demonstrated an increased prevalence of circulating thyroid antibodies not associated with significant thyroid dysfunction. This finding is consistent with the short period of follow-up, but it is highly likely that these children will develop clinical thyroid autoimmune diseases in the future. Therefore, screening programmes for this at-risk population should focus, not only on the detection of thyroid nodules and cancer, but also on the development of thyroid autoimmune diseases. PMID:10626541

Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T; Molinaro, E; Shavrova, E; Agate, L; Kuchinskaya, E; Elisei, R; Demidchik, E P; Pinchera, A

1999-12-01

105

Report of the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident, which occurred on April 26 of 1986 at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, was the unprecedented accident in terms of, among other things, structural damages given to the reactor, an amount of radioactive materials released to the environment, and a number of casualties resulting from the accident. Investigation and analysis of the accident were conducted at JAERI by forming the Ad hoc Committee on the Chernobyl Accident within the organization under which Task Group A was responsible for the design and characteristics of the reactor and the accident sequence and Task Group B was responsible for behavior of radioactive materials and radiological consequences to the environment. The present report is the summary of the investigations and analyses which were carried out by the committee. (author)

1987-01-01

106

Chernobyl Forum: Forum Sharpens Focus on Human Consequences of Chernobyl Accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a concrete sarcophagus was built to enclose the remnants of the destroyed reactor. Now, nearly seventeen years later, engineers are faced with a new problem: the sarcophagus is literally falling apart. This site discusses events and topics of the February 2003 international forum on Chernobyl. Several documents are included on the site, including retrospectives and health analyses.

2003-01-01

107

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report information about the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the radioactivity burdening of Greece from the radioactive releases of the accident are presented. The main characteristics of the RBMK-1000 reactor and the flow pattern of the radioactive cloud towards Greece are described, results of radioactivity measurements in Greece concerning the environment and the food chain are given, and some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are made. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

108

Radiation exposure in Lower Saxony as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive contamination of the soil in Lower Saxony due to the Chernobyl fallout has been measured and mapped in May 1986, and verified by laboratory analyses. The data reveal considerable differences in the distribution of radionuclides, which is in compliance with the intensity and distribution of fallout during the first days of May 1986. The required measuring activities are not too extensive. About 15 man-days of field work certainly cannot be too much considering the significance of the measured values for the planning activities of the Land. (orig.)

1987-01-01

109

Worldwide radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of the entire world population to radiation resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident has been evaluated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The evaluation accounted for measurement results reported from 34 countries to establish the pattern of transfer during the first year after the accident; the report used fallout measurement experience to make a projection of doses to be received from continued exposure, primarily to 137Cs. On the basis of transfer factors derived from this information and of 137Cs deposition measured or estimated in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere, the collective effective dose equivalent commitment has been estimated. The result is 600,000 man.Sv, with 53% of this to be received in Europe and 36% in the USSR. (The two areas were measured separately.) (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

1989-10-16

110

Activities, projects and emergency planning etc. at the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in connection with the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) is the competent authority for radiation hygiene in Norway according to Act No.1 of 18 June 1938 and regulations given pursuant to the act. Legislation on duties specific to radiological emergencies in general has not been issued in Norway. The report describes how SIS organized the fallout survey and summarizes the different projects implemented by the institute after the Chernobyl accident. Furthermore, the institutes view on an alert system for detection of radiactive contamination and on emergency planning for radiation accidents is expressed

1938-06-18

111

The modern Saamish reindeer husbandry in Sweden after the reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large parts of the reindeer herding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout deposited mainly between 62 and 66 n.lat. by heavy rain-and snowfalls between April 28-30, the fjell and boreal forest regions of north-western Jaemtland and south-western Vaesterbotten being the home of 500 reindeer Saamis, organized in 19 Saamebys, and being the winter- and summer reindeer grazing areas for about 100000 reindeer worst contaminated, with a maximum soil contamination of 60000 Bq/m2 Cs137 along a line Gaevle-Gaeddede. The socio-economic effects and consequences of Chernobyl have on the hand changed the daily and yearly work routine patterns by applying early slaughter and feeding programs. On the other hand it has shown the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry in particular and of Saami culture and livelihood in general. It has also pointed out the influence of the state compensation payments have helped the mostly hit Saamebys to survive economically and the Saami herders to preserve their ethic identity and specific way of life. The measure of introducing a strict radioactivity limit should be fixed internationally. In reindeer meat where the average annual consumption is as low as 200 g per person a limit as low as 300 pr 1500 Bq/kg is in fact ineffective in reducing cancer risks but it has proved disastrous for the reindeer meat market

1992-01-01

112

Experimental verification of dynamic radioecological models after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The comparitive analysis uses model data and data derived from field experiments. The translocation factors for Cs-134 and Cs-137 in edible plants have been determined after spraying of fields with Chernobyl fallout rainwater, considering the time of irrigation in relation to plant growth, and are shown to be the following: 0.002 - 0.13 in winter wheat, 0.003 - 0.09 in spring wheat, 0.002 - 0.27 in winter rye, 0.002 - 0.04 in barley, 0.05 - 0.35 in potatoes, 0.02 - 0.07 in carrots, 0.04 - 0.3 in bush beans, 0.1 - 0.5 in cabbage. The weathering half-life in lettuce is 10 days. The transfer factors for Cs-137 uptake by the roots have been determined to be 0.002 on the avarage for grain, 0.002 for potatoes, 0.004 for white cabbage, 0.003 for bush beans and carrots, and 0.007 for lettuce. The measured data agree well with the radioecological concentration data predicted by the ECOSYS model for post-Chernobyl radionuclide distribution. Some results of the verification study could be used to improve the results of the ECOSYS model by modification of certain parameters. (orig./HP)

1992-01-01

113

MLAM assessment of air concentration, deposition, and dose for Chernobyl reactor accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to provide estimates for the areas in Europe affected by the accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station which resulted in the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere.

Olsen, A.R.; Davis, W.E.; Didier, B.T.; Soldat, J.K.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1989-12-01

114

The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the consequences of the Chernobyl accident in order to provide a factual basis for future policy decisions. There are two main issues: What actions can be taken to limit the health effects of the accident? And: What risk is still posed by the remains of the reactor in the sarcophagus? Assessing the health effects of radiation exposure due to the accident is very difficult. The doses received as a result of the accident are not well known and the complex relation between dose received and cancer induction is still not well understood. As a result, projections of future numbers of extra cancer cases depend on a number of assumptions and are at best crude estimates. Epidemiological investigations to detect health effects in populations, as opposed to effects in individuals, are complex and extremely difficult to conduct. It is difficult to find appropriate control groups for comparative purposes and to distinguish the influence of the studies themselves on the results. In addition, there has been a general deterioration in public health in the countries of the former Soviet Union since 1987. This general trend towards poorer health has been misinterpreted and misrepresented as being due to the Chernobyl accident. It has been asserted that up to tens of thousands of peoples 'have already died', implying that they were victims of the Chernobyl accident. However, the total death rate in 1990-1992 among 'liquidators' (emergency and recovery workers) did not exceed for that for the corresponding age group in the Russian Federation as a whole. The increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has been dramatic and, if it persists in members of the age group affected as they grow older over the coming decades, it may result in up to several thousand excess cases of thyroid cancer. The number of fatalities would be much lower than this, since treatment should be 90-95% successful if the thyroid cancer is diagnosed early. The affected people should therefore continue to be closely monitored throughout their lives. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

1996-04-08

115

Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle consequence of Chernobyl accident, on the plan of the long term effects, is a very important increase of thyroid cancers frequency on children. The cause is certainly the very important thyroid contamination by radioactive iodine released in atmosphere during this accident. The excess in five years is about 500 cases for Belarus, Ukraine and Russia republics; the incidence has been multiplied by 50 in Belarus. These cancers, appeared in the great majority on children contaminated before they were five years old, are very invasive; local and regional extensions are important, metastasis are numerous. They are cured in an unperfect manner. It is impossible to tell what will be the future of this epidemic. It seems that children epidemic is going to decrease; the increase of adult epidemic is modest but it can become more serious. If stable iodine distribution had been correctly made, it is likely that the number of cases would have been lower. Iodine storages have been constituted in France, but distribution rules are not still defined. No augmentation of others cancers appeared especially for leukemia. 15 refs., 3 tabs

1995-06-01

116

Radiocesium in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a subalpine lake ecosystem after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl in April 1986, radioactive cesium has been measured in Oevre Heimdalsvatn, a Norwegian subalpine lake, situated in an area of high fallout. The lake is an important reference site and has been the subject of extensive ecosystem studies since the 1950s. Emphasis has been given to measuring long-term trends in the activity content of radioactive cesium in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. After ice-break in June 1986, the average total cesium activity content rose to 7000 Bq/kg wet weight. The activity content fell during 1987 and at ice-break in 1988 was 4000 Bq/kg. However, there was no further reduction during the summers of 1988 and 1989, possibly due to increased inputs from the catchment. There is considerable variation in the radiocesium activity content measured in individual fish. On the basis of the changes in cesium activity content in trout since 1986, an observed half-life for 137Cs and 134Cs in trout of 3.0 and 1.3 years, respectively, has been estimated. (author)

1991-01-01

117

Comprehensive analysis of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard computational methods have been used to make a preliminary analysis of the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics of the first two phases of the Chernobyl accident (initial positive reactivity generation and first Doppler transient). The most important results are discussed. These include the fact that it is impossible to define only one value of the reactor void coefficient. In the central channels (20% of the reactor volume) the effective coefficient is three times higher than the average, while the value is practically zero in the peripheral channels (40% of the reactor volume). The difference is due not only to the statically larger neutron worth of the central zone, but also to the dynamic instability of the radial flux distribution. The void increase in the central regions induces an increase of power and of the void in these regions, thus increasing the reactivity in an unexpected way. A design error in the scram rods (too short a graphite follower) can generate an undesired positive reactivity insertion while the first 1.25 m of the rods is being inserted. This effect can introduce from 0.5 to 1.2$ reactivity. The Doppler effect is the only one introducing negative feedback during a transient. The current model for the calculation of the effective fuel temperature must be reconsidered. A more sophisticated approach in needed to assess the rate of thermal and mechanical energy delivered during the explosion. For a self-consistent evaluation of the accident it is necessary to use two dimensional (R-Z) multigroup kinetics and dynamics models developed in the last ten years for the analysis of reactivity accidents in fast reactors. It is important to reach a proper understanding of the various mechanisms that caused the Chernobyl accident and for this purpose an interdepartmental group in ENEA is working on a comprehensive analysis using classical computational models and codes for thermal reactors. A new tool is being implemented: the code NADYP-Water, a new version of the two dimensional space-time code NADYP. International co-operation on the subject is desirable. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

1988-03-21

118

Analysis of the accident in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused by inadequate makeup of the reactor cooling loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on October 11, 1991 was the result of unauthorized connection of the TG-4 turbogenerator, which was shut down for repairs, into the grid (in the off-design asynchronous engine mode), and this resulted in a serious fire in the machine room and subsequent failure of systems which are important for safety and which ensure the design mode of reactor cooling: These were primarily failures of the feed and emergency feed pumps and failure of the BRU-B control valve, which regulates steam release during cooling

1995-10-01

119

Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of country-wide measurements of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

1986-01-01

120

Chernobyl lessons learned review of N Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A broad-base review of the N Reactor plant, design characteristics, administrative controls and responses unique to upset conditions has been completed. The review was keyed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-defined issues associated with the Chernobyl accident. Physical features of N Reactor that preclude an accident like Chernobyl include: lack of autocatalytic reactivity insertion (i.e., negative coolant void and power coefficents) and two separate, fast-acting scram systems. Administrative controls in place at N Reactor would effectively protect against the operator errors and safety violations that set up the Chernobyl accident. Several items were identified where further near-term action is appropriate to ensure effectiveness of existing safety features: Resolve a question concerning the exact point at which Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) activation by manual actions should be implemented or deferred if automatic ECCS trip fails. Ensure appropriate revision of the Emergency Response Guides and full communication of the correct procedure to all Operations, Safety and cognizant Technology staff. Train reactor operators in the currently recognized significance of the Graphite and Shield Cooling System (GSCS) in severe accident situations and cover this appropriately in the Emergency Response Guides. Complete reviews which establish an independent verification that pressure tube rupture will not propagate to other tubes. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Weber, E.T.; McNeece, J.P.; Omberg, R.P.; Stepnewski, D.D.; Lutz, R.J.; Henry, R.E.; Bonser, K.D.; Miller, N.R.

1987-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

The decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv/year. Also published in Atomwirtschaft (2) v. 38 p. 138-145, Feb 1993

1993-01-01

122

The effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the surface waters in West Germany. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There was only a very short time delay between the release of radioactivity from the reactor and the washout or fallout in different parts of West Germany, which has led to surface water contamination at different levels, detected and monitored by the WSV water monitoring network. The radioactivity measurements at the various sampling stations are reported and shown in tables, giving levels and time-dependent changes of radioactivity uptake in the various regions. A very extensive measuring programme for water monitoring has been carried out in West Berlin. At a very large number of sampling stations at lakes, rivers and channels, water and sediment samples have been taken at regular intervals in the period between beginning of May and October 1986, and have been analysed for the relevant radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137). The measured data have been reported to the coordinating center in evaluated, tabular form. Comprehensive data of this kind have been sent to the coordinating center by the Lands Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Hesse, covering primarily the period May to July. Some other measuring data reported from Rhineland Palatinate, North-Rhine Westphalia and the Saarland, taken at irregular intervals and over a shorter period of time, are also given in this survey. (orig./DG)

1986-01-01

123

First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

1989-07-01

124

Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

1998-01-01

125

Neutronic static analysis of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present analysis, estimates were made of the positive reactivity introduced through the growth of the coolant void fraction in a Graphite-water steam-generating reactor both at the average value of burnup given by the Soviets and at the maximum value. Using Monte Carlo models, various possible axial distribution of burnup, displacer models, conditions in the control channels and positions of the control rods were considered in calculating the insertion of positive reactivity with the fall of the manual and emergency control rods; that is the positive scram. The possibility of positive reactivity insertion due to the creation of a mixture of fuel, water and cladding in a number of central fuel channels has been examined. This situation corresponds to the explosion of these channels, and is considered in the present work as the cause of the second reactivity peak. At the level of the data presented in this study, vaporization of cooling water in the fuel channels can be considered as the cause of the Chernobyl accident. The accident began in the region of the channels close to the axis of the reactor and spread to its periphery. The positive reactivity due to insertion of the manual and emergency control rods - positive scram -played a marginal role in the development of the accident. Fracture of the fuel followed by bursting of the channels around the axis of the reactor, due to contact between the hot UO2 particles and the cooling water at th end of the first peak, could have started a mechanism capable of producing a second peak in reactivity, in the case of fuel damage extended to a sufficiently large portion of the core

1989-01-01

126

The Chernobyl accident and nuclear safety in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature and purpose of the Watt Committee on Energy is explained. Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in April 1986, the Watt Committee appointed a working group to study civil nuclear safety in the UK. This is the interim report of that working group. The report looks at the international aspects of the Chernobyl accident, the key aspects of the RBMK reactor design, then gives a description of the accident to find out why it happened. The consequences for the USSR and the UK, and the implications for the UK and the world at large are then considered. The aims of the final Watt Committee report, the designs and operational practices used in the nuclear power industry, especially in the UK, will be considered to contribute to the maximum attainable safety of these operations. (UK)

1986-01-01

127

A preliminary assessment of individual doses in the environs of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary assessment has been made of the individual doses to critical group members of the public in the environs of Berkeley arising from fallout resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The assessment was based on measurements of airborne radionuclide concentrations, ground deposition and nuclide concentrations in rainwater, tapwater, grass, milk and green vegetables. The committed effective dose-equivalent was found to be as follows:- Adult - 200 ?Sv, 1 year old child - 500 ?Sv, the 10 year old child receiving a dose intermediate between these two values. The estimate accounts only for the nuclides measured and the specific exposure routes considered namely ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation and external exposure. However, it is believed that the inclusion of a range of other nuclides of potential significance, which may have been present but not measured, and potential intakes from additional routes is unlikely to increase the above estimates by more than a factor of 2. (author)

1986-01-01

128

A preliminary assessment of the radiological impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on the population of the European Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident the Commission of the European Communities asked the National Radiological Protection Board to carry out a preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of the accident on the population of the European Community (EC). The aim of the study was to review information on the environmental contamination measured in member states of the EC; to make a preliminary assessment of individual and population doses for each country; to make an estimate of the resulting health impact and to indicate the effects of the various countermeasures taken by member states in terms of the reductions in both individual and population exposure which they produced. All of the main pathways by which people have been and will be exposed to radiation as a result of the accident were included in the assessment. The impact estimate is based on environmental measurements made during the month after the accident, and on calculations made using mathematical models of radionuclide transfer through the environment. The calculated effective doses to average individuals in EC countries from exposure over the next 50 years range from 0.3 ?Sv (in Portugal) to between about 300 and 500 ?Sv (in the FRG, Italy and Greece). The total collective effective dose to the population of EC countries, integrated over all time, is estimated to be about 80 000 man Sv. This may be compared to the collective effective dose from natural background radiation of about 500 000 man Sv every year. In some countries, the restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals; the reduction being up to about a factor of 2. The results presented in this paper should therefore be regarded as preliminary

1988-01-01

129

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

Eisler, R.

2003-01-01

130

Whole body measurements in children and adults in the area of Munich after the reactor accident of Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the accident of Chernobyl whole body measurements of radioactivity were conducted in inhabitants of the area of Munich. On May 6th the whole body retention of I 131 was 300 Bq decreasing with a half time of 8-9 days. A steady increase of radiocesium was only detected four weeks after the accident. After 100 days a dynamic equilibrium was achieved at a level of 13 Bg per kg body weight for Cs 137 and approximately 6.5 Bq/kg for Cs 134. A significant influence of age and sex on radiocesium concentration could not be observed. For adults a radiation dose to the thyroid of 0.8 mSv was estimated due to I 131. From the whole body retention of radiocesium an effective dose equivalent of 0.07 mSv was estimated up to the end of 1986. On single occasions doses of up to 3 times have been observed within the population examined. (orig.)

