Sample records for chemico process

  1. Chemico-physical processes influencing acidic precipitation: the case study of Milan urban area

    Maffeis, G. [Environmental adviser, Verdello, Bergamo (Italy); Tamponi, M. [National Health Service IV U.O. PMIP, USL 7, Lecco (Italy); Tebaldi, G. [National Health Service IV U.O. PMIP, USL 38, Milan (Italy)


    The aim of the model presented in this work is to describe the acidic contents of cloud droplets` temporal evolution, both during their formation process and the following stage of precipitation. The attention is mainly focused on precipitation in which the contribution of local polluted air masses, typical of big urban areas, is predominant. Some phenomena are particularly taken into consideration: the exchange processes of those pollutants mostly influencing the pH, from the gas to the liquid phase; the process of sulphur oxidation in the liquid phase and finally the phenomenon of inclusion of the atmospheric particulate through interception processes. The model has been useful in the analysis of experimental data about the precipitations in Milan urban area from the January 1st 1991 to June 30th 1992. For instance, it has been possible to explain both a rapid decrease of pH, happening with strong convective instability, and the significant washout of basic particulate, taking place during the first minutes in most of the events. The sensitivity analysis has also shown that pH depends on ammonia concentration and on temperature in a significant way.

  2. Laboratory Characterization of Chemico-osmotic, Hydraulic and Diffusion Properties of Rocks: Apparatus Development

    Excess fluid pressures induced by chemical osmosis in natural formations may have a significant influence on groundwater systems in a geological time scale. Examinations of the possibility and duration times require characterization of the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion properties of representative formation media under field conditions. To develop a laboratory apparatus for chemical osmosis experiments that simulates in-situ conditions, typical litho-static and background pore pressures, a fundamental concept of the chemical osmosis experiment using a closed fluid circuit system (referred to as a closed system hereafter) was revisited. Coupled processes in the experiment were examined numerically. In preliminary experiments at atmospheric pressure a chemical osmosis experiment using the closed system was demonstrated. An approximation method for determining the chemico-osmotic property was attempted. Based on preliminary examinations, an experimental system capable of loading the confining and pore pressures on the sample was thus developed. (authors)

  3. Variations in resistance of viruses from different groups to chemico-physical decontamination methods

    Mahnel, H.


    The resistance of a total of 13 different viruses to some important chemico-physical influences was studied under uniform experimental conditions. Stability in tape water, thermostability and sensitivity to anodic oxidation, gamma radiation, some virucidal substances and several commercial disinfectants were tested. In evaluating the results, an attempt is made to rank the viruses investigated according to their sensitivity. On average a bovine parvovirus, and also a reovirus and three enteroviruses, proved most stable. These were followed by infectious canine hepatitis (adenoviruses). Newcastle disease (paramyxoviruses) and vaccinia (poxviruses) demonstrating less resistance. In all the tests an orthomyxovirus (influenza A), a rhabdovirus (pseudorabies) and a togavirus (sindbis) proved to have relatively low resistance.

  4. Effect of pore structure on chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic properties of mud-stones

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ experiment by Neuzil (2000) has obtained the substantial proof of chemical osmosis in natural clayey formation. Chemical osmosis in clayey formations has thus received attention in recent years in the context of geological disposal of radioactive waste. Chemical osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between solutions to compensate the difference of water potentials, increasing the other potential differences, such as the pressure difference. Accordingly, the chemical osmosis could generate localized, abnormal fluid pressures in geological formations where formation media act as semi-permeable membranes and groundwater salinity is not uniform. Without taking account of the chemical osmosis, groundwater flow modeling may mislead the prediction of the groundwater flow direction. Therefore the possibility of chemical osmosis needs to be identified for potential host formations for radioactive waste repositories. The chemico-osmotic property of formation media is an essential parameter to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in the formation; however, the diffusion and hydraulic properties are also fundamental parameters to estimate the duration of chemical osmosis since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, diffusion and hydraulic parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments. A series of experiments were performed on mud-stones. The chemico-osmotic parameter of each rock sample was further interpreted by the osmotic efficiency model proposed by Bresler (1973) to examine the pore structure inherent in rocks. Diatomaceous and siliceous mud-stone samples were obtained from drill cores taken from the Koetoi and Wakkanai

  5. Predicting skin sensitisation using a decision tree integrated testing strategy with an in silico model and in chemico/in vitro assays.

    Macmillan, Donna S; Canipa, Steven J; Chilton, Martyn L; Williams, Richard V; Barber, Christopher G


    There is a pressing need for non-animal methods to predict skin sensitisation potential and a number of in chemico and in vitro assays have been designed with this in mind. However, some compounds can fall outside the applicability domain of these in chemico/in vitro assays and may not be predicted accurately. Rule-based in silico models such as Derek Nexus are expert-derived from animal and/or human data and the mechanism-based alert domain can take a number of factors into account (e.g. abiotic/biotic activation). Therefore, Derek Nexus may be able to predict for compounds outside the applicability domain of in chemico/in vitro assays. To this end, an integrated testing strategy (ITS) decision tree using Derek Nexus and a maximum of two assays (from DPRA, KeratinoSens, LuSens, h-CLAT and U-SENS) was developed. Generally, the decision tree improved upon other ITS evaluated in this study with positive and negative predictivity calculated as 86% and 81%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that an ITS using an in silico model such as Derek Nexus with a maximum of two in chemico/in vitro assays can predict the sensitising potential of a number of chemicals, including those outside the applicability domain of existing non-animal assays. PMID:26796566

  6. Microbe-electrode interactions: The chemico-physical environment and electron transfer

    Gardel, Emily Jeanette


    This thesis presents studies that examine microbial extracellular electron transfer that an emphasis characterizing how environmental conditions influence electron flux between microbes and a solid-phase electron donor or acceptor. I used bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), fluorescence and electron microscopy, chemical measurements, 16S rRNA analysis, and qRT-PCR to study these relationships among chemical, physical and biological parameters and processes.

  7. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A


    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts. PMID:27286037

  8. In chemico evaluation of prohapten skin sensitizers: behavior of 2-methoxy-4-(¹³C)methylphenol in the peroxidase peptide reactivity assay (PPRA) as an alternative to animal testing.

    Merckel, Fabien; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Gerberick, G Frank; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre


    In chemico methods, based on the assessment of a hapten's reactivity toward peptides, have been proposed as alternative methods for the assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. However, even with these approaches showing promise, a major drawback is the activation of prohaptens, i.e. molecules needing a metabolic activation to become reactive and therefore sensitizing. Recently, it has been proposed to couple an enzymatic activation step based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/hydrogen peroxide to such peptide reactivity assays. To evaluate this approach, the behavior of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (2M4MP), reported as a moderate sensitizer according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), has been investigated in this assay. To follow the reaction with the peptides and characterize more easily intermediates and adducts, the molecule was first (13)C isotopically substituted at the most probable reactive position. When 2M4MP was incubated with HRP/H2O2 in a mixture PBS (pH 7.4, 0.1M)/acetonitrile 2:1, two main products were formed deriving from the formation of a quinone methide 2M4MQ subsequently trapped by either H2O2 or H2O to form a benzylic hydroperoxide or alcohol, respectively. When nucleophiles such as GSH or a peptide containing a cysteine residue (Pep-Cys) were present in the reaction medium, the quinone methide 2M4MQ was trapped by the more nucleophilic thiol function to form thio-adducts. No modifications of 2M4MP were observed when the same reactions were carried out without HRP confirming that the activation of the molecule was enzyme related. Amino nucleophiles were shown to be far less reactive towards the quinone methide 2M4MQ with only tiny formation of adducts with lysine or arginine side chains. In addition we demonstrated that the same enzymatic activation could also take place in a microemulsion based on sodium dodecyl sulfate/tert-butanol/chloroform/buffer. PMID:23454653

  9. Chemico-physical models of cometary atmospheres

    Sublimation (vaporization) of the icy component of a cometary nucleus determines the initial composition of the coma gas as it streams outward and escapes. Photolytic reactions in the inner coma, escape of fast, light species such as atomic and molecular hydrogen, and solar wind interaction in the outer coma alter the chemical composition and the physical nature of the coma gas. Models that describe these interactions must include (1) chemical kinetics, (2) coma energy balance, (3) multifluid flow for the rapidly escaping light components, the heavier bulk fluid, and the plasma with separate temperatures for electrons and the remainder of the gas, (4) transition from a collision dominated inner region to free molecular flow of neutrals in the outer region, (5) pickup of cometary ions by the solar wind, (6) counter and cross streaming of neutrals with respect to the plasma which outside of the contact surface also contains solar wind ions, and (7) magnetic fields carried by the solar wind. Progress on such models is described and results including velocity, temperature, and number density profiles for important chemical species are presented and compared with observations

  10. Chemico-mechanical improvement of bentonite barriers for pollutant containment

    Puma, Sara


    Pollution control represents one of the main problems of public interest in all industrialised countries. Since the 1970s, when the engineering of waste containment began, the overall objective of Environmental Geotechnics was to limit contaminant discharge to groundwater and subsoil. Since the 1990s design engineers and environmental agencies have shown a growing interest in the use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as an alternative to compacted clays in cover systems or in bottom lining o...

