... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... guidance for industry 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information--Fermentation...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for...
... availability of a guidance for industry 169 entitled ``Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls... Federal Register of June 1, 2006 (71 FR 31194), FDA published the notice of withdrawal and revision of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly 2003D-0571) Guidance for Industry on...
This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13629), FDA published the notice...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...
This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...
Capel, Andrew J; Edmondson, Steve; Christie, Steven D R; Goodridge, Ruth D; Bibb, Richard J; Thurstans, Matthew
We review the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a novel manufacturing technique for the production of milli-scale reactor systems. Five well-developed additive manufacturing techniques: stereolithography (SL), multi-jet modelling (MJM), selective laser melting (SLM), laser sintering (LS) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) were used to manufacture a number of miniaturised reactors which were tested using a range of organic and inorganic reactions. PMID:24100659
Wei Kang; Mumin Song; Ning Xi
The paper consists of three topics on control theory and engineering applications, namely bifurcation control, manufacturing planning, and formation control. For each topic, we summarize the control problem to be addressed and some key ideas used in our recent research. Interested readers are referred to related publications for more details. Each of the three topics in this paper is technically independent from the other ones. However, all three parts together reflect the recent research activities of the first author, jointly with other researchers in different fields.
The regulatory control of the design and manufacturing of the nuclear fuel and of the control rods aims to ensure conformance to set requirements during normal operating conditions, anticipated operational transients and postulated accident conditions. The regulatory control of design, manufacturing, receiving inspections and the start of operation of the nuclear fuel are specified in the guide. The regulatory control procedure also applies to the control rods and the shield elements
May, Gary S
A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...
This first-time English publication of one of Germany’s leading manufacturing control handbooks provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, with detailed and easy to understand descriptions of numerous control techniques from Kanban to CONWIP to Backlog Control. Based on the proven funnel model and written for the industry, this book clearly illustrates how companies can use manufacturing control to effectively improve on-time delivery, reduce inventories and cut down throughput times. “This book distinguishes itself with its convincing systematic approach based on thorough international research. Its clear presentation and direct applicability for analysing and configuring the manufacturing control make this handbook an outstanding and unique publication on PPC.” Hans-Peter Wiendahl “The field of manufacturing control is very convincingly reviewed and presented from a theoretical and methodological perspective. Both researchers as well as practitioners will profit from it.” Peter N...
The application of elementary control theory to manufacturing systems demonstrating how the organization of basic shop-floor logistics can be optimized prior to the introduction of computer technology is explored. A control structure is introduced and applied to manufacturing systems, breaking the problem into its constituent parts in such a way that the advantages of improved control technology become more apparent and more readily implementable.
Nejad, Hossein Tehrani Nik; Sugimura, Nobuhiro; Iwamura, Koji
Manufacturing companies at the beginning of 21th century have to face a dynamic environment where economical, technological and customer trends change rapidly, requiring the increase of flexibility and agility to react to unexpected disturbances, maintaining the productivity and quality parameters. The traditional manufacturing control systems are adapted on a case-by- case basis, requiring an expensive and huge time-consuming effort to develop, maintain or re-configure. The missing re- confi...
... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; IRIX Manufacturing... that on January 18, 2013, IRIX Manufacturing, Inc., 309 Delaware Street, Greenville, South...
Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.
Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.
The EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) is entering in its third phase bearing on the 2013-2050 period. If they don't question about the requirement to regulate the CO2 market, the manufacturers wonder on the future of the EU emissions trading system at longer term and ask for more transparency. (O.M.)
Dimian, A.C.; Srokol, Z.W.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.
The pros and cons of using heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel manufacturing are introduced, and explained from a chemistry and engineering viewpoint. Transesterification reactions of various feed types are then compared in batch and continuous process operation modes. The results show that the reaction chemistry and process kinetics characterising a particular feedstock are determinant factors for obtaining high-grade biodiesel. When using heterogeneous catalysis, the biodiesel quality of ...
Monahan, Kevin M.
Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.
Σταυράκης, Γιώργος Δ.
Semicoductor manufacturers, faced with stiffening competition in both product cost and quality, require improved utilization of their development and manufacturing resources. Manufacturing philosophy must be changed, from focusing on short term results, to support continuous improvements in both output and quality. Such improvements demand better information management to monitor and control the manufacturing process. From these considerations, a process control methodology was develope...
Ashton, Nicola; Pattrick, R. A. D.; J. R. Lloyd; B. E. van Dongen; Tye, A.
The geological diversity of Northern Ireland provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of differing lithologies upon the (organic) geochemistry of overlying soils. This will aid the understanding of how this influences the microbial populations within the soil and their role in biochemical cycling. Whilst several factors contribute to the properties of developing soils, source rock is one of the major controls in determining chemistry and formation rate (Chengmin et al., 2...
Jesorka, Aldo; Lizana, Ludvig; Konkoli, Zoran; Czolkos, Ilja; Orwar, Owe
Spatial organization and shape dynamics are inherent properties of biological cells and cell interiors. There are strong indications that these features are important for the in vivo control of reaction parameters in biochemical transformations. Nanofluidic model devices founded on surfactant...... concept. Controlled release of chol-DNA molecules from SU-8 surfaces gives the possibility to dynamically change surface and/or solution properties in micro and nanoreactor applications, opening access to stable 2D chemistry on surface-based devices with potential for easy interfacing with conventional...
To establish a basis for predicting and eventually controlling crevice solution chemistry in PWR steam generators, hideout tests were performed at several units. Results indicated that impurity hideout rates varied with the species and with bulk water concentration. Field evaluations of crevice impurity inventory models based on the hideout rate data indicated that further model refinements were necessary, e.g., more frequent quantification of the relation of hideout rates and bulk water concentration. An alternate crevice inventory model based on a real-time mass balance approach also began to be pursued. Modeling results currently are being used at several PWRs to establish a chloride injection rate consistent with development of a near neutral crevice solution to minimize IGA/SCC. Hideout return data are being used to independently establish predictions of crevice chemistry and to substantiate the hideout rate and mass balance model predictions
... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...
Chen, Ruey-Shun; Tsai, Yung-Shun; Tu, Arthur
In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.
Pedersen, David Bue
This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects by a...... layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...
The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, and resource objects, so as to reduce costs and to increase the control system's agility with respect to changing environment.
Sébastien, Henry; Zamaï, Éric; Jacomino, Mireille
To respond rapidly to the highly volatile market, the reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) have brought forward challenging issues. First of all there is a need to build a formal model of a manufacturing configuration. Second it has to be rather easy to derive the models associated to the manufacturing configuration changes (reconfiguration) from such an initial model. An off-line method of rapid design of an optimal logic control law (configuration) based on Petri net (PN) is presented...
Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.
This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu
... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference...
The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO3- type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab
ZHENG Xiao-lin; LEI Yu; CHEN De-ren
An integrated user access control method was proposed to address the issues of security and management in networked manufacturing systems (NMS).Based on the analysis of the security issues in networked manufacturing system,an integrated user access control method composed of role-based access control (RBAC),task-based access control (TBAC),relationship-driven access control (RDAC)and coalition-based access control (CBAC) was proposed,including the hierarchical user relationship model,the reference model and the process model.The elements and their relationships were defined,and the expressions of constraints authorization were given.The extensible access control markup language (XACML) was used to implement this method.This method was used in the networked manufacturing system in the Shaoxing spinning region of China.The results show that the integrated user access control method can reduce the costs of system security maintenance and management.
Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.
In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.
The purpose of the paper is to present a summary of the knowledge acquired at the R and D on resins used as composite matrix, the resistance to hydrolysis and mechanical strength of pipings made from these materials, and on quality control during manufacture. The initial targets concerning the material selection, industrial manufacturing and quality control procedures are presented. The paper describes the results obtained concerning the investigation of the damage produced by hydrolysis in polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxides, the influence of temperature, reinforcement and the mechanical characterization of the tubing manufacturing. The performances of the nondestructive testings (radiography, ultrasonic controls, differential interferometry and infrared thermography) used are also reported. The paper ends with a further research and testings programme. (author)
Carr, Ann L; Roe, Michael
The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the "foretarsal sensory organ" (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction-aggregation-attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study. PMID:27265828
周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上
A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.
Coy, Steven P.
In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…
Porter, B; Moi, H.
In recent years, techniques such as dynamic programming, the maximum principle, linear programming, and genetic algorithms have been used to synthesise optimal control policies for manufacturing systems. However, such techniques are frequently rather opaque and often yield control policies that are implemented by open-loop rather than closed-loop control systems. In this paper, it is therefore shown that closed-loop systems incorporating hybrid fuzzy/crisp-logic controllers can be readily des...
Ο To Develop the technology to manage the problems of AOA and radiation, corrosion as long term PWR operation. Ο To Establish the advanced water chemical operating systems. - Development of the proper water chemistry guidelines for long term PWR operation. AOA(Axial Offest Anomaly) has been reported in many PWR plants in the world, including Korea, especially in the plants of higher burn-up and longer cycle operation or power up-rate. A test loop has been designed and made by KAERI, in order to investigate and mitigate AOA problems in Korea. This project included the study of hydrodynamic simulation and the modeling about AOA. The analysis of radioactive crud was performed to investigate of NPPs primary water chemical effect on AOA and to reduce the radioactive dose rate. The high temperature measurement system was developed to on-line monitor of water chemistry in nuclear power plants. The effects of various environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate on YSZ-based pH electrode were evaluated for ensuring the accuracy of high-temperature pH measurement. The inhibition technology for fouling and SCC of SG tube was evaluated to establish the water chemistry technology of corrosion control of nuclear system. The high temperature and high pressure crevice chemistry analysis test loop was manufactured to develop the water chemistry technology of crevice chemistry control
Sandia National Laboratories performs R and D in structural dynamics and vibration suppression for precision applications in weapon systems, space, underwater, transportation and civil structures. Over the last decade these efforts have expanded into the areas of active vibration control and ''smart'' structures and material systems. In addition, Sandia has focused major resources towards technology to support weapon product development and agile manufacturing capability for defense and industrial applications. This paper will briefly describe the structural dynamics modeling and verification process currently in place at Sandia that supports vibration control and some specific applications of these techniques to manufacturing in the areas of lithography, machine tools and flexible robotics
This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.
Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben Steen;
process e.g sensor measurements, machine readings etc, and the major contributor of these big data sets are different quality control processes. In this article we will present methodology to extract valuable insight from manufacturing data. The proposed methodology is based on comparison of probabilities...
Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Thanasis K;
The overall goal for the INDUFLAP project was realization of a test facility for development and test of Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flaps (CRTEF) for wind turbines. This report covers experimental work at DTU Wind Energy including design, manufacture and test of different configurations of...
... October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, (75 FR 64744), Cayman Chemical... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code...
... October 16, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009, (74 FR 55587), Cayman... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes....
... August 2, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on September 1, 2010, (75 FR 53720), Austin Pharma... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...
... August 9, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2011, 76 FR 51401, Austin Pharma LLC... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...
Fan Ruicheng; Wang Aimin; Lv Yanpeng
Intelligent manufacturing is an important trend in the development of the future manufacturing industry, and how to use the current technology to realize the existing traditional manufacturing mode change to the intelligent manufacturing mode need to be studied. Aimed at the implementation of the intelligent manufacturing mode, this paper proposed the intelligent manufacturing execution process control technology based on RFID. The framework of intelligent manufacturing execution process cont...
Giebels, Mark Mathieu Theodorus
An essential demand for future manufacturing control systems is the ability to deal with the increased complexity due to a higher product variety, smaller batches and shorter throughput times. In particular for manufacture-to-order (i.e. make- or engineer-to-order) environments it is generally recognised that future manufacturing planning and control systems have to become more flexible and integrative compared to the currently existing systems. The versatility in order characteristics calls ...
steam generator is one of the key equipment in AP1000 nuclear plant, by strictly control secondary Water quality, is of great significance in guaranteeing the structure integrity of steam generator heating tube, which can improve the service life of steam generator and make the system more safe and reliable operation. This paper lists the control factors of secondary water chemistry, and briefly introduced the Water Chemistry control countermeasures from material, manufacturing process and other aspects during AP1000 secondary equipments manufacturing process.%蒸汽发生器是AP1000核电站的关键设备之一，严格控制二回路水质，对确保蒸汽发生器换热管结构完整性，提高可靠性使用寿命，保障系统更安全可靠运行具有重要意义。本文简要列举了二回路水化学控制的相关因素，并从材料、制造工艺等方面对AP1000常规岛设备制造过程中的水化学防护措施进行了简要介绍。
One of the main functions of the River Protection Project is to store the Hanford Site tank waste until the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is ready to receive and process the waste. Waste from the older single-shell tanks is being transferred to the newer double-shell tanks (DSTs). Therefore, the integrity of the DSTs must be maintained until the waste from all tanks has been retrieved and transferred to the WTP. To help maintain the integrity of the DSTs over the life of the project, specific chemistry limits have been established to control corrosion of the DSTs. These waste chemistry limits are presented in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) document HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Sec. 5.15, Rev 25 (CHG 2001). In order to control the chemistry in the DSTs, the Chemistry Control Program will require analyses of the tank waste. This document describes the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process undertaken to ensure appropriate data will be collected to control the waste chemistry in the DSTs
One of the main functions of the River Protection Project is to store the Hanford Site tank waste until the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is ready to receive and process the waste. Waste from the older single-shell tanks is being transferred to the newer double-shell tanks (DSTs). Therefore, the integrity of the DSTs must be maintained until the waste from all tanks has been retrieved and transferred to the WTP. To help maintain the integrity of the DSTs over the life of the project, specific chemistry limits have been established to control corrosion of the DSTs. These waste chemistry limits are presented in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) document HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Sec. 5 . IS, Rev 2B (CHG 200 I). In order to control the chemistry in the DSTs, the Chemistry Control Program will require analyses of the tank waste. This document describes the Data Quality Objective (DUO) process undertaken to ensure appropriate data will be collected to control the waste chemistry in the DSTs. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. Ib, Vol. IV, Section 4.16, (Banning 2001) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QA/G4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994), with some modifications to accommodate project or tank specific requirements and constraints
Cooper, Khershed P.