1987-01-01

131

H.R. 5121: a bill to require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to conduct a study of the nuclear power reactor accident at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 26, 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl Accident Study Act requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to study the reactor accident at Chernobyl to determine the cause of the accident and measures taken to control it. The purposes of the study will be to develop data on the consequences of the accident, the containment structure, and similarities between the Chernobyl and US power reactor technology, and to evaluate evacuation procedures and emergency planning. The NRC will draw upon the expertise of former commissioners as well as those currently serving. Funding for the study shall not exceed $1.2 million

1986-01-01

132

The Chernobyl accident: An overview of causes and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief description of the Chernobyl reactor and the accident, the activity release is assessed. Radiological effects in the immediate vicinity as well as in Europe are discussed, with particular emphasis on Switzerland. Results concerning food contamination are presented. Protective measures are described and an overview of the radiation dose distribution is given. A comparison with the doses from natural radiation and weapons fallout is made

1986-01-01

133

Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination. PMID:22853775

Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

2012-09-01

134

Natural and artificial radionuclides in selected Styrian soils and plants before and after the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on natural radioactivity due to the uptake of 40K and the radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series. Selected examples show the concentrations of radionuclides in soils, lower and higher plants before and after the Chernobyl accident. The changes in the amount of radioactivity which have occurred during the vegetation periods of 1987 and 1988 have been investigated. It is also demonstrated how the conditions have changed in the following two periods of growth. In leaves of deciduous trees which were directly contaminated in 1986 natural radioactivity is sometimes higher than artificial one today. This has not been observed in conifers, because the needles contaminated in 1986 have not yet been shed. The 137Cs activity in mosses and lichens has hardly decreased. It is therefore possible to produce autoradiographs at the Styrian test site locations. Within the same genus of fungi, Cs-discriminating and Cs-accumulating species have been noted. In the latter, radioactivity has probably increased since 1986. (author)

1989-01-01

135

The Chernobyl reactor accident, ten years on: What was the response in Germany?; Zehn Jahre nach Tschernobyl: Welche Folgen fuer Deutschland?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper briefly summarizes the design of the Chernobyl reactor units, the scenario of the accident in 1986, and the resulting release of fission products into the atmosphere. The fallout recorded in Germany and the resulting radioactive contamination as well as the radiation exposure of the population and the environment are shown. The recommendations of the German SSK (Radiation Protection Commission) and the regulations issued after the accident by the EC are explained. Information is given on epidemiologic studies carried out in Germany for assessing possible health hazards induced by the fallout, and on post-accident legislation in Germany (i.e. the StrlSchVG), together with resulting action and standards: the IMIS system was established for integrated monitoring of ambient radioactivity, maximum permissible dose limits were agreed, and precautionary action was defined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird kurzgefasst ueber das Kernkraftwerk Tschernobyl, den im Jahre 1986 stattgefundenen Unfall sowie die dabei erfolgte Freisetzung von Radionukliden in die Atmosphaere berichtet. Die aufgrund der Ausbreitungs- und Ablagerungsprozesse erfolgte Kontamination in Deutschland sowie die daraus resultierende Strahlenexposition werden dargestellt. Die nach diesem Ereignis von der Strahlenschutzkommission (SSK) ausgesprochenen Empfehlungen sowie die von der Europaeischen Union erlassenen Richtlinien werden dargelegt. Es wird auf die epidemiologischen Studien zu moeglichen gesundheitlichen Strahleneffekten, die in den vergangenen Jahren in Deutschland durchgefuehrt wurden, eingegangen. Schliesslich werden das 1986 erlassene Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz (StrVG) und die daraus resultierenden Forderungen beschrieben: Einrichtung des Integrierten Mess- und Informationssystems zur Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet (IMIS). Dosis- und Kontaminationsgrenzwerte und Zusammenstellung von moeglichen Vorsorgemassnahmen. (orig.)

Bayer, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

1996-11-01

136

Congenital malformations and infant mortality from the Chernobyl reactor accident; Angeborene Fehlbildungen und Saeuglingssterblichkeit nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The health impact of radiological contamination in Bavaria from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated. According to caesium 137 levels in soil samples, Bavaria was subdivided in a higher contaminated region (Southern Bavaria) and a lower contaminated region (Northern Bavaria). Indicators for health effects were congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality. Definition of the study periods accounted for the temporal relationship between conception as well as organogenesis and the time of highest exposure to radioactivity during the first weeks of May 1986. Statistical analysis was based on a combined spatial and temporal comparison. The results of the study do not show a significant increase in any of the outcome variables. Consequently, this study provides no evidence that radiation from Chernobyl caused a rise in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations or perinatal and infant mortality in the Bavarian population. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Bericht beschaeftigt sich mit den Folgen der Strahlenexposition in Bayern nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Es wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine Zunahme negativer gesundheitlicher Wirkungen in hoeher exponierten Bevoelkerungsgruppen im Vergleich zu niedriger exponierten feststellbar war. Der Expositionsstatus wurde nach der Bodenkontamination des Wohnortes bestimmt. Entsprechend der unterschiedlichen Hoehe des Radiocaesium-Gehaltes in Bodenproben wurde die Bevoelkerung der drei suedlichen bayerischen Regierungsbezirke `Oberbayern`, `Niederbayern` und `Schwaben` (Suedbayern) als hoeher und die Bevoelkerung der vier noerdlichen Regierungsbezirke `Oberpfalz`, `Oberfanken`, `Mittelfranken` und `Unterfranken` (Nordbayern) als niedriger exponiert definiert. Als Indikatoren fuer gesundheitliche Wirkungen wurden Veraenderungen der Geburtspraevalenz von Kindern mit ausgewaehlten angeborenen Fehlbildungen sowie Veraenderungen in den Raten der perinatalen Mortalitaet und der Gesamtsterblichkeit bis Ende des ersten Lebensjahres betrachtet. Die Festlegung der Untersuchungszeitraeume trug der zeitlichen Beziehung zwischen Konzeption bzw. Organbildungsphase und dem Zeitraum der hoechsten radioaktiven Exposition in den ersten beiden Maiwochen der Jahres 1986 Rechnung. Fuer die statistische Analyse wurde ein Ansatz gewaehlt, der eine Kombination aus einem rein raeumlichen und einem rein zeitlichen Vergleich darstellt. Die Analyse der Daten ergab: Die Geburtspraevalenz von Kindern mit angeborenen Fehlbildungen war in keiner der betrachteten diagnosespezifischen Fehlbildungsgruppen nach dem Unfall in Tschernobyl in Sued- gegenueber Nordbayern signifikant erhoeht. Auch zeigte sich weder in Suedbayern noch in Nordbayern fuer perinatale oder Gesamtsterblichkeit nach dem Unfall eine statistisch signifikante Erhoehung der beobachteten gegenueber den erwarteten Fallzahlen.

Schoetzau, A.; Santen, F. van; Irl, C.; Grosche, B.

1994-12-01

137

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

2006-01-01

138

Appearing consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Chernobyl is the greatest world's tragedy after Chirosima. Global results of this tragedy is already being seen. They are the people who have received radiation dose. the first type of cancer 5 years after Chernobyl accident was the thyroid gland cancer, the reason of it, large quantities of radioactive iodine in the air, food products, milk of cattle and finally their collection in the thyroid gland cancer entering the human body. Period all of a sudden after 10 years completed the next latent type of cancer was leykoz. Giving rise to this type of cancer more sensitive to radiation of the body - a violation of the spinal brain function. After 20 years passing from the accident in the first generation one ill child must be born cause of undergoing to radiation father or mother from each three days in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

2011-11-01

139

Environmental radioactivity measurements after the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of the environmental radioactivity performed by the Radiation Protection Division of the CCR Ispra and by the Healt Physics Service of the CRE Saluggia ENEA on samples collected in the North-Western Italy after the Chernobyl accident are here reported. The general structure of the environmental laboratories; the choice of the samples and their collection are discussed in order to plan the actions and to make the measurements comparable

1987-01-01

140

Probability of double nuclear bursts in the Chernobyl reactivity accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discussions are made for potentially existing double nuclear bursts in a reactivity accident in reactors having positive void reactivity coefficients, with a typical example being taken from the Chernobyl accident case. A brief discussion is first made on the physics backgrounds of reactivity coefficient consisting of Doppler, void, and moderator temperature effects. Three dimensional spatial kinetic analyses are then made to study the case of the Chernobyl reactivity accident, where the emphasis is on the effect of uniform and non-uniform void generation in the core during the accident. The result with uniform void generation indicated that the reactor could have become quite unstable to induce an uncontrolled power surge. The initial local void, depending on its spatial area, would also result in an uncontrolled power surge with an initial local void expanding into the global core. In this case, some parts of the core quickly attained the fuel melting temperature, while the rest of the core remained well below it. Under such circumstances, there would be a good reasoning for the local initial core damage, leaving other part of the core uninfected and still ready for the second power surge. The speculating discussions have been tried to explain the background situations for the potential double nuclear bursts, and also for the two witnessed explosions given in the accident report(1). (author)

1987-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

1986-05-09

142

The Chernobyl accident - five years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

1991-01-01

143

Pseuchoneurotic disorders associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey relied largely on random selection. As a rule, the attention of the specialists was directed to people with certain specific complaints. Psychogenic disorders observed in the area of the accident at the Chernobyl plant were followed and studied by a team of specialists from the USSR Ministry of Health, beginning on 29 April 1986. According to the nature of the observed stress effects and of the resultant psychic disorders, it was possible to delineate three periods: first the acute period of the disaster from the time of the accident, lasting about 10 days until completion of the evacuation of the population from the danger zone (5 May); second the intermediate delayed period, the period of comparatively early consequences (from 6 May to October 1986); and third, the period of remote consequences. In the course of the year, 1,572 people were examined. The data available indicate that the psychogenic disorders observed after the Chernobyl accident can be regarded as the consequence of a single process, the dynamics of which are determined on the one hand by the characteristics of the emergency situation and on the other by the traits and the degree of preparedness of the people involved. The special nature of the stress situation in all three periods - the threat to health - gave rise to certain characteristic clinical observations, primarily a high degree of somatization and hypochondria. An understanding of the psychological disorders affecting those who lived through the Chernobyl accident, and of their effects on the work capability and pattern of life of people at various stages after the accident, has made it possible to develop and implement a complex and refined system of prophylactic and medical measures. (author)

1988-07-01

144

Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 106 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 107 person-rem (2 x 105 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

1986-09-15

145

Assessment of population radiation exposure after a nuclear reactor accident. Field studies in Russia and Sweden after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since May 1986 a number of studies connecting to the Chernobyl accident have been performed in Western Sweden and in the Brjansk region in Russia. The total deposition of 137Cs in the investigated area in Sweden was 0.001 - 0.002 MBq/m2, mainly deposited as wet deposition on May 8, and in the Brjansk region 0.9 - 2.7 MBq/m2. In Sweden, studies of the transfer of 134Cs, 137Cs and 131I in soil, grass, cow's milk, cow and man are presented for 1986-1987. Whole-body measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs in 1986-1989 as well as measurements of 131I in thyroids have been made with stationary whole-body counters. External exposure of persons in villages in the Brjansk region are given for the years 1990 - 1994. The method of estimating the body burden of 137Cs from individual urine samples taken in the Brjansk region 1991-1997 has been investigated from samples and whole-body measurements performed by 'lap-geometry'. In the investigated farms in Western Sweden the transfer values of 131l and 134Cs, 137Cs from grass to cow's milk in 1986 were similar to values found in the period of deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. In 1987 the values of transfer of 134Cs and 137Cs were more similar to studies with artificially added cesium in the form of e.g. CsCI. Whole-body measurements in Goeteborg and Malmoe showed an increase of the whole-body content of 134Cs and 137Cs up to one year after the accident followed by a slow decrease. Maximum mean value of 137Cs was 400 - 450 Bq or around 6 Bq/kg in adults. The content of 131I in the thyroids showed already before the wet main deposition measurable values which decreased fast. The internal contamination of 131I was due to inhalation, but also to ingestion. The total effective dose was estimated, based on calculations and measurements, to be 37 ?Sv to 13 ?Sv year one to four after the accident. The external exposure in villages in the Brjansk region was estimated by measurements of thermoluminescence dosemeters. The mean effective dose was estimated to be between 80 and 200 ?Sv per month for adults in 1990 - 1994. The decrease was higher than expected from physical decay of 134Cs and 137Cs alone. In decontaminated villages the external exposure was only about a factor of two lower than in not decontaminated. The mean total effective dose was estimated to be between 1.6 mSv and 3.8 mSv per year in the years 1991 - 1994. Assuming a one-minute measuring time with the different used methods of estimating the whole body content of 137Cs the minimum detectable content was estimated to be between 200 Bq and 6000 Bq, highest for the urine sample method. The 'minimum detectable effective dose' at measurements of external exposure with TLD was estimated to be 30 ?Sv for one month measurements

1998-01-01

146

Children from Belarus suffering from thyroid cancer - results of the project `Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident`; Schilddruesenkrebs bei Kindern aus Weissrussland - Ergebnisse des Projekts ``Wissenschaftler helfen Tschernobyl-Kindern``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors initially present facts and figures demonstrating the increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among children from Belarus as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The causal relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the increased risk of development of thyroid cancer in children is shown. The authors then explain the activities and the goals of the project ``Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident``, giving case reports and details of successful therapy for the children from Belarus who were invited by various hospitals for treatment of thyroid cancer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser stellen aktuelle Daten zur Zunahme der Schilddruesen-Haeufigkeit bei Kindern aus Weissrussland nach der Reaktorkatastrophe von Tschernobyl vor und nehmen Stellung zur Frage des ursaechlichen Zusammenhangs zwischen Strahlenexposition und Schilddruesenkrebsentstehung bei Kindern. Desweiteren erlaeutern sie das Gast-Projekt `Wissenschaftler helfen Tschernobyl-Kindern` und beschreiben die Behandlungsmethoden und -erfolge bei weissrussischen Kindern mit Schilddruesenkrebs. (orig.)

Reiners, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Germany); Biko, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Germany); Geworski, L. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Germany); Olthoff, M [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany)]|[Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen Univ. (Germany); Demidchik, E.P. [Zentrum fuer Schilddruesentumoren, Minsk (Belarus); Kruglowa, N. [Zentrum fuer Schilddruesentumoren, Minsk (Belarus); Streffer, C. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen Univ. (Germany); Paretzke, H. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF Muenchen-Neuherberg (Germany); Voigt, G. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, GSF Muenchen-Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, Y. [Inst. fuer Strahlenmedizin, Minsk (Belarus); Bauer, W. [Untersuchungs- und Koordinationsstelle, Minsk (Belarus); Heinemann, G. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Pfob, H. [Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-01-29

147

Non-budgetary expenditure from fund 0615, item 68101 - compensatory payments in accordance with sec. 38(2) Atomic Energy Law, as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident - within the fiscal year 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the reactor accident of Chernobyl, the Minister of Finance agrees, according to section 38 subsection 2, to grant a further non-planned sum of up to 22 Mio. DM for claims of compensation. Expenses up to 200 million DM have already been granted. According to the recent development and the yet outstanding claims, total expenses of up to 222 million DM shall arise in this sector. (HSCH)

1986-08-21

148

Investigations into the health effects of the Chernobyl reactor accidents within the Gomel administrative district (Oblast); Untersuchungen zu den Folgen des Reaktorunfalls in Tschernobyl auf die Gesundheit im Verwaltungsgebiet (Oblast) Gomel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the general population. The increased incidence of various diseases is discussed in detail. They conclude by underscoring the important role of diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the maintenance of public health. (MG) [Deutsch] Die Autoren beschreiben die Folgen des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl fuer die Bevoelkerung. Im einzelnen wird die Zunahme verschiedener Erkrankungen geschildert. Abschliessend wird auf die Bedeutung der Diagnostik und Therapie fuer den Gesundheitszustand der Bevoelkerung hingewiesen. (MG)

Klutschenowitsch, V.I. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Sinowitsch, W.N. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Naralenkow, W.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Lengfelder, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

1993-12-31

149

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially 137Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of 137Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

2007-01-01

150

The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

2007-07-01

151

Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The implementation of good known effective countermeasures at early stage could have substantially reduced the number of thyroid cancer cases after accident. U N Chernobyl Forum recommended long-term activity for mitigation Chernobyl's consequences - A Strategy for Recovery. For improvement this strategy must be create the modern system of the radiation protection based on the new international and national recommendations. The key issues of the Belarusian experience is discussed. (author)

2008-10-19

152

Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

1993-04-01

153

Abnahme der Strahlenexposition nach Tschernobyl. ( Decrease of radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident).  

Science.gov (United States)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident the equivalent dose in Austria due to the reactor accident amounts to 0.025 mSv/year (this comprises 0.005 mSv from ingestion and 0.020 mSv from external irradiation). This is about 1% of the average natural radiatio...

K. Mueck

1993-01-01

154

Internal contamination of some families after the Chernobyl accident 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Chernobyl 1986. accident random internal contamination of measurements Belgrade and Kragujevac population, using Whole Body Counter (WBC) was performed. Some selected results, as a whole family member repetitive long time measurements, are in the paper presented. The parents of the malformation children born in period after Chernobyl accident are also measured. 4 refs.; 1 figs.; 5 tabs

1996-01-01

155

Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on (1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, (2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, (3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

Yasuda, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

1997-03-01

156

Radioactivity in rainwater following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rainfall is a widely-acknowledged vehicle for the removal and deposition at ground level of atmospheric-borne materials. The events following the Chernobyl accident demonstrated once again the importance of atmospheric conditions in dispersing, transporting and depositing pollutants. Much attention has been paid to the contamination of vegetation and food products, yet the quality of the contaminated rainwater has been overlooked. This paper reports and summarises the findings from Great Britain and Scandinavia and shows that the issue is far from simple or easily understood. (author)

1987-01-01

157

Impact of the Chernobyl accident on radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of radiation protection is a fundamental outgrowth of peaceful and military applications of ionizing radiation and the use of nuclear energy. Scientific progress in radiation protection has not, however, been as dramatic as progress in other scientific endeavors, because many users of ionizing radiation have perceived that the major technical and institutional problems have already been solved. This misperception is not based on solid fact and is not shared by radiation protection professionals, who have a broader vision of both past achievements and problems remaining in this area. Experience gained as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident has highlighted new problems and demonstrated the urgency of finding better answers to some old questions. This paper addresses the future impact of the recent Chernobyl accident on the science of radiation protection. In summary, the accident demonstrated that particular emphasis should be directed toward: Improvement of dosimetric and health-effects models for predicting the consequences of exposure of the public to low doses of ionizing radiation. Development of optimized, realistic countermeasures and improvement in emergency preparedness. Education of the public, including students, scientists and politicians with regard to radiation protection issues. Development of advanced computer programs and radiation instruments for evaluating reactor accidents and their consequences. Transfer of learned concepts, methods and approaches to other scientific fields, such as environmental sciences, toxicology, pharmacology, etc

1988-01-01

158

Radioactivity in surface and coastal waters of the British Isles. Monitoring of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incremental contribution to the gamma dose rate in intertidal areas from Chernobyl was highest in areas of high deposition but this did not persist and an upper estimate to the dose by this route was about 0.025 mSv. Levels in low deposition areas were much less, so that overall no significant exposure occurred due to beach occupancy. The collective dose commitment from Chernobyl fallout in marine pathways is tentatively estimated to be 30 man Sv. Almost all of this is due to consumption of sea fish and to the caesium radionuclides, but due to maximising assumptions in the calculation this is likely to be an overestimate. The collective dose commitment from freshwater fish is very difficult to assess with confidence but can be conservatively set at less than 1 man Sv at which level it is not significant. (UK)

1986-01-01

159

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of nine years of study of the 237 patients who suffered from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident are reported. Thirty-eight of these patients have died, 28 in the acute period in 1986, 5 in 1987-90 and 5 in 1992-93. The reasons for death show no clear tendencies. They include: gangrene of the lung, organic disease of the brain and spinal chord, hypoplasia of haematopoeisis, coronary heart disease, sarcoma and an automobile accident. Investigations have been carried out on an annual obligatory basis of the patients` haemopoietic, immune, nervous and endocrine systems. An analysis of the data is presented. Histograms are included showing the incidence of digestive tract, nervous system, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders, the frequency and degree of disablement and serum prolactin concentration. The types of skin damage sustained by 39 of the patients are listed. (6 figures, 3 tables). (UK).

Bebeshko, V.G.