  11. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation



    Full Text Available The process of transformation of table olives is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions of the indigenous microflora of the olives together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources (fiber-glass fermenters, PVC tanks, pipelines, pumps and water with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterised collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts that is possibly isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008 (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives, also through organoleptic evaluation. This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives that can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the systematics for commercial classification, through the assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  12. Challenges of UV light processing of low UVT foods and beverages

    Koutchma, Tatiana


    Ultraviolet (UV) technology holds promise as a low cost non-thermal alternative to heat pasteurization of liquid foods and beverages. However, its application for foods is still limited due to low UV transmittance (LUVT). LUVT foods have a diverse range of chemical (pH, Brix, Aw), physical (density and viscosity) and optical properties (absorbance and scattering) that are critical for systems and process designs. The commercially available UV sources tested for foods include low and medium pressure mercury lamps (LPM and MPM), excimer and pulsed lamps (PUV). The LPM and excimer lamps are monochromatic sources whereas emission of MPM and PUV is polychromatic. The optimized design of UV-systems and UV-sources with parameters that match to specific product spectra have a potential to make UV treatments of LUVT foods more effective and will serve its further commercialization. In order to select UV source for specific food application, processing effects on nutritional, quality, sensorial and safety markers have to be evaluated. This paper will review current status of UV technology for food processing along with regulatory requirements. Discussion of approaches and results of measurements of chemico-physical and optical properties of various foods (fresh juices, milk, liquid whey proteins and sweeteners) that are critical for UV process and systems design will follow. Available UV sources did not prove totally effective either resulting in low microbial reduction or UV over-dosing of the product thereby leading to sensory changes. Beam shaping of UV light presents new opportunities to improve dosage uniformity and delivery of UV photons in LUVT foods.

  13. Caracterização física, físico-química, enzimática e de parede celular em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da fruta de figueira Physical, chemico-physical, enzymatic and cell wall charazterization during the different development stages of the fig tree fruits

    Carlos Antonio A. Gonçalves


    during the development of the fruit. Both pH and TTA ranged very little during fruit development. The average diameter of the fruits was always inferior to the average length, reaching 51.99 mm and 59.18 mm, respectively at 75 days. The average weight of 53.23 g was reached at 75 days. Predominating neutral sugars were galactose, arabinose and xylose whereas fucose, mannose and glucose and rhamnose were those present in smaller amount in the cell wall during the different developmental stages of the fruits. With the maturation of the fruits, there was a reduction of the chief components of pectic polysaccharides (galactose, arabinose and rhamnose, whilst the components of the hemicellulose fraction (xylose, glucose and mannose tended to increase. Cellulose solubilization and fall in the contents of hemicellulose took place from 60 days when the fruit already in the physiological maturity, starts softening process, as related with pectin solubilization by the higher activity of the pectinnemethylesterase and polygalacturonase enzymes.

  14. Chemico-therapeutic approach to prevention of dental caries. [using stannous fluoride gel

    Shannon, I. L.


    The program of chemical preventive dentistry is based primarily upon the development of a procedure for stabilizing stannous fluoride in solution by forcing it into glycerin. New topical fluoride treatment concentrates, fluoride containing gels and prophylaxis pastes, as well as a completely stable stannous fluoride dentifrice are made possible by the development of a rather complicated heat application method to force stannous fluoride into solution in glycerin. That the stannous fluoride is clinically effective in such a preparation is demonstrated briefly on orthodontic patients.

  15. [Chemico-nutritional composition of meat of Strombus galeatus (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Blanco Metzler, A; Montero Campos, M


    Strombus galeatus samples were collected in Lagarto (10 degrees 06'N,85 degrees 48'W), Bahía Ballena (9 degrees 42'N,85 degrees 01'W) and Golfito (8 degrees 30'N,83 degrees 10'W) at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Individual weight ranged between 141.9 and 241.3 g (41.3-65.6% edible). Over 72% is water, 23% protein and 3% ash. The caloric content varied between 126.5 and 129 kcal/100g. Fat, crude fiber and carbohydrates contents were small. Mean ranges (%) in minerals were: 403.0-465 P, 233.5-315.7 Ca, 89.7-315.0 K, 122.3-145.5 Na, 217.5-266.3 Mg, 1.5-5.3 Fe, 2.0-8.7 Zn and 0.2-0.5 mg % Cu. As was not detected, and the Cd and Pb contents were 0.046-0.062 and 0.19-0.21 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in the meat are not toxic for humans. PMID:1297172

  16. Chemico-analytical properties and extraction of aluminium gallium and indium complexes with glycine cresol red

    It is established that glycine cresol red (GCR) forms coloured complexes with Al3+, Ga3+ and In3+ ions in aqueous solutions. The optimum conditions of their formation and their composition are determined. Introduction of acetate-ions into solution hampers the formation of coloured compounds of In and Al. High selectivity of CCR action is achieved during the extraction of complexes with chloroform solution of α-bromobutyric acid. The optimum conditions of extraction are studied, the composition and extraction constant of gallium complex with GCR and α-bromobutyric acid are determined

  17. Novel chemico-mechanical approach towards long-term implantable glucose sensing

    Boss, Christophe; Meurville, Eric; Sallese, Jean-Michel; Ryser, Peter


    The proof of concept of a continuously sensing affinity device based on the glucose-dependent viscosity of a sensitive solution containing dextran and Concanavalin A has been successfully demonstrated. The biosensor incorporates a piezoelectric diaphragm and a flow-resisting microchannel for viscosity detection, and a free-standing Anodic Alumina Oxide (AAO) porous nano-membrane as glucose selective interface. Extensive in vitro glucose measurements between two physiologically relevant glucos...

  18. Effects of maturation and processing technologies on nutritional and sensory qualities of Itrana table olives

    Lanza, B.


    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the nutritional and sensory characteristics of table olives of the Italian doubleaptitude olive cultivar (Olea europaea L. cv. Itrana processed as green (Oliva bianca di Itri and black (Oliva di Gaeta table olives with modified Greek methods of preparation. One method provides an initial step of immersion in water to stimulate the growth of specific microflora which contributes to the debittering of the fruits. After 15-45 days, salt is added to the liquid in quantities not exceeding 8 kg per 100 kg of fresh olives. Another method entails the immersion of fruits directly in brine utilizing double-salting (half the amount of NaCl was added immediately and the remaining part after 15 days. All the information derived from chemico-physical, nutritional and sensory data have separated the samples into four groups according to techno-processings, ripening stage and storage. Double-salting is the method which assures the best results.En el presente estudio se evalúan las características nutricionales y sensoriales de la variedad Itrana de aceituna (Olea europaea L. de doble uso, elaborada en verde (Oliva Bianca di Itri y en negro (Oliva di Gaeta, utilizando métodos griegos modificados al efecto. Un método consiste en una etapa inicial de inmersión en agua para favorecer el crecimiento de una flora específica que contribuye al endulzado de los frutos. Después de 15-45 días se añade sal a la solución en una cantidad que no exceda 8 kg por 100 g de fruto fresco. Otro procedimiento consiste en colocar directamente las aceitunas en salmuera utilizando un sistema de adición de la sal en dos etapas (la mitad de la sal se añade inmediatamente y el resto a los 15 días. Toda la información derivada de los análisis fisico-químicos, nutricionales y sensoriales ha permitido la separación de las muestras en cuatro grupos según la tecnología de elaboración, el estado de madurez y el almacenamiento. El proceso de

  19. Development of nanocomposite based on hydroxyethylmethacrylate and functionalized fumed silica: mechanical, chemico-physical and biological characterization.