Interest in nano-scale manufacturing research and development is growing. The reason is to accelerate the translation of discoveries and inventions of nanoscience and nanotechnology into products that would benefit industry, economy and society. Ongoing research in nanomanufacturing is focused primarily on developing novel nanofabrication techniques for a variety of applications—materials, energy, electronics, photonics, biomedical, etc. Our goal is to foster the development of high-throughput methods of fabricating nano-enabled products. Large-area parallel processing and highspeed continuous processing are high-throughput means for mass production. An example of large-area processing is step-and-repeat nanoimprinting, by which nanostructures are reproduced again and again over a large area, such as a 12 in wafer. Roll-to-roll processing is an example of continuous processing, by which it is possible to print and imprint multi-level nanostructures and nanodevices on a moving flexible substrate. The big pay-off is high-volume production and low unit cost. However, the anticipated cost benefits can only be realized if the increased production rate is accompanied by high yields of high quality products. To ensure product quality, we need to design and construct manufacturing systems such that the processes can be closely monitored and controlled. One approach is to bring cyber-physical systems (CPS) concepts to nanomanufacturing. CPS involves the control of a physical system such as manufacturing through modeling, computation, communication and control. Such a closely coupled system will involve in-situ metrology and closed-loop control of the physical processes guided by physics-based models and driven by appropriate instrumentation, sensing and actuation. This paper will discuss these ideas in the context of controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale.
This paper addresses the optimal control in a failure prone manufacturing system. A discrete-time model is used. A single commodity is produced and there is a constant demand. The optimal control policy minimizes the long run average cost incurred by holding inventory and by failing to meet the demand. We show that the optimal control policy in any finite horizon problem is characterized by a critical number, which we call the ideal inventory level (or hedging point). The system should not pr...
Full Text Available In this paper we are approaching to the effect of using Green manufacturing in the Global Warming. The main causes for energy inefficiency and environmental pollution are increased plant capacity and introduction of new factories, outdated production technology in use, aged industrial infrastructures, lack of management skills and coal dominated energy structures. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated approach like Green Manufacturing technology towards energy and environment management of the industry so that better energy efficiency and environmental friendliness can be achieved. This research work provides information on control techniques and measures that are available and adopted by steel industries to moderate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, global warming, reduced CO2 emission, describes the process technology in use, energy saving opportunities, Environmental benefits of recycling & Sustainable development related to the iron and steel manufacturing sector through green manufacturing technology. We introduce the Indian iron and steel industry in more detail taking into account industry, production, technologies, energy consumption within processes, environmental impacts of steel recycling etc.
Full Text Available Education is the most influential tool whose efficient use requires the power of determination, devoted work and sacrifice. As teachers are major handler of this tool therefore, they must possess qualities of high education and competency for deliver. Education extends attractive way of life, talent and manners which make an individual a fine civilian. Primary and secondary education is one of the foundation stone of development of children and country. It acts as a vital part in placing the proper institution of child’s cultural, social, moral, emotional, intellectual, physical and spiritual improvement. Primary education contributes to national development while education at post graduate level provides think tank for progress of country. The Secondary education which serves as a link among primary and higher education is expected to prepare young people between the age group of 14-18 in the world of work, who are ready to enter into advanced education. Chemistry is the basis of life, and subject of importance in nation building, acquiring much attention from the world class Universities now days, to build interest and skills into the students for complex education. Chemical education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry. The curricula of higher secondary education require special attention at theory and practical level which should build the interest and attraction in chemistry in the age of 14-18. There is need of designing new curricula, covering chemistry in an easiest and attractive way associated with the environment1. Organization of continual workshops for teachers for fresh up courses aimed at building awareness in new themes in chemistry education. Themes1,2 in chemistry education should consist of
In this study, the geometric phase is shown to control the outcome of an ultracold chemical reaction. The control is a direct consequence of the sign change on the interference term between two scattering pathways (direct and looping), which contribute to the reactive collision process in the presence of a conical intersection (point of degeneracy between two Born-Oppenheimer electronic potential energy surfaces). The unique properties of the ultracold energy regime lead to an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift enabling maximum constructive or destructive interference between the two pathways. By taking the O + OH → H + O2 reaction as an illustrative example, it is shown that inclusion of the geometric phase modifies ultracold reaction rates by nearly two orders of magnitude. Interesting experimental control possibilities include the application of external electric and magnetic fields that might be used to exploit the geometric phase effect reported here and experimentally switch on or off the reactivity
Herrera, Felipe; Spano, Frank C.
The demonstration of strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes of cavity QED with polyatomic molecules has opened new routes to control chemical dynamics at the nanoscale. We show that strong resonant coupling of a cavity field with an electronic transition can effectively decouple collective electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a disordered molecular ensemble, even for molecules with high-frequency quantum vibrational modes having strong electron-vibration interactions. This type of polaron decoupling can be used to control chemical reactions. We show that the rate of electron transfer reactions in a cavity can be orders of magnitude larger than in free space for a wide class of organic molecular species.
The demonstration of strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes of cavity QED with polyatomic molecules has opened new routes to control chemical dynamics at the nanoscale. We show that strong resonant coupling of a cavity field with an electronic transition can effectively decouple collective electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a disordered molecular ensemble, even for molecules with high-frequency quantum vibrational modes having strong electron-vibration interactions. This type of polaron decoupling can be used to control chemical reactions. We show that the rate of electron transfer reactions in a cavity can be orders of magnitude larger than in free space, for a wide class of organic molecular species.
An Analytical Chemistry Measurements Quality Control Program assures the reliability of analytical measurements performed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The program includes training, methods quality control, replicate samples and measurements, mass measurements, interlaboratory sample exchanges, and standards preparation. This program has been designed to meet the requirements of 10CFR70.57. Portions of the program have been automated by using a PDP 11/35 computer system to provide features which are not readily available in manual systems. These include such items as realtime measurement control, computer calculated bias and precision estimates, various surveillance applications, and evaluation of measurement system variables. The efficiency of the computer system has been demonstrated in gathering and assimilating the results of over 1100 quality control samples during a recent cold chemical checkout campaign. These data were used to determine equations for predicting measurements reliability estimates; to evaluate measurement performance of the analysts, equipment, and measurement period; and to provide directions for chemistry methods modifications and additional training requirements. A procedure of replicate sampling and measuring provides random error estimates. The analytical chemistry measurement quality control activities during the campaign represented about 10% of the total analytical chemistry effort
Jesorka, Aldo; Lizana, Ludvig; Konkoli, Zoran;
Spatial organization and shape dynamics are inherent properties of biological cells and cell interiors. There are strong indications that these features are important for the in vivo control of reaction parameters in biochemical transformations. Nanofluidic model devices founded on surfactant sys...
Rehrl, Jakob; Kruisz, Julia; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes; Horn, Martin
This paper demonstrates the application of model-predictive control to a feeding blending unit used in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. The goal of this contribution is, on the one hand, to highlight the advantages of the proposed concept compared to conventional PI-controllers, and, on the other hand, to present a step-by-step guide for controller synthesis. The derivation of the required mathematical plant model is given in detail and all the steps required to develop a model-predictive controller are shown. Compared to conventional concepts, the proposed approach allows to conveniently consider constraints (e.g. mass hold-up in the blender) and offers a straightforward, easy to tune controller setup. The concept is implemented in a simulation environment. In order to realize it on a real system, additional aspects (e.g., state estimation, measurement equipment) will have to be investigated. PMID:27317987
Laurent, Philippe; Salomon, Julien; Turinici, Gabriel
We consider the problem of operator identification in quantum control. The free Hamiltonian and the dipole moment are searched such that a given target state is reached at a given time. A local existence result is obtained. As a by-product, our works reveals necessary conditions on the laser field to make the identification feasible. In the last part of this work, some algorithms are proposed to compute effectively these operators.
FENG Shouting; LI Di; CHENG Xiangyu
In modern manufacturing equipment control area, controller is required to deliver higher computing capability for adopting advanced algorithms to meet speed and accuracy requirements, and reconfigurabilities for changing or (and) adding features or functions. This paper presents a methodology in design and implementation of a high performance and reconfigurable platform for manufacturing equipment control. This methodology is in virtue of system on a programmable chip (SoPC) technology but replacing the on-chip processor by an external high performance, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP). The application of the DSP is designed as a multi-threaded framework, which has more flexibilities than a traditional single-loop one. Furthermore, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) system can be reconfigured easily and quickly to meet a new requirement by dragging and dropping pre-built components in a SoPC building environment. As a result, the controller platform is more reconfigurable in terms of algorithms and functions. This platform is implemented in a 3-axis milling machine control and the result indicates that the design and implementation presented in this paper is feasible.
Thomas, André; Trentesaux, Damien
Service orientation is emerging nowadays at multiple organizational levels in enterprise business, and it leverages technology in response to the growing need for greater business integration, flexibility and agility of manufacturing enterprises. This book gathers contributions from scientists, researchers and industrialists on concepts, methods, frameworks and implementing issues addressing trends in the service orientation of control technology and management applied to manufacturing enterprise. It analyzes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) representing a technical architecture, a business modelling concept, a type of infrastructure, an integration source and a new way of viewing units of automation within the enterprise. The presents how SOA aligns the business world with the world of information technology in a way that makes both more effective.
Kendrick, Brian K.; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N.
A newly discovered interference mechanism has been shown to control the outcome of ultracold chemical reactions. The mechanism originates from the unique properties associated with ultracold collisions, namely: (1) isotropic (s-wave) scattering and (2) an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift (which originates from the bound state structure of the molecule). These two properties can lead to maximum constructive or destructive interference between two interfering reaction pathways (such as exchange and non-exchange in systems with two or more identical nuclei). If the molecular system exhibits a conical intersection, then the associated geometric phase is shown to act as a ``quantum switch'' which can turn the reactivity on or off. Reaction rate coefficients for the O + OH --> H + O2 and H + H2, reactions are presented which explicitly demonstrate the effect. Experimentalists might exploit this new mechanism to control ultracold reactions by the application of external electric or magnetic fields or by the selection of a particular nuclear spin state. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program (Grant No. 20140309ER) at LANL (B.K.) and by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).
Andrienko, O. S.; Egorov, N. B.; Zherin, I. I.; Indyk, D. V.
The paper describes a spectrophotometric procedure for fast reactor advanced coolant manufacture control. The molar absorption coefficient of dimethyllead dibromide with dithizone was defined as equal to 68864 ± 795 l·mole-1·cm-1, limit of detection as equal to 0.583 · 10-6 g/ml. The spectrophotometric procedure application range was found to be equal to 37.88 - 196.3 g. of dimethyllead dibromide in the sample. The procedure was used within the framework of the development of the method of synthesis of the advanced coolant for fast reactors.
Moura, Raimundo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso
In this work we presented a methodology for systematizing the process of plant and control modeling of manufacturing systems. Our proposal uses a formalism based on Statecharts diagrams, called Basic Statecharts (BSC). The plant modeling has three phases which can be executed as many times as necessary. In general, this methodology represents a hybrid approach - bottom-up and top-down, allowing components reuse and keeping a one-to-one relation between plant and model (i.e., it is faithful to...
Pedersen, David Bue; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
Denne Ph.D afhandling,?Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control?, omhandler additive fremstillingsmetoder, hvilket er en familie af processer der er kendetegnet ved at de er computerstyret, de drager nytte af en høj grad af automation, og de fremstiller emner lagvis ved addition af materiale. To områder af særlig interesse er addreseret i denne afhandling. De er begge forankret i to meget forskellige områder, men tjener fælles formål. At styrke additive frems...
This work examines methods for operation of large computer-controlled manufacturing systems, with more than 50 or so disparate CNC machines in congregation. The central theme is the development of a distributed control system, which requires minimal central supervision, and allows manufacturing system re-configuration without extensive control software re-writes. Provision is made for machines to learn from their experience and provide estimates of the time necessary to effect various tasks. Routing is opportunistic, with varying degrees of myopia depending on the prevailing situation. Necessary curtailments of opportunism are built in to the system, in order to provide a society of machines that operate in unison rather than in chaos. Negotiation and contention resolution are carried out using a UHF radio communications network, along with processing capability on both pallets and tools. Graceful and robust error recovery is facilitated by ensuring adequate pessimistic consideration of failure modes at each stage in the scheme. Theoretical models are developed and an examination is made of fundamental characteristics of auction-based scheduling methods.