1995-12-31

160

Chernobyl, 17 after  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

162

Perinatal mortality after Chernobyl. - Excess perinatal deaths, stillborns and malformations in Germany, Europe and highly exposed regions of Germany and Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1987, the year following the Chernobyl accident, perinatal mortality was significantly increased in Germany as well as in Poland. The numbers of excess perinatal deaths were 317 and 320, respectively. Monthly data from Germany, Poland and the region of Zhitomir, Ukraine, exhibit a significant association between perinatal mortality and the delayed caesium concentration in pregnant women with a time-lag of seven months. In addition to an increase in 1987, perinatal mortality in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus show a second rise beginning in 1989 which can be related to the action of strontium. The cumulative effect from strontium outweighs the effect of caesium in 1987 by more than a factor of 10. Monthly data of malformation rates in newborn were only available for the State of Bavaria, Germany. No increase is observed in 1987 in the Bavarian average. But at the end of 1987, seven month after the highest caesium concentration in pregnant women in April and May 1987, a highly significant dependency of malformation rates on caesium soil contamination is found. There is a growing awareness of many lasting detrimental health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor eruption in large parts of central, eastern and northern Europe. A flexible synoptic spatial-temporal method based on logistic regression is suggested for the analysis of official national as well as district by district reproductive failure data. The main idea is to model a spatial-temporal annual or monthly data set by adjusting for country or region specific trend functions and either to test for local or global temporal jumps or broken sticks (change-points) associated with the years 1986 or 1987 or, alternatively, to test for a spatial effect of regionally stratified exposure or dosimetry data on reproductive outcome. In numerous official data sets of central, eastern, and northern European countries or regions absolute or relative increases of stillbirth proportions after 1986 were observed. Those purely temporal change-points are supported by results of ecological exposure-response analyses involving the spatial dimension represented by region specific exposure data. (orig.)

2003-01-01

163

Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

1986-08-01

164

Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

165

Cancer effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, there is (apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood and adolescence) no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers in the most affected populations that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers in general and of specific cancers (in particular breast cancer) have been reported in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, but much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators and a small increase in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. Both of these findings, however, need confirmation in well-designed analytical epidemiological studies with careful individual dose reconstruction. The absence of demonstrated increases in cancer risk, apart from thyroid cancer, is not proof that no increase has in fact occurred. Based on the experience of atomic bomb survivors, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Such an increase, however, is expected to be difficult to identify in the absence of careful large scale epidemiological studies with individual dose estimates. It should be noted that, given the large number of individuals exposed, the absolute number of cancer cases caused by even a small increase in the relative risk could be substantial, particularly in the future. At present, the prediction of the cancer burden related to radiation exposure. (author)

2008-03-01

166

Review of nuclear power plant advanced concepts: Implications of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant design studies have been under way since 1980 on four general types of reactors: these are (1) Pressurized water reactors; (2) Boiling water reactors; (3) High temperature gas reactors; and (4) Liquid metal reactors. The large majority of the effort is now on light water reactors since these represent the bulk of the world's experience in design, construction, and operation. (Heavy water reactors continue to be considered in Canada and graphite moderated reactors continue under construction in the Soviet Union.) The current advanced light water reactor design project has focused on resolving the design and functional criteria so that a plant could be completely designed and licensed before commitment to construction. The Chernobyl reactor had many fundamental differences in design criteria and in design elements from light water reactors. However, the Chernobyl accident will focus still further attention on the reliability of backup water supplies, cooling and power systems, and on the desirability of having automatic (and where possible, passive) safety features

1986-01-01

167

137 Cesium in the reindeer lichen (Cladina Stellaris) from the lake Rogen district before and after the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The retention and distribution of the artificially produced radionuclide 137Cs have been studied in undisturbed natural carpets of the lichen Cladina Stellaris (syn. Cladonia Alpestris) collected in the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden in 1986 and 1987. Comparison with an earlier study from the 60's and 70's in the same area of 137Cs-concentration in lichen have been performed. Samples were fractionated on spot and later analysed by gamma spectrometry in the laboratory. We have verified the effective half-life of old caesium to about 8 years in the top layer. 137Cs concentration in the top 3 cm layer is now almost 2 kBq/kg compared to a total of about 2.5 kBq/kg. A maximum in 1966 of 1.4 kBq/kg was found as a total in the old study. The Rogen area was less affected by the Chernobyl fall-out than many other parts of Sweden. Because of different mass content, comparisons with radioactivity concentration in Bq/m2 is also performed. (au)

168

The role of chemical reactions in the Chernobyl accident  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that chemical reactions played an essential role in the Chernobyl accident at all of its stages. It is important that the reactor before the explosion was at maximal xenon poisoning, and its reactivity, apparently, was not destroyed by the explosion. The reactivity release due to decay of Xe-235 on the second day after the explosion led to a reactor power of 80-110 MW. Owing to this power, the chemical reactions of reduction of uranium, plutonium, and other metals at a temperature of about 2000°C occurred in the core. The yield of fission products thus sharply increased. Uranium and other metals flew down in the bottom water communications and rooms. After reduction of the uranium and its separation from the graphite, the chain reaction stopped, the temperature of the core decreased, and the activity yield stopped.

Grishanin, E. I.

2010-12-01

169

Consequences of Chernobyl accident in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Among nuclides emitted from the destroyed Chernobyl reactor only radioiodine and radiocesium were of serious health concern. The amount of iodine-131 released in this catastrophe was about 180 times lower than during the total release of this nuclide from 77 nuclear weapon tests performed in remote areas in the record year of 1962, and the release of cesium-137 was only five times lower. However, the bulk of Chernobyl emission was confined in time to only twelve days, and its geographical dispersion was much smaller and closer to populated areas than that of nuclear tests debris. Only a small part of cesium-137 and cesium-134 from the Chernobyl reactor reached the Southern Hemisphere, via stratospheric transport routes. Therefore, radiation doses received by the population from the Chernobyl radionuclides was in the affected areas higher than from the nuclear tests fallout. In part of Europe the doses received by children in the thyroid gland from iodine-131 radiation were high enough to expect an increase in thyroid cancers. In the contaminated regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the estimated thyroid doses in children could reach up to several thousand mSv. In a group of >100,000 persons evacuated during the first few weeks, the average thyroid dose in children under 3 years of age was about 1000 mSv, and in adults about 70 mSv. Between 1986 and 1995 about 700 thyroid cancers in children were reported from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, most of which may be attributed to Chernobyl radiation. About 95% of these cancers are believed to be curable. The whole body dose from cloud passage, ground deposition and intake of cesium-137 and of other radionuclides was much smaller than thyroid doses, and do not pose a real risk to the population. The average lifetime (70 years) whole body doses in the most contaminated regions of Belarus ranged between 88 and 160 mSv, in Ukraine 84 and 120 mSv and in Russia 78 to 130 mSv. The average doses to 800,000 'liquidators' ranged between 170 mSv in 1986 and 15 mSv in 1989. Among the >100,000 evacuees the average whole body dose prior to evacuation was 15 mSv. The average lifetime Chernobyl whole body doses in European countries outside the former Soviet Union range from 0.006 mSv in Portugal to 2.4 mSv in Bulgaria. In the Northern Hemisphere the average Chernobyl lifetime dose is 0.14 mSv, i.e. about 0.08% of the natural dose. The average global whole body dose of natural radiation during 70 years is about 170 mSv, and 700 mSv in typically high background areas. Epidemiological studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that no increase in cancer mortality should be expected at a single whole body dose (in addition to natural background radiation) of <200 mSv, delivered during a fraction of a second. Doses of about 200 mSv accumulated over tens of years of exposure would be even less effective. Ten years after the Chernobyl catastrophe the total radiation death toll is 31 - 38 persons, among them 3 persons were the members of the public. The total expected number of thyroid cancer deaths is about 500. In Poland, a country closest to Chernobyl outside the former Soviet Union, during two days, starting on the second day after arrival of radioactive cloud, 18.5 million persons were administered a prophylactic dose of stable iodine in form of 'Lugol solution', to block the uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid. This caused a thyroid dose reduction by a factor of up to 5, without any intra-thyroid side effects. Economic loses related to necessary and unnecessary remedial measures are estimated to reach in Belarus between 1986 and 2015 US$ 191.7 billion, of which US$ 86.32 billion are costs of financial and other compensation ('privileges') for peoples living at contaminated regions. It is estimated that in Ukraine in regions where 'Chernobyl radiation dose' is less than 1 mSv/year about 1.73 million persons receives the 'privileges'. Psychosomatic consequences of radiophobia induced by mass-media and policy of authorities in the contaminated regions are also discussed

1996-10-21

170

Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

1999-01-01

171

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the 137Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of 137Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the 137Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average 137Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the 137Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest 137Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (Tagg) for soil ? plant and soil ? flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. Tagg values for Soil ? autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m2.kg-1 to 0,41 m2.kg-1. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the Tagg values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example Tagg for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the 137Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the 137Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the 137Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the 137Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg-1, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg-1. There was no significant change in the 137Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.)

2001-07-01

172

25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m3, I-131, 63 Bq/m3, Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding 10 000 Bq/l. After decrease of I-131 activity, especially by decay, a special attention was paid to cesium radionuclides (Cs-134 and Cs-137) detected in food (dairy, meat, vegetables and fruits, etc.) with activities of about 100 Bq/kg. The level of contamination of the environment, drinking water and food decreased over years after accident, so in the early 90's the measurement values returned to levels existing before the accident, excepting Cs-137. This radionuclide is still present in the environment, especially in soil. The lowest values are in the cultivated soil, and the highest in the uncultivated soil, forest soil and in some mountain areas. Although the transfer of Cs-137 in vegetation is low, yet it can be easily detected in some plants from natural ecosystems (spontaneous mushrooms, berries etc.) and quite difficult in food (at levels of mBq order). Current level of contamination of the environment and food in Romania after the Chernobyl nuclear accident is very low, making it difficult to highlight the two long-life contaminants, Cs-137 and Sr-90 that can be measured only by laboratories who have performing equipment and can perform radiochemical analyses. Quantifying the levels of contamination throughout Romania allowed assessing the doses received by the population and hence the analysing the effects (birth defects, leukemia and thyroid cancer) and carrying epidemiological studies on various types of diseases attributed to incorporation of radionuclides in particular in the target group of children. (authors)

2011-10-18

173

Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

Beebe, G. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

174

Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

1990-01-01

175

Some considerations about the effects of population irradiation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis carried out with the help of CEA documents and statistical, historical and experimental studies intended to answer to some questions raised by the Chernobyl accident, concerning: risks induced by the reactor explosion in USSR and the neighbouring countries; possibility of similar catastrophe in France and countermeasures used by the authorities

1987-01-01

176

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the 137Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of 137Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the 137Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m-2) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of 137Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The 137Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in 137Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of 137Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg-1 (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg-1 in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the 137Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of 137Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the 137Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of 137Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg-1 (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg-1. Until now the effective half-life of 137Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg-1, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg-1. (orig.)

1999-07-01

177

How many reactor accidents will there be  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for calculation of the probability of nuclear accidents is described. The method is based on the use of data from reactor operating experience, i.e. there have been two major accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) during 4,000 reactor-years (cumulative operating experience). The authors argue that this method is better than the present ''technical risk assessment'' method based on the likelihood of failure of a reactor component or safety system, used by designers of nuclear reactor. (U.K.).

Islam, S.; Lindgren, K.

1986-08-21

178

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Styria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results which document the contamination of Styria (Southern part of Austria) immediately after and in the years following the Chernobyl accident. The radioactivity and distribution of radionuclides in aerosols, rain water, soil, vegetation, animals and various samples of food are described in great detail. One of the key results is that the highest levels of contamination were found in two districts (Liezen, Deutschlandsberg), and the deposition rates for Cs-137 were determined to be in the range from 3 to about 80 kBq/m2. Of particular interest are studies concerning the migration and distribution of radionuclides in soil, the uptake of radiocesium by the aquatic vegetation and the existence of radionuclides in the natural ecosystem up to this day. Effective dose equivalents due to incorporated radiocesium was estimated to be 252.2 ?Sv for the adult population of Graz (capital of Styria) over the four years follwing the fallout. (authors) 17 papers are presented and are of INIS scope

1993-01-01

179

Chernobyl accident radiological after-effect in the USSR and measures to moderate them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experience and major safety measures to moderate Chernobyl accident radiological after effect are considered. High efficiency of iodine prophylactic, limitations to contaminate food onsumption and special agrotechnical measures are preventive actions decreasing the internal irradiation. Possibility of a wide-scale surface decontamination is pointed out. Advisability of zoning the contaminated area near the reactor accident and radiation monitoring is verified in practice. A need for safety standards for separate kinds of food is stated

1988-01-01

180

Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fuenf Jahre nach Tschernobyl. (Chernobyl accident - five years later).  

Science.gov (United States)

At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate ...

K. Mueck

1991-01-01

182

Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

1990-01-01

183

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 ?Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

1997-01-01

184

Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

Malko, M.V. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Radiation Problems of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Sosny (Belarus)

1998-03-01

185

Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered

1989-03-08

186

Resuspension in contaminated soils by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the CIEMAT contribution to the multinational project CHECIR-ECP 1 Contamination of surfaces by resuspended material. Ten research organisations participated in this study, six of them from european countries. The project is one of the sixteen projects carried out under an Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, signed in June 1992 by the EC and representatives of the three affected republics, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The work is addressed to the collection of experimental data in order to make dose estimations from the resuspension pathway. The experimental activities were carried out in several contaminated areas in the surrounding of the Chernobyl reactor site, under natural conditions (wind resuspension) and simulating human activities (agricultural and traffic). The main conclusion obtained was that, at the time of the project, the doses from resuspension are small, even for potential risk groups such as agricultural workers, in comparison with the doses from other exposure pathways. (Author)

1997-01-01

187

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

2006-04-01

188

The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

1986-01-01

189

Schwangerschaften und Geburten nach dem Reaktorunfall in Tschernobyl. Eine repraesentative Erhebung fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Berlin (West). Kurzfassung. (Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident. A representative evaluation for the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin (West). Short version).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deli...

J. Hoeltz A. Hoeltz P. Potthoff A. Brachner B. Grosche

1991-01-01

190

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based on this information, to provide authoritative statements and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. An additional purpose of the Forum was to provide the information in non-scientific, appropriate languages (Russian and English) to the affected populations. Under the Forum's auspices, the WHO's Radiation and Environmental Health Programme convened a series of international scientific expert meetings. They included scientists of international repute who had been conducting research on Chernobyl. This report is the outcome of WHO's contribution to the Forum. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) review of the scientific literature on Chernobyl health effects published in 2000 was used in this review and updated with more recent information. Many lessons have been learned from the Chernobyl accident and preparations have been made to respond to and mitigate future accidents. An international system of response to nuclear emergencies and radiological accidents has been established, including the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response Network. Over the past 20 years, people in the three affected countries have come a long way in Overcoming the consequences of the accident. Providing the public and key professionals with accurate information about the health and environmental consequences of the disaster should be a high priority. This report is the result of a sound scientific evaluation of the available evidence and provides a firm basis for moving forward

2006-01-01

191

Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

1991-01-28

192

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

1987-01-01

193

Explosion of air-hydrogen mixture as a possible reason of destruction of central hall of the 4-th reactor of the Chernobyl NPP in accident on 26 april, 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculations, showing that explosion of air-hydrogen mixture, originated as a result of vapour-zirconium reaction in the reactor core might be the cause of destruction of the central hall of the Chernobyl NPP power unit-4 during the accident on April 26, 1986, are presented. It is shown that if this reaction takes place in the whole reactor core then the corresponding quantity of hydrogen can be formed at the temperature above 1100 deg C during 3 s. If the reaction takes place in the part equal to 15-30% of the reactor core, then the vapour-zirconium reaction time equals not more as 30-17 s correspondingly. It is shown also that the quantity of water and vapour, necessary for zirconium oxidation, might be contained in the pipelines drum-separation-fuel channel and get to the reactor core on the account of the reverse flow by the rupture of the latter during the initial stage of the accident

194

Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of "1"3"7Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium "1"3"7 in the U.K. (UK)

1987-01-01

195

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

2006-09-03

196

Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

1987-01-26

197

Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

2008-11-15

198

Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

1994-01-01

199

Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident  

CERN Document Server

This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01

200

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Syria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive releases from the Chernobyl accident reached Syria on 7 May 1986. Levels of radioactive contamination in milk, soil, grass, etc, were measured using gamma spectrometry. Population dose by a number of routes was calculated. Projected doses were below the emergency action levels. (author).

Othman, I. (Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syria). Dept. of Protection and Safety)

1990-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

1997-03-01

202

Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for ...

E. F. Konoplya I. V. Rolevich

1998-01-01

203

A documentation presented by the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg, on the impacts of the Chernobyl reactor accident and the measures taken. Vol. 1-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first volume of the documentation starts with basic facts and data of environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in general and then proceeds to discussions of the specific problems resulting from the reactor accident. The reactor accident scenario is described, and the impacts are explained, as well as measures taken by the EC, the German Federal Government, and the Land government of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The concept and strategies set up by the Land government for improving precautionary and emergency measures within the framework of disaster control are explained. The second and third volumes present measured data taken from April to August 28, 1986 (2nd volume) and from August 29, 1986 to end of February, 1987. The data measured in the various regions of the Land are arranged by government districts, administrative county, and date. (HP)

1987-01-01

204

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different (in type and pattern) from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan (and doses received early after the accident are not well known). Predictions derived from studies of these populations are therefore uncertain. Indeed, although an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in persons exposed as children as a result of the Chernobyl accident was envisages, the extent of the increase was not foreseen. Only ten years have passed since the accident. It is essential, therefore, that monitoring of the health of the population be continued in order to assess the public health impact of the accident, even if any increase in the incidence of cancers as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident, except for leukaemia among liquidators and thyroid cancer, is expected to be difficult to detect. Studies of selected populations and diseases are also needed in order to study observed or predicted effects; careful studies may in particular provide important information on the effect of exposure rate and exposure type in the low to medium dose range and on factors which may modify radiation effects. As such, they may have important consequences for the radiation protection of patients and the general population in the event of any future accidental exposure. 50 refs, 7 tabs

1996-04-08

205

The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

1992-01-01

206

The evolutions of the nuclear industry after the Chernobyl accident; Les evolutions de l'industrie nucleaire suite a l'accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After having recalled the scenario of the Chernobyl accident, discussed the safety of nuclear power stations in eastern European countries, presented the both types of reactors present in these countries (RBMK and VVER), this report describes the current status of the Chernobyl site. Then it gives an overview of technical improvements brought to eastern European countries, of the lessons drawn from this accident for western power stations. It describes what could be a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor and a reactivity accident, as well as clear water stopper scenarios on PWR. It evokes the CABRI-CIP program, describes phenomena that could lead to a sudden confinement failure, discusses the case of fast-neutron reactors and of experimental reactors, the inhibitions of safeguard system. It evokes research studies, calculation codes, experimental programs, safety probability studies, the EPR safety, and the notion of safety calculation

NONE

2006-07-01

207

The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

1986-08-25

208

On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

209

Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

1998-03-01

210

Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident resulted in contamination well beyond the borders of the USSR. The author notes the gaps in international mechanisms to cope with its effects. The principles of nuclear legislation, notably harmonization, are reviewed as are international nuclear agreements, recommendations etc to prevent such accidents. Problems of compensation for damage can only be settled under public international law since the USSR is a party to neither the Paris nor the Vienna Conventions, which demonstrates the need for a wider adherence to those Conventions. Since the accident, however, two international Conventions on assistance and notification were adopted under the auspices of IAEA, emphasizing the importance of international cooperation and its usefulness. The author concludes that such cooperation contributed to creating a relatively harmonized legal regime for nuclear activities which has evolved since Chernobyl and will continue to do so. (NEA)

1986-01-01

211

Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

1994-01-01

212

The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

1989-01-01

213

Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ?0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ?6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ?0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

2000-05-01

214

10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS; 10 Jahre nach der Tschernobyl-Katastrophe. Schilddruesenkrebs und andere Folgen fuer die Gesundheit in der GUS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zehn Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe im Atomkraftwerk Tschernobyl stellen in den betroffenen GUS-Republiken staatliche und internationale Organisationen betraechtliche gesundheitliche Auswirkungen in den verschiedenen Gruppen von Betroffenen fest. Eine dramatische, ueber 100fache Erhoehung von Schilddruesentumoren bei Kindern in Belarus ist durch papillaere Schilddruesenkarzinome verursacht, die durch aggressives und frueh metastasierendes Wachstumsverhalten auffallen. Die Zahl der Neuerkrankungen von Erwachsenen mit Schilddruesenkrebs lag 1995 bereits vierfach ueber dem Mittelwert vor 1986. Im Oblast Gomel hat sich von 1986 bis Ende 1995 die Zahl der Kinder mit Diabetes mellitus verdoppelt. Die inzwischen tatsaechlich aufgetretenen Faelle von Schilddruesenkrebs, insbesondere bei Kindern, uebertreffen die auf den ueblichen Annahmen zum Strahlenrisiko basierenden Prognosen bei weitem und deuten auf eine erhebliche Unterschaetzung des Strahlenrisikos und der Tschernobyl-Folgen hin. (orig.)