    D'Agostino, Antonella; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Malinconico, Mario; De Rosa, Mario; Avella, Maurizio; Schiraldi, Chiara


    In this research work organic/inorganic nano composites were synthesized from poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and properly modified silica nanoparticles by in situ polymerization. In particular, fumed nanosilica was functionalized with methacryloylpropyltrimetoxy silane (MPTMS) in order to obtain a more homogeneous, reliable and mechanically performing nano composite. For comparison, nano composites with non functionalized silica were also prepared. Scanning electron microscopy was performed in order to visualize the effects of functionalization on the mode and state of dispersion. This analysis demonstrated that MPTMS grafted onto silica surface acts as an effective coupling agent and assures a good dispersion and distribution of nanoparticles as well as a strong nano particle/matrix interfacial adhesion. As a result of strong interactions occurring between phases, a pronounced increase of the glass transition temperature and mechanical parameters were recorded. Finally, these novel nano composites were seeded with murine fibroblast and human mesenchymal stem cells, and observed in time-lapse experiments proving an effective biological response. PMID:21221729

  20. Modelling the coupled chemico-osmotic and advective-diffusive transport of nitrate salts in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Fine-grained saturated porous materials can act as a semi-permeable osmotic membrane when exposed to a solute concentration gradient. The ions diffusion is hindered while water movement towards higher concentrations takes place in the semi-permeable membrane. The capacity of the fine-grained porous material to act as a semi permeable osmotic membrane is referred to as the osmotic efficiency (its value is 1 when the membranes is ideal, less than 1 when the membrane is leaky, allowing diffusion). The efficiency to retain ions in solution is dependent on the thickness of the diffuse double layer which itself depends on the solution concentration in the membrane. Clay rich formations have been shown to act as non-ideal semi-permeable membrane. Andra is investigating the Callovo-Oxfordian clay as a host rock for intermediate-level to high-level radioactive waste. In this context, it has been feared that osmotic water flows generated by the release of sodium nitrate salt in high concentrations, out of intermediate radioactive bituminous waste, could induce important over-pressures. The latest would eventually lead to fracturing of the host rock around the waste disposal drifts. The purpose of the present study was to develop a simulation code with the capacity to assess the potential impact of osmosis on: the re-saturation of the waste disposal drifts, the pressure evolution and the solute transport in and around a waste disposal drift. A chemo-osmotic coupled flow and transport model was implemented using the FlexPDE-finite element library. Our model is based on the chemo-osmotic formulation developed by Bader and Kooi, 2005. The model has been extended to highly concentrated solutions based on Pitzer's equation. In order to assess the impact of osmotic flow on the re-saturation time, the model was also designed to allow unsaturated flow modelling. The model configuration consists of an initially unsaturated 2D cylindrical radioactive waste disposal drift surrounded by a saturated Callovo-Oxfordian host rock at its undisturbed hydraulic state. Evolution of saturation of the disposal drift, pressure, osmotic efficiency and concentration were investigated through the analyses of 9 simulation runs with ranges of physical parameters and different release scenarios. The following conclusions could be drawn: - The impact of the variation of the activity coefficient (high concentrated solutions) showed to be negligible in comparison to the impact of Bresler's relationship (= dependency of the efficiency coefficient on the concentration). - Simulated pressure and overpressure are mainly influenced by Bresler's relationship. The assumption of an osmotic efficiency coefficient following Bresler's relationship induces a strong limitation of the over-pressures and limits the impact of salt concentrations above 1 M. - The maximal overpressure expected in the disposal drift is of 98 m (0.96 MPa). Therefore no fracturing of the rock should be feared due to osmotic flow. - Mass limitation of the source is also a factor strongly limiting the osmotic overpressure. The release scenario has therefore a strong impact on the results. - Further experimental studies are needed to assess Bresler's relationship in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay. (authors)

  1. Process Accounting

    Gilbertson, Keith


    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  2. Primary Processing

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.


    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  3. Budgeting Process

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John


    Attempts to describe the budgeting process in school districts. Discusses general budget calendars and explains the process of constructing a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart of the budgeting process. Presents a detailed list of activities to be included in the budgeting process and a PERT chart indicating how these activities…

  4. Elektrokemiske Processer

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers


    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  5. Process mining

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;


    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  6. Data processing

    Fry, T F


    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  7. Food processing

    The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

  8. Processing trends

    This paper identifies trends associated with the performance of automatic film processors in hospitals and nonhospital facilities, including chiropractic facilities. Automatic film processors were evaluated in more than 1,700 facilities as a part of the Nationwide Evaluation of x-ray Trends (NEXT) program. Processing was evaluated with use of the Sensitometric Technique for Evaluation of Processing (STEP) procedure, which involves the exposure of control film to a calibrated light sensitometer and evaluation of the resultant film density. A processing speed index of 100 means that the processor is processing films according to the film manufacturers' normal recommended specifications; deviation from this value suggest underprocessing or overprocessing conditions

  9. Design Processes

    Ovesen, Nis


    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology...

  10. Data processing

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included

  11. Stochastic processes

    Parzen, Emanuel


    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  12. Kreative processer

    Schoch, Odilo


    Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise.......Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise....

  13. Sustainable processing

    Kristensen, Niels Heine


    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  14. Organizing Process

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics of...

  15. Peat Processing


    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  16. Process automation

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  17. Grants Process

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  18. Membrane Processes.

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter


    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  19. Electrochemical Processes

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers


    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  20. Processing Proteases

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused to the...... protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N-terminal of...... the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is...

  1. Membrane Processes.

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert


    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  2. Renewal processes

    Mitov, Kosto V


    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  3. Wastes processing

    Farinet, J.L. (CIRAD-CA, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Copin, Y. (CEREMHER, 34 - Meze (France))


    The Transpaille procedure is used for the recovery and processing of organic wastes using methane fermentation; gas and compost are produced. The system was installed at the slaughterhouse in Thies, Senegal, in 1988-89. It consists of a 40 cubic metres horizontal cylinder. The slaughterhouse produces 480 metric tonnes of wastes per year and 35.5 cubic metres of biogas per day at a process temperature of 31 deg C. Lagooning is used for the first time as a water purification technique at a slaughterhouse in West Africa. This technique reproduces the process by which water purifies itself biologically, by accelerating and controlling the phenomenon. The procedure includes pre-processing, a decanter/digester and three lagoons. The organic matter is degraded by bacteria, producing water, carbon dioxide and mineral elements, which are then assimilated by micro-algae and macrophytes (Pistia stratiotes). The tropical climate is convenient for this processing method, which is optimum of temperatures of between 25 deg C and 35 deg C. (authors).

  4. Sewer Processes

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... revisions of chapters from the previous edition, adds three new chapters, and presents extensive study questions. • Presents new modeling tools for the design and operation of sewer networks • Establishes sewer processes as a key element in preserving water quality • Includes greatly expanded coverage...

  5. Clustering processes

    Ryabko, Daniil


    The problem of clustering is considered, for the case when each data point is a sample generated by a stationary ergodic process. We propose a very natural asymptotic notion of consistency, and show that simple consistent algorithms exist, under most general non-parametric assumptions. The notion of consistency is as follows: two samples should be put into the same cluster if and only if they were generated by the same distribution. With this notion of consistency, clustering generalizes such classical statistical problems as homogeneity testing and process classification. We show that, for the case of a known number of clusters, consistency can be achieved under the only assumption that the joint distribution of the data is stationary ergodic (no parametric or Markovian assumptions, no assumptions of independence, neither between nor within the samples). If the number of clusters is unknown, consistency can be achieved under appropriate assumptions on the mixing rates of the processes. (again, no parametric ...

  6. Copula Processes

    Wilson, Andrew Gordon


    We define a copula process which describes the dependencies between arbitrarily many random variables independently of their marginal distributions. As an example, we develop a stochastic volatility model, Gaussian Copula Process Volatility (GCPV), to predict the latent standard deviations of a sequence of random variables. To learn the parameters of GCPV we use Bayesian inference, with the Laplace approximation, and with Markov chain Monte Carlo as an alternative. We find both methods comparable. We also find our model can outperform GARCH, on simulated and financial data. And unlike GARCH, GCPV can easily handle missing data, incorporate covariates other than time, and model a rich class of covariance structures.

  7. Extraction process

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  8. Process simulation

    The search for an optimal design of a heavy water plant is done by means of a simulation model for the mass and enthalpy balances of the SH2-H2O exchange process. A symplified model for the simulation diagram where the entire plant is represented by a sole tray tower with recicles, and heat and mass feeds/extractions was used. The tower is simulated by the method developed by Tomich with the convergence part given by the algorithm of Broyden. The concluding part of the work is centered in setting the design parameters (flowrates, heat exchange rates, number of plates) wich give the desired process operating conditions. (author)

  9. Film processing

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  10. Offshoring Process

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi


    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  11. Causticizing process

    Engdal, H.


    This invention seeks to provide a method in which the soda lye obtained as a result of cellulose cooking process and unslaked lime are used for producing white liquor which can be re-used in the cooking process. In this method, the heat released by the slaking of lime with soda lye is recovered by a high pressure slaking process wherein the heat is transferred, either to the steam separating from the lye, which steam is then led to the desired application, or to some other medium to be heated. The invention is characterized in that the soda lye to be causticized is divided into two parts, one of which is used for the slaking of lime by adding to it all the unslaked lime needed for the causticizing process, and that, following slaking, the two volumes are brought together for the actual causticizing reaction involving the total amount of lye needed. This invention provides the advantage that the amount of lye needed is smaller, and so the temperature can be increased.


    Anamarija Kutlić


    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  13. Signal Processing

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  14. Transplant Process

    ... typing, including high-resolution typing A complete health history and physical exam Evaluation of your psychological and emotional strengths Identifying who will be your primary caregiver throughout the transplant process Bone marrow biopsy CT (computed tomography) scan or MRI (magnetic ...

  15. Processing Needs

    Concerning processing needs the following recommendations can be made: Encourage and support spectrum-averaged cross section measurements for data validation. For example, measurements of constants for neutron activation analysis (thermal capture and resonance integrals), astrophysics cross sections (MACS, e.g. corresponding to a 30 keV Maxwellian spectrum), 252Cf spontaneous fission spectrum averaged cross sections, etc. The latter could help to resolve many issues related to uncertainties in the capture cross section in the energy region between 100 keV and a few MeV; Continue to develop and improve web based and off-line data visualisation tools, striving for generality as well as user-friendliness; Continue to support developments for the generation of covariance data of experimental measurements as well as evaluated nuclear data; Regarding the issue of independent processing codes, the generally available PREPRO series is highly esteemed and truly valuable, but it lacks, by design the following: a module to generate scattering matrices; a module to generate temperature dependent self-shielded cross sections in the unresolved resonance region; processing of fission neutron multiplicity; treatment of covariances; Perhaps Red Cullen might be willing to undertake this work. The details of additional modules to be developed include also treatment of covariances. All these modules should be clearly identified. Enhancement of the processing of covariance matrices could be sought by acquiring and making generally available a code that is already developed (e.g. drawing from the experience in Japan)

  16. Innovation process

    Kolodovski, A.


    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, economic...

  17. Process validation for radiation processing

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  18. Restoration Process


    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  19. Innovation process

    Kolodovski, A.


    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, economic, and political challenges, which will be considered in a separate report on implementation The report was written in February 2005.

  20. Biogas processing

    Kudláč, Adam


    The diploma thesis includes proposals suitable for usage of the technologies for clearing the biogas into a quality of substitute natural gas (SNG). The most suitable technology is chosen for the clearing the biogas out of the septic tanks of the laboratory for biologically decomposable waste treatment at Institute of process and environmental engineering. There is a calculation , a proposal and a realisation of the experimental unit for clearing the biogas performed.

  1. Radiopharmaceutical process

    A process is described in which a dispersion of denatured aggregates of serum albumin to which tin is attached, suitable for radioactive labelling and use as a diagnostic agent is prepared and lyophilized. Where the physical and chemical properties degrade during lyophilization or aging an improvement is described comprising additionally including in as a protective agent, a mixture of a polycarboxylic acid and a disaccharide or monosaccharide in a sufficient amount to reduce degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the dispersion during lyophilization and aging

  2. Image processing

    The nuclear medical methods developed over the last ten years for cardiological diagnosis are especially suited to evaluating the functional performance of the left ventricle, and myocardial perfusion. Computed tomography and subtraction angiography are two other, non-invasive radiological methods for examining the size and topography of the cavities of the heart, and echocardiography has meanwhile taken the first position in the diagnosis of morphological heart disease. Fourier analysis and the Fourier tansformation technique allow acquisition, recording and evaluation of quantitative data of the radionuclide ventriculography. Due to the weak spatial resolution of the scintigraphic phase analysis, the next logical development was to apply Fourier analysis to the cine-ventriculography, which unfortunately requires considerable computing efforts and time. A solution has now been found that combines the two image processing systems and thus creates the basis for applying the Fourier analysis to all the diagnostic imaging methods, such as echocardiography, radiography, and nuclear medical methods. (orig.)

  3. Image Processing


    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  4. Lithospheric processes

    Baldridge, W. [and others


    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  5. Welding process

    This invention relates to a process for making a large number of weld beads as separate contours, spaced out from each other, by means of an automatic welding head. Under this invention, after striking the arc in the prescribed manner and positioning the torch on the first contour to be welded and having made the first weld bead, the torch current is reduced to bring about a part fade out of the arc. The torch is then moved to the starting position on a second contour to be welded where a static timed pre-fusion is effected by resumption of the welding current to carry out the second weld bead by following the second welding contour in the same manner and so forth. The invention particularly applies to the welding of tube ends to a tube plate

  6. Lithospheric processes

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  7. The pH dependence of predictive models relating electrophoretic mobility to peptide chemico-physical properties in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Castagnola, M; Rossetti, D V; Corda, M; Pellegrini, M; Misiti, F; Olianas, A; Giardina, B; Messana, I


    We applied best fitting procedures to capillary electrophoresis (CE) mobility values, measured at varying acidic pH, of a set of 21 peptides with a molecular mass ranging from about 350 to 1850 Da. This method allowed the contemporary measurements of C-terminus and carboxylic group of the side-chain of aspartic and glutamic acid dissociation constants and of peptide Stokes radius at different protonation stages. Stokes radius was related to peptide molecular mass M at the power of a fractional coefficient, and best correlation was found at pH 2.25, the fractional coefficient being equal to 0.68. This value is close to that proposed by R. E. Offord (Nature 1966, 211, 591-593), who suggested a proportionality between the polymer Stokes radius and M(2/3). The coefficient value decreases at higher pH, reaching a value of 0.58 at pH 4.25, corresponding to a mean peptide conformational transition towards more compact structures as a consequence of C-terminus dissociation. The measurement of the dissociation constants of each peptide allowed us to determine the percentage error on peptide charge predictions performed utilizing mean dissociation constants. Even for the charge, the best predictive performance is obtained at the most acidic edge of the range of the pH studied, mainly at pH 2.25. Conclusively, this study shows that the best performance of predictive models for peptide CE mobility is obtainable in the very acidic pH range (2.25-2.50) and in the absence of electroosmotic flow, and that a satisfactory predictive equation of peptide electrophoretic mobility (m2V(-1)s(-1) is given by mu = 85.4(Z/M(0.68))10(-8). PMID:9788308

  8. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  9. Lumping Processes of Periodic ARMA Processes

    Smadi, Abdullah A. [عبد الله الصمادي


    In this article various lumping processes are defined for periodic ARMA (PARMA) processes, namely, the forward, the backward and the cyclic lumping processes. The inter-relations between the parameters of these lumping processes are obtained. It is then proved that stationarity of any lumped process implies sta¬tionarity of all other lumped processes.


    Engin GÜRTEKİN


    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.




    Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple ...

  12. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  13. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.


    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  14. Process mineralogy IX

    Petruk, W.; Hagni, R.D.; Pignolet-Brandom, S.; Hausen, D.M. (eds.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))


    54 papers are presented under the headings: keynote address; process mineralogy applications to mineral processing; process mineralogy applications to gold; process mineralogy applications to pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy; process mineralogy applications to environment and health; and process mineralogy applications to synthetic materials. Subject and author indexes are provided. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

  15. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik


    In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are ident......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered.......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points...... are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered.......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified......, and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  17. Modelingof the Biotransformation Processes

    Vrsalovic Presecki, A.; Findrik, Z.; Zelic, B.


    Modeling and simulation of biotransformation processes have a large potential in searching for optimal process conditions, development and process design, control, scale-up, identifying of the process cost structure, and comparing process alternatives. Modeling and simulation leads to better understanding and quantification of the investigated process and could lead to significant material and costs savings especially in the early phases of the process development. In this review modeling and...

  18. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.


    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  19. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.


    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introduced and complexity is increased. If no continuous investment is made in keeping models simple, changes are becoming increasingly costly and error-prone. Though refactoring techniques are widely use...

  20. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John


    design tools with a clear focus on specific PI tasks exist. Therefore, in this paper, the concept of a general systematic framework for synthesis and design of PI options in hierarchical steps through analyzing an existing process, generating PI options in a superstructure and evaluating intensified...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...... of the main concepts is illustrated through an example involving the operation of a membrane reactor....

  1. Natural Process Processing: Discovering Process Models from Plain Text

    Martinez Puerto, Didac-Joan


    Aquest projecte consisteix en la implementació i estudi d'un mètode de generació automàtica de models Business Process Model and Notation(BPMN) mitjançant l'aplicació de tècniques de Natural Language Processing (NLP) i regles sintàctiques sobre textos que descriuen processos de negoci.

  2. Blood Donation Process

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  3. Special parallel processing workshop



    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  4. A dynamic contagion process

    Dassios, Angelos; Zhao, Hongbiao


    We introduce a new point process, the dynamic contagion process, by generalising the Hawkes process and the Cox process with shot noise intensity. Our process includes both self-excited and externally excited jumps, which could be used to model the dynamic contagion impact from endogenous and exogenous factors of the underlying system. We have systematically analysed the theoretical distributional properties of this new process, based on the piecewise-deterministic Markov pr...

  5. Contracting process innovation

    Nissen, Mark E.


    Process innovation pertains to making dramatic improvements in performance of enterprise processes. Stemming from total quality management, business process reengineering and other widely-accepted approaches to performance improvement in the business enterprise, process innovation has largely been practiced without a systematic method and required expertise only possessed by a few, highly-talented people. Now, as the result of research in this area, the process of process innovation now has a...

  6. Exclusive Processes at Colliders

    Szczurek, Antoni


    A few examples of exclusive processes at high energy are discussed. Several mechanisms are presented. The differential distributions are shown. The possibilities to measure the processes are discussed.

  7. Product Development Process Modeling


    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  8. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S


    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  9. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew


    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Griebenow, B.


    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  12. Competencies of process managers

    Matej Jevšček


    Abstract: Research Question (RQ): Effectiveness of managers differs in implementation of the process approach. Which competencies affect performance effectiveness of managers in the process approach? Purpose:The aim of the research is to specify a set of competencies which affect performance effectiveness of managers in the process approach. Method: The theoretical part examines the current state and terminology from the field of processes ...

  13. Spatial Process Generation

    Kroese, Dirk P.; Botev, Zdravko I.


    The generation of random spatial data on a computer is an important tool for understanding the behavior of spatial processes. In this paper we describe how to generate realizations from the main types of spatial processes, including Gaussian and Markov random fields, point processes, spatial Wiener processes, and Levy fields. Concrete MATLAB code is provided.

  14. Recursive Markov Process

    Hidaka, Shohei


    A Markov process, which is constructed recursively, arises in stochastic games with Markov strategies. In this study, we defined a special class of random processes called the recursive Markov process, which has infinitely many states but can be expressed in a closed form. We derive the characteristic equation which the marginal stationary distribution of an arbitrary recursive Markov process needs to satisfy.

  15. On Permanental Processes

    Eisenbaum, Nathalie; Kaspi, Haya


    Permanental processes can be viewed as a generalisation of squared centered Gaussian processes. We develop in this paper two main subjects. The first one analyses the connections of these processes with the local times of general Markov processes. The second deals with Bosonian point processes and the Bose-Einstein condensation. The obtained results in both directions are related and based on the notion of infinite divisibility.


    Vlad BALANESCU; Mihaela MASCU


    Business Process Management (BPM) is considered to be the third wave in business process theory. Appearing as a response to the critique formulated regarding Business Process Reengineering, BPM tries to be a more holistic and integrated approach to management and processes. In a time where complex solutions are needed solution that incorporates elements from various concepts, Business Process Management can be, in my opinion, a link between these ideas. After a short introduction presenting g...

  17. Thin film processes

    Vossen, John L


    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  18. Software Process Improvement Framework

    Nikitina, Natalja


    Many software development organizations today are keen on improving their software development processes in order to develop software products faster, cheaper or better. For that reason, Software Process Improvement (SPI) has received significant attention from the research community over the last few decades. Process maturity models have become widely known for benchmarking software processes against predefined practices and for identifying processes to be improved or implemented, whereas pr...

  19. Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units

    Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.


    With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

  20. Gaussian Processes for Nonlinear Signal Processing

    Pérez-Cruz, Fernando; Van Vaerenbergh, Steven; Murillo-Fuentes, Juan José; Lázaro-Gredilla, Miguel; Santamaria, Ignacio


    Gaussian processes (GPs) are versatile tools that have been successfully employed to solve nonlinear estimation problems in machine learning, but that are rarely used in signal processing. In this tutorial, we present GPs for regression as a natural nonlinear extension to optimal Wiener filtering. After establishing their basic formulation, we discuss several important aspects and extensions, including recursive and adaptive algorithms for dealing with non-stationarity, low-complexity solutio...

  1. Digital image processing.

    Seeram, Euclid


    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  2. Drug Development Process

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  3. Nonlinear Markov processes

    Frank, T.D. [Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)], E-mail:


    Some elementary properties and examples of Markov processes are reviewed. It is shown that the definition of the Markov property naturally leads to a classification of Markov processes into linear and nonlinear ones.

  4. The Integrated Renovation Process

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process for...

  5. Natural Language Processing.

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.


    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  6. Process evaluation distributed system

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)


    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  7. Process innovation laboratory

    Møller, Charles


    models. The process innovation laboratory facilitates innovation by using an integrated action learning approach to process modelling in a controlled environment. The study is based on design science and the paper also discusses the implications to EIS research and practice...... thus to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process......Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  8. Group Decision Process Support

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao


    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  9. Nonlinear Markov processes

    Some elementary properties and examples of Markov processes are reviewed. It is shown that the definition of the Markov property naturally leads to a classification of Markov processes into linear and nonlinear ones

  10. Flavor changing lepton processes

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  11. Dissection of Kinesin's Processivity

    Adio, Sarah; Jaud, Johann; Ebbing, Bettina; Rief, Matthias; Woehlke, Günther


    The protein family of kinesins contains processive motor proteins that move stepwise along microtubules. This mechanism requires the precise coupling of the catalytic steps in the two heads, and their precise mechanical coordination. Here we show that these functionalities can be uncoupled in chimera of processive and non-processive kinesins. A chimera with the motor domain of Kinesin-1 and the dimerization domain of a non-processive Kinesin-3 motor behaves qualitatively as conventional kines...

  12. Grind hardening process

    Salonitis, Konstantinos


    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  13. Software Process Improvement Defined

    Aaen, Ivan


    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners. It is...... proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  14. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    Iguchi, Manabu


    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  15. Business Process Modeling Notation

    Robert Flowers; Charles Edeki


    Models as representations of real world entities may appear to the novice to be an unnecessary abstraction. Indeed, in small organizations where there are relatively few processes, there is little need to abstract activities. When it comes to large organizations, with hundreds or thousands of processes, thecreation of models becomes an essential activity. Even if the process itself does not change in the form of new process re-engineering efforts or new applications, there are new employees a...

  16. Hawkes processes in finance

    Emmanuel Bacry; Iacopo Mastromatteo; Jean-Fran\\c{c}ois Muzy


    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequency finance. Becaus...

  17. Fuel gas conditioning process

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.


    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  18. Mining processes in dentistry

    R. S. Mans; Reijers, H.A.; Genuchten, van, MJIM Michiel; Wismeijer, D.


    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry, however, is the large number of independent dental professionals that are involved in the entire process. In order to reap the benefits of digital dentistry, it is essential to obtain an accurate view on ...

  19. Stochastic Processes in Finance

    Madan, Dilip B.


    Stochastic processes arising in the description of the risk-neutral evolution of equity prices are reviewed. Starting with Brownian motion, I review extensions to Lévy and Sato processes. These processes have independent increments; the former are homogeneous in time, whereas the latter are inhomogeneous. One-dimensional Markov processes such as local volatility and local Lévy are discussed next. Finally, I take up two forms of stochastic volatility that are due to either space scaling or tim...

  20. Modeling Design Process

    TAKEDA, Hideaki; Veerkamp, Paul; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki


    This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then di...

  1. Lithography process control

    Levinson, Harry J


    This text covers lithography process control at several levels, from fundamental through advanced topics. The book is a self-contained tutorial that works both as an introduction to the technology and as a reference for the experienced lithographer. It reviews the foundations of statistical process control as background for advanced topics such as complex processes and feedback. In addition, it presents control methodologies that may be applied to process development pilot lines.

  2. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  3. Business Process Management - Methodologies

    PROKOP, Jan


    The main objective of this thesis is to map some of the business process management, business process reengineering methodologies and compare it according to several criteria. Part of this thesis is survey of the state of business process management in Czech Republic and Hungary.

  4. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium



    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  5. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy


    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  6. Biomass process handbook


    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  7. Theory of Markov processes

    Dynkin, E B


    Theory of Markov Processes provides information pertinent to the logical foundations of the theory of Markov random processes. This book discusses the properties of the trajectories of Markov processes and their infinitesimal operators.Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the necessary concepts and theorems from measure theory. This text then provides a general definition of Markov process and investigates the operations that make possible an inspection of the class of Markov processes corresponding to a given transition function. Other chapters consider the more c

  8. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  9. Data processing made simple

    Wooldridge, Susan


    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  10. Colloid process engineering

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike


    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  11. Thin film processes II

    Kern, Werner


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  12. Nonaqueous processing methods

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures

  13. Dynamical laser spike processing

    Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R


    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...

  14. Future Steelmaking Processes

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan


    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  15. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.


    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  16. Radioactive sodium processing apparatus

    Purpose: To enable safety, continuous and economical disposal for radioactive sodium while preventing radioactive contaminations. Constitution: Reaction gas introduction pipe for introducing oxygen and carbon dioxygen, and steams for accelerating the processing speed, as well as a discharge pipe for sodium carbonate as reaction products are connected to the lower side wall of a radioactive sodium processing container. A screw conveyor is mounted within the radioactive sodium processing container and a torque meter is disposed in the central axis of the conveyor. Signals from the torque meter are sent to an oxygen introduction control device. V-shaped recesses are formed to the screw blades of the conveyor for improving the separating efficiency between sodium carbonate produced through the procession and not-processed radioactive sodium. Since sodium is converted after the process into sodium carbonate, it can be handled and stored within ease. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Computers for symbolic processing

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie


    A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.

  18. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  19. Linearity in Process Languages

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn


    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  20. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Deckert, George


    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  1. Operating System Process Schedulers



    Process scheduling is one of the key tasks of every operating system. Proper implementation of a scheduler reflects itself in a system responsiveness, especially when processes require execution in real-time. Multimedia playback is one of these processes, also being one of the most common operating system tasks nowadays. In the beginning of this thesis, I present theoretical basics of scheduling: its goals, different scheduling types and basics algorithms. I cover scheduling in single-proces...

  2. Basic digital signal processing

    Lockhart, Gordon B


    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  3. Transnational Learning Processes

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment...

  4. Process Improvement Essentials

    Persse, James R


    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  5. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)


    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  6. TEP process flow diagram

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  7. Olfactory Signal Processing

    Varshney, Kush R.; Varshney, Lav R.


    Olfaction, the sense of smell, has received scant attention from a signal processing perspective in comparison to audition and vision. In this paper, we develop a signal processing paradigm for olfactory signals based on new scientific discoveries including the psychophysics concept of olfactory white. We describe a framework for predicting the perception of odorant compounds from their physicochemical features and use the prediction as a foundation for several downstream processing tasks. We...

  8. Software Radar signal processing

    T. Grydeland; Lind, F. D.; Erickson, P J; J. M. Holt


    Software infrastructure is a growing part of modern radio science systems. As part of developing a generic infrastructure for implementing Software Radar systems, we have developed a set of reusable signal processing components. These components are generic software-based implementations for use on general purpose computing systems. The components allow for the implementation of signal processing chains for radio frequency signal reception, correlation-based data processing, and cross-correla...

  9. Business process transformation

    Grover, Varun


    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  10. Free Jacobi Process

    Demni, Nizar


    Using a matrix approach, we define the free Jacobi process as the limit of the complex Jacobi matrix process. The we derive a free SDE which is analogous to its classical counterpart. To proceed, we prove that fro suitable parameters the process remains injective if it is initially injective and then use the polar decomposition. In the stationnary case, this will be easily deduced from the explicit expression of the spectral measure. In the general setting we derive a recurrence formula for t...

  11. Software Engineering Process Metamodels

    Ragna Steenweg; Marco Kuhrmann; Daniel Méndez Fernández


    Software processes help to structure and organize software projects. Since software projects are complex endeavors and continuously grow in terms of size, budget, and complexity, software processes are used to coordinate people and teams, to define inter- faces in a multi-site project setting in global distributed development, and to provide a shared terminology and knowledge base. Since much process knowledge is available, appropriate tools are required to structure knowledge and to make it ...

  12. Polygon mesh processing

    Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno


    Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,

  13. Hierarchical Dirichlet Scaling Process

    Kim, Dongwoo; Oh, Alice


    We present the \\textit{hierarchical Dirichlet scaling process} (HDSP), a Bayesian nonparametric mixed membership model. The HDSP generalizes the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) to model the correlation structure between metadata in the corpus and mixture components. We construct the HDSP based on the normalized gamma representation of the Dirichlet process, and this construction allows incorporating a scaling function that controls the membership probabilities of the mixture components. ...

  14. TEP process flow diagram

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  15. Financial information processing

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU


    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  16. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter;


    -cuted in these kinds of systems can be considered using a declarative modeling framework. Proposed representation provides a unified way for performance evaluation of local cyclic as well as supported by them multimodal processes. The main question regards of reachability of a SCCP cyclic behavior. In this context......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe......, the sufficient conditions guarantee the reachability of both local and multimodal processes cyclic steady state spaces are discussed....

  17. Processing and recycling

    Participants of the meeting reported on materials and methods of industrial waste recycling and waste processing: development of sampling techniques for bulk quantities, characterization of electronic scrap, mechanical-biological treatment of residual wastes, comminution, ultrasonic dispersion of solids, control of particle size, fractionation, mills, wet benefication of heavy minerals from sand dunes, processing of slags and ashes, processing of polypropylene, computerized simulation of processing machines, recycling of photovoltaic Cadmium Telluride thin layer modules, compacting of hard coal, production of AIM (Auto Ignition Materials) pellets for airbags, oxidic solder for conditioning of radioactive wasteshydrocyclons, gasification of biomass, recycling of non-ferrous metals, mechanochemical dechlorination of PCB, dioxins, pentachlorphenol and pesticides, ceramics. (uke)

  18. The Critical Design Process

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per


    . Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...... within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process...

  19. Cooperative internal conversion process

    Kálmán, Péter


    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  20. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert


    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  1. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  2. Process modeling style

    Long, John


    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  3. Chemical process hazards analysis



    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  4. EARSEC SAR processing system

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.


    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  5. Facilitated exclusion process and Pfaffian Schur processes

    Baik, Jinho; Barraquand, Guillaume; Corwin, Ivan; Suidan, Toufic


    We study the Facilitated TASEP, an interacting particle system on the one dimensional integer lattice. We prove that starting from step initial condition, the position of the rightmost particle has Tracy Widom GSE statistics on a cube root time scale, while the statistics in the bulk of the rarefaction fan are GUE. This uses a mapping with last-passage percolation in a half-quadrant, which we study using the formalism of Pfaffian Schur processes. For the model with exponential weights, we pro...

  6. Technologies for Optical Processing

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  7. Competencies of process managers

    Matej Jevšček


    Full Text Available Abstract: Research Question (RQ: Effectiveness of managers differs in implementation of the process approach. Which competencies affect performance effectiveness of managers in the process approach? Purpose:The aim of the research is to specify a set of competencies which affect performance effectiveness of managers in the process approach. Method: The theoretical part examines the current state and terminology from the field of processes and competencies. The empirical part is based on a quantitative research. An online survey questionnaire was used for data collection. The survey was conducted among auditors of management systems worldwide. Results: The research indicates that there are significant differences between influences of different competencies on performance effectiveness of managers in the process approach. The studied competencies are presented in an array from the most to the least influential. Organization: The research directly affects the development of the HR function in organizations in practice. It enables an easier and more oriented personnel selection process and development of managers in the field of process performance. Society: The research enables easier orientation in competencies development that can improve the social order as well as social responsibility and the environment indirectly. Originality: The research originally offers a set of competencies that are relevant to process management. Limitations/Future Research: The research is restricted to the population of auditors.Future studies could examine the research question from a point of view of other professional groups

  8. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)


    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.


    E. I. Marukovich


    Full Text Available The description of equipment for hydrodynamic experiments and methods of hydromodeling of foundry processes, allowing to carry out three-dimensional modeling of filling process, is given. This method can be used for identification of numerical models and development of casting technology of the new types of production.

  10. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    Kathotia, Vinay


    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  11. Fleksibilitet i strategiske processer

    Larsen, Mette Vinther


    Hvad vil det sige at strategiske processer er fleksible? Kan man lede sådanne fleksible processer? Hvilke udfordringer, muligheder, dilemmaer, - og for den sags skyld - glæder og frustrationer er der knyttet til dette? Dette paper vil forsøge at behandle og diskutere disse spørgsmål....

  12. Image processing mini manual

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill


    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  13. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  14. Hyperspectral image processing

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  15. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian


    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  16. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234Th, 234Pa, 137Cs, 239Pu (trace), 60Co, U, 99Tc, and 237Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  17. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn


    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  18. The process of entrepreneurship:

    Neergaard, Helle


    Growing a technology-based new venture is a complex process because these ventures are embedded in turbulent environments that require fast organisational and managerial transformation. This chapter addresses the evolutionary process of such ventures. It seeks to provide insight into the link bet...

  19. The Integrated Renovation Process

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann


    the purpose of overcoming such barriers, a new scheme was proposed: the Integrated Renovation Process. In this paper, the scheme is applied to two single-family homes and is called the Integrated Renovation Process for Homes (IRP4homes). In both case studies, the newly developed methodology...

  20. Uranium processing and properties


    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  1. Auditory processing models

    Dau, Torsten


    present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...


    Gallo, Anthony E.


    U.S. food processing sector assets are valued at about $360 billion, or about 12 percent of all manufacturing assets. Profit and sales returns on assets in food processing are among the highest in the U.S. economy. Foreign holdings comprise a significant portion of food processors' assets.

  3. Laser processing of plastics

    Atanasov, Peter A.


    CO2-laser processing of plastics has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Welding of cylindrical parts made from polycarbonate and polypropylene, cutting of polymethyl-methacrylate plates, and drilling holes in polypropylene are presented as examples. A good coincidence between theoretical and experimental results in case of laser welding has been found. Some practical aspects of laser processing of plastics has been given.

  4. Microsystem process networks

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.


    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  5. Dosimetry in process control

    Measurement of absorbed dose and dose distribution in irradiated medical products relies on the use of quality dosimetry systems, trained personnel and a thorough understanding of the energy deposition process. The interrelationship of these factors will be discussed with emphasis on the current and future practices of process control dosimetry. (author)

  6. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    Klocke, Fritz


    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  7. New Processes for Annulation

    Liu Hsing-Jang


    Making use of the high propensity of 2-cyano-2-cycloalkenones to undergo conjugate addition with various carbanions and the high reactivity of the ensuing α -cyano ketone system, a number of new annulation processes have been developed recently in our laboratories. As shown in Eq. 1 (n=1) with a specific example, one such process involves the addition of 3-butenylmagnesium bromide, followed by a palladium (Ⅱ) acetate mediated oxidative cyclization, to facilitate methylenecyclopentane ring formation. This annulation process could be readily extended to effect methylenecyclohexane ring formation (Eq. 1, n=2), using 4-pentenylmagnesinm bromide as the initial reagent, and to install the carbomethoxy-substituted methylenecyclopentane and methylenecyclohexane rings, using the carbanions derived from methyl 4-pentenoate and methyl 5-hexenoate, respectively (Eq. 2). In another annulation process, the addition of the enolate of methyl 5-chloropentanoate is involved initially, and the ring formation is readily effected by an intramolecular alkylation process. A specific example is given in Eq. 3.

  8. Identification of wastewater processes

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  9. Economics of polysilicon processes

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.


    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  10. In Process Beam Monitoring

    Steen, W. M.; Weerasinghe, V. M.


    The industrial future of lasers in material processing lies in the combination of the laser with automatic machinery. One possible form of such a combination is an intelligent workstation which monitors the process as it occurs and adjusts itself accordingly, either by self teaching or by comparison to a process data bank or algorithm. In order to achieve this attractive goal in-process signals are required. Two devices are described in this paper. One is the Laser Beam Analyser which is now maturing into a second generation with computerised output. The other is the Acoustic Mirror, a totally novel analytic technique, not yet fully understood, but which nevertheless can act as a very effective process monitor.

  11. Branching processes in biology

    Kimmel, Marek


    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  12. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  13. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...... which presently mainly focus on OS content, as distinct from process issues. DesignImethodology/approach - The methodology combines action research and a longitudinal single site case study of OS processes in practice. Findings - The paper conceptualises an OS process as: events of dialogue and action...... provides a useful tool for describing and analyzing real-time OS processes unfolding in practice. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on a single case, which limits the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications - The findings suggest that, in order to obtain successful...

  14. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    Walsh, Kenneth A


    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  15. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts as a...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed, as are...... structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  16. Quantum independent increment processes

    Franz, Uwe


    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  17. Business process support

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  18. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  19. Welding processes handbook

    Weman, Klas


    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  20. Plutonium monitor: data processing

    The principle of the real time determination of air voluminal activity from the measurement of the activity of the filter. The ''Pu'' measurement processing has to comple the Pu/natural radioactivity discrimination that the sampler cannot do alone. The basic process of the measurement processing is described. For the operation checkout and the examination of performance of the processing, and for the technical success of a measurement-processing system, it is possible to use a real-time simulation of the different sensors; in the case of ''Pu'' processing, a mockup of the sampler has been prefered; it gives the elementary countings due to the natural radioactivity for the two ''Pu'' and ''RaA'' windows; it has been associated to a simulator giving the pulses corresponding in the ''Pu'' window to only ''Pu'', according the chosen profile. The main results obtained after several hundreds simulations are given; eight diagrams, quite representative, are presented. To concludes the performence of the BFSA monitor, for plutonium aerosol monitoring, in which the TMAPU2 measurement processing system and a performant detection head are associated, are reviewed

  1. Monitoring of Microalgal Processes.

    Havlik, Ivo; Scheper, Thomas; Reardon, Kenneth F


    Process monitoring, which can be defined as the measurement of process variables with the smallest possible delay, is combined with process models to form the basis for successful process control. Minimizing the measurement delay leads inevitably to employing online, in situ sensors where possible, preferably using noninvasive measurement methods with stable, low-cost sensors. Microalgal processes have similarities to traditional bioprocesses but also have unique monitoring requirements. In general, variables to be monitored in microalgal processes can be categorized as physical, chemical, and biological, and they are measured in gaseous, liquid, and solid (biological) phases. Physical and chemical process variables can be usually monitored online using standard industrial sensors. The monitoring of biological process variables, however, relies mostly on sensors developed and validated using laboratory-scale systems or uses offline methods because of difficulties in developing suitable online sensors. Here, we review current technologies for online, in situ monitoring of all types of process parameters of microalgal cultivations, with a focus on monitoring of biological parameters. We discuss newly introduced methods for measuring biological parameters that could be possibly adapted for routine online use, should be preferably noninvasive, and are based on approaches that have been proven in other bioprocesses. New sensor types for measuring physicochemical parameters using optical methods or ion-specific field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors are also discussed. Reviewed methods with online implementation or online potential include measurement of irradiance, biomass concentration by optical density and image analysis, cell count, chlorophyll fluorescence, growth rate, lipid concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, dielectric scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Future perspectives are discussed, especially in the field of image analysis using in situ

  2. Lasers in chemical processing

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  3. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    Brush, Stephen G


    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  4. Getting Started with Processing

    Reas, Casey


    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  5. IT Project Prioritization Process

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna


    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...

  6. The image processing handbook

    Russ, John C


    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  7. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  8. Study on Glulam Process

    PENG Limin; WANG Haiqing; HE Weili


    This paper selected lumbers of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus rnandshurica), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshuricd) and Spruce (Picea jezoensis vai.kornamvii) for manufacturing glulam with water-borne polymeric-isocyanate adhesive to determine process variables. The process variables that include specific pressure, pressing time and adhesive application amount influencing the shear strength of the glulam, were investigated through the orthogonal test. The results indicated that optimum process variables for glulam manufacturing were as follows: Specific pressure of 1.5 MPa for Spruce and 2,0 MPa both for Manchurian ash and Manchurian walnut, pressing time of 60 min and adhesive application amount of 250 g/m2.

  9. Quantum Information Processing

    Leuchs, Gerd


    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  10. Visual color image processing

    Qiu, Guoping; Schaefer, Gerald


    In this paper, we propose a color image processing method by combining modern signal processing technique with knowledge about the properties of the human color vision system. Color signals are processed differently according to their visual importance. The emphasis of the technique is on the preservation of total visual quality of the image and simultaneously taking into account computational efficiency. A specific color image enhancement technique, termed Hybrid Vector Median Filtering is presented. Computer simulations have been performed to demonstrate that the new approach is technically sound and results are comparable to or better than traditional methods.

  11. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing


    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  12. Process of performance assessment

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  13. Robot welding process control

    Romine, Peter L.


    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  14. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng


    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  15. Historical film processing

    Wu, Yi; Suter, David


    This paper describes work using historical film material, including what is believed to be the world's first feature length film. The digital processing of historical film material permits many new facilities: digital restoration, electronic storage, automated indexing, and electronic delivery to name a few. Although the work aims ultimately to support all of the previously mentioned facilities, this paper concentrated upon automatic scene change detection, brightness correction, and frame registration. These processes are fundamental to a more complete and complex processing system, but, by themselves, could be immediately used in computer-assisted film cataloging.

  16. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    Okihara, Masao; Kasai, Hiroki; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki


    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depl...

  17. Radioactive waste processing method

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  18. Revealing the programming process

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard


    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  19. Scintigraphy in retrobulbar processes

    The results of scintigrphic investigation of 12 patients with retrobulbar processes are presented. Use was made of different radiopharmaceutical agents. In inflammatory diseases 99mTc04- and 99mTc DTPA give more reliable positive finding than 67-gallium citrate. The latter shows nonspecifity in retrobulbar processes and cannot distinguish inflammatory from neoplastic process. The negative scintigraphic finding in investigation with 99mTc compounds makes it necessary in case of clinical suspicion to utilize also tumourotropic, osteotropic and other radiopharmaceutical agents which increases the scope of positiveness of the data

  20. Plasma processing for VLSI

    Einspruch, Norman G


    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  1. Modeling robot contour processes

    Whitney, D. E.; Edsall, A. C.

    Robot contour processes include those with contact force like car body grinding or deburring of complex castings, as well as those with little or no contact force like inspection. This paper describes ways of characterizing, identifying, and estimating contours and robot trajectories. Contour and robot are modeled as stochastic processes in order to emphasize that both successive robot cycles and successive industrial workpieces are similar but not exactly the same. The stochastic models can be used to identify the state of a workpiece or process, or to design a filter to estimate workpiece, shape and robot position from robot-based measurements.

  2. Tree-Indexed Processes

    Pemantle, Robin


    This article examines a recent body of work on stochastic processes indexed by a tree. Emphasis is on the application of this new framework to existing probability models. Proofs are largely omitted, with references provided.

  3. Processer i undervisningen

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    Undersøgelsen har fokus på processer i undervisningen – og derigennem på hvordan digitale læremidler kan understøtte eller integreres i typiske processer. Undersøgelsen hviler på deltagende observation på Abildgårdskolen i Odense. Gennem observationerne er der identificeret en række eksempler på...... udfordringer for at gennemføre de undervisningsmæssige processer og givet bud på digitale læremidler der forventes at kunne understøtte processerne. Undersøgelsen viser samtidig hvordan fokus på processer kan fungere som en metode til brugerdreven innovation....

  4. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    Laursen, Jesper

    solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... investigated individually, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding before the final integrated model is setup. In the sub-process investigations focus is addressed especially at aeration by bottom mounted diffusers and mechanical mixing of the activated sludge suspension via slowly rotating...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  5. Markovian risk process

    WANG Han-xing; YAN Yun-zhi; ZHAO Fei; FANG Da-fan


    A Markovian risk process is considered in this paper, which is the generalization of the classical risk model. It is proper that a risk process with large claims is modelled as the Markovian risk model. In such a model, the occurrence of claims is described by a point process {N(t)}t≥o with N(t) being the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for a Markov jump process. The ruin probability Ψ(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly studied. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability function Ψ(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability Ψ(u) are given by using a generalized renewal technique developed in the paper.

  6. Business Model Process Configurations

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter;


    Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...... method of data analysis. Findings - A comprehensive literature review and analysis resulted in a list of business model process configurations systematically organized under five classification groups, namely, revenue model; value proposition; value configuration; target customers, and strategic...

  7. Analysing the process

    To achieve optimum process control of mineral extraction and production, efficient on-line or in-plant analysis is essential and nuclear techniques are making an increasingly important contribution in this area

  8. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  9. Radiation processing in Japan

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  10. Processing NOAA Spectroradiometric Data

    Broenkow, William W.; Greene, Nancy, T.; Feinholz, Michael, E.


    This report outlines the NOAA spectroradiometer data processing system implemented by the MLML_DBASE programs. This is done by presenting the algorithms and graphs showing the effects of each step in the algorithms. [PDF contains 32 pages

  11. Desalination processes and technologies

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  12. Processed Products Database System

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  13. Radiation processing in Japan

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  14. Cooperative processing data bases

    Hasta, Juzar


    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  15. Enrichment: centrifuge process

    This short course is divided into three sections devoted respectively to the physics of the process, some practical problems raised by the design of a centrifuge and the present situation of centrifugation in the World. 31 figs., 18 refs

  16. Technology or Process First?

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...

  17. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Silver, G.L.


    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  18. George: Gaussian Process regression

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel


    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  19. Communicating Quantum Processes

    Gay, S; Gay, Simon; Nagarajan, Rajagopal


    We define a language CQP (Communicating Quantum Processes) for modelling systems which combine quantum and classical communication and computation. CQP combines the communication primitives of the pi-calculus with primitives for measurement and transformation of quantum state; in particular, quantum bits (qubits) can be transmitted from process to process along communication channels. CQP has a static type system which classifies channels, distinguishes between quantum and classical data, and controls the use of quantum state. We formally define the syntax, operational semantics and type system of CQP, prove that the semantics preserves typing, and prove that typing guarantees that each qubit is owned by a unique process within a system. We illustrate CQP by defining models of several quantum communication systems, and outline our plans for using CQP as the foundation for formal analysis and verification of combined quantum and classical systems.

  20. Product and Process Modelling

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  1. Assessing Process and Product

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.


    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  2. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    Miller, Arne


    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors...... international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference...

  3. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester


    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on...... to handle shorter and faster product life cycles. Continuously changing customer needs are pushing companies' competence of continuous innovation to a maximum - but still this seems not to be enough to stay competitive on the global market and reach the goals of growth. This article therefore...... suggests another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  4. Organ Donation: The Process

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  5. Organic food processing

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;


    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria...... product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were...... food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the...

  6. Cauchy cluster process

    Ghorbani, Mohammad


    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test...... statistic and the simulated pointwise envelopes it is shown that this model fits better than the Thomas process to the frequently analyzed long-leaf pine data-set....


    Silva, E A; I. Neitzel; L.H.M. Silva


    In one of the stages of the gelatin production process, a highly concentrated solution of gel is cooled and extruded to form gelatin noodles, which are then laid on a drying belt. Gelatin is a molecular colloid that is not porous under these drying conditions, and as a consequence, water migration occurs solely by diffusive processes. To achieve a commercial standard of dryness, the dependence of the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature is used. This set of circumstances favors ...

  8. Hydrogen production processes

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I2/H2O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  9. Analyzing business process management

    Skjæveland, Børge


    Within the Oil & Gas Industry, the market is constantly growing more competitive, forcing companies to continually adapt to changes. Companies need to cut costs and improve the business efficiency. One way of successfully managing these challenges is to implement business process management in the organization. This thesis will analyze how Oceaneering Asset Integrity AS handled the implementation of a Business Process Management System and the effects it had on the employees. The main goal...

  10. Business process management

    Hantry F.; Papazoglou M.; Van Den Heuvel W.-J.; Haque R.; Whelan E.; Carroll N.; Karastoyanova D.; Leymann F.; Nikolaou C.; Lammersdorf W.


    Background. A feature of teaching IT-cycle subjects at economic universities is that the technologies which are needed to teach students are constantly updated. This relates to the fact that the market of IT-products is rapidly changing. At the moment a new class of information systems Business Process Management Suite (BPMS) has appeared. It allows to manage business processes at a whole new level. Nowadays BPM is becoming more popular, and that is why students of economic universities shoul...