Steam generators protection against corrosion and fouling is an ongoing issue for nuclear power plants. The true effectiveness of the secondary chemistry control program is best judged by the absence of secondary side corrosion related tube degradation particularly that leads to tube plugging or sleeving or tube support degradation. To continue striving for excellence in chemical control, the following issues should be considered: Continuous evaluation of the effectiveness of the chemistry control program in mitigating SG damage; Evaluation of plant compliance with the program; Laboratory quality assurance program to assure that laboratory analyses are accurate and reproductibile; Quality assurance program for on-line monitoring equipment to assure that results from this equipment are accurate. (R.P.)
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS, which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hedendaagse vervaardigingsondernemings ervaar gereeld onvoorspelbare markveranderinge wat aangedryf word deur wêreldwye mededinging. Om kompeterend te bly moet hierdie ondernemings die eienskappe van kosteeffektiwiteit en snelle-respons op markfluktuasies toon. Megatronika streef daarna om meganiese, elektroniese en rekenaarstelsels optimaal te integreer om hoëpresisieprodukte en produksieprosesse daar te stel. Hierdie artikel suggereer 'n metodologie vir toenemende aanpasbaarheid en herbruikbaarheid van 'n generiese rekenaargeïntegreerde vervaardigingsel-beheersisteem deur die gebruik van simulasie en die modellering van megatroniese sensorsisteemkonsepte. Die aanwending van sensors binne die sel fasiliteer datavaslegging, ontleding en multisensordatafusie. Sodoende verskaf die ontwerpte argitektuur insig in die funksie en metodologie van 'n generiese stukwerkwinkelbeheersisteem wat die vinnige
Martinez, D.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Redmond, J.M.
Piezoelectric actuators provide high frequency, force, and stiffness capabilities along with reasonable Stroke limits, all of which can be used to increase performance levels in precision manufacturing systems. This paper describes two examples of embedding piezoelectric actuators in structural components for vibration control. One example involves suppressing the self excited chatter phenomenon in the metal cutting process of a milling machine and the other involves damping vibrations induced by rigid body stepping of a photolithography platen. Finite element modeling and analyses are essential for locating and sizing the actuators and permit further simulation studies of the response of the dynamic system. Experimental results are given for embedding piezoelectric actuators in a cantilevered bar configuration, which was used as a surrogate machine tool structure. These results are incorporated into a previously developed milling process simulation and the effect of the control on the cutting process stability diagram is quantified. Experimental results are also given for embedding three piezoelectric actuators in a surrogate photolithography platen to suppress vibrations. These results demonstrate the potential benefit that can be realized by applying advances from the field of adaptive structures to problems in precision manufacturing.
A. J. Walker
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Reconfigurable control of flexible manufacturing systems can allow for the efficient and responsive production of customised product instances. This can aid in providing make-to-order business models for various small- to medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and provide competitive advantage in a dynamic global marketplace. Reconfigurable control application requires an understanding of the modes of production variability in mass customisation manufacturing. Temporally uncorrelated workflow routings are considered as one of these production variability modes. In this light, this paper addresses the flexible material payload routing problem, and presents a mobile robot platform that has been developed to research and design reconfigurable routing systems.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Verstelbare beheer van aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels kan die doeltreffende en reaktiewe produksie van doelgemaakte produkeksemplare toelaat. Hierdie beheer kan assisteer in die voorsiening van vervaardig-na-bestellingbesigheidsmodelle aan ’n aantal klein- tot medium-grootte ondernemings in Suid-Afrika, en aan hulle ’n kompeterende voorsprong bied in ’n dinamiese globale mark. Die instelling van verstelbare beheer vereis dat die modi van produkveranderlikheid in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging verstaan word. Hierdie artikel spreek die probleem van aanpasbare roetebepaling van materiaalvragte in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging aan. ’n Mobiele robot-platform, ontwikkel vir navorsing in verstelbare roetebepalingstelsels, word ook voorgelê.
The long-term viability of any Generation IV Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept depends on the ability of reactor designers and operators to predict and control water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport. Currently, SCWR material testing is being carried out using a limited range of water chemistries to establish the dependencies of the corrosion behavior on parameters such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. Once a final suite of candidate alloys is identified, more detailed, longer term testing will be needed under water chemistry regimes expected to be used in the SCWR. Prior to these tests, it will be necessary to identify proposed water chemistry regimes for the SCWR, and provide expected ranges for the key parameters. The direct-cycle design proposed for various SCWR concepts take advantage of the extensive operating experience world-wide of fossil-fired SCW power plants. Conceptually, the SCWR replaces the fossil-fired boiler with the reactor core (pressure vessel or pressure tube); the concept is broadly similar to that of a boiling water reactor. Current fossil-fired SCW power plants use either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated water treatment for the feedwater systems. While the optimal water chemistry for a SCWR is yet to be determined, the monitored parameters are likely to be the same as those in existing fossil-fired and nuclear power plants: pH; conductivity, and concentrations of O2, H2, additives, impurities, corrosion and activation products. Monitoring will be required at many of the same components: feedwater, main 'steam', drains, pump outlets, condenser hotwell, and purification inlets and outlets. This paper outlines the strategy being used to develop a water chemistry regime for a CANDU® SCWR. It describes the key areas identified for chemistry monitoring and control: a) the reactor core, where materials are subjected to irradiation and high temperature, b
Neilson, B.; Rickey, D.; Bane, R. P.
In most fully utilized integrated circuit (IC) production facilities, profit is very closely linked with yield. In even the most controlled manufacturing environments, defects due to foreign material are a still major contributor to yield loss. Ideally, an IC manufacturer will have ample engineering resources to address any problem that arises. In the real world, staffing limitations require that some tasks must be left undone and potential benefits left unrealized. Therefore, it is important to prioritize problems in a manner that will give the maximum benefit to the manufacturer. When offered a smorgasbord of problems to solve, most people (engineers included) will start with what is most interesting or the most comfortable to work on. By providing a system that accurately predicts the impact of a wide variety of defect types, a rational method of prioritizing engineering effort can be made. To that effect, a program was developed to determine and rank the major yield detractors in a mixed analog/digital FET manufacturing line. The two classical methods of determining yield detractors are chip failure analysis and defect monitoring on drop in test die. Both of these methods have short comings: 1) Chip failure analysis is painstaking and very time consuming. As a result, the sample size is very small. 2) Drop in test die are usually designed for device parametric analysis rather than defect analysis. To provide enough wafer real estate to do meaningful defect analysis would render the wafer worthless for production. To avoid these problems, a defect monitor was designed that provided enough area to detect defects at the same rate or better than the NMOS product die whose yield was to be optimized. The defect monitor was comprehensive and electrically testable using such equipment as the Prometrix LM25 and other digital testers. This enabled the quick accumulation of data which could be handled statistically and mapped individually. By scaling the defect densities
Elevated pH operation to the pH value of 7.3 at 285degC is known to be effective for the reduction of radiation source in the primary water system of PWRs. A research project was started in 1989 and concluded in 1996 to study and verify the optimum pH and/or Li concentration from the viewpoint of radiation source reduction and materials integrity under improved water chemistry. This research project is sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) in Japan and has two programs; high pH and high Li. The high Li program was conducted to establish the optimum Li concentration for the high boron concentration region (1100 - 1800 ppm) of the high burn up operation. In this paper, we shall discuss radiation source behavior under high pH conditions and PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) susceptibility of materials with change of primary water chemistry conditions and the improved water chemistry control based on these tests results. (author)
Rob; Dekkers; Luping; Wang
The trend of economic globalisation and advances in i nformation technology has led to the emergence of dispersed manufacturing system s as a form of the virtual organisation. New manufacturing strategy pays more at tention to the management of the total value chain and therefore puts emphasis o n outsourcing. In fact, outsourcing is an efficient way of utilizing available r esources and has become one key aspect of the manufacturing strategy. Improved d ecision and organization on outsourcing will result ...
Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.
Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…
Lau, HCW; Ning, A.; Chan, FTS; Zhang, J.
The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, an...
...). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine (7390) I 4-Bromo-2,5... plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidol. In reference to drug...
evolve around the idea of integrating intelligent elements into the control systems of the manufacturing systems. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators.......This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, and multi-agent theory in the context of manufacturing systems. The objective of the paper is to show how these theories can contribute to develop the new...... concepts that are required for controlling the manufacturing systems of the future. Thereafter it will present the potential for improvement of the manufacturing system by introduction and implementation of these theories. The paper tries to encapsulate the main area of my Ph.D. thesis research which will...
The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)
Nineteen BWR plants are in operation in Europe, nine built by ASEA Atom, six by Siemens KWU and four by General Electric. This paper gives an overview of water chemistry operation practices and parameters of the European BWR plants. General design characteristics of the plants are described. Chemistry control strategies and underlying water chemistry guidelines are summarized. Chemistry data are presented and discussed with regard to plant design characteristics. The paper is based on a contract of the European BWR Forum with AREVA on a chemistry sourcebook for member plants. The survey of chemistry data was conducted for the years 2002 to 2008. (author)
... October 20, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2011, 76 FR 66994, Research... Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives...
Shahzad Ahmad; Tasmeem Ahmad Khan
In this paper we are approaching to the effect of using Green manufacturing in the Global Warming. The main causes for energy inefficiency and environmental pollution are increased plant capacity and introduction of new factories, outdated production technology in use, aged industrial infrastructures, lack of management skills and coal dominated energy structures. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated approach like Green Manufacturing technology towards energy and environme...
The document describes Electricite De France (EDF) policy concerning chemistry control in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Due to the great importance of some parameters, and high risks of pollution of grab samples, the main parameters are continuously measured by reliable chemical on-line monitors. EDF has consequently developed a large program of tests to select the best instrument, in a specific facility installed in a NPP. In addition, a guideline document describes all the operations necessary for the correct use of all chemical monitors. Periodic evaluations are organized to ensure the good quality of in-plant measurements: they consist of a complete inspection of all the monitors implemented in the unit, and comparative measurements between the unit monitors and those of Groupe des Laboratories (GDL), the central laboratories of EDF. EDF is presently designing chemical expert systems, making it possible to improve reliability and to shorten response time for all operation phases. The main advantage expected is an improvement of chemistry quality in the plants, resulting from quicker operator reaction in case of abnormal situations
Silva, Robson,; Blos, Mauricio,; Junqueira, Fabrício; Santos Filho, Diolino,; Miyagi, Paulo,
Part 5: Monitoring and Supervision Systems International audience Manufacturing control systems must quickly react to variations of product, process specifications, fault occurrence, changes in the resources functional capabilities, and other operational demands. Besides, to gain competitive advantages, dispersed manufacturing systems must cooperate with each other. The combination of holonic control system and service-oriented architecture techniques can be effective to integrate these...
CHANG Jiane; LIU Chao
This paper has found out some important input factors of reverse logistics in manufacturing system throuth analysis and summary, and established four kinds of technological process control models of reverse logistics in manufacturing system according to different processing methods. These models embed each other that form a cubic control system of reverse logistics.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality control data requirements; prime manufacturer. 21.143 Section 21.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... control data requirements; prime manufacturer. (a) Each applicant must submit, for approval,...
This is the third in a series of reports from an investigation co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) into the effectiveness of alternative amines for controlling the rate of tube-bundle fouling under steam generator (SG) operating conditions. The objectives of this investigation are to determine whether the fouling rate depends on the amine used for pH control, to identify those factors that influence the effectiveness, and use this information to optimize the selection of an amine for chemistry control and deposit control in the steam cycle and steam generator, respectively. Work to date has demonstrated that the rate of particle deposition under steam generator operating conditions is strongly influenced by surface chemistry (Turner et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1999). This dependence upon surface chemistry is illustrated by the difference between the deposition rates measured for hematite and magnetite, and by the dependence of the particle deposition rate on the amine used for pH control. Deposition rates of hematite were found to be more than 10 times greater than those for magnetite under similar test conditions (Turner et al., 1997). At 270oC and pHT 6.2, the surfaces of hematite and magnetite are predicted to be positively charged and negatively charged, respectively (Shoonen, 1994). Measurements of the point of zero charge (PZC) of magnetite at temperatures from 25oC to 290oC by Wesolowski et al. (1999) have confirmed that magnetite is negatively charged at the stated conditions. A PZC of 4.2 was measured for Alloy 600 at 25oC (Balakrishnan and Turner, un-published results), and its surface is expected to remain negatively charged for alkaline chemistry over the temperature range of interest. Therefore, there will be a repulsive force between the surfaces of magnetite particles and Alloy 600 at 270oC and pHT 6.2 that is absent for hematite particles depositing under the same conditions. This
Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip
This paper studies management control design of supplier relationships in manufacturing, a supply chain phase currently under-explored. Compared to supplier relations during procurement and R&D, which research found to be governed by a combination of formal and informal controls, supplier relations in manufacturing are more formal, so that they could be governed by more formal and less informal controls. To refine the management control system and influencing contingencies, we pro...
Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te
Graphene is the best-studied 2D material available. However, its production is still challenging and the quality depends on the preparation procedure. Now, more than a decade after the outstanding experiments conducted on graphene, the most successful wet-chemical approach to graphene and functionalized graphene is based on the oxidation of graphite. Graphene oxide has been known for more than a century; however, the structure bears variable large amounts of lattice defects that render the development of a controlled chemistry impossible. The controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene avoids the formation of defects within the σ-framework of carbon atoms, making the synthesis of specific molecular architectures possible. The scope of this review is to introduce the field of oxo-functionalizing graphene. In particular, the differences between GO and oxo-functionalized graphene are described in detail. Moreover analytical methods that allow determining lattice defects and functional groups are introduced followed by summarizing the current state of controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene. PMID:26990805
Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the systematic tools to perform a valuable contribution to the control and planning activities for manufacturing processes and product quality. Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF) started a program to introduce SPC in all sections of the manufacturing process of fuel assemblies. The concept phase is based on a realization of SPC in 3 pilot projects. The existing manufacturing devices are reviewed for the utilization of SPC. Subsequent modifications were made to provide the necessary interfaces. The processes 'powder/pellet manufacturing'. 'cladding tube manufacturing' and 'laser-welding of spacers' are located at the different locations of ANF. Due to the completion of the first steps and the experience obtained by the pilot projects, the introduction program for SPC has already been extended to other manufacturing processes. (authors)
This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, agile manufacturing, object orientation, multi-agent theory, artificial intelligence, and artificial life in the context of manufacturing systems....... The paper tries to encapsulate the main area of my Ph.D. thesis research which will evolve around the idea of integrating intelligent elements into the control systems of the manufacturing systems. Furthermore it intends to show how the curriculum and discussions of the IPS Ph.D. course will and have...... contributed to my research. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators....
... 21, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2009, (74 FR 46232), Research... schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Cocaine (9041) I The Institute will manufacture small quantities of cocaine and marihuana derivatives for use by their...
It is important to minimize a generation of radioactive corrosion products which become a radiation source, in order to reduce the radiation exposure in light water reactor. Therefore, as a countermeasure of radiation source reduction during plant commissioning, it has been studied to form more stable protective film by a improvement of water chemistry during Hot Functional Test (HFT). Consequently, it was confirmed that hydrogen (H2)+LiOH addition chemistry was more effective as a water chemistry for HFT. This new water chemistry for HFT was applied at Tomari No. 1, new constructed plant. The radiation level in Tomari No. 1 at 1st. annual inspection trended to be lower than that of plants with conventional water chemistry during HFT. It is considered that the new HFT water chemistry leads to radiation exposure reduction. (author)
Yugma, Claude; Blue, Jakey; DAUZERE-PERES, Stéphane; Obeid, Ali
Scheduling in semiconductor manufacturing is of vital importance due to the impact on production performance indicators such as equipment utilization, cycle time, and delivery times. With the increasing complexity of semiconductor manufacturing, ever-new products and demanding customers, scheduling plans for efﬁcient production control become crucial. Scheduling and control are mutually dependent as control requires information from scheduling, for example, where jobs are processed, and sched...
Morel, Gérard; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo
International audience This special issue of the IFAC journal on Control Engineering Practice contains improved selected papers of the 11th IFAC INCOM'04 Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing held in Brazil. The main purpose of INCOM'04 has been to point up international research and developments dealing with all the applications of automation, information and communication technologies in order to control and to manage the manufacturing plant within the e-enterprise. ...
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... September 12, 2013, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... August 31, 2012, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...
Meier, Matthias; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Choi, Se Hoon; Norstrom, Eric M.; Sisodia, Sangram S; Ismagilov, Rustem F.
Small with control: For miniaturization of protein aggregation experiments the interfacial chemistry must be controlled to avoid protein aggregation caused by interfacial adsorption. Plug-based microfluidics with defined surface chemistry (see schematic picture) can then be used to perform hundreds of aggregation experiments with volume-limited samples, such as cerebrospinal fluid from mice.
Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... 10, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA... 19, 2012, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... November 5, 2012, Siegfried (USA) LLC, 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...
... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical...
Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.
This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemi...
Hu, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.
Ozone is central to our understanding of tropospheric oxidant chemistry through its driving of radical cycles. Yet our understanding of factors determining its spatial distribution and long-term trend is still poor. In this work, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to test our current knowledge of key factors controlling tropospheric ozone. We evaluate the most recent GEOS-Chem simulation against in-situ data using ozonesonde networks from WOUDC and NOAA-GMD and using aircraft observations from MOZAIC/IAGOS, to examine the vertical distribution of modeled tropospheric ozone. Satellite observed ozone data from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) are used to assess the spatial distribution of the predicted ozone concentrations. We also examine different versions of GEOS-Chem outputs from historical benchmarks and from sensitivity runs (such as changing in chemistry and meteorological fields) for their capabilities to reproduce observed tropospheric ozone patterns. In this presentation, we interpret these analyses in terms of present understanding in isoprene chemistry, tropospheric bromine chemistry, lightning NOx sources and deep convection, and examine their implications for key model processes controlling the abundance and variability of global tropospheric ozone.
Monahan, Kevin M.
Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.
Full Text Available The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices into services. An efficient discovery, context-based selection and dynamic orchestration of these services are the key features for the creation of highly adaptable manufacturing processes. We describe a semantic service discovery and ad-hoc orchestration system, which is able to react to new process variants and changed contextual information (e.g., failure of field devices, requirements on the consumption of resources. Because a standardized vocabulary, especially for the description of mechatronic functionalities, is still missing in the manufacturing domain, the semantic description of services, processes and manufacturing plants as well as the semantic interpretation of contextual information play an important part.
... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...
Abstract Study objectives The goal of this study is to research the controller's role in a Western manufacture company which operates in China. Prior researchers have focused their vision on the controller's change in Western countries, while the controller's role in China has been rarely known. And previous literature has already discussed some certain troubles faced by controllers. So in order to examine if the findings of the West also apply to Chinese controllers, two following re...
Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania; De Chiffre, Leonardo
Micro manufacturing has gained interest over the last decade as the demand for micro mechanical components has increased. The need for dimensional metrology at micro scale is evident both in terms of quality assurance of components and products and in terms of process control. As critical...... dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available measurement technologies appear not sufficient. New solutions for measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration are necessary if micro...... manufacturing is to develop into industrial manufacturing solutions. In this paper the application of dimensional precision metrology to both component and process quality control will be demonstrated. The parts investigated are micro injection moulded polymer parts, typical for the field of micro manufacturing....
Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)
Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.
... classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...
Ropkins, K; Beck, A J
Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP. PMID:12224422
Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)
Michael Schwarz; Ines Heck; Jochen Schlick; Matthias Loskyll
The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices into services. An efficient discovery, context-based selection and dynamic orchestration of these services are the key features for the creatio...
Prestegaard, K. L.
Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.
Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin
Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.
Successful attempt is made to solve the problem of manufacturing non-circular parts with the aid of programmable multiple-axis controller(PMAC) integrated with high-speed electrical spindle. Principles of PMAC are introduced, and an NC-grinder system is integrated based on PMAC with proper software included. Control method and integration principle are discussed. Using PMAC's online measuring and time-based controlling, high-speed and high-precision manufacture of non-circular parts is accomplished, yielding satisfactory result, which sets an important foundation for development of high-speed and high-precision NC grinder aiming at machining of non-circular parts.
Yu Tuanye; Chen Chucan
At present, there are more serious over investments in China's listed companies. Based on corporate governance and internal control, we build a driven framework of two paths of “direct driver” and “internal control driver”. With 3002 manufacture samples from 2008 to 2011, we investigate the relationships between internal control and overinvestment, management control and internal control, overinvestment and between various corporate governance factors and overinvestment. Empirical result show...
... January 18, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011, 76 FR 5829, AMRI Rensselaer... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...
Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow
Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…
Comprehensive report documents computer-controlled system which has separate solar-collector and cooling-tower areas located away from building and is completely computer controlled. System description, test data, major problems and resolution, performance, operation and maintenance, manufacturer's literature and drawing comprise part of 257-page report.
Most existing robust design books address design for static systems, or achieve robust design from experimental data via the Taguchi method. Little work considers model information for robust design particularly for the dynamic system. This book covers robust design for both static and dynamic systems using the nominal model information or the hybrid model/data information, and also integrates design with control under a large operating region. This design can handle strong nonlinearity and more uncertainties from model and parameters.
The industrial production of garments and similar textile end products is an activity that has roots back to the 19th century, and that has profited immensely from continuous technological developments since its first emergence. However, several characteristics of the materials that are processed give rise to technical issues that are difficult to objectively manage and control. The limpness and elasticity of textiles make automated material handling and transportation within the shopfloor...
Anton, Silvia; Anton, Florin Daniel; Borangiu, Theodor
The project was finished at the end of 2008 as part of the PRIC research program (Shared Research and Training Resources). The research project provide a communication and collaboration portal solution for linking the existing pilot platform with multiple V+ industrial robot-vision controllers from Adept Technology located in four University Labs from Romania (Bucharest, Craiova, Iasi and Galati). This allow teachers to train their student using robots and expensive devices which they do not ...
... otherwise. In the Federal Register of October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63188), FDA announced the availability of the... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance...
Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel
We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.
K. K. Starkov
Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.
Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... for Quality Control § 111.123 What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control...
Miao Rui(苗瑞); Wang Dongpeng; Yao Yingxue
For multivariate statistical process quality control with individual observations, the usually recommended procedure is Hotelling's T2 control chart. Using the T2 statistic based on β distribution is an exact method for constructing multivariate control limits in low volume manufacturing, but it is not convenient in that the variation of sample size leads to a change in control limit. This paper presents an improved multivariate T2 control chart whose control limit does not change with sample size, which is especially useful when the sample size is small.
Chemistry control at PWR during its construction and trial operation has been improved at every cases. Without exception of No.4 unit in the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant, which went into commercial operation in July, 1977, some improved chemistry control methods were adopted. Here were described on the implemented chemistry controls at comparing with those of the preceding plants such as No.2 unit in the Sendai Plant and No.3 in the Genkai Plant. In order to minimize the radiation exposure during steady full operation, it is important to carry out appropriate primary chemistry control not only during full power operation but also during construction and trial operation. Some countermeasures were implemented to reduce buildup of corrosion products and facilitate their removal during shutdown. These methods could bring both effect of radiation source reduction and excellent secondary chemistry condition to the unit. In addition, these results during its construction and trial operation could be expected to lead optimum water chemistry condition at the steady full power operation. (G.K.)
... Pharmaceuticals, LLC By Notice dated June 4, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 12, 2012, 77 FR 35058, Apertus Pharmaceuticals, LLC., 331 Consort Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63011, made application to... registration of Apertus Pharmaceuticals, LLC., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled...
... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2324, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances...
... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated November 5, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2012, 77 FR 67676, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... of Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled...
... Pharmaceuticals By Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2013, 78 FR 46372, Apertus Pharmaceuticals, 331 Consort Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63011, made application by renewal to the... of Apertus Pharmaceuticals to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances...
Slomp, Jannes; Stecke, Kathryn E.
This article examines and improves the production control system of a firm that wants to operate its flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in an untended third shift. The FMC consists of a machining centre, a pallet storage, a rail-guided transport vehicle for pallets and a clamping/unclamping station.
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application: Siemens Healthcare... notice that on November 7, 2012, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Attn: RA, 100 GBC Drive, Mail Stop 514, Newark, Delaware 19702, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration...
... February 6, 2012, 77 FR 5847, Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3 Strathmore Road, Natick... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Sigma Aldrich....C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc....
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Sigma Aldrich...), this is notice that on November 21, 2012, Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Sigma Aldrich... is notice that on August 2, 2012, Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3 Strathmore...
..., 2013, 78 FR 33442, Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3 Strathmore Road, Natick... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Sigma Aldrich... in 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and determined that the registration of Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals,...
... February 21, 2013, 78 FR 12102, Sigma ] Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3 Strathmore Road, Natick... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Sigma Aldrich.... DEA has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Sigma Aldrich Research... that on May 7, 2013, Sigma Aldrich Research Biochemicals, Inc., 1-3 Strathmore Road,...
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; GE Healthcare By Notice dated February 8, 2013 and published in the Federal Register on February 21, 2013, 78 FR 12103, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004-1412, made application by renewal...
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA) By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2323, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to...
... narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417(2007). Any bulk manufacturer who is presently, or is..., 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled...-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370)...
... Institute By Notice dated April 16, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2013, 78 FR... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits, reagents,...
.... By Notice dated July 30, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on August 7, 2012, 77 FR 47114... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...
.... By Notice dated May 9, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2012, 77 FR 30027... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...
Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.
Ruiz-Porras, Antonio; Lopez-Mateo, Celina
We study how the ownership and control structures may explain investment decisions of Mexican manufacturing firms. We study them with aggregate indexes and the assessment of several regression sets. We use measures of ownership, management and agency costs. The econometric analysis uses longitudinal census data for 182 industries. Our findings support the claim that agency costs, as a measure of the separation of management and control, and firms` size can explain investment decisions. Furthe...
Siyanbola, Trimisiu Tunji
This study, the impact of budgeting and budgetary control on the performance of manufacturing company in Nigeria, was conducted using Cadbury Nigeria Plc, as case study. Since wants are plenty while resources are limited, every organisation tends to find means by which it can get what it wants with the limited resources at its disposal. Therefore, firms seek to adopt the concept of budgeting and budgetary control to satisfy their needs at the least possible cost and at the same time fulfill...
Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom
The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.
The classical approach to quality control is essentially based on final inspection of the product conducted through a qualified process. The main drawback of this approach lies in the separation and , therefore, in the low feedback between manufacturing and quality control, leading to a very static quality system. As a remedy, the modern approach to quality management focuses on the need for continuous improvement through process-oriented quality control. In the classical approach, high reliability of nuclear fuel and high quality level of the main characteristics are assumed to be attained, at the manufacturing step, through 100% inspection of the product, generally with automated inspection equipment. Such a 100% final inspection is not appropriate to obtain a homogeneous product with minimum variability, and cannot be a substitute for the SPC tools (Statistical Process Control) which are rightly designed with this aim. On the other hand, SPC methods, which detect process changes and are used to keep the process under control, leading to the optimal distribution of the quality characteristics, do not protect against non systematic or local disturbances, at low frequency. Only systematic control is capable of detecting local quality troubles. In fact, both approaches, SPC and systematic inspection, are complementary , because they are remedies for distinct causes of process and product changes. The term 'statistical' in the expression 'SPC' refers less to the sampling techniques than to the control of global distribution parameters of product or process variables (generally location and dispersion parameters). The successive integration levels of process control methods with systematic inspection are described and illustrated by examples from FRAMATOME-FBFC fuel manufacturing, from the simple control chart for checking the performance stability of automated inspection equipment to the global process control system including systematic inspection. This kind of
In this paper following observations are presented: conductivity and chloride excursions in steam condensate were directly linked to makeup water quality. Data strongly suggests that the breakdown of makeup water organics was responsible for substandard condensate water quality; although the short-term effects of gross organic contamination have been documented, the longer term consequences of continuous exposure by moderate organic levels needs to be addressed; a greater understanding of the organic removal efficiency of the various water purification technologies is essential to controlling TOC contamination; and a much better understanding of makeup plant chemistry and the interrelationship of makeup water contamination and plant chemistry has proven essential to optimizing plant performance and guaranteeing the best possible steam chemistry. The role of the chemistry group as an active participant in operations has been proven at Kewaunee Nuclear Plant
周炳海; 余传猛; 奚立峰; 曹永上
To monitor, control and manage the work process ofcomputer numerical control machine tools in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) effectively, the distributed numerical control (distributed-NC) software should be innovated with the characteristics of modularization and reconfiguration. In this paper, firstly, distributed-NC functions in the FMS environment are described. Then, we present a design and development method of the real time distributed-NC that is on the basis of the re-configurable software and hardware platform and with an object-oriented model concept. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the distributed-NC software has been implemented in VC + +6.0 and has been tested in connection with the different physical flexible manufacturing shops.
Ikata Nuclear Power Station, only one nuclear power station in Shikoku, is located at the root of Sada Peninsula on Seto Inland sea side. At present, No.1 and No.2 plants of 566 MW each are in commercial operation, and on the east side, No.3 plant is under construction. No.3 plant is a PWR type plant of 890 MWe output, and the start of commercial operation is scheduled in March, 1995. In the construction of No.3 plant, the concrete used for civil engineering and building works is about 430,000 m3, and for the improvement of the quality control of concrete, the pursuit of economic efficiency, the fostering of concrete technology of employee and the coprosperity with local industries, the facilities for manufacturing concrete were constructed within the premise of the power station. The amount of use of concrete and respective materials classified by respective fiscal years, and the amount of manufacture of concrete that determines the scale of the concrete plant are shown. As to the construction of the concrete plant, the foundation work was started in March, 1987, and the machine foundation and building works were started in May, 1987. The acceptance was completed on August 17, 1987. The facilities of manufacturing concrete, the manufacture of concrete, and the quality control of materials and concrete are reported. (author)
... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals; Public... risk-based preventive controls for animal food. This proposed rule is one of several proposed rules... manufacturing, processing, packing, and holding of animal food. Second, it would include new preventive...
The operational safety of a power plant depends mainly on the material compatibility of the system materials with the environment. However, for an operating plant, the material is almost fixed and hence one can improve the safety by controlling the surrounding environment. From the economy point of view, the plant availability factor as well as plant life extension (PLEX) are important considerations and these necessitate a systematic approach for continuous parametric monitoring, rapid data analysis and diagnosis for controlling the water chemistry regime. A prototype expert system 'SMART' was developed in BASIC language. The expert system consists of four modules. The DATA HANDLER module controls all the data handling functions and graphical display of the data parameters. It also generates weekly and monthly reports of the water chemistry data. The DATA INTERPRETER module compares the experimental data with the theoretically calculated values and predicts the presence of impurity ingress in the system. The CHEMISTRY EXPERT contains the knowledge base about the various sub-systems. All the water chemistry specifications are translated in the form of IF... THEN.. rules and are stored in this module. The expert system inferences with the forward chain reasoning mechanism to identify the diagnostic parameters by consulting the knowledge base and applying the appropriate rules. The ACTION EXPERT module collects all the diagnostic parameters and suggests the operator, the remedial actions/counter measures that should be taken immediately. This rule based system can be expanded to accommodate different water chemistry regimes. (author)
Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Murali, Adithya; Gracias, David H.
Spatial control of chemical reactions, with micro- and nanometer scale resolution, has important consequences for one pot synthesis, engineering complex reactions, developmental biology, cellular biochemistry and emergent behavior. We review synthetic methods to engineer this spatial control using chemical diffusion from spherical particles, shells and polyhedra. We discuss systems that enable both isotropic and anisotropic chemical release from isolated and arrayed particles to create inhomo...
Duschene, Kaitlin S.; Veneziano, Susan E.; Silver, Sunshine C.; Broderick, Joan B.
The radical AdoMet superfamily comprises a diverse set of >2800 enzymes that utilize iron-sulfur clusters and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or AdoMet) to initiate a diverse set of radical-mediated reactions. The intricate control these enzymes exercise over the radical transformations they catalyze is an amazing feat of elegance and sophistication in biochemistry. This review focuses on the accumulating evidence for how these enzymes control this remarkable chemistry, including controlling the re...
The control of criticality risk in a chemical plant adopts different forms according to the quantities of fissile material and the type of compounds used. This work presents the treatment of the critical excursion risk adopted in production plants of U3 O8 and manufacturing plants of fuel elements for research reactors, located in Constituyentes Atomic Center. The possible events and accidents related to the fissile material control are analyzed, and the systems of administrative control and intrinsic safety through engineering are described. (Author)
ZHANG Kai-sheng; SUN Yan-ming; ZHENG Shi-xiong
In order to analyze the function demand of the distributed manufacturing information system as well as its control demand,and eliminate information ambiguity among system units to integrate sernantics,the abstract Agent model and computational structure of each unit was presented based on flexible coupling automata.The autonomy of each unit was investigated in this foundation.The system unit was described usmg the Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology.And the system semantics was also integrated.On these basics the communication among the system units was analyzed with an example of interaction between a machine and a warehouse.The control performances of information system units were investigated usmg Boolean matrix as a substitute for traditional process in RWtheory,which reduced the computational complexity.This work established the foundation for the demand analysis,design and development of the distributed manufacture information system.
Manufacturing of nuclear fuel assemblies requires a multitude of different process and quality methods to assure and maintain a high quality level. In recent years methods have been applied which prevent deviations rather than detect deviant products. This paper gives an example on how to control a complex manufacturing process by using a small number of key parameters and second, it demonstrates the importance of graphical data evaluation and presentation methods. In the past many product and product characteristics were inspected m comparison with specification limits only. However, todays methods allow the early identification of trends, increase of variation, shifts disturbances etc. before the product characteristics exceed the specification limits. These methods are process control charts, x-y-plots, boxplots, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), process capability numbers and others. This paper demonstrates the beneficial use of some of the methods by presenting selected examples applied at Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF). (author)
Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan
The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process. PMID:26899981
Zhang, Z; Jones, D; Yue, S; Lee, P D; Jones, J R; Sutcliffe, C J; Jones, E
Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). PMID:23910314
Starkov, Konstantin; Pogromsky, Alexander; Rooda, J.E.
Abstract In this paper authors introduce novel results on performance for surplus-based decentralized production control method. The main objective of this production method is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of any given network. As a starting point of our research a general idea of this method is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. Then our analysis is extended to a line of $N$ ma...
Purpose – This study seeks to discuss the theory of constraint (TOC)’s application and implications in a knitwear manufacturer, especially on production planning and control, to improve its operational performance and consequently achieve the goal of making money. Design/methodology/approach – This report presents a case study of a specific company in the textile and clothing industry. In-depth interviews have been used to describe the current business scenario of the company and help to ...
Mesbah, A.; Ford Versypt, AN; Zhu, X.; Braatz, RD
This paper considers the model-based control of composition and thickness for a thin-film drying process used in the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets. In this nonlinear distributed dynamical system, a drug formulation solution is coated onto a moving surface and then dried to form thin films of approximately 250 μm in thickness. A dynamic optimizer is designed that employs a first-principles process model to simulate the spatial distribution of solvent concentration in the f...
An effective PWR water chemistry control program must address the following goals: Minimize materials degradation (e.g., PWSCC, corrosion of fuel, corrosion damage of steam generator (SG) tubes); Maintain fuel integrity and good performance; Minimize corrosion product transport (e.g., transport and deposition on the fuel, transport into the SGs where it can foul tube surfaces and create crevice environments for the concentration of corrosive impurities); Minimize dose rates. Water chemistry control must be optimized to provide overall improvement considering the sometimes variant constraints of the goals listed above. New technologies are developed for continued mitigation of materials degradation, continued fuel integrity and good performance, continued reduction of corrosion product transport, and continued minimization of plant dose rates. The EPRI chemistry program, in coordination with other EPRI programs, strives to improve these areas through application of chemistry initiatives, focusing on these goals. This paper highlights the major initiatives and issues with respect to PWR primary and secondary system chemistry and outlines the recent, on-going, and proposed work to effectively address them. These initiatives are presented in light of recent operating experience, as derived from EPRI's PWR chemistry monitoring and assessment program, and EPRI's water chemistry guidelines. (author)
High material and manufacturing costs have hindered the introduction of advanced polymer composite materials into mainstream civilian applications such as automotive. Even though high-fidelity models for several polymer composite manufacturing processes have become available over the past several years and offer significant benefits in manufacturing cost reduction, concerns about their inflexibility and maintenance has adversely affected their widespread usage. This research seeks to advance process modeling and design in polymer composites manufacturing to address these concerns. Other more general issues in measurement validation and distributed control are also addressed. Using a rigorous 3-D model of the injected pultrusion (IP) process validated recently, an algorithm was developed for process and equipment design with integrated economic, operability and environmental considerations. The optimum design promised enhanced throughput as well as reduction in the time and expenses of the current purely experimental approaches. Scale-up issues in IP were analyzed, and refinements to overcome some drawbacks in the model were suggested. The process model was then extended to simulate the co-injection resin transfer molding (CIRTM) process used for manufacture of foam-core sandwich composites. A 1-D isothermal model for real-time control was also developed. Process optimization using these models and experimental parametric studies increased the debond fracture toughness of sandwiches by 78% over current technology. To ensure the availability of validated measurements from process instrumentation, a novel in-situ sensor modeling approach to sensor validation was proposed. Both active and passive, time and frequency domain techniques were developed, and experimentally verified using temperature and flow sensors. A model-based dynamic estimator to predict the true measurement online was also validated. The effect of network communication delay on stability and control
The analytical techniques applied can be divided into 5 classes: OFF-LINE (discontinuous, central lab), AT-LINE (discontinuous, analysis near loop), ON-LINE (continuous, analysis in bypass). In all cases pressure and temperature of the water sample are reduced. In a strict sense only IN-LINE (continuous, flow disturbance) and NON-INVASIVE (continuous, no flow disturbance) techniques are suitable for direct process control; - the ultimate goal. An overview of the analytical techniques tested in the pilot loop is given. Apart from process and overall water quality control, standard for BWR operation, the main emphasis is on water impurity characterization (crud particles, hot filtration, organic carbon); on stress corrosion crackling control for materials (corrosion potential, oxygen concentration) and on the characterization of the oxide layer on austenites (impedance spectroscopy, IR-reflection). The above mentioned examples of advanced analytical techniques have the potential of in-line or non-invasive application. They are different stages of development and are described in more detail. 28 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs
This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.
Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert; Braunová, Alena; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 106-107 /3P10/. ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /65./. 09.09.2013-13.09.2013, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J030 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer conjugates * controlled drug delivery * diagnostics of tumors Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Tomohiro, Takenori; Nakabayashi, Masahiro; Sugita, Yuka; Morimoto, Shota
High specificity has been an important feature in affinity labeling for target profiling. Especially, to label targets via rapidly progressing reactions with consumption of ligand (probe), high specificity of reaction with common functional groups of target protein should be achieved without reactions with similar groups of non-target proteins. Herein, we demonstrate the kinetic controlled affinity labeling of acyl CoA synthetase using a fatty acid analogue containing a phenylthioester linkage. High specificity was attained by accelerating the labeling rate in the binding pocket. This approach could be useful for profiling a series of target enzymes and transporters in signal transduction pathways. PMID:27298000
Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Cuif, J.; Yurimoto, H.; Dauphin, Y.; Houlbreque, F.; Dunbar, R.; Constantz, B.