Lengfelder, E. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Demidschik, E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Demidschik, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, K. [Inst. fuer Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany); Rabes, H. [Pathologisches Inst., Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Birukowa, L. [Endokrinologisches Dispensaer und Schilddruesenzentrum, Gomel (Belarus)

1996-04-12

215

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1997-03-01

216

Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

1997-03-01

217

X-ray photoelectron study of samples containing reactor fuel from 'lava' and products growing on it which formed at Chernobyl NPP due to the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray photoelectron studies have been carried out for the samples of fuel-containing mass (FCM) from 'lava' and unidentified crystalline substance - the 'new product' grown on it that were formed due to the accident at the 4th Unit of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP). The stoichiometric composition of FCM and 'new product' samples is determined. It has been discovered that FCM samples contain Un+ ions of various oxidation degrees (0?n?6), Zrn+ and Sin+ ions in these samples have oxidation degrees n?4. These FCM samples include ions of lower oxidation degrees (ZrO2, SiO2, U2O3, UCn etc.) in relation to more stable oxides (ZrO2, SiO2, UO2 etc.). It is found that the 'new product' is double salt of uranium Na4UO2 (CO3)3 with impurities of Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaOH and H2O where atoms of Na are partially replaced by atoms of K. Using the characteristics of the fine structure of the XPS spectra the uranium-ligand interatomic distance in the double salt has been estimated. It has been found that interatomic distance in the uranyl group RU-L=0.174 nm and in axial plane of uranyl group RU-L=0.239-O.260 nm. It has been shown that in the 'new product' samples there is significantly more uranium (19 mass%) than in FCM samples (4 mass%)

1994-05-06

218

Analysis of the Chernobyl accident from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many researchers have reported that the root cause of the Chernobyl accident has not been clarified still now. Since many of them discussed the accident without a precise thermal-hydraulic investigation, thermal-hydraulic calculations coupled with neutronic calculations have been done on the basis of the recorded result at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Plant configurations and operational conditions were given to the code on the basis of reported result and published papers. Calculation could trace plant parameters from 1:19:00 to the first power excursion without any discrepancies measured at the Chernobyl Unit-4. Reactivity slightly smaller than 1{beta} by the positive scram is concluded as a possible direct cause of the accident, which acts as a trigger to increase the reactor power. Other possibilities as a trigger of the accident such as cavitation in pumps and pump coast-down were investigated. The importance of the calculation from the stable condition is also described in this paper in order not to bring unnecessary assumptions into the calculation.

Mochizuki, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1 Shiraki, Tsuruga, Fukui 919-1279 (Japan)]. E-mail: mochizuki.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp

2007-02-15

219

Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

2009-10-02

220

International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

2006-04-24

 
 
 
 
221

Management of Ultimate Risk of Nuclear Power Plants by Source Terms - Lessons Learned from the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of 137Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

2006-07-17

222

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

1991-01-01

223

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

1992-01-01

224

Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1993-09-01

225

Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

226

Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m"-"2), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 ?Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before the accident

1997-01-01

227

Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

1998-12-01

228

How many reactor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The probability of a serious reactor accident, as determined recently by Islam and Lindgren (Nature, 322, 691-2 1986), is critically examined. It is suggested that the Bayesian statistical theory employed by the two workers was not suitable for dealing with the available sparse data and infrequent events, i.e. only two observations and 4,000 reactor-years. Therefore there is great uncertainty about the probability value determined by Islam and Lindgren.

Edwards, A.W.F.

1986-12-04

229

How many reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The probability of a serious reactor accident, as determined recently by Islam and Lindgren (Nature, 322, 691-2 1986), is critically examined. It is suggested that the Bayesian statistical theory employed by the two workers was not suitable for dealing with the available sparse data and infrequent events, i.e. only two observations and 4,000 reactor-years. Therefore there is great uncertainty about the probability value determined by Islam and Lindgren. (UK)

1986-12-04

230

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

1996-03-22

231

Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

1987-01-01

232

International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

1993-01-01

233

Untersuchungen zum Transfer des durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl abgelagerten Radiocaesiums vom Boden in die Pflanze. (Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident).  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq (sup 137)Cs/m(sup 2) and 720 Bq (sup 134)Cs/m(sup 2), radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq (sup 137)Cs/m(sup 2) ...

M. Bilo

1991-01-01

234

9 years after the Chernobyl accident. Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

9 years have elapsed after the tragic catastrophe on the Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP. One of the main problems in the situation with 'Ukrytie' shelter which was erected over the destroyed Unit, investigation of the amount and dislocation of nuclear fuel in it, transformation of 'Ukrytie' into ecologically safe system. Problems of contaminated territory around this Unit monitoring, medical and biological investigations of the influence of radiation on human health, remain urgent as well. These problems were discussed at the scientific conference which took place 20-21 April 1995 in the Institute for Nuclear Research in which staff members of this Institute, of ISTC ' Ukrytie ' and some other institutes of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine took part.Abstracts of papers reported at this conference are published in the Language in which they were presented. They are followed in alphabetical order of the first author names. The editing group is not responsible for the data which were reported by the authors

1995-04-20

235

Epidemiological studies in Russia about the consequences of the Chernobyl APS accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final purpose of all efforts to study and mitigate the consequences of the accident at the 4th reactor of the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS) is protection of health of the people who were more or less exposed to radiation action. This situation has not analogs in terms of scale and character. Certain experience was accumulated earlier through the studies of biological and medical effects of atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other radiation catastrophes, diagnostic and therapeutic application of radiation, and the control of health state of professionals in atomic industries. However, these experiences can be used just partially in the assessment and the forecast of possible negative after-effects of the Chernobyl accident for the present and future generations. The long-term irradiation of a lage number of population at low doses is to be considered the principal peculiarity of the Chernobyl accident. The medical activities are complicated significantly by the absence of verifiable individual dosimetric information, natural or forced migration of the population, insufficient development of radiation epidemiology, complicated social-economic situation in the country, and other factors which are inevitable at large-scaled catastrophes. Besides, many fundamental questions related to biological effects of action of low doses of ionizing radiation are still being studied. (J.P.N.)

Ryabzev, I.A. [Institute of Problem of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-03-01

236

Some geochemical and environmental aspects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide fallout on Byelorussia in the first days after the accident was mainly dependent on the mass movement of air and rain. In cities, fallout was confined to regions with intensive industrial dust emissions, as well as to river valleys, where degassing of deep-seated zones through faults occurred side by side with evaporation. Radionuclide washout from upland territories can be related to secondary processes. After 5 a, radioactivity near the surface of the Earth had decreased due to the decay of shortlived isotopes and penetration of radionuclides deeper into the soil, although the major part still occurs at a depth of 1-5 cm. Bogs, peat-bog soils, aquifers with fluctuating groundwater levels, variable pH-Eh conditions and a high-biological activity all contribute to radionuclide migration. A part of the radionuclides is gradually removed from eluvial landscapes and accumulated in subareal landscapes (e.g. lakes, oxbow-lakes, water-storage basins). The Chernobyl debris is represented by the following: ''hot'' particles, pseudocolloids, aerosols and gaseous compounds. Two zones can be distinguished around the reactor differing in the ratio of ''hot'' particles and condensate fallout. A very important role is assigned to biological processes and organic matter, which cause the destruction of ''hot'' particles, the formation or organometallic complexes, and water migration of nuclides. After 300 and more years, the distribution of radionuclides in the landscape will have been determined by weathering, erosion and sedimentation which strongly depend on climatic conditions. Side by side with a gradual decay of Cs and Sr, an appreciable accumulation of 241Am, which is very mobile in landscapes, should be expected due to decaying 241Pu. (Author)

1993-09-01

237

Chernobyl accident: its causes, impacts and the lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident, its causes, impacts and the lessons learned from it are briefly reviewed from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and radiation protection, based on the recent studies and reports worldwide and on the information taken by the author during his visit to the site. The paper includes a short description of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the process of the accident, emergency actions and protection measures, health and environmental impacts, and its causes and lessons learned. To look at matters in the safety aspect, some defects of the design, such as the positive void reactivity coefficient, the insufficient reactivity margin, the exist of an area of increasing reactivity when the absorbing rods move downwards from the top, and the lack of an effective containment, are the essential causes bringing the accident to occur and breeding up catastrophic consequences. The coincidence of some extremely improbable incidents aroused by the operators is the blasting fuse which directly touched off the accident, and the most serious problem revealed is the defects in nuclear safety management in the former Soviet Union. The author holds that strengthening safety management and raising the safety culture level are the key to improve nuclear safety

1994-09-01

238

Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

1988-01-01

239

Radioactivity in the Baltic sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. has been used as a bio-indicator for the investigation of the impact of the Chernobyl accident with respect to the spatial and temporal distribution of radionuclides in the Baltic sea. The investigations were performed in July 1986, about two months after the accident, and in August-September 1987. In July 1986 the gamma-emitting radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru and 110Agm were detected in F vesiculosus along the Swedish east, south and southwest coasts. The activity concentrations of 137Cs varied from 600 Bq/kg dw at the northernmost locality (Simpnaes) to 20-25 Bq/kg at the south east cost. In August-September 1987 the activity concentrations of radiocaesium had increased with a factor 2-3 at most localities off the Swedish east coast, compared with the results from 1986. Regarding transuranics and 99Tc the impact was small and we did not observe any increase of these radionuclides in the algae. The later effects of the radionuclide contamination in the Baltic Sea, primarily caesium, from Chernobyl were studied at one locality on the Swedish south coast from April 1987 to November 1988. A pronounced increase in the activity concentrations was observed during 1988 indicating an outflow of water, containing relatively higher levels of Chernobyl derived radionuclides, from the Baltic Sea. (authors)

1990-10-24

240

The Chernobyl accident. Occurrence, causes and backfitting measures; Der Tschernobyl-Unfall. Hergang, Ursachen und Nachruestungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accident in the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power station was able to occur because of the major deficits in engineered safeguards design of the RBMK line of reactors: Faulty core design; unsuitable shutdown system; absence of automatic shutdown criteria; insufficient protection against reactor protection measures being blocked by the reactor operators. The sequence of accident events was started and aggravated by a faulty experimental program; insufficient experience in, and preparation for, the experiment of the personnel; and violations of important rules by the operating crew. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Entscheidende Voraussetzungen fuer den Unfall im vierten Block des Kernkraftwerks Tschernobyl waren die erheblichen Defizite in der sicherheitstechnischen Auslegung der RBMK-Reaktoren: Mangelhafte Kernauslegung, ungeeignetes Abschaltsystem, fehlende automatische Abschaltkriterien, unzureichender Schutz gegen Blockieren von Reaktorschutzaktionen durch die Operateure. Ausgeloest und verschaerft wurde der Unfallablauf durch ein mangelhaftes Versuchsprogramm, unzureichende Erfahrungen und Vorbereitung des Personals fuer den Versuch sowie Verstoesse des Betriebspersonals gegen wichtige Vorschriften. (orig./UA)

Reichenbach, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Garching (Germany); Kotthoff, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH Greece, Koeln (Germany)

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

1991-01-01

242

The Chernobyl accident impact in Bulgaria - a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is made of the papers presented at the Scientific Session of the National Centre for Radiobiology and Radiation protection (Sofia, BG) held in October 1992. They summarize the information about all possible consequences of the Chernobyl accident affecting the health of the Bulgarian population. The following topics are included: evaluation of radiation risk based on the radiation doses specified for the Bulgarian population including prenatal irradiation and inhalation of hot particles; analysis of oncological morbidity (general, of thyroid and of hemopoietic system); analysis of congenital malformations, registered in different hospitals during the first six years after the accident; directions for future epidemiologic studies; methodological and organizational problems in case of radiation accident. (A.B.)

1992-11-26

243

The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

2006-11-01

244

Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

1997-09-01

245

Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The epidemiological analysis of Children's morbidity and mortality from hemoblastosis (leukemia, lymphoma) in Mogilev region before and after Chernobyl accident during three seven-years periods (before Chernobyl - 1979-1985, after Chernobyl - 1986-1992 and after Chernobyl - 1993-1999) granting age, gender and place of residence: city/village was presented. Results were analyzed as for the whole region as for each of the six most contaminated by radiation areas. (authors)

2006-01-01

246

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas where further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten years strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. In 2003-2004, two groups of experts from twelve countries, including Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations have assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005, the group Environment, Coordinated by the IAEA, and the group Health, coordinated by the WHO, have presented their reports for Forum consideration. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to consider he approved reports - as a common position of the Forum members, i.e., of the eight United Nations organizations and the three more affected countries, regarding environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, as well as recommended future actions, i.e., as a consensus within the United Nations system. Tis report presents the findings and recommendations of the Chernobyl Forum concerning Environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident. The Forum's report considering health effects is in process of publication under WHO responsibility. The environmental group of experts was chaired by Dr. Lynn Anspaugh from the University of Utah, USA; the scientific secretary of this group and of the whole Chernobyl Forum activity was Dr. Mikhail Balonov of the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. In all cases the scientists from the UN organisations, the international community, and the three more affected countries have been able to reach consensus in the preparation of their respective documents. After approval by the members of the Forum, this report is the result of that process

2005-09-06

247

Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

1995-11-20

248

Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

1997-09-01

249

Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

2006-06-01

250

Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

2006-01-01

251

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish...

Gustaf Åhman; Birgitta Åhman; Axel Rydberg

1990-01-01

252

The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

1995-04-01

253

Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

1987-01-01

254

Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

2002-04-01

255

Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous <...

Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

2012-01-01

256

Ten years after: the legacy of the Chernobyl accident; Zehn Jahre danach: Das Erbe von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to take the emotional edge out of debates about the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, it is opportune to confront the sometimes completely exaggerated figures published by the mass media with the mere facts available to date. Recent, reliable information and data have confirmed that, put into relation with the psychologic, social and economic problems arising in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union, the radiological consequences of the reactor accident appear relatively mild. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Versachlichung der Diskussion um die Folgen des Tschernobyl-Unfalles ist es wuenschenswert, den oft voellig unsinnigen Zahlenangaben der Massenmedien die bisher bekannten Fakten gegenueberzustellen. Neueste serioese Daten bestaetigen neben relativ geringen radiologischen Konsequenzen erschreckende psycho-soziale und oekonomische Folgen im Umfeld der zerfallenden Sowjetunion und westlichen Medienhysterie. (orig.)

Becker, K. [Sektion Berlin-Brandenburg, Kerntechnische Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)

1996-01-29

257

The accident at Chernobyl Unit 4 in the Ukraine - April 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This paper describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building that housed it. Some 31 people died as a result of the accident, either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over several days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe, where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects are, however, unlikely to be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. Although there were gross violations by the operators, the primary cause of the accident can be attributed to inherent design shortcomings in the RBMK reactor type, which is unique to the Soviet Union. The Russians have said that the accident is not possible in any commercial reactor operational outside the USSR

1988-01-01

258

Dose contribution of 90Sr to the ingestion dose after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exposure of the Austrian population due to 90Sr after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was estimated by measurement of the 90Sr-content in 131 food samples, 9 drinking water samples and 7 other samples. The samples were taken at different times after the accident to take into account changes in the activity content with time. In order to estimate the contri-bution of the reactor accident compared to 90Sr from the atomic bomb testing, also samples of the time before the incident were evaluated. Considering the average food consumption one obtains an weighted effective dose equivalent of 0,006mSv for the adult and 0,01mSv for the one year old child. For the infant the dose in first half year of his life amounts to 0,00006mSv if fed with woman milk, respectively 0,0009mSv if fed with infant food. Approximately half of the dose of 90Sr may be attributed to the reactor accident, the other half is attributable to 90Sr of the weapon testing. The dose in the second year after the accident amounts to approximately 70% of the dose in the first year of which 70% are caused by 90Sr from the weapons testing. 20 refs., 30 tabs., 10 figs. (Author)

1988-01-01

259

Health Hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The most recent meeting in the Federal Republic of Germany reviewed the principal long-lived radionuclides emitted from the accident and concluded that 134Cs and 137Cs had the greatest potential for contributing to the human dose because they are still present, the dose will be delivered over a long term, and because of the accumulation in some edible plants and animal products. The observed contribution of radionuclides to the collective effective dose-equivalent in the first year is about 60-80% from ingestion, 30-40% from external irradiation, and 2-20% from inhalation

1988-01-01

260

137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. (GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany))

1992-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Serious reactor accidents reconsidered  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

1987-01-01

262

Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

1987-01-01

263

Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

2006-03-01

264

Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-07-01

265

Chernobyl doses. Volume 3. Habitat and vegetation near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station. Technical report, 29 September 1987-28 February 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume presents a detailed exposition on the soils, climate, and vegetation of the Poles'ye region of Ukraine and Belorussia with emphasis on the area around the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Station. This data provides background for interpretation of multispectral satellite imagery of the area. Volume 1 uses these images and the information of this report to analyze the radiation response of the canopy of the coniferous forests in the immediate vicinity of the reactor station after the accident of 26 April 1986.... Chernobyl, Forest damage, Landsat, Change detection, Conifer stress, Fallout, Ionizing radiation, Multispectral imagery.

Painter, E.L.; Whicker, F.W.

1993-01-01

266

Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

1993-12-02

267

The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

- Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a difference in the trends when comparing exposed and unexposed oblasts. - Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain: Intelligence Assessment of Ukrainian children is measured by an adapted and normalised tool: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, WISC (the verbal, performance and full scale IQs). There are significant (p0.05). - General conclusions: At present stage, not all the possible effects of the Chernobyl accident have been studied: some of them may arise after a long latency period.The basic data that are supporting our present descriptive analyses are stored in our common HEDAC database. Final reports of all the sub-projects are available and most of our results are presented in our CD summarizing the workshop in Kiev on October 5 and 6, 2004. (authors)

2006-11-13

268

Incorporation of radiocesium by the population of regions in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine affected by the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the results of a 3-year humanitarian aid project in the CIS funded by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment. The main objective of the project was to supply the population with independent information on radiation burdens and thus improve their psychological situation. More than 317,000 measurements of post-Chernobyl body burdens of Cs-137 were performed in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine from 1991 to 1993. In about 90 % of the cases annual doses derived from the body burdens did not exceed 0.3 mSv. Less than 2% of the measurements resulted in annual doses higher than 1 mSv. Open communication of the results helped to reduce fears in the population. (author)

269

Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

1993-01-01

270

Iodine releases from reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

1980-11-01

271

Analysis of fluid-structure interaction and structural response of Chernobyl-4 reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 26, 1986, an accident occurred at the Chernobyl-4 Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. A post accident meeting was held in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. In mid-July 1986, the DOE formed a team to analyze the accident, including experts from the national laboratories such as Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal was to assess the information's plausibility, provided analytical support to the US delegation during the post-accident review meeting and obtain a technical understanding of the accident. Detailed analyses of the team work are given in Ref. 1 (DOE, 1986). The accident at Chernobyl-4 occurred during the running of a test to determine a turbogenerator's ability to provide in-house emergency power after shutting off its steam supply. The accident was the result of a large, destructive power excursion. The major design related factor in the accident was the large positive void coefficient of reactivity. This feature, not present in the US reactors, means that an increase in power is likely to lead to an increase in reactivity which will further increase power, and finally result in the destructive accident. 5 refs., 11 figs.

Wang, C.Y.; Pizzica, P.A.; Gvildys, J.; Spencer, B.W.

1989-01-01

272

Analysis of fluid-structure interaction and structural response of Chernobyl-4 reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident occurred at the Chernobyl-4 Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. A post accident meeting was held in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. In mid-July 1986, the DOE formed a team to analyze the accident, including experts from the national laboratories such as Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal was to assess the information's plausibility, provided analytical support to the US delegation during the post-accident review meeting and obtain a technical understanding of the accident. Detailed analyses of the team work are given in Ref. 1 (DOE, 1986). The accident at Chernobyl-4 occurred during the running of a test to determine a turbogenerator's ability to provide in-house emergency power after shutting off its steam supply. The accident was the result of a large, destructive power excursion. The major design related factor in the accident was the large positive void coefficient of reactivity. This feature, not present in the US reactors, means that an increase in power is likely to lead to an increase in reactivity which will further increase power, and finally result in the destructive accident. 5 refs., 11 figs

1989-08-14

273

The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

2006-01-01

274

20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

2006-01-01

275

Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

1993-01-01

276

Of topical interest since the Chernobyl accident: Cesium transport in soil as a function of water movement and soil type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article shows that the radioactive cesium released by the Chernobyl reactor accident most probably will not reach the groundwater by passing down to deeper soil layers, as it is quite strongly bound in the upper layers. But the cesium from the fallout has reached the soil layers where plants take root, and also is available in the soil in soluble form, so that cesium transfer to man via the food chain is a problem to be considered and observed. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

277

Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident; Aspectos vigentes en Chernobyl a veinte anos del accidente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the inventory of rare gases of the core. The consequences of the accident have been studied during the twenty lapsed years since it happened. In this work the more recent discoveries on the effects in the health, the environment and economic that have been reported, as well as the current advances regarding the solution of the problems with the sarcophagus are commented. Other aspects little mentioned that consequences of the accident can be considered are discussed also, like they are the increment in the nuclear safety in the reactors in operation in the entire world and the termination of the cold war with the consequent dismantlement of a great one numbers of nuclear weapons. Finally it is remembered that the lessons learned in Chernobyl should never be forgotten. (Author)

Arredondo, C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cas@nuclear.inin.mx

2006-07-01

278

Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and thyroid cancer in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since August 1991, six surveys have been made on thyroid cancer in children in Ukraine and Belorussia. The results were compared with those for Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. Children with thyroid cancer were characterized as having the following: (1) frequent occurrence of thyroid cancer; (2) extremely short latency period; (3) poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma; (4) frequent occurrence within the thyroid gland; (5) the association of fibrosis, lymphocyte infiltration, and proliferation of follicular epithelial cells; (6) frequent occurrence of sclerosing variant of papillary cancer associated with fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration, especially in heavily exposed areas. These findings were supposed to be attributable to Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. No data has been available on infantile thyroid cancer in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors because of the following reasons: (1) acute death from acute radiation injury, leukemia and cancer other than thyroid cancer; (2) few survey on thyroid cancer during the first 10 years after exposure; (3) the lack of surgical data on thyroid cancer. In the case of Chernobyl survivors, there were few acute death cases; I-131 seemed to have damaged specifically the thyroid gland; heavily exposed areas corresponded to areas with low iodine intake; pediatric thyroid gland is sensitive to I-131, leading to the possibility that infantile thyroid cancer may have been induced by I-131. (N.K.)

1994-03-01

279

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

Gustaf Åhman

1990-09-01

280

Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Radioactivity in fungi in Slovenia, Yugoslavia, following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caesium (137Cs and 134Cs) concentrations in higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) from Slovenia, north-west Yugoslavia, are reported following the Chernobyl accident. Special attention was paid to the Cortinariaceae, already known as Cs accumulators. The highest levels were found in Cortinarius armillatus, C. traganus (both inedible species) and Rozites caperata. The median concentration of sup(137,124)Cs in R. caperata from over 40 sampling sites was about 22 kBq/kg dry weight. High levels were also found in Xerocomus badius and Laccaria amethystina. From the 137Cs/134Cs ratios, which reflect the depth of the mycelium and the excess 137Cs from historic pre-Chernobyl fallout, it may be surmised that radiocaesium levels in certain species will probably increase further next year and subsequently as Cs migrates down the soil profile. In addition, sup(110m)Ag was found at concentrations up to 500 Bq/kg dry weight in certain species known to be Ag accumulators, particularly Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. (author)

1988-01-01

282

Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

1990-01-01

283

Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

2005-09-06

284

Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

1997-11-01

285

Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

1997-09-01

286

Statistical features of irradiation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual levels and projected radiation doses to people living in the most contaminated areas following the Chernobyl accident have been studied. All results are based upon the application of the information system SDACHA, which includes integrated data on each of 6000 populated centres with deposition levels of 137Cs of 50 kBq.m-2 or above. The actual external and internal doses and projected doses for the strictly controlled areas (population 270,000) were specified on the basis of the data for 1989. This paper concerns the actual data and collective dose commitments in the most contaminated areas of Gomel, Mogilev, Kiev, Zhitomir and Bryansk regions. Probable variations of the collective dose commitment were estimated in relation to the scale of population relocation and demographic circumstances. The distributions and values of the lifetime collective dose commitment to the critical group of children born in 1980-89 have also been determined. (Author)

1990-04-02

287

Concept of seasonality in the light of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seasonality could have a strong influence on the radiological impact of environmental radioactive contamination. Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., 131I) and those that mainly enter the food chain by direct contamination (e.g. 137Cs) are especially important in this context. In particular, the contamination of cereals is influenced by seasonality. For temperate latitudes it is generally true that radioactive contamination during winter, when the fields lie fallow and the domestic animals are stabled, will result in a significantly lower radiological impact than if a similar contamination were to take place in the summer shortly before harvesting. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was strongly influenced by seasonality. (author)

1992-03-01

288

Local radiation damage in the irradiated during Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some unusual forms of skin system damage are described in cases of local radiation damage in victims of the Chernobyl disaster. One phenomenon was skin erythema occurring 6 to 8 weeks following the accident in some irradiated persons. The original scope of damage of 25 to 30% of body surface generalized in 3 weeks to affect the whole body. One hypothetical explanation may be damage due to the effect of low level radionuclides or significantly slowed-down particles. Another unusual phenomena was side and crural erythema accompanied with oedema and strong pain in some patients. The primary cause of death in one patient with such damage was brain oedema similar to that in toxic shock following extensive burns. The therapy is outlined in the management of the said and other local radiation damage cases. (L.O.). 10 refs

1987-06-01

289

Radioactive contamination in Nijmegen rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Chernobyl accident, rainwater was collected in the Nijmegen area during the first three weeks of May 1986. The radionuclides found in the water were "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"2I, "1"4"0La, "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs and "1"0"3Ru. On the first rainy day, an activity concentration of 9 kBq l"-"1 was measured, with specific activities of 2.7 kBq l"-"1 for "1"3"1I and 2.3 kBq l"-"1 for each of "1"3"2Te and "1"3"2I. The total activity precipitated per square kilometer in this period was ? 55 GBq. Fresh spinach picked in Nijmegen on 7 May had an activity of 1.5 kBq kg"-"1. (Auth.)

1987-07-01

290

Legislative reactions of the European Community and its Member States after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives a survey on the enactment of regulations, directives and decisions of the European Communities after the Chernobyl accident as a basis for legislative measures of the EC-Member States. (orig./HP)

1989-01-01

291

Iodine-131 thyroid uptake results in travelers returning from Europe after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid screening measurements for 131I were performed on 58 travelers returning from Eastern and Western Europe to Boston after the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986. The travelers consisted of both Americans arriving home after business or vacation and European nationals visiting relatives in the Boston area. For purposes of dosimetry the population was divided into three subpopulations--adult (greater than 18 yr old), children (less than or equal to 18 yr old), and two individuals, 17 and 26 wk pregnant. Seventy-four percent of the population had detectable quantities of 131I thyroid burdens, ranging from 1 nCi (37 Bq) to 900 nCi (33,300 Bq). The highest adult radiation dose equivalent was 5.18 mrem (51.8 mSv). The children, however, had considerably higher dose equivalents with one infant receiving 37 rem (370 mSv). Several other children were above 1 rem (10 mSv). The fetal dose equivalents were less than 14 mrem (140 mu Sv). The presence of rain dominated those testing positive for 131I. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated a wide range of Europe and a large population subsequently ingested radioactivity. The children exhibited the highest thyroid radiation dose equivalents of the individuals monitored in the present study. The significance of this is presently unknown

1987-01-01

292

Changes of radiological situation of Polish environment in 10 years period after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of natural and artificial radioisotopes in environment in Poland before and after Chernobyl accident was analyzed. The methods used in radiation monitoring in Poland and results of these measurements in the period 1986-1996 were presented. Since the Chernobyl accident changes of contamination of soils, southern Baltic sea water, other surface waters, deposits in Baltic sea, rivers and lakes in Poland were observed. Also concentration of radioisotopes in foodstuffs: mushrooms, fruits, meat, milk, eggs was described

1996-01-01

293

Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings - to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident, as well as to provide advice on environmental remediation and special health care programmes, and to suggest areas in which further research is required. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. Over a two year period, two groups of experts from 12 countries, including Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and from relevant international organizations, assessed the accident's environmental and health consequences. In early 2005 the Expert Group 'Environment', coordinated by the IAEA, and the Expert Group 'Health', coordinated by the WHO, presented their reports for the consideration of the Chernobyl Forum. Both reports were considered and approved by the Forum at its meeting on 18-20 April 2005. This meeting also decided, inter alia, 'to co nsid

2008-02-01

294

Bone marrow transplantation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, an accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union exposed about 200 people to large doses of total-body radiation. Thirteen persons exposed to estimated total-body doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy received bone marrow transplants. Two transplant recipients, who received estimated doses of radiation of 5.6 and 8.7 Gy, are alive more than three years after the accident. The others died of various causes, including burns (the cause of death in five), interstitial pneumonitis (three), graft-versus-host disease (two), and acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome (one). There was hematopoietic (granulocytic) recovery in nine transplant recipients who could be evaluated, six of whom had transient partial engraftment before the recovery of their own marrow. Graft-versus-host disease was diagnosed clinically in four persons and suspected in two others. Although the recovery of endogenous hematopoiesis may occur after exposure to radiation doses of 5.6 to 13.4 Gy, we do not know whether it is more likely after the transient engraftment of transplanted stem cells. Because large doses of radiation affect multiple systems, bone marrow recovery does not necessarily ensure survival. Furthermore, the risk of graft-versus-host disease must be considered when the benefits of this treatment are being weighed

1989-07-27

295

Resuspension of radioactive Caesium from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fallout over Sweden from the Chernobyl accident was heavier than in most countries outside of the USSR. The contamination in Sweden is also very uneven. There are areas with more than 200 kBq/m2 of 137Cs while other parts of Sweden have less than 300 Bq/m2. This has given a unique possibility to study the behaviour of radioactive material released from a nuclear power accident. This paper report four years of measurements of resuspended radioactive Caesium. It appear that the manner in which the radioactive material was deposited (by wet or dry deposition) is important for how much of the material will be available for resuspension. In areas with wet deposition the resuspension factor is smaller than in areas with dry deposition. But part of this difference is probably due to activity of non-local origin. There is a yearly cycle, with a peak in the spring preceding gradually decreasing resuspension values until a minimum is reached in the fall and winter. Overall, The resuspension factor, defined as the concentration in air (Bq/m3) divided by the totally deposited activity (Bq/m2), varies between 10-8 and 10-10m-1 with the higher values for areas with dry deposition. It has also been possible to deduce the resuspension factor in 1985 for fallout Caesium from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. It was found to be ? 3x10-10m-1. (au)

1991-01-01

296

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets; Les consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Fiches thematiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

NONE

2006-07-01

297

Core fusion accidents in nuclear power reactors. Knowledge review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference document proposes a large and detailed review of severe core fusion accidents occurring in nuclear power reactors. It aims at presenting the scientific aspects of these accidents, a review of knowledge and research perspectives on this issue. After having recalled design and operation principles and safety principles for reactors operating in France, and the main studied and envisaged accident scenarios for the management of severe accidents in French PWRs, the authors describe the physical phenomena occurring during a core fusion accident, in the reactor vessel and in the containment building, their sequence and means to mitigate their effects: development of the accident within the reactor vessel, phenomena able to result in an early failure of the containment building, phenomena able to result in a delayed failure with the corium-concrete interaction, corium retention and cooling in and out of the vessel, release of fission products. They address the behaviour of containment buildings during such an accident (sizing situations, mechanical behaviour, bypasses). They review and discuss lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island and Chernobyl) and simulation tests (Phebus-PF). A last chapter gives an overview of software and approaches for the numerical simulation of a core fusion accident

2013-01-01

298

Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

1989-12-05

299

North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

300

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with investigations about the behaviour of radiocaesium, carried out in two selected forest ecosystems. In 1997 and 1998 samples from soil, plants, trees and roe deer from forest areas, located near Bodenmais (Bavaria) and Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony) were measured on the {sup 137}Cs activity. In this areas intensive studies about the behaviour of radiocaesium were already carried out from 1987 until 1994, so that long term data are available. Investigations on vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs in soil were leaded through on permanent 100 x 100 m study plots. Even 11 years after the Chernobyl-fallout, the activity is highest in humic horizonts, only vestiges were found deeper than 20 cm in soil profile. The majority of total activity is still present in the upper 10 cm of soil. At the permant study plot B1 in Bodenmais in 1997 there were found about 78% of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration (100%=100830 Bq x m{sup -2}) in this layer, of what 27% were located in the 4 cm thick humic layer. Comparisons of the vertical distribution in 1998, 1992 and 1997 show, that the velocity of radiocesium migration takes down with time. From 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity in leaves of different plant species decreased significant. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between 5 years for raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 33 years for fern (Pteridium aquillinum), whereby most of the plant species show half lifes of about 10 years. The {sup 137}Cs activity-decline slowed down from 1994 until 1998. There were considerable differences in {sup 137}Cs activity between various plant species. 1998 for example, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in samples, taken at the same time from the permanent study plot B1, ranged from 380 Bq x kg{sup -1} (dry weight) in raspberry to 16800 Bq x kg{sup -1} in fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). In muscle flesh of roe-deer of Bodenmais from 1987 until 1998 the {sup 137}Cs activity varied according to the seasons, the highest values were found in autumn, the lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of {sup 137}Cs-contamination in nutrition-plants, the {sup 137}Cs activity of roe deer declined. The highest median value of {sup 137}Cs was found at the beginning of the investigations in 1988 with 3 120 Bq x kg{sup -1} (fresh weight). Ten years later, 1998, the median value was clear less, amounted to 610 Bq x kg{sup -1}. Until now the effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs in roe deer is 11.5 years. The valuation of the future trend shows, that earliest in the year 2010 the mean 137 Cs activity of roe deer will be less than 100 Bq x kg{sup -1}, but still 5% of the samples will be contaminated higher than 700 Bq x kg{sup -1}. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht handelt von dem Verhalten von Radiocaesium in zwei, vom Tschernobyl-Fallout besonders betroffenen Waldoekosystemen. 1997 und 1998 wurden in den Waeldern um Bodenmais (Bayern) und Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Baeumen und Rehwild auf Cs-137 Aktivitaet gemessen und die Ergebnisse aus vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben verglichen. Die Untersuchungen zur Tiefenverteilung von Cs-137 in Bodenprofilen zeigen, dass auch 11 Jahre nach dem Tschernobyl-Fallout die spezifische Cs-137 Aktivitaet in der Humusauflage am groessten ist und nur sehr geringe Aktivitaet des Nuklids tiefer als 20 cm nachgewiesen werden kann. Der ueberwiegende Teil des Radiocaesiums befand sich in den obersten 10 cm des Bodens. In dieser Bodenschicht waren auf der Dauerprobeflaeche B1 in Bodenmais 1997 rund 78% der Cs-137 Aktivitaet, wovon 27% in der 4 cm starken Humusauflage nachgewiesen wurden. Es zeigt sich, dass die Wandergeschwindigkeit des Nuklids mit der Zeit abnimmt. Die Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Pflanzenarten des Waldbodens ergeben eine signifikante Abnahme der Cs-137 Gehalte in den Blaettern. Die errechneten effektiven Halbwertzeiten fuer Cs-137 reichen von 5 Jahren in Himbeerblaettern bis 32 Jahre in Blaettern von Adlerfarn, wobei die meisten der untersuchten Pflanzenarten effektive Halbwertzeiten von rund 10 Jahre

Fielitz, U.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Examination of ecosystems affected by the Chernobyl reactor accident and assessment of resulting radiation exposure of the population; Ueberpruefung von Oekosystemen nach Tschernobyl hinsichtlich der Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1988, within the scope of several research projects, in 7,000 samples of soil, plants, mushrooms and game from forest ecosystems, the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was measured, in order to investigate the dynamics of the nuclide. The investigation sites are a spruce mountain forest near the village Bodenmais (Bavaria) and an oak forest close to Fuhrberg (Lower Saxony). In both forests, unfavourable location conditions cause a relativ high transfer of {sup 137}Cs into plants and game. Typifying for the 3 forest sites was the high intra- and interspecies variablilty of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration. Even 14 years after the Chernobyl-fallout at the 3 investigation sites, the average {sup 137}Cs inventory, contained in the top 10 cm of soil was 56% and 93% in the top 20 cm. From 1987 till 1994, in the leaves of the investigated plant species the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration decreased significant, during the following years there was little change. The effective half life of {sup 137}Cs varies between -3 years for raspberry and -24 years for the fern Pteridium aquillinum, whereas most of the plant species show half lifes of about -5 years. In 2000, as usual mushrooms from the Bodenmais investigation site showed the highest {sup 137}Cs contaminations. The aggregated transfer factors (T{sub agg}) for soil {yields} plant and soil {yields} flesh varied with several orders of magnitude. T{sub agg} values for Soil {yields} autotroph plant species reached from 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} to 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. While at the permanent study plots in Bodenmais and Fuhrberg the T{sub agg} values were of comparable quantity, at Goettingen, they were lower than two orders of magnitude. For example T{sub agg} for Cs-137 in wild boar from Bodenmais was 392 times higher than for wild boar from Goettingen. From 1987 till 2000, the {sup 137}Cs activity in roe-deer from Bodenmais varied according to the seasons, with highest values in autumn, and lowest values in spring. In consequence of the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in grazing plants, from 1987 until 1995, the {sup 137}Cs contamination in roe deer (n=1.429) declined, but from 1996 till 2000 it stagnated. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in roe deer was -6 years. In 2000, the median of the {sup 137}Cs values in roe deer from Bodenmais was 776 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for wild boar 7,890 Bq.kg{sup -1}. There was no significant change in the {sup 137}Cs contamination of wild boar, from 1987 till 2000. (orig.) [German] Seit 1988 wurde, im Rahmen mehrerer Forschungsvorhaben, die Cs-137 Aktivitaet in rund 7.000 Proben von Boden, Pflanzen, Pilzen und Wildtieren bestimmt, um die Dynamik des Nuklids in Waldoekosystemen zu untersuchen. Die Arbeiten wurden hauptsaechlich in einem Bergfichtenwald in Bodenmais (Bayern) und einem Eichenwald in Fuhrberg (Niedersachsen) durchgefuehrt, wo unguenstige Bodenparameter und Standortfaktoren relativ hohe Radiocaesium-Aufnahmeraten in Biomedien bedingen.Kennzeichnend fuer die untersuchten Waldoekosysteme ist die grosse Variabilitaet der Cs-137 Aktivitaet innerhalb einer Art und zwischen den Arten. In Bodenprofilen aus den drei Untersuchungsgebieten befanden sich im Jahr 2000, durchschnittlich noch 56% des Cs-137 Inventars in den obersten 10 cm und 93% in den obersten 20 cm. In den untersuchten Pflanzenarten nahm Cs-137 Aktivitaet von 1987 bis 1994 signifikant ab, wobei sich die Kontamination seit 1995 nur noch wenig veraenderte. Bei acht Pflanzenarten aus zwei der Untersuchungsgebiete betrug die mittlere effektive Halbwertzeit -5,3 Jahre (Minimum -3 Jahre, Maximum -24 Jahre). Pilze aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Bodenmais hatten 2000, wie ueblich, die hoechsten Cs-137 Messwerte. Die Werte der aggregierten Transferfaktoren (T{sub ag}) fuer den Uebergang von Cs-137 Boden {yields} Pflanze oder Boden {yields} Fleisch schwankten um mehrere Groessenordnungen, z.B. bei den autotrophen Pflanzenarten, von 0,0001 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1} bis 0,41 m{sup 2}.kg{sup -1}. Auf den Dauerprobeflaechen B1 und F1 wurden viel hoehere Transferfakto

Fielitz, U. [Laboratorium Umweltanalysen (Germany)

2001-07-01

302

Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurren...

Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

2011-01-01

303

Proceedings of the 6rd Radiobiological conference with international participation dedicated to 20th anniversary of nuclear accident in Chernobyl, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientific conference deals with problems in radiobiology, photobiology and radio-environmental sciences. Some papers deal with the historical aspects development of reactor accidents (Chernobyl NPP and NPP A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice) as well as history of nuclear sciences in former Czechoslovakia. Proceedings contain forty-seven papers

2006-05-25

304

Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. April 1986-November 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-November 1989  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-01-01

305

Chernobyl nuclear accident: Effects on food. April 1986-November 1989 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-November 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and the food chain. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 43 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-12-01

306

Chernobyl nuclear accident: effects on foods. April 1986-October 1988 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-October 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and food chains. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 65 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

1988-11-01

307

Chernobyl nuclear accident: effects on foods. April 1986-October 1988 (Citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts data base). Report for April 1986-October 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident of food and food chains. The studies cover meat and dairy products, vegetables, fish, food chains, and radioactive contamination of agricultural farms and lands. (Contains 65 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

1988-01-01

308

Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: "1"3"1I, "1"3"2Te, "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and, to a lesser degree, "8"9Sr and "9"0Sr. Very quickly, "1"3"7Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of "1"3"7Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of "1"3"4"+"1"3"7Cs, "1"0"3"+"1"0"6Ru, "1"1"0"m Ag and "9"0Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is "1"3"7Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their "1"3"7Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of "1"3"7Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg"-"1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, "1"3"7Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

1989-01-01

309

Selected results of cytogenetic studies related to estimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selected results of cytogenetic studies of the Chernobyl accident consequences were summarised. Chromosomal aberrations were used as a method of bio-dosimetry for dose assessment in victims during the initial period after the Chernobyl accident. Good correlation between doses calculated based on chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics) and severity of acute radiation syndrome observed in clinic was found. Bio-dosimetry based on conventional cytogenetic technique (dicentrics) has been unsuccessful for various groups (rehabilitation workers, evacuees, inhabitants of contaminated areas) sampled long time after the Chernobyl accident. Possible reasons of the failure are analysed. Original results of multi-aberrant cell yield observed in different cohorts of the Chernobyl victims are presented. Problems related to the phenomena are discussed

2000-01-01

310

Chernobyl fantasy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several versions of technical reasons of Chernobyl accident, which have received a wide resonance in mass-media, and are seemed as reasonable for most public without any special education in reactor's physics, are discussed. Probable reasons of its origination are analysed, and its scientific groundlessness is shown

2002-01-01

311

Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions under observation by the year 2004. The obtained results conform to the other authors' conclusions (Malko M.V., 2001, 2003). In the framework of the ICRP model it's shown that a maximum possible influence of the radiation contamination factor can't be a source of the actually registered carcinogenic risk. In this connection, an analysis of the ecological hazard non-radiation components is of importance. By now, the scientific community has achieved the understanding of the fact that a chemical pollution risk can be compared with a risk of the radiation contamination even in the regions mostly suffered from the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station. Furthermore, under a combined influence of a complex of factors, there is a risk of a nonlinear enhancement of the adverse effects. In this connection, an urgent problem appeared consisting of the new approach elaboration on the evaluation of the technogenic environment contamination, under which an influence of different adverse factors would be expressed in comparable values, suitable for their comparative analysis. This problem solving refers first of all to the decision making optimization at the safety arrangements planning on the contaminated territories. (author)

2006-09-01

312

Radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in EEC countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented of an evaluation of the impact of radioactive substances escaped during the Chernobyl accident, on the population in EEC countries. The results have been processed from data provided by all member countries and relate to the most dangerous radionuclides namely 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The population was divided into three groups: one-year olds, 10 year olds and adults. Assessed were external whole-body irradiation by the radioactive cloud and material deposited on the body surface, and internal irradiation with regard to the human food chain. The irradiation of the thyroid was assessed separately. As for 131I, the most endangered group were the infants with the exception of Italy where 10 year olds were the most affected group. Values calculated for the individual countries are given of the effective dose equivalent for the first year, the dose equivalent for the thyroide, the dose commitment in the first year, the collective effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid gland. Measures taken to reduce the irradiation of the population (restrictions on distribution and consumption of milk, dairy products and leafy vegetables, feeding cattle with preserved feeds, etc.) reduced the collective dose equivalent by a mere 5% and the collective dose equivalent for the thyroid by 26%. (E.S.). 3 tabs

1988-01-01

313

The state of health of Chernobyl NPP accident liquidators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After Chernobyl NPP accident more than 3000 liquidators from Armenia suffered after effects. Since 1986 the Radiation Medicine Institute has conducted follow-up observations on more than 2000 of them. Pathologies of the nervous system are the most prominent. A marked number of patients presented with chronic non-specific lung disease and inflammatory conditions of the alimentary canal. Thyroid hormone analysis has shown that during the first year triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyropine levels of the liquidators have increased significantly, and continued to do so. Later, the two former declined but the thyrotropine level remained significantly high. Decrease in peripheral blood neutrophiles phagocyte activity has revealed cellular type immunodeficiency including decrease in blood serum complement activity and lowered resistance to infection. Lymphocyte chromosomal analysis revealed considerably increased levels of aberrations and there were defects in spermatogenesis. In the liquidators a clastogenic factor in serum led to aberration levels 2-5 times higher than in controls. The new antioxidant Tanakan was tested on volunteer liquidators and proved useful. The gradual transition from functional to organ pathology, in parallel with clastogenic factors, chromosomal aberrations and spermatogenesis defects requires long-term monitoring and new preventative and medicinal remedies. (Author)

1994-10-25

314

Inquiries from the public about the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of April, a few calls from members of public relating to the Chernobyl accident were starting to trickle through to the Board's headquarters at Chilton. On the 1st May, the travel trade gave out the Board's telephone number to its clients who wanted information and advice about travelling abroad, and the trickle suddenly became a flood. During the bank holiday weekend, reporting of the remnants of the radioactive release reaching Britain received considerable prominence in the media. By the 6th of May, the Board's 15 telephone lines had become clogged with requests for information, advice and/or reassurance and other lines had to be installed. By then, the media, companies, scientists from other organisations, local government officials and various other community representatives were all vying with members of the public to get through to the Board. The inquiries by telephone were answered by nominated Board staff: they ranged from requests for factual information about the levels of activity in air, milk, water, and so on, to simple requests for reassurance that all was well

1986-10-01

315

The nature of reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

1981-01-01

316

Possible causes of Chernobyl nuclear accident and uncertainties (fuzziness) in estimating causal relations, range of exposed doses and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible causes of Chernobyl accident was reviewed and fuzziness in the estimation of related radiation matters was discussed. The accident occurred in April 26, 1986 in the Chernobyl atomic power station. From the day before, a test of the reactor, which was pointed out to be too risky, had been started and for the test, operators had repeated errors and violations, which resulting in the rapid elevation of power output within several seconds. At the accident, there were 4 x 1019 Bq radioactivities in the reactor core, from which 100% of radioactive rare gas like Xe and Kr, 10-20% of volatile radioisotopes like I and Cs and 3-6% of fire-resistant ones were released. The above proportion is said to have +/-50% errors which are possibly the estimated ones not by the statistical probability but by the experts. In discussing the accident in a giant facility, a small error probability does not always show the good reliability and for analysis of the reliability, fuzziness theory should be used on the error possibility. Therefore, whether the medical findings can be related with the dose estimated later by the probability, is a difficult problem and the fuzzy theory might be useful. (K.H.)

1999-01-01

317

Radioactivity and radiation exposure of the population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to an extrapolation of measured data, the population in Bavaria will receive an extra effective dose equivalent of 0.5 up to 1.5 mSv during the year following the accident, varying as a function of place and habit of living. This corresponds to 30 p.c. of the 1.5 up to 4 mSv dose commitment to be expected for the coming 50 years as a result of the accident. Calculated doses vary considerably over the whole territory of the FRG. For the Karlsruhe region for example, a dose equivalent of only 0.1 mSv has been calculated for the subsequent one-year period. The Federal Ministry for Research and Technology stated the average 50-year dose commitment of the population to be 1.5 up to 2 mSv. For proper assessment, these data have to be compared with the natural radiation exposure of the population in the FRG, which is between 1.5 and 2 mSv a year on the average, which means a 50-year dose commitment of 75 to 100 mSv. So the environmental radioactivity added through the Chernobyl reactor accident is between a minimum of 25 p.c. and a maximum of 100 p.c. for the first one-year period, decreasing to 1 up to 8 p.c. over the following 50 years. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

318

Emergency planning for reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the importance of emergency planning for reactor accidents even though the politics of the nuclear debate has been responsible, in part, for the slow development of serious emergency planning. Up to now, enormous resources have been devoted to accident prevention while negligible resources have been allocated to the development of consequence mitigation strategies. Various sections of this article deal with airborne release of radioactivity, early fatalities, cancer fatalities, mitigation measures, thyroid-blocking medicine, and sheltering instructions

1980-01-01

319

Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed ?-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

1996-03-18

320

Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated characterize their relations with local authorities as satisfactorily, when 37,7% of the people are not satisfied by the level of such mutual relations. One can make a conclusion, that half of the population, residing on the affected territories, has adapted to conditions of residing in post-catastrophic-extreme situation. The seriousness of the social and psychological problems caused by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, their aggravation and deepening in conditions of the economic situation in general, require work focused on strengthening social and psychological assistance to the affected population. Qualified psychological support is necessary to the people to help them cope with the difficulties of adaptation, reorient themselves to the new image of life, to help in overcoming of the post-catastrophic stress condition. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out a complex of measures on social and psychological rehabilitation of the population, supporting the measures with the most focussed and personal character whenever possible. It is important to improve the activity of the centers of social and psychological rehabilitation, especially established together with UNESCO to assist people affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences

2000-02-13

 
 
 
 
321

Radioactivity of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident at Chernobyl on April 26, 1986 radioactive fallout was carried by air currents to most parts of Europe. The radioactive air currents reached Finland on April 27. Immediately after the arrival of such air in Finland, contamination of people by radioactive nuclides began via inhalation of this air. The ingestion route become important later, when radionuclides were transported via different foodchains to man. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chernobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. The results of whole-body counting of six different groups of Finnish people measured during 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl are reported. Three were reference groups measured routinely once or twice annually, two groups were comprised of workers at nuclear power stations and one group consisted of 262 persons not belonging to any other group. The total number of whole-body counting measurements of persons in these groups in 1986 from the end of April to the end of December was 624. In April and May small amounts of 131I were detected in the thyroid. In June the first signs of 134Cs in the body were noticed. At the end of 1986 the mean 134Cs body burden for women and men in the Helsinki reference group was 730 Bq. The mean 137Cs body burden in women and men increased from 150 Bq in June to 1500 Bq in December. The differences in the deposition levels in the five fallout regions into which Finland was divided were reflected in the activity levels of the measured people. The weighted annual mean body burden for people in Finland at the end of 1986 was 370 Bq 134Cs and 820 Bq 137Cs. The maximum body burdens of 134Cs and 137Cs found in Finns in 1986 were 6300 Bq and 13000 Bq, respectively. The mean internal committed effective dose equivalent 0.06 mSv from 134Cs and 137Cs in the body of Finnish people in 1986 was calculated using the whole-body counting results. The total effective dose equivalents are reported elsewhere

1987-01-01

322

Chernobyl: tragedy of errors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The factors which were instrumented in producing a catastrophic prompt critical nuclear excursion at Chernobyl 4, on 26 April 1986, are discussed. The basic sequence of events leading to accident is detailed. The future of RBMK reactors is considered together with recommendations from the Vienna post-accident meeting in August. The effects on humans, both short-term and long-term are considered. The processes of cleaning up the Chernobyl Station and the surrounding area is outlined.

1986-10-01

323

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered. PMID:11446123

Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Firsakova, S K; Likhtarev, I A; Schotola, C; Alexakhin, R M; Zhuchenko, Y M; Kovgan, L; Sanzharova, N I; Ageyets, V

2001-01-01

324

Remediation strategies for rural territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present paper is to derive remediation strategies for rural settlements contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in which annual doses to a critical group still exceed 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data have been collected for 70 contaminated settlements. A dose model based on these data resulted in estimates that are on average close to and a bit less than the official dose estimates ('catalogue doses') published by the responsible Ministries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. For eight remedial actions that can be applied on a large scale, effectiveness and costs have been assessed in light of their dependence on soil type, contamination level and on the degree of previous application of remedial actions. Remediation strategies were derived for each of the 70 settlements by choosing remedial actions with lowest costs per averted dose and with highest degree of acceptability among the farmers and local authorities until annual doses are assessed to fall below 1 mSv. The results were generalised to 11 contamination/internal-dose categories. The total numbers of rural inhabitants and privately owned cows in the three countries distributed over the categories were determined and predicted until the year 2015. Based on these data, costs and averted doses were derived for the whole affected population. The main results are (i) about 2000 Sv can be averted at relatively low costs, (ii) the emphasis on reducing external exposures should be increased, (iii) radical improvement of hay-land and meadows and application of Prussian blue to cows should be performed on a large scale if annual doses of 1 mSv are an aim to be achieved, (iv) additional remedial actions of importance are fertilising of potato fields, distribution of food monitors and restriction of mushroom consumption, and (v) for inhabitants of some settlements (in total about 8600) annual doses cannot be reduced below 1 mSv by the remedial actions considered

2001-01-01

325

Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health' (EGH). Working draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared by three WHO expert committees convened under auspices of the Chernobyl Forum's Expert Group 'Health' (EGH), and by WHO staff. It provides an updated assessment of the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and follows a detailed report on this topic published by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 2000 (UNSCEAR, 2000). The accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine on April 26, 1986 and released large amounts of radioactivity, primarily radioactive isotopes of caesium and iodine. These releases contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine and other countries to a lesser extent, These releases exposed sizable populations to internal and external radiation doses. The Chernobyl accident caused the deaths of 30 power plant employees and firemen within a few days or weeks (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure). In addition, about 240,000 recovery operation workers (also called 'liquidators' or 'clean-up workers') were called upon in 1986 and 1987 to take part in major mitigation activities at the reactor and within the 30-km zone surrounding the reactor. Residual mitigation activities continued on a relatively large scale until 1990. All together, about 600,000 persons (civilian and military) have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine (UNSCEAR, 2000). In addition, massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220,000 people from what are at this time three independent republics of the former Soviet Union: Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Vast territories of those three republics were contaminated to a substantial level. The population of those contaminated areas, from which no relocation was required, was about 5 million people. The present report focuses on the long-term health consequences of radiation exposures in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Cancer is currently thought to be the most consequential long-term stochastic effect of ionizing radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000), but, other non-malignant disease outcomes are also considered. To address the present status of information on these outcomes, the WHO, under the auspices of the Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened three separate meetings of experts in Geneva. The first of these meetings addressed thyroid disease and took place 1-3 December 2003, the second on leukemia and solid cancers other than thyroid cancer took place 5-7 April 2004, and the final meeting on non-cancer outcomes and health systems was convened 13-15 September 2004. The reports of each meeting were amalgamation into this report, which is structured as follows: Section 1 covers some general issues and reproduces the summary of the findings from the 2000 UNSCEAR report for convenience, since that report was the starting point for the current expert assessments, i.e., this assessment focused on new evidence available since that report. It also discusses various methodological issues regarding epidemiological studies, since epidemiology provides the primary tool for assessing health effects in human populations and the subsequent sections make broad use of such epidemiological studies. Dosimetry, which underpins all epidemiological studies of radiation and risk, is covered, in Section 2 with Chapter 4 being devoted to thyroid dosimetry and Chapter 5 to whole-body, bone marrow and other specific organ dosimetry. Sections 3 to 5 deal in turn with the various possible health outcomes of the Chernobyl accident including thyroid disorders, leukaemia and nonthyroid cancers, and non-cancer effects. In general, the approach has been to first summarize the current evidence relating to that outcome, in particular, focusing on new studies which have appeared since the UNSCEAR

326

Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

2008-10-19

327

Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols after the Fukushima and the Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the Fukushima accident, a series of aerosol samples were taken between 24th March and 13th April 2011 by cascade impactors in the Czech Republic to obtain the size distribution of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 7Be aerosols. All distributions could be considered monomodal. The arithmetic means of the activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) for artificial radionuclides and for 7Be were 0.43 and 0.41 ?m with GDSs 3.6 and 3.0, respectively. The time course of the AMADs of 134Cs, 137Cs and 7Be in the sampled period showed a slight decrease at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the AMAD pertaining to 131I increased at a significance level of 0.1. Results obtained after the Fukushima accident were compared with results obtained after the Chernobyl accident. The radionuclides released during the Chernobyl accident for which we determined the AMAD fell into two categories: refractory radionuclides (140Ba, 140La 141Ce, 144Ce, 95Zr and 95Nb) and volatile radionuclides (134Cs, 137Cs, 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, and 132Te). The AMAD of the refractory radionuclides was approximately 3 times higher than the AMAD of the volatile radionuclides; nevertheless, the size distributions for volatile radionuclides having a mean AMAD value of 0.51 ?m were very close to the distributions after the Fukushima accident. -- Highlights: • AMADs after the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents in the Czech Rep. were determined. • The mean value of AMADs of the monitored nuclides from the NPP Fukushima was 0.43 ?m. • Nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl fell into two categories – refractory and volatile. • The mean value of AMADs of volatile nuclides from the NPP Chernobyl was 0.51 ?m. • AMADs of volatile nucl. from the NPP Chernobyl were 3× smaller than of the refractory radionuclides

2013-12-01

328

Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children, after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the accident from Chernobyl, an important number of studies were focused on the effects of the accident but, nine years after the accident, we still don't know enough about its impact on public health and environment. A major problem after the Chernobyl accident was to asses the effects of the irradiation for different age groups, especially for children. Our group measured Cs137 and Sr90 dietary intake and urinary excretion for children of different ages (between 4 and 12 years), at different time intervals after the accident. From the intake data, a trend of the annually committed effective doses was deduced. The paper presents the dose values for different age groups, as well as the balance of the intake and excretion, given as the 'observed ratio'. (author)

1996-01-01

329

Liability problems arising from nuclear reactor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In case of damage to health or property, it has always been approved legal tradition in all highly developed legal systems to perform compensation for damage in money. This principle also applies to damage caused by nuclear accidents. In the F.R.G., care has been taken at a very early stage to provide for appropriate liability provisions to afford financial security to the extent required by the special hazards involved in the peaceful use of atomic energy. Recent events have shown that the legal provisions available are appropriate and practicable. Citizens affected will receive fair compensation for damage. The Federal Administrative Office so far counted 30.392 applications for compensation in compliance with Section 38, sub-sec. (2) Atomic Energy Act. Up to June 16, 1986, payments for compensation of losses amounted to DM 38.7 millions. By accepting the claims for compensation the State provides protection for German nationals and persons of equal rank. A limitation to DM one billion for compensation for damage caused by nuclear energy seems to be appropriate also in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident.