A multitude of marine organisms produce calcium carbonate skeletons that are used extensively to reconstruct water temperature variability of the tropical and subtropical oceans - a key parameter in global climate-change models. Such paleo-climate reconstructions are based on the notion that skeletal oxygen isotopic composition and certain trace-element abundances (e.g., Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) vary in response to changes in the water temperature. However, it is a fundamental problem that poorly understood biological processes introduce large compositional deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium and hinder precise calibrations of many paleo-climate proxies. Indeed, the role of water temperature in controlling the composition of the skeleton is far from understood. We have studied trace-element abundances as well as oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of individual skeletal components in the zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate corals at ultra-structural, i.e. micrometer to sub-micrometer length scales. From this body of work we draw the following, generalized conclusions: 1) Centers of calcification (COC) are not in equilibrium with seawater. Notably, the Sr/Ca ratio is higher than expected for aragonite equilibrium with seawater at the temperature at which the skeleton was formed. Furthermore, the COC are further away from equilibrium with seawater than fibrous skeleton in terms of stable isotope composition. 2) COC are dramatically different from the fibrous aragonite skeleton in terms of trace element composition. 3) Neither trace element nor stable isotope variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are directly related to changes in SST. In fact, changes in SST can have very little to do with the observed compositional variations. 4) Trace element variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are not related to the activity of zooxanthellae. These observations are directly relevant to the issue of biological versus non
Full Text Available Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms.
AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.
Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)
The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25oC. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both
Shrestha, Raju; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve
In this paper, we present an industrial application of multispectral imaging, for density measurement of colorants in photographic paper. We designed and developed a 9-band LED illumination based multispectral imaging system specifically for this application in collaboration with FUJIFILM Manufacturing Europe B.V., Tilburg, Netherlands. Unlike a densitometer, which is a spot density measurement device, the proposed system enables fast density measurement in a large area of a photo paper. Densities of the four colorants (CMYK) at every surface point in an image are calculated from the spectral reflectance image. Fast density measurements facilitate automatic monitoring of density changes (which is proportional to thickness changes), which helps control the manufacturing process for quality and consistent output. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Over the years the PWR plant operators were aware of the need of optimizing the pH control strategy in the water-steam cycle with the focus on improvement of steam generator performance with the main goal of reducing the corrosion product ingress into the steam generators and their consequences: SG fouling, SG tube corrosion beneath deposits. To achieve this goal, it becomes necessary to harmonize three requirements: a. High overall pH along the circuit for suppression of general corrosion, requiring a volatile amine to ensure a suitable distribution in steam areas and condenser, and b. High local pH at the water phase of two-phase flow areas, requiring an either rather low volatile amine to ensure high pH in the wet steam water film, or larger amounts of a volatile amine. c. Sufficient amount of hydrazine to ensure reducing conditions in the steam generators. The basic strategy of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly KWU), successfully applied in German nuclear power plants since the late seventies consisted on the achievement of the necessary pH by means of ammonia, as generated by thermal decomposition of hydrazine. By dosing of hydrazine at the necessary amounts to ensure reducing conditions, also sufficient ammonia is generated to achieve a high overall pH along the cycle, being the target pH (25 deg. C) ≥ 9.8 resulting in < 1 ppb Fe in final feed water. This treatment is known as H-AVT (High pH - All Volatile Treatment). Main prerequisite for its application is to have a copper-free system. Eventually, H-AVT started to be applied later at some other western nuclear power plants. In some units, the high condenser exhaust flow rate applied caused a considerable amount of ammonia being removed from the cycle, resulting in too low ammonia concentrations to maintain a sufficiently high pH, making the addition of ammonia necessary. AREVA NP GmbH together with plant operators investigated the possibility of complementing the applied classical H-AVT by addition of an advanced
Roach, L. Spencer; Song, Helen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.
Control of surface chemistry and protein adsorption is important for using microfluidic devices for biochemical analysis and high-throughput screening assays. This paper describes the control of protein adsorption at the liquid-liquid interface in a plug-based microfluidic system. The microfluidic system uses multiphase flows of immiscible fluorous and aqueous fluids to form plugs, which are aqueous droplets that are completely surrounded by fluorocarbon oil and do not come into direct contac...
Duschene, Kaitlin S.; Veneziano, Susan E.; Silver, Sunshine C.; Broderick, Joan B.
Summary The radical AdoMet superfamily comprises a diverse set of >2800 enzymes that utilize iron-sulfur clusters and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or AdoMet) to initiate a diverse set of radical-mediated reactions. The intricate control these enzymes exercise over the radical transformations they catalyze is an amazing feat of elegance and sophistication in biochemistry. This review focuses on the accumulating evidence for how these enzymes control this remarkable chemistry, including controlling the reactivity between the iron-sulfur cluster and AdoMet, and controlling the subsequent radical transformations. PMID:19269883
Duschene, Kaitlin S; Veneziano, Susan E; Silver, Sunshine C; Broderick, Joan B
The radical AdoMet superfamily comprises a diverse set of >2800 enzymes that utilize iron-sulfur clusters and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or AdoMet) to initiate a diverse set of radical-mediated reactions. The intricate control these enzymes exercise over the radical transformations they catalyze is an amazing feat of elegance and sophistication in biochemistry. This review focuses on the accumulating evidence for how these enzymes control this remarkable chemistry, including controlling the reactivity between the iron-sulfur cluster and AdoMet, and controlling the subsequent radical transformations. PMID:19269883
Full Text Available This paper publishes the results of interviews regarding shop-floor-level control of 18 Finnish manufacturing companies. The interviews had 17 open questions relating to demand characteristics, shop floor-level control issues, production flexibility, inventory control, and potential development areas. In order to get insights from the interviews, this paper analyses the answers from the interviews and categorises them into typical answers. The companies that were interviewed are also categorised as small companies with their own end products, subcontractors, or large companies with their own end products, and the emphasis of the analysis is on how companies differ in their shop floor-level control. The results show that different types of companies have different characteristics. Small companies are characterised by constant workflow, seasonal trends in demand, and the use of forecasts. Subcontractors have great daily variation in their demand and processing times. Large companies tend to focus on inventory issues.
Full Text Available Many of the production costs for producing tea are attributable to the process of drying the tea. E-manufacturing can assist companies to reduce these production costs by making crucial information available to decision-makers so that they can make informed decisions. This paper presents an application of e-manufacturing to the design of an automatic tea drying control system. This control system will ensure that the multiple drying parameters such as temperature, dryer-exit tea moisture content, and fuel consumption are maintained at optimal states during the course of the drying of tea. The additional aim of this system is to balance the cost of production and the quality of the final product. Using the Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB model, the optimum drying temperature was found to be 100-110°C, while maintaining a dryer-exit tea moisture content of 3 to 3.12 per cent, at a drying rate of 3 per cent per minute. A Barix control application to control the system’s activities, using the web user interface (WUI, was also developed.
SHAHID Ikramullah Butt; SUN Houfang; GAO Zhengqing
Shop floor control (SFC) is responsible for the coordination and control of the manufacturing physical and information flow within the shop floor in the manufacturing system. Weaknesses of the production activity control (PAC) architecture of the shop floor are addressed by the Maglica's new system architecture. This architecture gives rise to unlimited number of movers and producers thus evolving more complex but decentralized architecture. Beijing Institute of Technology - production activity control (BIT-PAC) architecture introduces an idea of sub-producers and sub-movers thus reducing the complexity of the architecture. All the equipments including sub-producers and sub-movers are considered to be passive in the proposed shop floor information system. The dissemination of information from sub-producers and sub-movers is done manually through a PC. Proposed BIT-PAC SFC architecture facilitates the information flow from shop floor to the other area of the organization. Effective use of internet information services (IIS) and SQL2000 is done along with the ASP. NET technology to implement the application logic. Applicability of the software based on BIT-PAC architecture is checked by running application software on a network PC that supports the dynamic flow of information from sub-producers and sub-movers to the other parts of the organization. Use of software is also shown at the end for BIT training workshop thus supporting the use of SFC architecture for similar kind of environments.
The chemistry of a PWR reactor coolant after plant shutdown and cooldown changes, from a slightly alkaline reducing phase during power operation, to an acidic reducing phase. Plant experiences have indicated that the shutdown chemistry control of reactor coolant could decrease localized high radiation levels and hence personnel exposures. While, it has not been easy to find any presentation of the shutdown chemistry control during a reactor trip. In this study, the primary coolant chemistry during the reactor trip period at a domestic PWR nuclear power plant A was thermodynamically evaluated. It was found out that, due to no subsequent acid-oxidizing process that should be followed after an acid-reducing step, the radiation dose rate in the steam generator chamber increased during the following end-cycle shutdown period. In an experimental study, the release of nickel from synthesized Ni0.6Fe2.4O4, which reacted with or without 30 cc/kg or 45 cc/kg of dissolved hydrogen in an aqueous solution containing 2000 ppm-B boric acid at 150degC for 2 hours, showed that in an acidic-only condition, established after degassing of dissolved hydrogen, it would be possible for nickel to be dissolved into the primary coolant at high temperatures. Considerations of a primary coolant chemistry control during the PWR reactor trip period were suggested as follows: In the case of shutdown and cooldown up to Mode 5 during a reactor trip, the early-boration, and maintaining dissolved hydrogen concentration and injecting hydrogen peroxide at 82degC would be desirable, in order to enhance reduction of nickel ferrite, oxidation of its decomposition products and removal of the dissolved ionic chemical species by purification. While in the case up to Mode 4, decreasing the dissolved hydrogen concentration would be better, in order to suppress the reduction of nickel ferrite. (author)
Peter B. LUH; Weidong FENG
With time-based competition and rapid technology advancements, effective manufacturing scheduling and supply chain coordination are critical to quickly respond to changing market conditions. These problems, however, are difficult in view of inherent complexity and various uncertainties involved. Based on a series of results by the authors, decomposition and coordination by using Lagrangian relaxation is identified in this paper as an effective way to control complexity and uncertainty. A manufacturing scheduling problem is first formulated within the job shop context with uncertain order arrivals, processing times, due dates, and part priorities as a separable optimization problem. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed. Method improvements to effectively solve large problems are also highlighted. To extend manufacturing scheduling within a factory to coordinate autonomic members across chains of suppliers, a decentralized supply chain model is established in the second half of this paper. By relaxing cross-member constraints, the model is decomposed into member-wise subproblems, and a nested optimization structure is developed based on the job shop scheduling results. Coordination is performed through the iterative updating of cross-member prices without accessing other members' private information or intruding their decision-making authorities, either with or without a coordinator. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Future prospects to overcome problem inseparability and improve computing efficiency are then discussed.
Chen Xiangyu; Liang Gongqian; Ma Shining
People currently pay attention to a hotspot problem that how industrial production is evaluated and controlled based on sustainable development theory. Quality is one of the important indexes. Two mainstream theories guide us to realize the industrial sustainable development,: mainly the circular economy and sustainable manufacturing are introduced.The basic characteristics of the sustainable manufacturing are introduced, and that quality management is important contents of sustainable development is indicated. Based on circular economy and sustainable manufacture theories, the drawbacks in the existing quality management models are analyzed. The requests that satisfy the big system "environment - society - economy" are summarized to build up a model. A Chinese traditional cultural principle is applied and the relevant contents are sublimated as the platform to set up the model. The new quality management concept models are put forward "T- D- R" three-dimensional structures and "ecological quality loop" model, from which the new quality concepts are formed. The paper elaborates the contents and the process of setting up the models. The big quality problems of the system can be handled by the new quality concept and model that are validated in practice.
A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of numerically controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer and a set of expert system manufacturing rules to select cutting parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system shell determines the NC sequence and the machining parameters. Several point-to-point NC functions are currently in production. A CAD/CAM system interface for milling and turning functions is also described. 2 refs., 24 figs.
G. Siva Ramakrishnan
Full Text Available "In order to assess the ballistic performance of a propellant it is necessary to measure its following characteristics: (aForce constant, (bvivacity, and (cshape. It is possible to determine (aand (bby the closed vessel technique which enables ballistic performance of the propellant in the gun to be estimated. It can be very usefully employed for quality control of propellant manufacture. As more and more experience is gained in the closed vessel technique these tests have several other possible practical applications such as those: (afor inspection of propellants, (bfor assessment of quality, (c to reduce proof in guns, and (dto check ballistics of a lot after long storage."
This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer
Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)
This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.
Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A
This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer. PMID:25933897
Chen, Jerry X.; Nguyen, Maihan; Arasaki, Osamu; Maraquin, Tammy; Sawyer, Daniel; Morrison, Pedro
Haze and other progressive reticle defects have been known in the semiconductor industry for more than a decade . Extensive research and experiments have been carried out to determine the sources and origins of the progressive haze growth, but the true mechanisms of its cause are still under speculation. To minimize the wafer yield loss at Samsung Austin Semiconductor (SAS), we introduced a practical method to control the haze defects in a DRAM manufacturing environment that integrates reticle and wafer inspections, reticle cleaning, and a dose-based and time-based control forecast software system. This development has been proven to be very effective in controlling the haze defects and reducing the related yield loss while still supporting high volume wafer production.
High-energy particle interactions in the various components of the target/blanket region of the Accelerator Production of Tritium lead to heat generation and deposition. Heavy-water and light-water systems are used to cool the target/blanket system and associated equipment. Structural materials include Inconel alloy 718, aluminum-clad lead rods, aluminum tubes containing helium-3 and tritium gas, and stainless steel components. Proper coolant chemistry is required to maximize neutron production, minimize corrosion of components, and minimize activity buildup. Corrosion-related phenomena and development of coolant and moderator corrosion control for both power and defense fission reactors has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Less is known, however, about cooling systems for accelerators where a variety of transient chemical species and spallation products may be formed. The following provides a discussion on the issues that need to be addressed for proper water chemistry control for the APT system
Grinenval, Eva; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Vinet, Françoise
The development of 'green' sensors is a challenging task in the field of biomolecule sensing, for example in the detection of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). In the present work a complete approach in green chemistry was developed to create chemically active patterns for the immobilisation of biological probes. This key technology is discussed on the basis of the twelve green chemistry principles, and is a combination of surface patterning by spotting and surface chemistries modified by molecular vapour deposition. The (1H,1H,2H,2H)-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) was used as a novel anti-adsorption layer while the 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) was used to immobilise probes. Oligonucleotides and the anti-cTnI antibody were studied. The spatially controlled immobilisation of probes was characterised by fluorescence. The demonstrated surface modification has broad applications in areas such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing. Moreover, the environmental impacts of surface patterning and surface chemistry were discussed from a 'greenness' point of view.
Bekaert, J.; Van Look, L.; Vandenberghe, G.; van Adrichem, P.; Maslow, M. J.; Gemmink, J.-W.; Cao, H.; Hunsche, S.; Neumann, J. T.; Wolf, A.
The desire to reduce cost in volume manufacturing has driven up the throughput in the lithographic exposure machines. As a result the power transmitted in the projection optics increases. Although small, the absorption levels in the lens materials are not zero, which leads to localized heating of the lens and hence lens aberrations. To squeeze out the maximum process windows, the pupil shapes have transformed from simple annular shapes to shapes with very concentrated poles. As a result, the exposure energy transported through the lens is no longer equally distributed over the lenses of the projection options. Instead only a fraction of the lens gets to transport the total power. This concentration of power further aggravates the lens heating induced aberrations and enhances the importance of advanced lens heating control schemes which are available on ASML scanners. To analyze the effects of lens heating on the final imaging, a model was developed by the lens manufacturer Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH, and incorporated into a litho simulation environment by ASML BRION. This tool can be used to analyze the impact of dose/throughput, illumination shapes and reticle layout on aberrations. It provides a means to assess potential lens heating issues even before production masks are manufactured. Moreover, this computational tool opens the possibility to calculate parameters for lens heating correction, rather than measuring them, saving valuable machine time. In this paper, the performance of the novel computational lens heating control is demonstrated on wafer and compared with the traditional way of measuring the relevant parameters. In addition, a modeling study is performed to assess possible lens heating effects for freeform or non-traditional source shapes, thereby demonstrating the advanced correction potential of ASML latest aberration manipulator, called FlexWaveTM.
Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)
The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)
Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Highlights: • Experimentally validated permeability prediction tools for hierarchical implants. • Randomised structures form preferential flow channels with stronger shear flows. • Hierarchical strut structures allow independent tailoring of flow and pore size
Full Text Available CV. Grafika Inndah is a printing company, majoring in job order production system. While so far, the company has problems on the decision making due to lead time for booking orders that the company can accept customer orders according to quantity and due date. The production process of the design, print finishing and that includes the print engine 52 and engine Sakura print shop. The station receives a print job that exceeds the load capacity. Thus this research aims to determine the lead time, the average output and average utility. Data processing in this study using the method of manufacturing systems based load control (load oriented manufacturing control, and to assist in decision-making applications built using Delphi. Programming of the analysis of the data processing method known LOMC can the average lead time work station 2.88 hours and an average of 99.7% utilities, and Print Shop Lead time average of 1.82 hours and an average of 99.85% utilities. Decision support system applied in this study deserves to be implemented. It can be seen from the test program using the Black Box Test and Alpha Test is evidenced in respondents answered SS (strongly agree as much as 48% and S (agree as much as 46% .
Zhang, Z. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jones, D. [School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Yue, S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Lee, P.D., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jones, J.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, C.J. [School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Jones, E. [Department of Advanced Technology, Stryker Orthopaedics, Raheen Business Park, Limerick (Ireland)
Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Highlights: • Experimentally validated permeability prediction tools for hierarchical implants. • Randomised structures form preferential flow channels with stronger shear flows. • Hierarchical strut structures allow independent tailoring of flow and pore size.
Jones, Michael K.
Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.
A corrosion model has been developed that describes the in-pile corrosion of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding irradiated in commercial pressurized water reactors. The model is used to quantify the effects of coolant chemistry control and fuel management strategies on the end-of-life cladding corrosion thickness. Corrosion data were obtained from autoclave experiments and from over 500 fuel rods irradiated in 14 different commercial reactors with varying duties and coolant chemistry control strategies. Data were obtained for both Conventional and Improved Zircaloy-4. Oxide thickness ranged from 5 microns to over 130 microns on fuel rods with burnups up to 60,000 MWD/MTU. Corrosion data were selected from along the lengths of the irradiated rods and were combined with the local thermal/hydraulic and coolant chemistry conditions to construct a corrosion database. More than 2800 data points were included in the database. In-pile corrosion rates were found to be higher than out-of-pile thermal corrosion rates. Studies were performed to identify the parameters that caused the increase, and it was determined that lithium concentration, fast neutron flux, oxide layer thickness, boiling rates and the tin level in the cladding affected the corrosion rates. An empirical model was developed to correlate the in-pile corrosion data with rate enhancement factors used as multipliers on the thermal corrosion rate. (UK)
Forest floor chemistry interacts with temperature and moisture to restrict or enhance the supply of nutrients for tree growth. In sub-arctic forests of interior Alaska, this control of element supply is manifest in dramatically different rates of nutrient cycling among the principal forest types. Slow-growing forests developing on cold, wet soils produce organic detritus that is slow to decompose because of its chemical composition. Consequently, element supply is restricted in these ecosystems. Productive forests developing on warm, drier soils produce organic detritus that decays more rapidly because of favorable chemical composition. Element supply is enhanced in these forest ecosystems. Using the compartment model Linkages, the authors evaluate several scenarios that propose altered temperature and precipitation regimes for their influence on forest floor chemistry, element supply and the consequence to forest productivity
Yuan, Fasong; Miyamoto, Seiichi
Here we show an analysis of river flow and water chemistry data from eleven gauging stations along the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, with time spanning 1959-2002. Analysis of spatial relationship between the long-term average flow and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration allows us to illuminate four major processes controlling river chemistry, namely saline water addition, evaporative concentration with salt gain or loss, dilution with salt gain or loss, and salt storage. Of the 10 river reaches studied, six reaches exhibit the process dominated by evaporative concentration or freshwater dilution with little change in salt load. Four reaches show considerable salt gains or losses that are induced by surface-ground water interactions. This analysis suggests that the evaporative concentration and freshwater dilution are the prevailing mechanisms, but local processes (e.g., variations in hydrologic flowpath and lithologic formation) also play an important role in regulating the hydrochemistry of the Pecos River.
Hellman, Mats [Hellman Vatten AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
A project has been conducted of a large number of power and pulp plants in Sweden. Production managers and those responsible for water quality control were visited and interviewed. In addition, a research of cycle chemistry literature has been conducted to determine what has been done in other countries. The review of this literature shows that the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA and ESKOM in South Africa are in the forefront regarding QA/QC and have come a long way in water control management. A key requirement for successful plant cycle chemistry is corporate management support. The project makes it clear that cycle chemistry control was best at plants where production management was aware of the importance of high water quality. There is a real need for feed water technique and water quality education at all company levels. The objective should be that 'everyone should know the importance of right water quality'. Personnel without an education in chemistry often regard cycle chemistry as somewhat complicated. Better understanding and better working cycle chemistry control can be obtained by making the control easier and clearer for persons without training in chemistry. Extensive on-line instrumentation with well-designed systems for presenting the data, by-far, gives the best cycle chemistry control. It is important to have a holistic view when water treatment systems and on-line instrumentation are planned. It is not the amount of instruments or the number of chemistry personnel that is important. The important thing is to ensure that all functions needed fit together in the best way possible. Today, when cycle chemistry monitoring is heavily dependent on on-line instrumentation, the reliability of the instruments is crucial. Therefore, it is important to have well-established routines for maintenance, calibration and service. In order to decrease forced outages of plants due to poor cycle chemistry, the focus of chemistry control should
Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.
Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.
Vafaeenezhad, H.; Ghanei, S.; Seyedein, S. H.; Beygi, H.; Mazinani, M.
In this research, a comprehensive soft computational approach is presented for the analysis of the influencing parameters on manufacturing of dual-phase steels. A set of experimental data have been gathered to obtain the initial database used for the training and testing of both artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The parameters used in the strategy were intercritical annealing temperature, carbon content, and holding time which gives off martensite percentage as an output. A fraction of the data set was chosen to train both ANN and ANFIS, and the rest was put into practice to authenticate the act of the trained networks while seeing unseen data. To compare the obtained results, coefficient of determination and root mean squared error indexes were chosen. Using artificial intelligence methods, it is not necessary to consider and establish a preliminary mathematical model and formulate its affecting parameters on its definition. In conclusion, the martensite percentages corresponding to the manufacturing parameters can be determined prior to a production using these controlling algorithms. Although the results acquired from both ANN and ANFIS are very encouraging, the proposed ANFIS has enhanced performance over the ANN and takes better effect on cost-reduction profit.
王凌云; 黄红辉; 王大中
To solve the problem of advanced digital manufacturing technology in the practical application, a knowledge engineering technology was introduced into the computer numerical control (CNC) programming. The knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning used in CNC programming were researched. The CNC programming system functional architecture of impeller parts based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) was constructed. The structural model of the general knowledge-based system (KBS) was also constructed. The KBS of CNC programming system was established through synthesizing database technology and knowledge base theory. And in the context of corporate needs, based on the knowledge-driven manufacturing platform (i.e. UG CAD/CAM), VC++6.0 and UG/Open, the KBS and UG CAD/CAM were integrated seamlessly and the intelligent CNC programming KBE system for the impeller parts was developed by integrating KBE and UG CAD/CAM system. A method to establish standard process templates was proposed, so as to develop the intelligent CNC programming system in which CNC machining process and process parameters were standardized by using this KBE system. For the impeller parts processing, the method applied in the development of the prototype system is proven to be viable, feasible and practical.
Kolarik, Robert V.
The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.
La presente tesis doctoral titulada ¿Supramolecular and heterosupramolecular chemistry in controlled release and molecular recognition processes¿ está centrada en los dos aspectos principales de la química supramolecular que han experimentado un gran auge en los últimos años: el reconocimiento molecular y los procesos de liberación controlada. En particular la primera parte de la tesis se focaliza en el diseño y síntesis de moléculas orgánicas que pueden ser empleados cómo...
Full text: Assessment of processes controlling groundwater chemistry is essential for water resource management and identification of water resource vulnerability. The Yarra Catchment (4045 km2) extends 120 km east of Melbourne and is considered a significant area for Melbourne's water resources. This catchment is characterised by fractured rock aquifers, a high baseflow component, high, localised recharge, and diverse land use. Therefore, identification of processes controlling groundwater chemistry is important for determining areas where groundwater, and inevitably surface water, are most vulnerable to contamination. The regional groundwater flow system is affected by high, localised recharge in areas of high surface elevations. Hence, a local groundwater flow system is investigated in detail to aid regional interpretation. Processes causing spatial heterogeneity of groundwater chemistry include the extent of recharge, water-rock interaction and land use processes. At high surface elevations Na:CI = 1, and direct recharge of precipitation into sedimentary or granitic aquifers results in groundwater with lower TDS values (∼ 50 to 100 mg/L), compared to groundwater where precipitation directly recharges younger basaltic aquifers (TDS ∼ 100 to 150 mg/L). At lower surface elevations Na:CI ratios decrease, and major ion concentrations, pH and TDS are significantly higher (TDS ∼ 400 to 500 mg/L) reflecting cumulative effects of water-rock interaction and agricultural land use lower in the catchment. Groundwater samples were also analysed for stable isotopes, the 180 and 2H values (-6.2 to 5.50, and -38.1 to 32.20 VSMOW respectively) lie on the Melbourne Meteoric Water Line, indicating that groundwater has not been subjected to evaporation or high-temperature water rock interaction. Slightly lower 180 and 2H values for groundwater compared to nearby surface water indicates that recharge of colder rains occurs preferentially, both on local and more regional scales
The paper presents the results of NSC KIPT researches on manufacturing the fuel microspheres and pellets based on uranium dioxide. The data on fuel characteristics for different manufacturing stages are given. The problems of improving the fuel quality with changing the structure characteristics of pellets are considered. Demonstrated is the hardware for pellet controlling and presented are the new ways for developing the methods of controlling the nuclear fuel: X-ray fluorescent analysis; complex of nuclear-physical methods on the base of accelerators; laser-excitation energy-mass-spectrometer. (author)
Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)
OH process analysis; distillation time stability for the two systems is 6 hours or 8 hours depending on the parameter settings for the current percentage of the BTA. Purpose: Designed and manufactured automatic temperature controller for distillation apparatus which enriched radioisotopes in studying produced water in the oilfield, can establish temperature for each different distillation procedures with an error of ± 1oC. (author)
E. E. Bockmon
Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500–1400 μatm and O2 from 80–240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.
Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei
The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. PMID:23293134
Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Wei; Walker, David; Yu, Gouyo
The segmentation of the primary mirror is the only promising solution for building the next generation of ground telescopes. However, manufacturing segmented mirrors presents its own challenges. The edge mis-figure impacts directly on the telescope's scientific output. The `Edge effect' significantly dominates the polishing precision. Therefore, the edge control is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues in the segment production that needs to be addressed urgently. This paper reports an active edge control technique for the mirror segments fabrication using the Precession's polishing technique. The strategy in this technique requires that the large spot be selected on the bulk area for fast polishing, and the small spot is used for edge figuring. This can be performed by tool lift and optimizing the dell time to compensate for non-uniform material removal at the edge zone. This requires accurate and stable edge tool influence functions. To obtain the full tool influence function at the edge, we have demonstrated in previous work a novel hybrid-measurement method which uses both simultaneous phase interferometry and profilometry. In this paper, the edge effect under `Bonnet tool' polishing is investigated. The pressure distribution is analyzed by means of finite element analysis (FEA). According to the `Preston' equation, the shape of the edge tool influence functions is predicted. With this help, the multiple process parameters at the edge zone are optimized. This is demonstrated on a 200mm crosscorners hexagonal part with a result of PV less than 200nm for entire surface.
Full Text Available Load Oriented Manufacturing Control (LOMC is an input-output control system development thatconsidered work load in every work center. Production planning starts with determining production leadtime, then work load control (WLC. WLC consist of defining criteria and determining release procedure tothe shop floor for items that will be processed. This research tried to implement LOMC concept in afurniture company called PT.X. The result of the research showed that LOMC could improve throughputand minimize work in process (WIP.
Lifetime extension of high-temperature equipment such as the intermediate heat exchanger of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is important from the economical point of view. Since the replacing cost will cause the increasing of the running cost, it is important to reduce replacing times of the high-cost primary equipment during assumed reactor lifetime. In the past, helium chemistry has been controlled by the passive chemistry control technology in which chemical impurity in the coolant helium is removed as low concentration as possible, as does Japan's HTTR. Although the lifetime of high- temperature equipment almost depends upon the chemistry conditions in the coolant helium, it is necessary to establish an active chemistry control technology to maintain adequate chemical conditions. In this study, carbon deposition which could occur at the surface of the heat transfer tubes of the intermediate heat exchanger and decarburization of the high-temperature material of Hastelloy XR used at the heat transfer tubes were evaluated by referring the actual chemistry data obtained by the HTTR. The chemical equilibrium study contributed to clarify the algorism of the chemistry behaviours to be controlled. The created algorism is planned to be added to the instrumentation system of the helium purification systems. In addition, the chemical composition to be maintained during the reactor operation was proposed by evaluating not only core graphite oxidation but also carbon deposition and decarburization. It was identified when the chemical composition could not keep adequately, injection of 10 ppm carbon monoxide could effectively control the chemical composition to the designated stable area where the high-temperature materials could keep their structural integrity beyond the assumed duration. The proposed active chemistry control technology is expected to contribute economically to the purification systems of the future very high-temperature reactors. (authors)
Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of
Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Cruz Molina, Carola [ORNL
This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.
The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology
This publication provides information on the current status and development trends in monitoring, diagnostics and control of water chemistry and corrosion of core and primary circuit materials in water cooled power reactors. It summarizes the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project and focuses on the methods for development, qualification and implementation of water chemistry expert systems at nuclear power plants. These systems are needed to have full benefit from using on-line sensors in real time mode when sensor signals, and other chemistry and operational data, are collected and continuously analysed with data acquisition and evaluation software. Technical knowledge was acquired in water chemistry control techniques (grab sampling, on-line monitoring, data collecting and processing, etc), plant chemistry and corrosion diagnostics, plant monitoring (corrosion, chemistry, activity) and plant chemistry improvement (analytical models and practices). This publication covers contributions from leading experts in water chemistry/corrosion, representing organizations from 16 countries with the largest nuclear capacities
Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Changhwan; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sung-Ki; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Awasthi, Amartya; Kim, J. H.; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Choi, DongSub; Huang, Kevin; Dighe, Prasanna; Lee, Cheouljung; Byeon, Jungho; Dey, Soham; Sinha, Jaydeep
Aggressive advancements in semiconductor technology have resulted in integrated chip (IC) manufacturing capability at sub-20nm half-pitch nodes. With this, lithography overlay error budgets are becoming increasingly stringent. The delay in EUV lithography readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM) and the need for multiple-patterning lithography with 193i technology has further amplified the overlay issue. Thus there exists a need for technologies that can improve overlay errors in HVM. The traditional method for reducing overlay errors predominantly focused on improving lithography scanner printability performance. However, processes outside of the lithography sector known as processinduced overlay errors can contribute significantly to the total overlay at the current requirements. Monitoring and characterizing process-induced overlay has become critical for advanced node patterning. Recently a relatively new technique for overlay control that uses high-resolution wafer geometry measurements has gained significance. In this work we present the implementation of this technique in an IC fabrication environment to monitor wafer geometry changes induced across several points in the process flow, of multiple product layers with critical overlay performance requirement. Several production wafer lots were measured and analyzed on a patterned wafer geometry tool. Changes induced in wafer geometry as a result of wafer processing were related to down-stream overlay error contribution using the analytical in-plane distortion (IPD) calculation model. Through this segmentation, process steps that are major contributors to down-stream overlay were identified. Subsequent process optimization was then isolated to those process steps where maximum benefit might be realized. Root-cause for the within-wafer, wafer-to-wafer, tool-to-tool, and station-to-station variations observed were further investigated using local shape curvature changes - which is directly related to
Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania
IM components selected from industrial production. Two systems were analysed: a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM) with sub-micrometer uncertainty and an optical CMM allowing fast measurements suitable for in-line quality control. Product quality control capability, measuring uncertainty and...... calibration guidelines are discussed for both systems. Finally, a new approach for the manufacturing of hybrid micro polymer-metal calibrated objects is proposed....
Juan-Ignacio Latorre-Biel; Emilio Jiménez-Macías; Mercedes Pérez de la Parte; Julio Blanco-Fernández; Eduardo Martínez-Cámara
Artificial intelligence methodologies, as the core of discrete control and decision support systems, have been extensively applied in the industrial production sector. The resulting tools produce excellent results in certain cases; however, the NP-hard nature of many discrete control or decision making problems in the manufacturing area may require unaffordable computational resources, constrained by the limited available time required to obtain a solution. With the purpose of improving the e...
problems with several autonomous robots and several targets are considered as model of flexible manufacturing systems. Each manufacturing target has to be served in a given time interval by one and only one robot and the total working costs have to be minimized (or total winnings maximized). A specifically...... adapting pattern formation principles to these problems either no feasibility is guaranteed or only unrealistic toy problems like one-step problems, i.e. no sequences of tasks, are treated. These limitations are overcome in the present work where sequential manufacturing tasks in logical order are fully...
Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng
This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23464683
Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Chen, Muwan;
Additive manufacturing is a promising technique in tissue engineering, as it enables truly individualized implants to be made to fit a particular defect. As previously shown, a feasible strategy to produce complex multicellular tissues is to deposit different small interfering RNA (siRNA) in porous...... implants that are subsequently sutured together. In this study, an additive manufacturing strategy to deposit carbohydrate hydrogels containing different siRNAs is applied into an implant, in a spatially controlled manner. When the obtained structures are seeded with mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells, the...... selected siRNAs are delivered to the cells and induces specific and localized gene silencing. Here, it is demonstrated how to replicate part of a patient's spinal cord from a computed tomography scan, using an additive manufacturing technique to produce an implant with compartmentalized siRNAs in the...
Stephens, J. R.
The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.
Schazmann, Benjamin; Regan, Fiona; Ross, Mary; Diamond, Dermot; Paull, Brett
Quality control (QC) measures are less prevalent in teaching laboratories than commercial settings possibly owing to a lack of commercial incentives or teaching resources. This article focuses on the use of QC assessment in the analytical techniques of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) at…
The report gives results of an engineering evaluation of technical options to reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from flexible slabstock and molded polyurethane foam manufacturing plants. Among the technical options studied were recovery and recycle of CFC-11, alternative ...
... Institute By Notice dated May 15, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 22, 2012, 77 FR 30327... Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives...
Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.
Early industry experience defined the critical importance of Chemistry Control Practices to maintaining long-term performance of PWR steam generators. These lessons provided the impetus for a number of innovations and alternate practices at Comanche Peak. For example, advanced amine investigations and implementation of results provided record low iron transport and deposition. The benefits of the surface-active properties of dimethyl-amine exceeded initial expectations. Operation of pre-coat polishers and steam generator blowdown demineralizers in the amine cycle enabled optimization of amine concentrations and stable pH control. The strategy for coordinated control of oxygen and hydrazine dosing complemented the advanced amine program for protective oxide stabilization. Additionally, a proactive chemical cleaning was performed on Unit 1 to prevent degradations from general fouling of steam generator tube-tube support plate (TSP) and top-of-tubesheet (TTS) crevices. This paper shares the results of these innovations and practices. Also, the bases, theory, and philosophy supporting the strategic elements of program will be presented. (authors)
Full Text Available Purpose: Development of computer technology and alternative manufacturing methods in form of additive manufacturing leads to the manufacture of products with complex shapes. In the field of medicine they include, inter alia, custom-made implants manufactured for a particular patient, such as cranial implants, maxillofacial implants, etc. With regard to the fact that such implants are inserted into a patient’s body, it is necessary to perform the verification, including the shape and dimensional verification. The article deals with the application of the industrial computer tomography within the process of inspection and verification of selected custom-made implant types.Methodology/Approach: The Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement performs the verification of medicinal products manufactured by the additive manufacturing technologies from the Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5 titanium alloy, using the coordinate measuring machine Carl Zeiss Contura G2 and the industrial computed tomography machine Carl Zeiss Metrotom 1500. These equipment fulfil the requirements for the identification and evaluation of dimensions of both, the external and the internal structures. Findings: The article presents the possibilities of the computed tomography utilisation in the inspection of individual implant manufacture using the additive manufacturing technologies. The results indicate that with the adjustment of appropriate input parameters (alignment, this technology is appropriate for the analysis of shape deviations, when compared with the CAD model.Research Limitation/implication: With the increasing distance of measured object from X-ray source, the machine’s resolution function decreases. Decreasing of resolution has a minor impact on the measured dimensions (relatively high tolerances, but has a significant impact on the evaluation of porosity and inclusions. Originality/Value of paper: Currently, the verification of a manufactured implant can be
Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.
Usha S. Adiga
Full Text Available Background: Six sigma is a process of quality measurement and improvement program used in industries. Sigma methodology can be applied wherever an outcome of a process is to be measured. A poor outcome is counted as an error or defect. This is quantified as defects per million (DPM. Six sigma provides a more quantitative frame work for evaluating process performance with evidence for process improvement and describes how many sigma fit within the tolerance limits. Sigma metrics can be used effectively in laboratory services. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the analytical performance of clinical chemistry laboratory by calculating sigma metrics. Methodology: The study was conducted in the clinical biochemistry laboratory of Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar. Sigma metrics of 15 parameters with automated chemistry analyzer, transasia XL 640 were analyzed. The analytes assessed were glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin (BT, direct bilirubin (BD, total protein, albumin, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and Calcium. Results: We have sigma values <3 for Urea, ALT, BD, BT, Ca, creatinine (L1 and urea, AST, BD (L2. Sigma lies between 3-6 for Glucose, AST, cholesterol, uric acid, total protein(L1 and ALT, cholesterol, BT, calcium, creatinine and glucose (L2.Sigma was more than 6 for Triglyceride, ALP, HDL, albumin (L1 and TG, uric acid, ALP, HDL, albumin, total protein(L2. Conclusion: Sigma metrics helps to assess analytical methodologies and augment laboratory performance. It acts as a guide for planning quality control strategy. It can be a self assessment tool regarding the functioning of clinical laboratory.
Gentry, Jeffery D.
A relational database is a powerful tool for collecting and analyzing the vast amounts of inner-related data associated with the manufacture of composite materials. A relational database contains many individual database tables that store data that are related in some fashion. Manufacturing process variables as well as quality assurance measurements can be collected and stored in database tables indexed according to lot numbers, part type or individual serial numbers. Relationships between manufacturing process and product quality can then be correlated over a wide range of product types and process variations. This paper presents details on how relational databases are used to collect, store, and analyze process variables and quality assurance data associated with the manufacture of advanced composite materials. Important considerations are covered including how the various types of data are organized and how relationships between the data are defined. Employing relational database techniques to establish correlative relationships between process variables and quality assurance measurements is then explored. Finally, the benefits of database techniques such as data warehousing, data mining and web based client/server architectures are discussed in the context of composite material manufacturing.