1986-07-03

330

Reactor accidents of four decades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report covers the period between 1942 and June 30, 1982. A detailed description and a comparative analysis of reactor accidents and chemical-processing-plant excursions are presented. The analysis takes into account the following points: causes (design, maintenance, operation); events (initiating event and sequence of events); consequences (environmental impacts, personnel effects and equipment damages). (author)

1982-01-01

331

Some aspects of post-accident work in the control zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some results of post-accident activity in the control zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are presented in the paper. It considers the formation of radioactive contamination, estimates the total quantity of nuclear fuel which erupted from the damaged reactor, and discusses the creation of a database of the radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Some newly developed methods and equipment for monitoring and surveillance of contaminated areas are discussed. The dynamics of the contamination and the decontamination work are considered briefly. (author). 1 ref., 9 figs, 4 tabs

1989-11-06

332

Measured particle bound activity size-distribution, deposition velocity, and activity concentration in rainwater after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented on the transport of radionuclides in the environment of Aachen, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measurements include activity concentrations and activity size-distributions in the air for 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs, 103Ru and 132Te, and deposition on the ground and vegetation for 131I and 137Cs. Besides gaseous iodine species, all nuclides were particle bound. Deposition velocities derived from the measurements are given, together with activity concentrations in rainwater and the scavenging coefficient. The results are compared with calculations from models of dry and wet deposition. (U.K.)

1987-12-01

333

Fifteen years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen years has passed on this year since accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant had formed on April 26, 1986. From before or after the accident, the world experienced a number of changes. On August, 1986, USSR carried out a report on the accident at an international conference on the accident at Chernobyl held at Wien. Outlines of the report are described in a report of IAEA INSAG (INSAG-1). After then, various facts hidden in the USSR report at this time have appeared. Then, INSAG revised previous INSAG-1 and published INSAG-7 re-evaluated on technical meanings of the accident on 1992, which became so-called finished issue on technical analysis and evaluation on causes and progresses of the accident. To correctly understand lessons on the accident, it must be begun from correct understanding of its real facts. It is widely recognized that its actual and fundamental reason was slight or neglect on safety found at whole of nuclear development and applications in USSR and shorts of safety culture such as emptiness of technology and regulation brought by them, relaxation of working rule, and so on, which were only the largest lesson on the Chernobyl accident. (G.K.)

2002-02-01

334

Clinical peculiarities of the brain damage in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation into the features of the brain damage by the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident has become an urgent issue of today due to a number of circumstances. According to the classical concept dominating radiobiology until recently, the brain being composed of highly - differentiated nerve cells, present a radioresistant structure responsive to radiation injury induced by high and very high radiation doses (10000 rem and higher) only. The results of clinical examinations given to the Chernobyl accident recovery workers at Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, show that even the so - called ''small - dose'' radiation, when consumed continuously, produces neurological sings of brain damage. 6 figs

1997-09-01

335

ReSCA: decision support tool for remediation planning after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive contamination of the environment following the Chernobyl accident still provide a substantial impact on the population of affected territories in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Reduction of population exposure can be achieved by performing remediation activities in these areas. Resulting from the IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects with these countries, the program ReSCA (Remediation Strategies after the Chernobyl Accident) has been developed to provide assistance to decision makers and to facilitate a selection of an optimized remediation strategy in rural settlements. The paper provides in-depth description of the program, its algorithm, and structure. PMID:21104262

Ulanovsky, A; Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N

2011-03-01

336

Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

1996-03-18

337

Radiocaesium activity concentrations in Potatoes in Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper are summarized the results of systematic investigations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for the post-Chernobyl period in the Republic of Croatia. Potatoes are very important foodstuff in Croatia, the average annual consumption being about 40 kg per person. Due to a comparatively high contribution of the ingestion doses to the total dose received by population after the exposure to nuclear fallout, a reliable prognosis of the expected ingestion doses is of utmost importance. The ingestion dose strongly depends on the consumption of various types of foodstuffs, and related activity concentrations of respective radionuclides in those foodstuffs, which themselves usually depend upon the transfer from fallout. In addition, a reliable prediction of the expected ingestion dose received by consumption of a particular foodstuff requires the detailed knowledge of decreasing behaviour of activity concentrations in the environment and respective foodstuffs. The correlation between 137 Cs activity concentrations in fallout and potatoes, has been found to be very good, the correlation coefficient being r2=0.88 with P(t) < 0.001 for 17 degrees of freedom. As the radiocaesium levels in potatoes decreased exponentially, the mean residence time of 137 Cs in potatoes was estimated by fitting the measured activity concentrations to the exponential curve. The mean residence time was found to be 6.3 ± 0.8 years, the standard deviation being estimated by the Monte Carlo simulations. The initial observed 134 Cs:137 Cs activity ratio in potatoes has been found to be quite variable, but slightly lesser than theoretically predicted value of 0.5, calculated by applying the known inventory of these radionuclides in the Chernobyl reactor to the equation for the differential radioactive decay. This can be explained by presence of the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in soil that originated from nuclear fallout. As in other environmental samples, 134 Cs relatively quickly disappeared from potatoes and its activity concentrations were in 1990 under the detection limit of the instrument. The annual effective doses received by 134 Cs and 137 Cs intake due to consumption of potatoes estimated for an adult member of Croatian population were found to be very small, as the per caput dose for the entire 1986 to 2004 period was calculated to be about 2.5 ?Sv, 134 Cs accounting approximately for 1/3 of the entire dose. Consequently, it can be argued that after the Chernobyl accident consumption of potatoes was not the critical pathway for human intake of radiocaesium from the environment in Croatia. (authors)

2006-05-15

338

Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and we therefore welcome the partnership of international collaboration that this project represents

1994-01-01

339

Radioecological monitoring of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring programme was drawn up to study the radioecological situation of the Black Sea basin following the Chernobyl NPP accident, with studies being carried out from May 1986 onwards to determine the levels of radioactive contamination in various parts of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Aegean Sea, including the estuaries of major rivers (Dnieper, Danube, Dniester and Don) and shelf areas of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The work focused on long-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs), with the migration dynamics of these radionuclides in the aquatic environment, bed sediments and aquatic biota (including plants, molluscs, crustacea and fish) being studied. We compared the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic environment of the Dnieper reservoirs following the Chernobyl accident (our data) with the behaviour of radionuclides in lakes in the Urals following the Kyshtym accident (published data). As in the case of the lakes in the Urals, the Dnieper waters contain substantial concentrations of 90Sr as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and 90Sr therefore enters the Black Sea with the Dnieper waters. The paper compares the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to radioactive contamination of the Black Sea with that of global fallout. (author)

1990-10-01

340

Chernobyl, 16 years later  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document on the Chernobyl site evolution is constituted around four main questions. What about the future of the Chernobyl site, the damaged reactor and the ''sarcophagus'' constructed around the reactor? What about the sanitary consequences of the accident on the liquidators asked to blot out the radiation and the around people exposed to radiation? What about the contaminated land around the power plant and their management? Concerning the France, what were the ''radioactive cloud'' sanitary consequences? (A.L.B.)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Studies of severe accidents in light-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 10 to 12 November 1986 some 80 delegates met under the auspices of the CEC working group on the safety of light-water reactors. The participants from EC Member States were joined by colleagues from Sweden, Finland and the USA and met to discuss the subject of severe accidents in LWRs. Although this seminar had been planned well before Chernobyl, the ''severe-accident-that-really-happened'' made its mark on the seminar. The four main seminar topics were: (i) high source-term accident sequences identified in PSAs, (ii) containment performance, (iii) mitigation of core melt consequences, (iv) severe accident management in LWRs. In addition to the final panel discussion there was also a separate panel discussion on lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident. These proceedings include the papers presented during the seminar and they are arranged following the seminar programme outline. The presentations and discussions of the two panels are not included in the proceedings. The general conclusions and directions following from these two panels were, however, considered in a seminar review paper which was published in the March 1987 issue of Nuclear Engineering International

1986-11-10

342

Countermeasures for radiocesium in animal products in Norway after the Chernobyl accident - techniques, effectiveness, and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine years after the reactor accident in Chernobyl contamination by radiocesium is still a significant problem in sheep and reindeer production in Norway. To reduce the impact of the accident, effective countermeasures had to be developed and implemented. The levels of radiocesium in meat were reduced by a combination of countermeasures such a special feeding, use of cesium binders (bentonite and Prussian blue), and changing of slaughtering time. The countermeasures were labor intensive and expensive. Costs per averted dose per person-Sv were calculated to range from NOK 1,000 to 100,000 (7 NOK = $1 U.S.), with the use of cesium binders being the least expensive and condemnation of meat the most costly. Dietary advise, which did not include any compensation costs, had a cost of NOK 40 per person-Sv. Apart form the rejection of meat in 1986, countermeasures were deemed to be justified on a cost-benefit basis (less than NOK 600,000 per person-Sv). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Brynildsen, L.I. [Norway/Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Olso (Norway); Selnaes, T.D. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authorityk Osteras (Norway); Hove, K. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, As (Norway)

1996-05-01

343

Analysis of radiocaesium in the Lebanese soil one decade after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident due to the transport of a radioactive cloud over Lebanon in the beginning of May 1986 was studied 12 years after the accident for determining the level of (137)Cs concentration in soil. Gamma spectroscopy measurements were performed by using coaxial high sensitivity HPGe detectors. More than 90 soil samples were collected from points uniformly distributed throughout the land of Lebanon in order to evaluate their radioactivity. The data obtained showed a relatively high (137)Cs activity per surface area contamination, up to 6545Bqm(-2) in the top soil layer 0-3cm. The average activity of (137)Cs in the top soil layer 0-3cm in depth was 59.7Bqkg(-1) dry soil ranging from 15 to 119Bqkg(-1) dry soil. The horizontal variability was found to be about 45% between the sampling sites. The depth distribution of total (137)Cs activity in soil showed an exponential decrease. Estimation of the annual effective dose due to external radiation from (137)Cs contaminated soil for selected sites gave values ranging from 19.3 to 91.6 micro Svy(-1). PMID:17097775

El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Baydoun, R; Nasreddine, M

2007-01-01

344

Core degradation in pressurized water reactors during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past years, risk studies on both the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl accidents analyses have confirmed that severe accident prediction on nuclear power plants is a major significant issue. The main part of this issue first concerns the understanding of what occurs, second the evaluation of consequences and finally the elaboration of accident management measures. Accident initiators in light water reactors are ranged in two broad classes; namely, core uncovery accidents and reactivity insertion accidents. For the former, a large core degradation may arise, for the latter only a part of the core may be altered. In core uncovery accidents, which are characterized as slow developing accidents, the most influential mechanical mechanisms for core degradation are (a) clad ballooning and rupture, (b) failure of control rods and subsequent effects, (c) embrittlement of fuel rods and finally (d) crust formation and failure. The modeling in the main severe accident codes is often based on empirical approaches (lumped parameters) strongly connected to the experimental results. In the reactivity insertion accidents which are characterized as fast developing accidents, fuel and cladding expansion with possible interaction (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction) are the main mechanical mechanisms involved. The modeling in the codes is based on sound mechanical principles taking into account the latest experimental findings for the mechanical properties of the in-core materials. This paper, after a brief description of the overall in-vessel phenomena occurring during severe accidents on pressurized water reactors, gives an overview of the major thermomechanical aspects of the core degradation. (authors). 8 figs., 26 refs

1993-03-26

345

Rehabilitation of soils and surface after a nuclear accident: Some techniques tried in the Chernobyl zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six years after the Chernobyl accident, the major part of deposited radio nuclides remains in the 3 or 4 cm of the topsoil of abandoned fields in the chernobyl zone. The Decontaminating Vegetal Network allows a layer of few centimeters of the top soil to be removed with a turf harvester. The efficiency observed at Chernobyl was 97% for cesium-137 and strontium-90. After scraping the soil with the turf harvester, the bare soil must be covered and re-grown in order to prevent wind erosion of the sandy soil. A trial spraying of polyacrylamide on the soil was carried out. This technique seems promising. Trials of bio-decontamination of the removed turf using anaerobic degradation were also carried out. This experiment provided an opportunity to measure in real conditions the transfer of radionuclides in the Chernobyl zone

1993-09-05

346

CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

1984-01-01

347

Reactor accidents remain unpredictable  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several sessions the enquete commission ''Future Energy Policy'' of the Bundestag has dealt with two of the required ''risk-orientated analyses'' of the fast breeder reactor SNR-300 immediately after its summer vacation. The studies arrive at quite different results which can hardly be compared because of their great methodological differences. The deputies and experts in the commission find it hard to give a determined resolution to the Bundestag until the fixed date of 24th September whether the construction of the Kalkar nuclear power plant is to be continued or whether the parliament should make a political decision against it. However, the Bundestag is not competent for reactor licensing - that belongs to the competences of the Laender - but serious objections of the Bundestag with regard to safety would not remain without influences on the atomic licensing procedure. (orig.)

1982-09-24

348

Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK)

1994-11-12

349

Characteristics of primary and secondary caesium-radionuclide contamination of the countryside following the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl NPP was the second serious accident involving a nuclear reactor (the first being at Windscale) and led to a wide area being contaminated with a large number of different radionuclides, including some elements with a high melting point. From May 1986 onwards a team of researchers from the Soviet Goskomgidromet and the Soviet Mingeo carried out extensive studies around the Chernobyl NPP using aerial gamma and aerial gamma-spectrometric survey methods: these covered a 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP (78.5 km2), a 60-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP (11 500 km2) and five administrative regions bordering the accident zone (over 350 X 103 km2). It was possible - via integration - to determine from these studies the absolute and relative contributions received by each zone from the total caesium-137 release into the atmosphere from the reactor. Comparison of a map plotting actual contamination of the countryside with estimates based on various mathematical models allows us to evaluate any shortcomings in the individual components of the models. In order to obtain a quantitative assessment of possible redistribution of the original radioactive deposition, a recording network (with a radius of 60 km) was set up covering an area of 11 500 km2 (geometrically centred on the fourth unit at the Chernobyl NPP). The network consists of over 400 recording points located at distances ranging from 1 to 60 km (36 radii, up to 19 points per radius). From 1987 to 1989 five series of soil samples were taken at nodal points in the network and analysed to establish their caesium-137 content. On two occasions (spring and autumn 1989) gauze screens were set up a various points throughout the network; after one month's exposure these screens were analysed for caesium-137 content. Comparing the degree of caesium-137 primary contamination with the degree of resuspension for this radionuclide we were able to make quantitative assessments and predict windborne migration of primary contamination. The paper sets out the differences in regional contamination at micro-, meso- and macro-scale levels. (author)

1990-10-01

350

Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works, organizations and key personnel are introduced on these institutes and centers with the major publication list. (Y. Tanaka)

Nasvit, O. [Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

1998-03-01

351

Analysis of radioecological situation and health state of Ukrainian population contingents affected due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioecological situation is analysed at the Ukrainian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident on the basis of data of radioecological and dosimetric studies in 1987-1991 and medical consequences of the accident are assessed. Four categories of persons affected due to the Chernobyl accident are considered. Disease incidence in the above categories is retraced taking into account age, sex and obtained dose. 1 tab

1993-01-01

352

Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

1993-01-01

353

Cancer incidence in population of the Bryansk and Belgorod regions after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptive analysis of 150,000 new cancer cases registered in 1980-2000 in the Bryansk and Belgorod Regions of Russia, radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident in different levels, has been carried out. Gender, age at diagnosis, demographic changes and other factors were taking into account. It was demonstrated, that the structure and dynamics of cancer incidence had similar features in two Regions after the accident. It is supposed that low dosed acted as promoters of carcinogenesis

2006-04-01

354

Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States: Volume 1, Main report: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report (NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

1989-01-01

355

Implications of the accident at Chernobyl for safety regulation of commercial nuclear power plants in the United Sates: Volume 2, Appendix - Public comments and their disposition: Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The facts used in this assessment have been drawn from the US fact-finding report(NUREG-1250) and its sources. The general conclusions of the document are that there are generic lessons to be learned but that no changes in regulations are needed due to the substantial differences in the design, safety features and operation of US plants as compared to those in the USSR. Given these general conclusions, further consideration of certain specific areas is recommended by the report. These include: administrative controls over reactor regulation, reactivity accidents, accidents at low or zero power, multi-unit protection, fires, containment, emergency planning, severe accident phenomena, and graphite-moderated reactors

1989-01-01

356

Results of liver puncture biopsy in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident with hepatic pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper provides review of data on study of liver damage under radiation impact. Liver structure in liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences was studied. It is determined that in patients with hepatic pathology occurs, in the future, structural alterations from the side of the liver after being under conditions of low dose ionizing radiation impact. (author)

2005-09-06

357

Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in the environment of Chattia, a region of the FRG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The activity of various radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in air, water, grass, soil, milk and other samples in Chattia is followed as function of time from the end of april to the end of june. From the decrease in activity the ecological half-life of /sup 131/I and of /sup 137/Cs in various samples is evaluated and discussed.

Hoffmann, P.; Pilz, N.; Lieser, K.H.; Ilmstaedter, V.; Griesbach

1987-01-01

358

Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

1993-01-01

359

Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the "1"3"7Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

1986-01-01

360

Time course of changes in the health of Chernobyl accident liquidators residing in the Moscow Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disease incidence, disability and mortality of persons participated in the Chernobyl accident response are analysed for Moscow Province residents. Results of medical examinations for 10 years were presented. It is shown that functional derangements are the main pathology at the first stage of prophylactic medical examination cardiovascular and oncological diseases are urgent at the second stage (after 1991) of medical examination

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Results of special radiation measurements resulting from the Chernobyl accident and regional analysis of environmental radioactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the results concerning the monitoring of the environmental radioactivity in France following Chernobyl accident. Atmospheric dusts, milk and milk products, vegetables, water and various beverages are analyzed. More than 1500 additional food samples are presented. Regional analysis of radioactivity and human gamma-spectrometric investigations are included

1986-01-01

362

An accident with consequences. 25 years Chernobyl; Ein Unfall mit Folgen. 25 Jahre Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution covers questions to the institute for applied ecology in Freiburg concerning the following issues: situation in the institute following the information on the accident in Chernobyl, information for the public and German authorities, the radioactive cloud, the information chaos, the environmental consequences in Germany and the radiological impact on the population.

NONE

2011-07-01

363

Mastered horror. Life in the Ukraine ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book, written in a journalistic style, reports on the visit of the author on her visit to the Ukraine 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. It is based on interviews with the affected population, with scientists (doctors, veterinarians, biologists, psychologists, ecologists), parliamentarians and representatives of the state administration. figs., refs

1996-01-01

364

Antioxidant therapy of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' organ of sight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant complex including flakumin, glutamic acid and sodium thiosulfate, has been used for treating pathologic changes in the organs of sight of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators. Its positive effect on a number of hormonal and immunology indices of blood and the visual acuity stabilization has been shown

1998-04-01

365

Reactor accidents: iodine supplements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This editorial discusses whether stable iodine should be given to block thyroid uptake in a population at risk from radioiodine intake after a reactor incident. It is concluded that the best interests of the public would be served by the administration of a single dose of potassium iodide (or iodate) to a population at risk immediately a release of radioiodine occurs, followed by evacuation if found necessary once measurements are available. Management of contaminated personnel and people remaining in an area of significant contamination appears less certain. Continued blocking of thyroid uptake may be achieved by the use of potassium iodide 50 mg 12-hourly (or 150 mg once daily), but further research is required to establish the risks associated with long term thyroid blockade. (U.K.)

1983-02-26

366

Internal radiation doses of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Chernobyl radionuclides carried by airstreams reached Finland on April 27, 1986. The radioactive cloud spread over central and southern Finland and to a lesser extent over northern Finland. In Helsinki the maximum radionuclide concentrations in air were measured in late evening of April 28. The radioactive cloud remained over Finland only a short time and within a few days the radionuclide concentrations in the air decreased to one-hundredth of the maximum values. Most radionuclides causing deposition were washed down by local showers, resulting in very uneven deposition of radionuclides on the ground. In a addition minor amounts of radioactivity were deposited on Mav 10-12. For internal and external dose estimations Finland was divided into five fallout regions (1-5) according to the increasing 137Cs surface activity. At first, the short-lived radionuclides as well as 134Cs and 137Cs contributed to the external dose rate. Only the long-lived isotopes, 134Cs and especially 137Cs, later determined the external dose rates. The regions and corresponding dose rates and deposition categories on October 1, 1987, are shown.To estimate the total dose of the Finnish population from the radionuclides originating at Chernobyl the effective external and internal doses were calculated; the external doses were estimated using the data given. Groups of Finnish people representing the five fallout regions were whole-body counted annually during 1986-1990. The results of these measurements and those of the reference group were used to estimate the internal body burdens and radiation doses from 134Cs and 137Cs to the population

1997-09-01

367

Effect of natural ?-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, 2, and >5 Ci/m2, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, ?-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture ?-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural ?-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children's sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or ?-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of ?-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans ?-carotene, ?-carotene, but not 9-cis ?-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural ?-carotene may act as an in vivo lipophilic antioxidant or radioprotector. (orig.)

1998-10-01

368

Report on the implementation of the programme initiated by the German Federal Government for investigation of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident relating to safety engineering, public health, research activities, and energy policy; Bericht ueber die Umsetzung des Arbeitsprogramms der Bundesregierung zu den sicherheits-, gesundheits-, forschungs- und energiepolitischen Folgen aus dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to a decision of the state secretaries on May 26, 1986, the Federal Government on September 3, 1986 launched a programme of activities intended to study and describe the situation in Germany after the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to safety engineering, public health, research and energy policy, and other aspects of public interest, and to provide for collaborative action at the national and European level. The report in hand explains the measures and activities carried out and their results within the last ten years following the reactor accident. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Bundesregierung hatte am 03. September 1986 auf Beschluss der Staatssekretaere vom 26. Mai 1986 ein Arbeitsprogramm aufgestellt, in dem im Anschluss an die Diskussion zum Reaktorunfall Tschernobyl die sicherheits- und gesundheitspolitischen, forschungspolitischen, energiepolitischen und oeffentlichkeitsrelevanten Gesichtspunkte staerker koordiniert und mit den europapolitischen und internationalen Aktivitaeten abgestimmt werden sollten. In dem vorliegenden Bericht stellt die Bundesregierung zehn Jahre nach dem Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl die zur Umsetzung des Arbeitsprogramms durchgefuehrten Massnahmen dar. (orig./SR)

NONE

1996-03-01

369

Emergency planning practices and criteria in the OECD countries after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This critical review has been prepared at the request of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), on the basis of information collected from Member countries on their emergency planning practices and criteria, and on changes being considered as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. This information was officially provided to the Secretariat in response to a questionnaire. Other material has also been used, such as official papers describing national practices and reports presented at meetings organised by the NEA. In these cases the sources are given in the list of references. The information in this report reflects the situation in the Member countries at the end of 1987 and it might well be that additional changes were introduced in the emergency planning practices and criteria of several countries after the answers were sent to the Secretariat. It should also be noted that several of the questions were mainly relevant to nuclear power reactor operations. However, the basic philosophy for emergency planning is general, i.e. radiological criteria, emergency organisation, medical assistance, information to the public, etc., and applies in similar ways to different emergencies. Therefore, the information in the report should be valid for different types of radiological emergencies, although emphasis is placed in the report is on nuclear power reactor emergencies. For non-nuclear power Member countries the information refers mainly to plans to cope with other types of radiation emergencies, and to emergencies of a transboundary origin. Finally, the information covers only the off-site part of emergency planning, apart from some reflections in Chapter 1 on on-site emergency planning and the measures taken at nuclear facilities to prevent an accident or mitigate its consequences

1988-01-01

370

Accident analysis in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Full text: The incomplete understanding of the complex mechanisms connected with the interaction between thermal-hydraulic and neutron kinetics still challenges the design and the operation of nuclear reactors and imposes the adoption of conservatism in the evaluation of safety limits. The recent availability of powerful computer and computational techniques together with the continuing increase in operational experience suggests the revisiting of those areas and the identification of design/operation requirements that can be relaxed. So far, almost all of the safety analyses of research reactors have been performed using conservative computational tools such as channel codes but, nowadays, the application of Best-Estimate (BE) methods constitutes a real necessity. The global aim of the current work is an attempt to apply the best-estimate system thermal-hydraulic code Relap5. For this purpose, the generic IAEA research reactor Benchmark problem is re-considered for proving the adequacy of the available computational tools. Within the same framework, one of the most severe accident categories that may occur during a research reactor lifetime is also considered. This is related to a total and partial blockage of the cooling channel of a single Fuel Assembly. Such event constitutes a stern scenario for this type of reactor since it may lead to local dryout and eventually to the loss of the fuel assembly integrity. The study constitutes the first step of a larger work, which consists in performing a 3D simulation using the Best Estimate coupled code technique. To demonstrate the suitability of the technique, the loss of Shutdown Heat Removal accident in a MTR pool type research reactor is analysed. The accident occurs when the passive shutdown natural convection cooling system is failing for instance due to the rupture of an experimental beam tube. The accident will lead to a partial core uncovering. Although most of the research investigations in the world were performed for the analysis of the natural air cooled research reactor core, it is demonstrated that there is a power density may exist above which partial submergence causes higher temperature than no submergence at all

2006-10-15

371

Reactor accidents and how to protect oneself from them  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl reactor accident has sharpened our sense of nuclear energy risks and dangers. Much as we hope it to never occur again in the future we know that there is no way of guaranteeing this to be the case. What is to be done in case of another reactor accident with radioactive radiation threatening to destroy us and the environment? Emergency measures protecting and saving our lives and health cannot be taken but with sufficient information at hand. The book informs about measures to be taken under emergency conditions. Nuclear energy and its alternatives, preventive measures, adequate nutrition and advice for pregnant women and for children are among the further subjects dealt with. (orig./HP)

1986-01-01

372

The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

1995-01-01

373

Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

J. Lelieveld

2012-05-01

374

The rehabilitation strategies in agriculture in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the aftermath of the severe radiation accidents shows that in the case of large-scaled radionuclide contamination the limitation of internal radiation doses to people by means of restoration of agricultural lands is more realistic than reduction of levels of external irradiation. Therefore, the problems connected with the optimal restoration strategies of agricultural land subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident are of crucial importance. The justification of the approach for the estimation of the effectiveness of countermeasure strategies in the long term after the Chernobyl accident, based on the classification of farms by contamination density and risk of the exceeding of radiological standards, restricting the use of agricultural products, is presented. For each class of the farms the ranking of rehabilitation options and the time periods when their application would be of importance are given. Comparative analysis of the rehabilitation strategies, which are different in their effectiveness and cost, is provided. (author)

2002-04-01

375

Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

1994-09-01

376

Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

2009-11-02

377

Disaster management. The current state of the sarcophagus and the ruined reactor in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Today, twenty years after Chernobyl accident it is still unclear for the public and even for the some engineers what happened with the reactor number four of ChNPP and what is the current state of Sarcophagus, the shelter constructed to hide the exploded reactor. One of the Kurchatov Institute engineers, Mr. Checherov stated recently that Chernobyl reactor was destroyed by the nuclear explosion and that the Sarcophagus contains only small part of radioactivity ejected by the explosion. Checherov, who has personally examined all the rooms inside Unit 4, disputes the official line that most of the fuel is still inside the reactor hall. ''We have found less than 10%, perhaps 4-6%,'' he says. ''Inside there was nothing, none of the core, just lots of concrete.''(2) As for character of explosion, Checherov point of view is not new and other confirmations of nuclear nature of it exists which will be discussed. Less known is the fact that existing of the significant mass of nuclear fuel inside the Sarcophagus never was confirmed. It is extremely important now, when the ambitious plans of creating new Sarcophagus are close to the practical start, to think once more about necessity and effectiveness of these plans. (orig.)

2006-04-24

378

Chernobyl: a documentary story  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This account of the Chernobyl disaster of April 1986 is based on interviews with many of the participants. Realising that the Chernobyl accident was to have a massive impact on the USSR and the world, the author felt impelled to travel to the designated danger zone around the reactor, to live there and to interview firemen, first-aid workers, party and government officials and local media representatives. The result is a variety of vivid eyewitness accounts that are unprecedented in their detail and frankness. These accounts show why the author considers the Chernobyl accident to be the most important event in the Soviet Union since World War II. The book, itself a product of glasnost, reveals how the Chernobyl accident was viewed from inside the Soviet Union. (author)

1989-01-01

379

Chernobyl accident: soils contamination, sanitary impacts and contaminated territories management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the radioactive releases of Chernobyl between the 26 April and the 10 May 1986, the radiologic situation of the contaminated areas of USSR, Ukraine and Belarus is now invested, and if this does not allow to reconstruct the received doses of the population during the first weeks, it makes possible to calculate the received doses afterwards, and to estimate the potential expositions. (A.B.). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1986-05-10

380

Third annual Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: retrospective analysis of impacts of the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the >600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. An exception is a cohort of several hundred emergency workers who received high radiation doses and of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age and some increase of leukemia in the most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. There was, however, an increase in psychological problems among the affected population, compounded by the social disruption that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union. Despite the unprecedented scale of the Chernobyl accident, its consequences on the health of people are far less severe than those of the atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Studying the consequences of the Chernobyl accident has made an invaluable scientific contribution to the development of nuclear safety, radioecology, radiation medicine and protection, and also the social sciences. The Chernobyl accident initiated the global nuclear and radiation safety regime. PMID:18049216

Balonov, Mikhail

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

1993-01-01

382

Radionuclides variation in macro lichens in Estonia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive pollution from the Chernobyl NPS reactor accident has wide-scale impact through radionuclides fallout over large areas. We used macro lichens belonging to the Cetraria and Cladina genera for the investigation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr fallout and migration in the system plant-soil. Systematic field collections were made in the Rumpo Botanical Sanctuary on Vormsi island(West Estonian Archipelago Biosphere Reserve) and in Koljaku reserve (Lahemaa National Park, LNP) during 1986-89, additional data for comparison were collected in the Caucasus, Spitsbergen, Yamal peninsula, the Urals and Baikal lake reserve, and from various regions of the european part of USSR. The maximum concentrations of radionuclides of caesium and strontium in macro lichens exceeded those known from literature for the Arctic areas during the period of nuclear testing. In 1986 the highest concentration of '137 Cs in Estonia - 6.2 kBq/kg was measured in the Cetraria islandica in LNP. In Rumpo Sanctuary the highest concentrations of caesium radionuclide were estimated in July 1986 - 4.5 for Cl.rangiferina and 4.4 kBq/kg for C.cucullata. Radiocaesium content decreased rapidly in the following years. The highest rate was established for Cl.rangiferina - 12.5 in three years. The absolute values of radiostrontium content in the four investigated lichen species before and after the Chernobyl accident do not differ considerably. The decrease of 90 Sr concentration is more evident for Cl. rangiferina - from 62 in July 1986 to 15 Bq/kg in October, 1988. The same trend is obvious for the radionuclides store: in July 1986 the store of 137 Cs in the lichen cover was maximum, 1.7 kBq/m2, and then decreased continuously reaching 0.23 kBq/m2 in 1989. The highest store of caesium in soil radionuclide was reached in october 1987 - 4.1 kBq/m3 x 0.02. (author). refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

1991-01-01

383

The Chernobyl accident and its direct and late effects an surface bodies of water in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects on the tritium content (monthly composite samples) of German surface waters could not be detected. After the nuclear reactor accident in Chernobyl, however, the increased radioactive content in the Rhine and the Moselle could easily be detected in the samples of May 1986 by means of the residual ? determination. The Sr-90 contents of up to 0.010 Bq/l measured in the Rhine and the Moselle were only slightly higher than the values measured in 1985. For the nuclide ratio Sr-89/Sr-90, measured in rainwater samples, a value of 18.7 ±8.7 (n=10) was determined. An extraordinary high nuclide content was observed in the solids contained in water (suspended matters, sediments). Cs-137 contents of up to 6000 Bq/kg TM were measured in suspended matter samples from the Moselle (monthly composite samples). A careful analysis of the activity quotient, adjusted to decay, measured in different German river areas on samples of suspended matters, sediments, and - with restrictions - of rainwater, showed a distinct increase in South-North direction. This regional fractionation can obviously be set in correlation with the local conditions of the place of release. (orig./DG)

1987-01-01

384

The Chernobyl accident: current vision of its causes and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses actual data on the chronology of the accident sequences and the power unit parameters starting from 01:00 April 25, 1986, as well as results of the accident processes computing, obtained from the three models. The authors note that in addition to general conclusions on the causes of the accident process development there are significant differences in the results of its detailed scenario analysis and point out the necessity of further research

1991-01-01

385

Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: what has changed in the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The threat of a major accidental or deliberate event that would lead to hazardous materials emission in the atmosphere is a great cause of concern to societies. This is due to the potential large scale of casualties and damages that could result from the release of explosive, flammable or toxic gases from industrial plants or transport accidents, radioactive material from nuclear power plants (NPPs), and chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) terrorist attacks. In order to respond efficiently to such events, emergency services and authorities resort to appropriate planning and organizational patterns. This paper focuses on the use of atmospheric dispersion modeling (ADM) as a support tool for emergency planning and response, to assess the propagation of the hazardous cloud and thereby, take adequate counter measures. This paper intends to illustrate the noticeable evolution in the operational use of ADM tools over 25 y and especially in emergency situations. This study is based on data available in scientific publications and exemplified using the two most severe nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). It appears that during the Chernobyl accident, ADM were used few days after the beginning of the accident mainly in a diagnosis approach trying to reconstruct what happened, whereas 25 y later, ADM was also used during the first days and weeks of the Fukushima accident to anticipate the potentially threatened areas. We argue that the recent developments in ADM tools play an increasing role in emergencies and crises management, by supporting stakeholders in anticipating, monitoring and assessing post-event damages. However, despite technological evolutions, its prognostic and diagnostic use in emergency situations still arise many issues. -- Highlights: • Study of atmospheric dispersion modeling use during nuclear accidents. • ADM tools were mainly used in a diagnosis approach during Chernobyl accident. • ADM tools were also used in a prognosis approach during Fukushima accident. • Operational use of ADM tools by emergency decision makers still raises concerns

2013-12-01

386

Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

1997-09-01

387

Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet union and measures taken to mitigate their impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of factual material on the levels of radioactive contamination of the environment in various regions of the Soviet Union, a forecast is given of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the Soviet population

388

Seasonal variation of cesium 134 and cesium 137 in semidomestic reindeer in Norway after the Chernobyl accident  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Chernobyl accident had a great impact on the semidomestic reindeer husbandry in central Norway. Seasonal differences in habitat and diet resulted in large variations in observed radiocesium concentrations in reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. In three areas with high values of cesium-134 and cesium-137 in lichens, the main feed for reindeer in winter, reindeer were sampled every second month to monitor the seasonal variation and the decrease rate of the radioactivity. The results are ...

Eikelmann, I. M. H.; Bye, K.; Sletten, H. D.

1990-01-01

389

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

2001-01-01

390

Accident analysis in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities of code capabilities have been enlarged substantially. Consequently, advanced safety evaluations and design optimizations that were not possible few years ago can now be performed. The challenge today is to revisit the safety features of the existing nuclear plants and particularly research reactors in order to verify that the safety requirements are still met and - when necessary - to introduce some amendments not only to meet the new requirements but also to introduce new equipment from recent development of new technologies. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the accident analysis technology applied to the research reactor, with emphasis given to the capabilities of computational tools. (author)

2007-09-10

391

Pregnancy outcome in Finland after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused radioactive fallout in Finland in April-May 1986. The fallout was unevenly distributed geographically, and accordingly, the country was divided into 3 fallout zones. Whole-body radioactivity measurements of randomly chosen persons showed that the regional differences prevailed throughout the following 2 years. Data for legal abortions, registered congenital malformations as well as preterm births and stillbirths of malformed children were collected. The corresponding expected figures were obtained from statistics for 1984 and 1985. No differences in the expected/observed rates of the above parameters were detected

1991-01-28

392

Nuclear safety after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed the safety of nuclear reactors. The authors examined some of the safety problems associated with the accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. He stressed the need to reduce the frequency of accidents and the need for greater preparation for the consequences of inevitable failures. He stated that future accidents would be unlikely to replicate the past, that nuclear safety issues need to be addressed broadly and that reforms need to be introduced quickly

1987-01-01

393

Environmental distribution and transport of radionuclides in West Cumbria following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are summarized for the pattern of deposition of Cs-137 and I-131 in West Cumbria, UK, following the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents and on the apparent environmental behaviour in terms of retention on plants, transfer from soil to plant, and transfer to milk and meat. For the 1957 accident, peak deposits of Cs-137 several kilometres south of Windscale are estimated to be in the range ? 16000-40000 Bq/m2. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in October 1957 was 592 Bq/l, two weeks after the accident. The ratio of concentration in milk (Bq/l) to content in herbage (Bq/m2) was ? 0.4 to 0.6 m2/l for Cs-137 and ? 0.06 to 0.1 m2/l for I-131. Peak recorded concentration of Cs-137 in milk in May 1986 was 356 Bq/l and the corresponding ratios of concentration in milk to content in herbage were 0.37 m2/l for Cs-137 and 0.31 m2/l for I-131. The reason for the higher value for I-131 recorded after Chernobyl compared to that for Windscale is not clear. Whereas the initial decline in Cs-137 and I-131 content in herbage after the Windscale accident occurred with a biological half-life of ? 16 d, initial loss after the Chernobyl accident was much more rapid, reflecting both the effects of rainfall and the different times of year of the two inputs. No data appear to exist for radiocaesium concentrations in meat after the Windscale accident. After Chernobyl, radiocaesium concentration ratios for soil-to-plant transfer in upland ecosystems ranged from 1 to 10. Radiocaesium concentrations in sheep at some locations did not show any substantial decline from 1986 to 1989. Experience on soil-plant-animal transfer after the Chernobyl accident, coupled with measurements on contents of radiocaesium in soil from the 1950s and 1970s, indicates that Cs-137 concentrations in individual lambs from a few locations in 1958 and the middle 1960s may have been similar to concentrations measured in individual animals in summer 1986. (author)

1990-10-01

394

Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination i