The key drivers of innovation in the field of chassis systems are measures to improve vehicle dynamics and driving safety, efforts to reduce fuel consumption, and intelligent development methods. In addition, chassis development is focusing on enhancing ride comfort while also improving NVH characteristics. At the same time, modularization strategies, concepts for the electrification of the powertrain, and steps towards greater system connectivity are making increasingly complex demands on the chassis and its development. Developers are being called upon to respond to these challenges with a variety of solutions. Contents The chassis of the future.- Trends in chassis development.- New chassis systems.- Vehicle dynamics tuning.- Chassis functions.- Driving simulators and development methods.- Ride comfort.- Vehicle stability.- Innovative steering systems and redundancy.- Electronics and testing.- The future of the braking system.- Development methods.- New tire developments and virtual methods.- Tire pressure ...
Connectivity has arrived in the vehicle - whether it is in-car internet or car-to-car communication. For the chassis too, the connected car is increasingly becoming a driver of innovation. Predictive and intelligent chassis systems and automated driving are just some of the topics being addressed. In addition to enhancing driving comfort and safety, interconnecting the powertrain with the chassis can also provide new functions, not only in cars but also in commercial vehicles. What is more, modularization, electrification of the powertrain, intelligent development methods and efforts to reduce fuel consumption are also driving innovations in chassis systems. Contents Consumer protection and methods.- New chassis systems.- Active chassis systems.- Energy efficiency, safety, and resources.- Driver assistance systems.- Development process.- Vehicle lateral dynamics.- Steering technology.- Test bench methods.- Environmental aspects and future technologies.- Control and simulation.- Road surface, tire, and wheel i...
The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Containers and chassis. 340.5 Section 340.5 Shipping... ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS § 340.5 Containers and chassis. (a) When a defense...
An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.
An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.
Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)
The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)
Vivas Lopez, Carlos Albertos; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc
Based on a Global Chassis Control system with three-layers architecture (decision, control, and physical layers) a Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach is exploited. The FL based decision layer identifies the current driving condition of the vehicle and decides the control strategy to take care of this driving condition. A confusion matrix validates the classification results. The control strategy is implemented through the subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking) at the FL based control layer. Th...
Anand Thorat; G.V.R Seshagiri Rao
Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure whi...
Full Text Available The development of chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle based on CAN bus was studied. Chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle measurement methods and loading devices are analyzed, and laid the foundation for the resistance simulation of chassis dynamometer. Road resistance simulation on HEV chassis dynamometer is researched, getting electric quantity simulation type of chassis dynamometer driving resistance. The research and development of hybrid vehicle chassis dynamometer based on CAN Bus is conducive to enhance the level of whole hybrid vehicle and car assembly, establish the test procedures, test methods and test standards, provide a research platform and methods for test evaluation of HEV energy utilization. The chassis dynamometer system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy .The drum Test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction. The method of hybrid vehicles fuel consumption experiment test is analyzed through experiment test on the HEV chassis dynamometer and actual road. We obtain some regularity of hybrid vehicles energy consumption and hybrid vehicles fuel consumption test method through studying lightweight hybrid vehicles fuel economy.
Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.
Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.
Full Text Available Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure while it is in working condition. Computer simulation techniques provides a great leverage in design optimization for weight reduction, better material utilization, shorter design cycles and elimination of major part of prototype testing. Static analysis of the chassis shows the equivalent stress and deformation contour when Backhoe Loader is in working condition. From static analysis, high stress area can be found out when Backhoe Loader is in different load condition. Also by providing some design changes, stress can be minimized.
Anderson, Eric Carlton
Each year, the Virginia Tech (VT) Formula SAE (FSAE) team creates a high performance car to compete against 120 teams from around the world in a series of dynamic events evaluating acceleration, maneuverability, and handling. In an effort to improve upon the VT 2013 car, the torsional stiffness of the chassis was increased. Increasing the torsional stiffness of the chassis allows the suspension to be more precisely tuned, resulting in a better overall performance. An investigation was cond...
A motor drive chassis has been developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System. Rotation of the desired carrousel in a secure storage module is controlled by this chassis which supplies the power and drive pulses required by the carrousel motor. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Physical Protection Program
Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen
To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production. PMID:26883347
Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb
The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744
Sani, M S M; Rahman, M M; Noor, M M; Kadirgama, K; Izham, M H N [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 UMP, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)
This paper explores and investigates the dynamic characteristics of car chassis structure by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) method and modal testing. Dynamic characteristics are divided into three parameters include natural frequency, damping factor and mode shape. In this study, modal testing was performed on the car chassis including the impact hammer and shaker test. Data analyzer was used to convert the response signal from the sensor, which was in the time domain to frequency domain. Result obtained from both methods, is compared on each axis (X, Y and Z axis). However, small discrepancy was observed in terms of natural frequency, which is within the range of 5%. Based on the results, interpretation and comparison were made for both methods.
Exhaust after treatment technology based on a reductant (urea) injection into the silencer, has been set up to be a very efficient tool to reduce the emission of the Engines especially NOx. The reductant is stored in a tank positioned on the truck chassis. The reductant tank volume of today is required to be increased to meet the requirements of the market and that is motivated by Euro VI regulations which aim to a higher reduction of the emission of the NOx of the trucks. In this thesis the ...
Full Text Available The paper presents the usage and misusage of ball bearings in rc car chassis technology of today . As this area is under massive development and could have a great impact in real cars it is important for new researchers to understand the importance of using the correct parts in constructing new devices and technologies based on the current one. As problems in economy are increasing it is important for new discovery’s to be tested in small scale models rather than full scale.
In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...
... technical documentation were full size vans and/or pickup trucks, and not minivans. Braun also alleged that... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35123). The waiver exempted minivans and minivan chassis from the Buy America final..., FTA waived its Buy America final assembly requirement for minivans and minivan chassis. 75 FR...
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...
Salvi Gauri Sanjay
Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.
Logan, R.W.; Perfect, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Parkinson, R.D. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Pleasanton, CA (United States)
This work describes the design, finite-element analysis, and verifications performed by LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum for the prototype design of the CALSTART Running Chassis purpose-built electric vehicle. Component level studies, along with our previous experimental and finite-element works, provided the confidence to study the crashworthiness of a complete aluminum spaceframe. Effects of rail geometry, size, and thickness were studied in order to achieve a controlled crush of the front end structure. These included the performance of the spaceframe itself, and the additive effects of the powertrain cradle and powertrain (motor/controller in this case) as well as suspension. Various design iterations for frontal impact at moderate and high speed are explored.
The objective of the Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is to develop the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications. For this program, a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system was developed. The system has a NOVA 3D computer with a real time disk-operating system (RDOS) that communicates with distributed microprocessor-based controllers which directly control data input/output chassis. At the heart of the controller is a microprocessor crate which was conceived at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This idea was applied to the design of the hardware and software of the controller
The contribution of functional virtual prototyping to vehicle chassis development is presented. The different topics that we took into consideration were reform analysis and improvement design during the vehicle chassis development. A frame of coordinates based on the digital-model was established, the main CAE analysis methods, multi-body system dynamics and finite element analysis were applied to the digital-model build by CAD/CAM software. The method was applied in the vehicle chassis reform analysis and improvement design, all the analysis and design projects were implemented in the uniform digital-model, and the development was carried through effectively.
Lee, Jong-Bum; Lee, Jaecheon; Park, Byeong-Ryul; Jeong, Gu-Min; Ahn, Hyun-Sik
This paper presents a networked simulation for an integrated chassis control system of AFS (Active Front Steering) and ITD (Intelligent Torque Distribution). Integration of each chassis control system is used to overcome the limit of performance when each chassis controller is used individually. We show an integration method AFS and ITD under the supervisory controller which determines the operation modes based on vehicle variables. The experimental set-up for the networked simulation of the integrated chassis control consists of four microcontroller boards, a steering wheel sensor and a data acquisition board where all the microcontrollers and a sensor are communicated using the CAN protocol. It is shown by experimental results that the integrated control system can achieve better performance than simply combined individual controllers in the sense of energy consumption.
Competent experts of the motor car industry, supply industry and universities presented 22 papers on the status and trends in chassis engineering. Subjects: Lightweight construction, safety, special vehicles and development projects. [German] Kompetente Fachleute von Fahrzeugherstellern, Zulieferfirmen und Hochschulen berichten in 22 Referaten ueber den technischen Stand und die Trends im Karosseriebau. Eine Fachausstellung, Pausengespraeche und ein Empfang am ersten Abend des Kongresses bieten ausfuehrlich Gelegenheit zu fachlichen und geschaeftlichen Gespraechen. Mit dem Themenschwerpunkt Konzept und Design wurde die Tagung eroeffnet. Mit einem Rundblick von der Karosserie des kleinen Stadtfahrzeugs hin zur Karosserie der grossen Luxuslimousine wurde sie beendet. Besonders umfangreich wurde in dieser Tagung das Thema Leichtbau abgehandelt. An konkreten Beispielen wurde aufgezeigt, auf welchen Wegen - verschiedenen Wegen - Gewichtsoptimierung erzielt wird, wobei die Anforderungen an Steifigkeit, Crashverhalten, Ergonomie und Komfort nicht nur erhalten sondern teilweise noch erhoeht werden. Einzelne Komponenten, Module, Rohkarosserien und Gesamtfahrzeuge wurden nebst Problemstellungen und Problemloesungen veranschaulicht. Neben dem zentralen Thema Leichtbau in der Tagung wurde in kuerzeren Vortragsbloecken ueber Fortschritte in der passiven Sicherheit, ueber spezielle Fahrzeugkonzepte und ueber zeitzonenversetztes Arbeiten in Entwicklungsprojekten berichtet. (orig./AKF)
In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size. The readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing clocks and triggers between 4 PXI chassis containing DGF Pixie-16 modules with up to 226 acquisition channels per chassis. The data acquisition system is intended to instrument the over 600 channels of the SeGA detector array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Our solution is designed to achieve synchronous acquisition of detector waveforms from all channels with a jitter of less than 1 ns, and can be extended to a larger number of chassis if desired
Full Text Available The chassis frame is an important part in a truck and it carries the whole load acting on the truck as well as different parts of the automobile. So it must be strong enough to resist the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses. Maximum stress and maximum deflection are important criteria for design of the chassis. The objective of present is to determine the maximum stress, maximum deflection and to recognize critical regions under static loading condition. Static structural analysis of the chassis frame is carried out by FEA Method. The structural chassis frame is modeled using PRO-E wildfire 4.0 software. The Pre-processing has done with HYPERMESH software; then the problem has been solved through RADIOSS and the post processing was done by HYPERVIEW. The results obtained like maximum shear stress, Von-mises stress and maximum deflections are used for improving design modification. Modal analysis of the chassis frame done using ANSYS WORKBENCH. Through modal analysis, natural frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the structure are obtained.
Hennig, W; Walby, M; Grudberg, P; Fallu-Labruyere, A; Warburton, W K; Vaman, C; Starosta, K; Miller, D; 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.181
In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, where the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size, the readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing ...
This report reviews the most important episodes in the history of designing the self-propelled automatic chassis of the first mobile extraterrestrial vehicle in the world, Lunokhod-1. The review considers the issues in designing moon rovers, their essential features, and the particular construction properties of their systems, mechanisms, units, and assemblies. It presents the results of exploiting the chassis of Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. Analysis of the approaches utilized and engineering solutions reveals their value as well as the consequences of certain defects.
Marte, J.; Bryant, J.
Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.
Full Text Available The subject of this work was to investigate the early failure, which occurred in the chassis of a roller skate for figure skating. The paper deals with the preliminary analysis of the crack and with the integrated approach, which had to be followed to overcome the problem. Literature in the fields of physiology and biomechanics was studied to correctly simulate the load distribution on the chassis. Finite element simulation, experimental stress analysis and analytical modeling of impact phenomena had to be combined together to estimate the entity of dynamic loads and the corresponding state of stress. The analysis led to the determination of the primary cause of failure, bending fatigue, and to the suggestion of a simple solution to improve and optimize the project.
Haugum, Henrik; Pløen, Morten
I arbeidet med denne avhandlingen har det blitt utført et omfattende arbeid på ulike aspekter ved utviklingen av et monocoque chassis designet for å konkurrere i Formula Student. Analyse, dimensjonering og produksjon er hovedtema i denne oppgaven. Fokuset har ligget i å beskrive den tilnærmingen som brukes i designfasen, analyse og testing av lokaliserte laster på sandwichpaneler, samt utvikle en produksjonsprosess for chassiset. Alt av dimensjonering, analyse og...
Bing Zhu; Yizhou Chen; Jian Zhao; Yunfu Su
An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal cu...
Lake, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Owen
This paper details the influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics. Initially, research which has previously been carried out in terms of motorcycle dynamics and in particular the impact of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics is discussed. This paper then considers the consequences of these findings with regard to the use of modern materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics and the impact they will potentially have on motorcycle dynamics and its simulation.
SONG Li-mei; ZHANG Chun-bo; WEI Yi-ying; CHEN Hua-wei
@@ A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system.In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis.The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision.A few images are taken by a highresolution camera in different orientations and perspectives.The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper.Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.
Kishor, Krishna Kumar
Designing antennas for handheld devices is quite challenging primarily due to the limited real-estate available, and the fact that internal antennas occupy a large volume. With the need to support a variety of radio systems such as GSM, LTE and WiFi that operate in a wide range of frequency bands, multi-band, wideband and frequency reconfigurable antenna designs have been explored in the literature. Moreover, to support higher data rates, the Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) standard has been introduced, which requires supporting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna technology and carrier aggregation (CA) on a handheld device. Both of these benefit from the use of multiple antennas or multi-port antennas, but with the limited space available, adding more internal antennas may not be easily possible. Additionally, to realize the benefits of these technologies the multiple antenna ports have to be well isolated from each other. This thesis explores the utilization of the ground plane (or chassis) of a handheld device as an antenna to meet some of these challenges. To achieve this, the theory of characteristic modes (TCM) for conducting bodies is relied upon, to determine the eigen-currents supported on the chassis. The orthogonality properties of these eigencurrents, and their corresponding far-field eigenfields (electric and magnetic) makes TCM a good tool to design multiple antennas with high isolation. This is demonstrated in this thesis via the design of four chassis-based antennas that have different functionalities. The first design is a two port MIMO antenna utilizing a combination of eigenmodes to achieve port isolation. The second design is a pattern reconfigurable MIMO antenna that can operate in two states at 2.28 GHz. The third design is a four port antenna that operates in three frequency bands, with two bands below 1 GHz for CA and the remaining two ports for MIMO communication. The final design is a five port antenna that supports MIMO
The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described
Full Text Available An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal curvature model through genetic algorithm and neural network method. Using it as a base, an integrated chassis control strategy with active front steering (AFS and direct yaw moment control (DYC considering driver characteristics was established by model predictive control (MPC method. Finally, simulations were carried out to verify the control strategy by CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed method enables the control system to adjust its parameters according to the driver behavior identification results and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved.
Park, J.H.; Kim, S.K. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea); Choi, B.I.; Lee, H.J. [Nano Mechanics Team, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea); Lee, Y.H.; Kim, J.S. [CAE Team, Ssang Yong Motor Company, Gyeong-gi-do (Korea); Kim, K.J. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Seojeong College, Gyeong-gi-do (Korea)
With growing public concerns on the rising price of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas emissions, the automotive industry is once again faced with the increased demand to develop more fuel-efficient vehicles. Savings in weight using lightweight materials such as aluminum can lead to increased fuel economy and reduction in pollution. Aluminum material has a weak point compared to the steel material in strength for life cycle. In this study, to design a lighter and more reliable chassis component using aluminum material as compared with existing steel chassis components, a new link shape was suggested by adding vertical ribs to an existing I-beam type link and to investigate how each design parameter makes an effect on the reliability and component weight. The design of experiment (DOE) was performed with six design parameters and two levels. Through the analysis of variance, three parameters which were the most influential on weight were selected. And then the response surface analysis was performed with two levels to find out the optimal dimensions. The weight of the aluminum link was 64% that of the steel link. The stiffness of the optimized aluminum link under all loads was more than 100% that of the steel link. The maximum von Mises stresses of the optimized aluminum link under all loads was equal or less than 20% of the ultimate tensile strength (58 MPa). (Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical controller was designed for the braking system, which is used for distributing the proportion of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking to improve braking performance. These two sub-controllers function at the same level of the vehicle chassis control system. In order to reduce the potential conflict between the two sub-controllers and realize a coordination optimization of electric vehicle performance, a collaborative controller was built, which serves as the upper controller to carry out an overall coordination analysis according to vehicle signals and revises the decisions of sub-controllers. A simulation experiment was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative control system can achieve an optimized vehicle handling stability and braking safety.
Full Text Available Reducing xylitol formation is an important step in engineering xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase pathway for ethanol production from xylose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, to balance the expression of XYL1 and mutant XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and NADP+-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase for reduced xylitol production, we utilized a strategy combining chassis selection and direct fine-tuning of XYL1 and XYL2 expression. A XYL1 gene under control of various promoters of ADH1, truncated ADH1 and PGK1, and a mutated XYL2 with different copy numbers were constructed into different xylose-utilizing modules, which were then expressed in two yeast chassis W303a and L2612. The strategy enabled us to achieve an improved L2612-derived recombinant strain with XYL1 controlled by promoter PGK1 and with two copies of XYL2. The strain exhibited 21.3% lower xylitol yield and 40.0% higher ethanol yield. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the combinatorial strategy for construction of efficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)
FENG Hui-hua; ZUO Zheng-xing; LIAO Ri-dong; LONG Kai
In order to evaluate two different schemes' structural dynamic characters, dynamic response analysis of a commercial truck's main chassis frames is carried out.On the basis of correlation study between the tested and calculated modal results, the assembled frames' finite element analysis (FEA) models with sufficient precision are built up.Random response analysis in frequency domain is carried out with these FEA models, RMS values of von Mises and main principle stresses of these two frames are obtained.It shows that the analysis results of the distributing tendency and concrete value ranges are coincident very well with test results.And from the results, it could be concluded that frames of scheme A endures relative better loading conditions and should be adopted as the final scheme.
Reed, Robert Graham
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade in 2022. The ATLAS collaboration will do major modifications to the detector to account for the increased luminosity. More specifically, a large proportion of the current front-end electronics, on the Tile Calorimeter sub-detector, will be upgraded and relocated to the backend. A Demonstrator program has been established as a proof of principle. A new system will be required to house, manage and connect this new hardware. The proposed solution will be an Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) which will not only house but also allow advanced management features and control at a hardware level by integrating the ATCA chassis into the Detector Control System.
Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey
Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global ‘do-it-yourself’ research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrickTM standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrickTM formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable
Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N
Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable
This paper presents an integrated chassis control system with fail safety using optimum yaw moment distribution for a vehicle with steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire devices. The proposed system has two-level structure: upper- and lower-level controllers. In the upper-level controller, the control yaw moment is computed with sliding mode control theory. In the lower-level controller, the control yaw moment is distributed into the tire forces of active front steering(AFS) and electronic stability control(ESC) with the weighted pseudo-inverse based control allocation(WPCA) method. By setting the variable weights in WPCA, it is possible to take the sensor/actuator failure into account. In this framework, it is necessary to optimize the variables weights in order to enhance the yaw moment distribution. For this purpose, simulation-based tuning is proposed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulations are conducted on a vehicle simulation package, CarSim
Geier, Martina; Brandner, Christoph; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Hall, Mélanie; Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton
Many synthetically useful reactions are catalyzed by cofactor-dependent enzymes. As cofactors represent a major cost factor, methods for efficient cofactor regeneration are required especially for large-scale synthetic applications. In order to generate a novel and efficient host chassis for bioreductions, we engineered the methanol utilization pathway of Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration. By deleting the genes coding for dihydroxyacetone synthase isoform 1 and 2 (DAS1 and DAS2), NADH regeneration via methanol oxidation (dissimilation) was increased significantly. The resulting Δdas1 Δdas2 strain performed better in butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) based whole-cell conversions. While the BDH1 catalyzed acetoin reduction stopped after 2 h reaching ~50% substrate conversion when performed in the wild type strain, full conversion after 6 h was obtained by employing the knock-out strain. These results suggest that the P. pastoris Δdas1 Δdas2 strain is capable of supplying the actual biocatalyst with the cofactor over a longer reaction period without the over-expression of an additional cofactor regeneration system. Thus, focusing the intrinsic carbon flux of this methylotrophic yeast on methanol oxidation to CO2 represents an efficient and easy-to-use strategy for NADH-dependent whole-cell conversions. At the same time methanol serves as co-solvent, inductor for catalyst and cofactor regeneration pathway expression and source of energy. PMID:26664594
ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu
The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.
Стаття присвячена історії Харківського заводу транспортних самохідних шасі, виробника тракторів нетрадиційної компоновки так званих самохідних шасі. Подано інформацію про технічні характеристики тракторів, а також їх моделі. Висвітлюються факти про створення, проектування і модифікації самохідних шасі, їх використання в різних спеціальних сферахThe article is about the history of Kharkiv Plant of Self-propelled Chassis, producer of unconventional layout tractors so-called self-propelled chass...
Konstantas, Dimitri; Nierstrasz, Oscar; Dittrich, Klaus; Jonscher, Dirk
Les systèmes d'information d'aujourd'hui ont de plus en plus la nécessité d'être ouverts. Ceci implique qu'ils doivent répondre aux besoins de réseaux ouverts, de logiciel et de matériel hétérogènes et “interopérables,” et, surtout, à des besoins évolutifs et changeants. Le projet CHASSIS vise le développement d'un cadre informatique et méthodologique pour la conception et la construction de systèmes d'information hétérogènes, sûrs et fiables à partir de composants de logiciel et bases de don...
Höfer, Andreas; Friedrich, Horst E.; Wiesebrock, Andreas; Bosch, Volker; Schumann, Alexandra
In the context of future electric vehicles, new requirements and restrictions but also larger degrees of freedom have been revealed for vehicle concepts. To meet the revised factors, new approaches are necessary as well as an integral view of the vehicle and its subsystems. As a consequence the Institute for Vehicle Concepts at DLR e.V. is developing an innovative electrically driven chassis system along with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering of the Univ...
Design, Mathematical Modelling, Construction and Testing of Synthetic Gene Network Oscillators to Establish Roseobacter Clade Bacteria and the Protozoan Trypanosoma brucei as Synthetic Biology Chassis.
The aim of this project is to establish Roseobacter marine bacteria and Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) protozoa as synthetic biology chassis. This work addresses the gap within synthetic biology resulting from the limited choice of host cells available for use in practice. This was done by developing synthetic bacterial and trypanosomal genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) which function as an oscillator as well as by developing the necessary protocols and set-ups to allow for the analysis of G...
Full Text Available An integrated chassis control (ICC system with active front steering (AFS and yaw stability control (YSC is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.
Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions. Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.
巫琴; 陈磊; 王江新; 张卫文
Photosynthetic cyanobacteria possess a series of good properties,such as their abilities to capture solar energy for CO2 fixation,low nutritional requirements for growth,high growth rate,and relatively simple genetic background.Due to the high oil price and increased concern of the global warming in recent years,cyanobacteria have attracted widespread attention because they can serve as an 'autotrophic microbial factory' for producing renewable biofuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2.Particularly,significant progress has been made in applying synthetic biology techniques and strategies to construct and optimize cyanobacteria chassis.In this article,we critically summarized recent advances in developing new methods to optimize cyanobacteria chassis,improving cyanobacteria photosynthetic efficiency,and in constructing cyanobacteria chassis tolerant to products or environmental stresses.In addition,various industrial applications of cyanobacteria chassis are also discussed.%光合蓝细菌具有一系列良好的特质,包括利用太阳能固定CO2、营养需求低、生长迅速以及遗传背景简单等.近年来,光合蓝细菌作为生产可再生燃料和精细化学制品的“自养型人工细胞工厂”引起了社会的广泛关注,促进了相关研究的升温.目前在应用合成生物学的技术和研究策略来优化光合蓝细菌作为底盘生物等方面已取得了一些令人鼓舞的进展.文中综述了近年来在光合蓝细菌底盘优化的方法、光合效率的提高以及各种耐受性蓝细菌底盘的构建方面的进展,并对光合蓝细菌底盘构建的工业应用价值进行了讨论.
张正伟; 丁明珠; 元英进
以酿酒酵母BY4742及其单敲菌株作为底盘细胞，优化底盘细胞甲羟戊酸途径，上调并融合表达牻牛儿基牻牛儿基焦磷酸( GGPP)合成的相关基因，引入人工合成的外源GGPP合成酶基因与紫杉二烯合成酶基因，构建了多载体紫杉二烯生物合成模块；还利用酵母组装技术，通过对紫杉二烯合成路径相关基因进行模块化设计组装，构建了依托单一着丝粒( CEN)质粒的紫杉二烯生物合成模块.将构建的2个模块与不同底盘细胞进行适配，使紫杉二烯产量获得了数倍提升，最高产量可达74.84 mg/L.%In the research works of constructing taxadiene aritficaial synthetic cell, S. cerevisiae is a common-ly used chassis. The highest taxadiene yield in S. cerevisiae that has been reported was 8. 7 mg/L. In this work, the fitness of different taxadiene biosynthetic modules with different S. cerevisiae chassis was studied to elevate the taxadiene yield to a higher level. We chose the S. cerevisiae strains BY4742 and the single knoc-kout strains of BY4742 as chassis, constructed the multi-plasmids taxadiene biosynthetic module by optimizing the mevalonic acid( MVA) pathway with tHMGR, importing the synthetic genes GGPPSsa and tTS, up-regula-ting and co-expressing the genes BTS1 and ERG20 which are correlated with the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate(GGPP). Then we redesigned and reconstructed the module inserted into a single CEN plasmid by the method of DNA assembler. Through fitting the different modules with different chassis, we acquired strains with diffe-rent taxadiene yields, the highest yield was 74. 84 mg/L in the strain with the single-plasmid module and the chassis of YNL280C. The results indicated that the single-plasmid taxadiene biosynthetic module was more stable in the chassis than the multi-plasmids one, and the regulation of the pathways correlated with the MVA pathway will also influent the taxadiene yield.
杨波; 赵焱明; 高炬; 刘懿敏
The structure and working principle of the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension for HTF5980A chassis were presented. And then, an Amesim model of the connected hydro-pneumatic suspension for multi-axle vehicle was built, a method on modeling the hydro-pneumatic suspension was discussed. The dynamic characteristic of it was studied by simulation, and the result was compared with the result from bench test. It was indicated that the Amesim model could exactly describe the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension system. The Adams model of the HTF5980A chassis and the Amesim model of the whole vehicle suspension system were established, the ride comfort was studied by co-simulation. The result provided a basis for both the optimal design of connected hydro-pneumatic suspension and the dynamic analysis of vehicle system.%阐述 HTF5980A底盘油气悬架的结构、工作原理，基于 Amesim平台，详细讨论油气悬架各个部位的建模方法，建立其仿真模型，计算连通式油气悬架的动态特性，并与台架试验结果进行对比。试验结果表明：所建立的模型能够正确描述连通式油气悬架的动态特性。基于Adams平台建立HTF5980A整车动力学模型，基于Amesim建立整车悬架系统液压部分模型，完成整车平顺性联合仿真。研究结果不仅为连通式油气悬架优化设计提供了依据，而且为整车动力学及疲劳分析奠定了基础。
罗中峰; 徐诚; 徐亚栋
In order to deal with the optimum design for the chassis system(CS)of wheeled self-propelled guns,the way of MDO was introduced for analyzing the complicated system.Taking opti-mum design for a 8 by 8 wheeled self-propelled gun for instance,the optimization model was estab-lished,then was partitioned into several subsystems.In accordance with the requests for the chassis matching with the fire system the respective computation models were provided.Subsequently the coupling relationships among subsystems were analyzed in a manner of MDO.Finally,the instrumen-tal variables were introduced to decouple subsystems from each other by the individual disciplinary feasible strategy.A combinatorial optimization algorithm of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithmⅡ and sequential quadratic programming was selected to optimize the resulting problem and the calcu-lation example was verified the validity of this design pattern.%为解决轮式自行火炮底盘匹配问题，以某8×8轮式自行火炮为例提供了一套匹配优化方案。该方案采用多学科设计优化的思想，首先依据匹配要求将轮式自行火炮底盘匹配模型分解，规定各个子模型相应的功能，并建立优化模型；然后将单学科可行法优化策略引入辅助设计变量，选用由第二代非劣排序遗传算法和序列二次规划法构成的组合算法进行求解；最后通过计算实例验证了方案的合理性。
目的：了解造口患者造口底盘渗漏发生的原因，并提出相应的护理措施。方法对20例在本院造口门诊就诊发生造口底盘渗漏患者的资料进行回顾性总结，分析发生造口底盘渗漏的原因。结果本组20例造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因是：患者造口护理技能差、造口周围皮肤凹陷、造口底盘选用不当、体重增加及造口位置差、造口回缩。结论教会造口患者认识造口底盘渗漏的原因，重新选择造口底盘、或加猪油膏补片、或增高凸面底盘的高度，从而防止造口底盘渗漏的发生，提高患者生活质量。%Objective To investigate the cause of stoma chassis leakage (SCL) and summarize the nursing experience. Method The clinical data of 20 patients with SCL were retrospectively analyzed on the colostomy outpatients. Result The causes of SCL in those stoma patients included insufficient skills of stoma care, peridermal depression, poorly fitting stoma chassis, weight gain, poor positioning and retraction of the stoma. Conclusion Such nursing measures as enhanced awareness of SCL causes, careful reselection of a suitable stoma chassis, addition of ointment patches or heightening of the convex chassis can be effective in prevention of SCL leakage, enhancement of patient′s confidence and improvement of their quality of life.
Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez; Jaime Gomez-Gil; Francisco Javier Gomez-Gil; Víctor Martínez-Martínez
The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two m...
刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽
Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.%[目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组，分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘，观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜；标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间，能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生，病人感觉更舒适。
陈志; 周林; 赵博; 梁学修
提出一种玉米收获机底盘车架疲劳寿命预测方法.利用ANSYS软件对玉米收获机底盘车架进行有限元分析,得到最大模态变形位置和静应力分析条件下的应力分布;在有限元分析数据基础上,粘贴应变片,组建应力测量系统,实测田间及道路条件下的应变时间历程;对采集的应变数据开展预处理,初步分析其受力情况及动载荷特征,采用nCode软件完成疲劳寿命预测.试验结果表明,车身横梁疲劳寿命为24.1万h、支撑部件寿命为16 500万h,满足使用要求,但支撑部件强度设计过剩,采用workbench的shape optimization对该部件开展轻量化设计,在满足疲劳可靠性条件下,减少了该部件质量24%.%The chassis frame is the installed base of the corn combine harvester, which bears a lot of force from the longitudinal bending, torsion, lateral bending, horizontal rhombic and their combined loads. The frame has obvious dynamic load characteristics, therefore the static strength check is not enough and research on the fatigue life is needed. As the lack of basic research, the key data accumulation is insufficient, the tradition design method is relatively limited, many Chinese products lack the necessary fatigue strength in design, and the reliability is poor. Experience in the automotive industry has proved that the combination of fatigue load spectrum and CAE technology can greatly improve the forecasting ability. Fatigue strength study of the corn combine harvester is the foundation of improving the reliability and an important method to reduce the structural mass. In order to reduce the structural weight and improve the fatigue reliability of the corn combine harvester, this paper studies a method to evaluate fatigue life of the main frame. Firstly, using ANSYS software, the stress distribution of the corn harvester chassis frame was analyzed, and the stress distribution of the maximum modal deformation position and under static stress
通过对月球车和火星车的跟踪调研,重点介绍了俄罗斯所承担的欧洲空间局“火星快车”项目中火星车自行底盘概念的设计思想和具体实施情况.结合火星表面的复杂环境,研制方探讨了几种底盘结构设计方案,通过对比分析确立了6×6×4+4Ⅲ方案为优化方案；根据该优化方案研制的比例模型样机通过行走试验验证,结果表明自行底盘概念设计思想正确,有助于提高行星车在复杂地形中的运动能力、稳定性和可靠性.最后针对我国深空探测项目实施的需求,提出了拟开展工作建议.%This paper describes the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis developed by Russia for the ESA project ExoMars. In the context of the complex environment on the surface of the Mars, several design plans of the Mars probe chassis are discussed, among which the optimized plan of 6×6×4+4 Ⅲ is identified, that means four steering drives and four stepped-driven wheels-stepping device and balanced suspension. The scale model prototype developed according to the optimized plan was tested in the test field. The results show that the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis is correct, and can increase the mobility, stability and reliability of the planet rover. In the end, some proposals are put forward in light of implementing China's deep space exploration projects.
Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part P: ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #77--Secretary; #78--Keypunch Operator; Assembly Worker Core Job Description; #82--Electronics Assembler; #83--Printed Circuit Assembler; #84--Micro Electronics Assembler; #85--Chassis Assembler; #87--Machinist Apprentice.
San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.
This thirteenth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Secretary, Keypunch Operator, Electronics Assembler, Printed Circuit Assembler, Micro Electronincs Assembler, Chassis Assembler, and Machinist Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes…
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.
Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing
Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)
Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)
Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor
The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i) accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii) the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii) when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels. PMID:25372618
Due to the robbery of motor vehicle has a professional and strong, strong liquidity,crime a short time, fled the scene and the characteristics of rapid, with the public security organs to from field collected valuable evidence or clues, stolen goods is difficult, low detection rate, leading to the crime of motor vehicle theft and robbery in such cases soon become high incidence of criminal cases in new and criminals increasingly rampant, serious harm to people and property safety and social stability. This paper based on the summary of the author's work experience,the inspection of the vehicle frame number and engine number and display methods are classified,from tampering vehicle chassis number,engine number recognition to display technology are discussed, to effectively combat vehicle theft and robbery crime has certain practical value.%由于盗抢机动车犯罪具有专业性强、流动性大、作案时间短、逃离现场快等特点，再加上公安机关难以从现场收集有价值的证据或线索，追赃难，破案率低，导致此类案件很快成为新型的刑事高发案件，且犯罪分子日益猖獗，严重危害人们的财产安全及社会稳定。笔者根据多年工作经验，对机动车车架号及发动机号的检验及显现方法进行大致分类，从被篡改机动车车架号、发动机号的识别到显现技术进行探讨，对有效打击盗抢机动车犯罪具有一定借鉴意义。
Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri
The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.
吴红雷; 弋景刚; 孔德刚; 袁永伟
目前设施农业机械多以内燃机为动力源，与电动机驱动比较，存在污染严重、操作不灵活等问题。故，提出了一种前、中、后均可悬挂农机具的滑移式升降可调通用底盘设计思想，搭建了通用底盘的结构模型；为满足底盘平面倾斜升降调节要求，设计了一种液压滑轨升降调节机构。采用体积小、比功率大、传动效率高的电动轮毂作为四轮独立驱动系统的行走轮，建立了电动轮毂加速过程的受力平衡方程。为增加连续作业时间，采用串联式混合动力结构；分析了四轮独立驱动在滑移转向工况下，内外两侧电动轮毂转速与转弯半径的运动关系，为滑移式升降可调通用底盘的样机试制和控制策略及算法的设计奠定理论基础。%Internal combustion engine is used to most facility agricultural machinery as its pow‐er supply ,w hich has some serious problems such as pollution ,inconvenience ,and poor gener‐ality compared with themotordrive today .So ,a design idea of a kind of slip‐type lifting adjust‐able general chassis which can be hang implements at the front ,middle and the back of it , w hich sets up the chassis structure model to satisfy the requirement of the of chassis plane tilt‐ing and lifting regulation through as kind of hydraulic sliding rail lifting adjusting mechanism is put forward in the paper .It uses the motor wheel chair hub with small size ,big specific power and high drive efficiency as the walking wheel of four‐wheel independent driving sys‐tem .And it also builds the force balance equation of motor wheel chair hub in acceleration process ,and serial hybrid electric power train system is adopted in order to increase working hours .Furtherly ,the motion relation is analyzed between the inside and outside of motor wheel chair hub’s rotate speed and turning radius under slid‐turning conditions ,and it also lays a theoretical foundation for
针对某项目研发的传统商务用车,为了满足研发后电动汽车的操纵稳定性要求,运用ADAMS/Car软件建立电动汽车整车虚拟样机仿真模型,建立钢板弹簧非独立后悬架模型是建模一大难点,在多体动力学模型的基础上研究电机总成和车用动力锂离子电池组等的分布对汽车操纵稳定性的影响,提出底盘布置优化方案,根据汽车行业评定标准进行评分,结果显示底盘优化后电动汽车的操纵稳定性试验各项指标均符合要求.%In accordance with certain traditional commercial vehicle in research and development in a project, in order to meet the handing and stability need of the electric vehicle developed. The full virtual simulation model is build with ADAMS/Car software firstly and build leaf spring rear independent suspension model. Secondly research the effect of the disposal of electrical machine and dynamic battery on vehicles handing and stability based on the multibody dynamics model and a chassis disposal project t optimization is proposed. Finally rating vehicles handing and stability according to the auto industry standard and the results showed that stability test indexes of the vehicle improved comply with the requirements.
Mobility and traffic safety is a major concern in the society today. Many accidents take place because the vehicle is not following the trajectory that the driver desires. To avoid such accidents, an increasing number of active safety systems are introduced in modern vehicles. Still, most of the ti
these commercially important high value bioactive compounds are plant derived, and in plants, some of the key enzymes that catalyze the production of these compounds are cytochromes P450 (P450s). This thesis focuses on three subprojects in which we expressed plant metabolic pathways involving P450...
Tillaart, E. van den; Mourad, S.; Lupker, H.
In this paper TNO-Advance is presented. It is built in a modular way, therefore allowing quick assembling of specific vehicle configurations and easy integration of new component models and future evolutions of existing models. Its entensive library is built in Matlab/Simulink, taking advantage of i
Pauwelussen, Joop; Horn, L.; Alderliesten, R.; Ham, G. ten; Rhee, D. van; Klink, M. van
During the previous HVTT conference in Melbourne, results have been presented of a project FORWARD, including eleven different trailer manufacturers, involving testing and modeling activities to establish a practical basis for realistic fatigue assessment as a step towards an improved light-weight t
Ajiboye, Sola O.; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Christopher; Young, Rupert
There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of these are state owned. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows access to data from privately owned cameras, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public safety planning, security activities, and decision support systems that are based on video integrated surveillance systems. The accuracy of results obtained from government-owned public safety infrastructure would improve greatly if privately owned surveillance systems `expose' relevant video-generated metadata events, such as triggered alerts and also permit query of a metadata repository. Subsequently, a police officer, for example, with an appropriate level of system permission can query unified video systems across a large geographical area such as a city or a country to predict the location of an interesting entity, such as a pedestrian or a vehicle. This becomes possible with our proposed novel hierarchical architecture, the Fused Video Surveillance Architecture (FVSA). At the high level, FVSA comprises of a hardware framework that is supported by a multi-layer abstraction software interface. It presents video surveillance systems as an adapted computational grid of intelligent services, which is integration-enabled to communicate with other compatible systems in the Internet of Things (IoT).
Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc
One of the most promising alternatives to petroleum for the production of fuels and chemicals is bio-oil based chemistry. Microbial oils are gaining importance because they can be engineered to accumulate lipids enriched in desired fatty acids. These specific lipids are closer to the commercialized product, therefore reducing pollutants and costly chemical steps. Yarrowia lipolytica is the most widely studied and engineered oleaginous yeast. Different molecular and bioinformatics tools permit systems metabolic engineering strategies in this yeast, which can produce usual and unusual fatty acids. Usual fatty acids, those usually found in triacylglycerol, accumulate through the action of several pathways, such as fatty acid/triacylglycerol synthesis, transport and degradation. Unusual fatty acids are enzymatic modifications of usual fatty acids to produce compounds that are not naturally synthetized in the host. Recently, the metabolic engineering of microorganisms has produced different unusual fatty acids, such as building block ricinoleic acid and nutraceuticals such as conjugated linoleic acid or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, microbial sources are preferred hosts for the production of fatty acid-derived compounds such as γ-decalactone, hexanal and dicarboxylic acids. The variety of lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms is expected to rise in the coming years to cope with the increasing demand. PMID:26703186
Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M
C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution. PMID:26945781
Rimbaud, M. [GEC Alsthom/ACR, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Tourrade, J.C.; Lallet, P. [SNCF, Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Francais, (France)
The article describes the bogie frame dimensioning methodology, base on three necessary and complementary means which are calculations, tests and operation survey. Then it describes several ways to save weight in welded frames, and the determination of new design criteria. (authors)
... Toyota has not responded to public procurements.\\1\\ \\1\\ Contrary to Chrysler's assertion that Toyota has not responded to public procurements, in May 2010 FTA learned that Toyota may have certified... to communicate with Toyota by letter, e-mail, and telephone to determine whether Toyota is...
Ajiboye, Sola O; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert
There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of the...
Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR
Methods for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of the potential for production of fuels and other biocommodities from carbon dioxide via microbial electrosynthesis or more traditional modes of autotrophy with hydrogen or carbon monoxide as the electron donor. Furthermore, acetogenesis plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Gene deletion strategies required for physiological studies of C. ljungdahlii have not previously been demonstrated. An electroporation procedure for introducing plasmids was optimized, and four different replicative origins for plasmid propagation in C. ljungdahlii were identified. Chromosomal gene deletion via double-crossover homologous recombination with a suicide vector was demonstrated initially with deletion of the gene for FliA, a putative sigma factor involved in flagellar biogenesis and motility in C. ljungdahlii. Deletion of fliA yielded a strain that lacked flagella and was not motile. To evaluate the potential utility of gene deletions for functional genomic studies and to redirect carbon and electron flow, the genes for the putative bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases, adhE1 and adhE2, were deleted individually or together. Deletion of adhE1, but not adhE2, diminished ethanol production with a corresponding carbon recovery in acetate. The double deletion mutant had a phenotype similar to that of the adhE1-deficient strain. Expression of adhE1 in trans partially restored the capacity for ethanol production. These results demonstrate the feasibility of genetic investigations of acetogen physiology and the potential for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii to optimize autotrophic biocommodity production.
Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...
Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)
Both the car and plastics are innovative fields of technology. Due to their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer a wide range of applications for automotive engineering. The driving force behind the use of plastics is above all their potential for saving weight and enabling cost-effective processing, as well as allowing a great degree of design freedom. Today, a modern mid-range car contains about 130 kg of thermoplastic materials, making up about 10% of the car's overall weight. (orig.) [German] Das Automobil und die Kunststoffe gehoeren zu den innovativen Technologiegebieten. Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. Treibende Kraefte fuer die Verwendung von Kunststoffen sind vor allem deren Potenzial hinsichtlich Gewichtseinsparung und kostenguenstiger Verarbeitung, verbunden mit einer grossen Gestaltungsfreiheit. Ein modernes Mittelklassefahrzeug enthaelt heute etwa 130 kg thermoplastische Kunststoffe, das sind etwa 10% des Gesamtfahrzeug-Gewichts. (orig.)
@@ 相比目前在国内市场占据优势的自主品牌和日系品牌,德系SUV"途观"动力强劲、安全完善且操控性及地形掌控能力更为出色. 根据所采用的发动机(2.0TSl或1.8TSl)、变速器(6档手自一体或6档手动)、主流采用四轮驱动模式,以及不同的配置,途观(Tiguan)有从最低的1.8TSl手动都会版(前驱)直至2.0TSl手自一体旗舰版(四驱)等多种选型.
通过有限元分析软件LS-DYNA 进行碰撞仿真分析,研究了某新开发的微型客车的100%正面碰撞性能.根据相应的国家正碰法规CMVDR294和GB 11551-2003对仿真结果进行评价,发现正碰仿真中车架变形量、车门框变形量以及前壁板入侵量过大,不满足设计要求.针对上述问题,结合车身具体结构特性提出了车架结构优化方案.采用仿真技术进行优化方案的筛选和验证.验证结果表明优化方案有效地提高了车身、车架结构的抗撞性能.为此类微型客车正面碰撞性能的分析与优化提供方法和理论基础.%The front crash simulation based on LS-DYNA software is built to analyze the structural crashworthiness of mini-bus, which result evaluated according to the national frontal crash standard CMVDR294 and GB l1551-2003,indicates that the deformation of the frame, doorframe and front panel are too excessive in the simulation to meet the design requirements. In order to improve the crashworthiness of the bus, the optimization plans about the frame structure are proposed based on the structure characteristics of the body, which are selected and verified by simulation that the crashworthiness of the frame is enhanced efficiently. It provides approach and theoretical reference for crashworthiness analysis and design optimization of the mini-bus structure.
康为科; 赵亮; 胡颖
... Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are... (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2005 Long-Wheel Base (LWB) Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis....S.- certified version of the 2005 LWB Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) MPV) and they are...
... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...
This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)
Automatic-Control Challenges in Future Urban Vehicles: A Blend of Chassis, Energy and Networking Management Les défis de la commande automatique dans les futurs véhicules urbains : un mélange de gestion de châssis, d’énergie et du réseau
Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the discussion of new challenges that the scientific field of automatic-control will face in the next decades, in the area of vehicles control. The focus is on urban vehicles for personal mobility, since this type of vehicles will be subject to the biggest changes in the next decades. The paper is articulated in three sections – in a top-down framework – briefly addressing and discussing the following items: the main drivers, which will force a change in urban personal mobility; the main types of vehicles, which are expected to address at best such drivers; the main automatic-control challenges on such type of vehicles. The scope of this paper is purposely non-technical. Its aim is mainly to discuss the emerging new challenges from the perspective of the automatic-control scientists and practitioners. The goal of the paper is to establish a discussion framework on the problems and opportunities, which will arise in this field, in the near future. Le sujet du présent article est une discussion sur les nouveaux défis auxquels le domaine scientifique de la commande automatique des véhicules va faire face dans les prochaines décennies. L’accent est mis sur les véhicules urbains destinés à une mobilité individuelle, puisque c’est ce type de véhicules qui va faire l’objet des plus grands changements dans les prochaines décennies. Le présent article s’articule, selon une démarche descendante, en trois sections abordant et discutant brièvement les éléments suivants : les principaux moteurs qui vont imposer un changement en matière de mobilité individuelle; les principaux types de véhicules qui sont attendus pour répondre au mieux à de tels moteurs et les principaux défis de la commande automatique sur un tel type de véhicules. À dessein, la portée du présent article est non technique. Son but est principalement de discuter les nouveaux défis émergeants, à partir de perspectives des milieux scientifiques et professionnels de la commande automatique. L’objectif du présent article consiste à établir un canevas de discussion sur les problèmes et opportunités qui verront le jour en ce domaine dans un proche avenir.
魏俞涌; 盛奎川; 余有芳
... compliance with composite SFTP standards. Paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section discuss the additional test... operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving schedule (see paragraph (a), EPA Urban... vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving cycle (see paragraph (g),...
...” includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the... definition, a vehicle consists of a chassis, or a chassis and a body if the vehicle has a body, but does not..., if applicable, unequivocally resolve an issue involving the definition of a highway vehicle...
... a chassis function test, chassis stress test, input/output test, extended manufacturing stability... of the 7900 System begins with the receipt and inspection of hardware components that are chosen... the hardware has been assembled, the U.S.-origin EOS software is downloaded to the 7900...
... Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are Eligible for... petition for a decision that 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) multi-purpose passenger vehicles... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How...
Fu Yili; Xu He; Li Han; Wang Shuguo; Ma Yuliu
An innovative mobile robot that has reconfigurable locomotion chassis and reconfigurable bionic wheels has been developed to meet the needs of different payload and different terrain. Several prototypes have been achieved by the reconfiguration. By modeling relative comparison coefficients, these prototypes are analyzed in terms of geometrical parameter of trafficability, static stability and maneuverability. The effects of reconfiguration on these indices of robot performance can be compared, i.e. the variable height of chassis h has the biggest effect, the variable length of chassis l is the second, then is the camber angleβ and the caster angle α. Some principles for reconfiguration are proposed.
The characteristics of one kind of handset antenna are analyzed by the method of moments. By using the Pocklington equation and the Galerkin method, the current distribution on the handset antenna is calculated, the input impedance and radiation patterns are obtained. In addition, the characteristics of monopoles mounted on conducting chassis box with different sizes are analyzed. The results show that the size of the conducting chassis box has significant effect on the performance of the handset antenna. Therefore, appropriately changing the size of the conducting chassis box may improve the performance of the handset antenna.
现代汽车与厦门金旅经典合作辉煌再续记品质飞跃、动力无限的厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特%Classics Cooperation of Hyundai and Xiamen Golden Dragon to Continue Gloriou——Unlimited Motional Chassis COAST of Xiamen Golden Dragon and Hyumdai has Leaped for Quality
The linear motor consists of a series of stator coils (2) located along the Track guided self-driven container wagon Track guided self-driven container wagon track and a reaction rail (3) fitted under the wagon chassis (4).
... in future model year certification programs as permitted by regulation. Composite particulate... vehicle built for a light-duty truck chassis, van trucks, multi-stop vans, recreational vehicles, and...
... miles in a 30 day period immediately prior to conducting a particulate emissions test. Composite... light-duty truck chassis, van trucks, multi-stop vans, recreational vehicles, and some single...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...
Angelini, Nicholas Alexander
Formula SAE (FSAE) chassis systems are increasing being manufactured with integrated composite structures in an effort to increase the performance of the system while decreasing weight. The increased use of composite structures requires more details of the loading conditions and evaluation metrics than the mild steel structures they are replacing. The prototypical FSAE steel space frame chassis designs are heavily structured around the mandated safety rules that doubled as mostly satisfactory...
The technique introduced here works with relatively low digitalisation rates. An increase in accuracy is achieved by mathematical interpolation of the digitalised curves in the areas of interest. The equipment is built up modularly and uses standardised chassis systems on the basis of the VXI bus. It has one transmitter/pre-amplifier unit per module, which can be accommodated either in the chassis housing or near the test head in a local housing. (orig.)
This document deal with design of universal driving unit. For the final solution is required driving unit which will be controled with help of sensory unit placed on the chassis of driving unit. In theoretical part of this labour are examined possibilities of a power, electric motor operation by PWM, kind of chassis and odometry which could be taken into account. From this section is finally chosen concrete configuration which is then described in chapter concerned oneself with driving unit d...
Road conditions affect fuel efficiency and vehicle fatigue when driving heavy trucks. Information about traveled road conditions enable optimization of chassis configuration when driving, and logging of vehicle stress. Previous work on this topic focus mainly on tuning of active suspension parameters in the car industry. One conceivable application for heavy trucks is implementation of active chassis level control based on road conditions, with possible improvements in driving economy as resu...
Liu, C Q
In this paper, an improved FRF-based substructure synthesis method combined with power flow analysis is presented and is used for performing a vehicle axle noise analysis. The major transfer paths of axle noise transmitted from chassis to vehicle body are identified and ranked based on power flows transmitted through bushings between the chassis and body. To calculate the power flows, it is necessary to know the reaction forces and the vibrations at the bushing locations on the body side. To ...
Ponnapalli, Saila; Canora, Frank J.
Whip type antennas are probably the most commonly used antennas in portable rf systems, such as cordless and cellular phones, rf enabled laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld computers. Whip antennas are almost always mounted on the chassis which contains the radio and other electronics. The chassis is usually a molded plastic which is coated with a conducting paint for EMI purposes. The chassis which appears as a lossy conductor to the antenna, has several effects -- detuning, altering the gain of the antenna, and shadowing its radiation pattern. Extensive modeling and measurements must be performed in order to fully characterize the affects of the chassis on the whip antenna, and to optimize antenna type, orientation and position. In many instances, modeling plays a more important role in prediction of the performance of whip antennas, since measurements become difficult due to the presence of common mode current on feed cables. In this paper models and measurements are used to discuss the optimum choice of whip antennas and the impact of the chassis on radiation characteristics. A modeling tool which has been previously described and has been successfully used to predict radiated field patterns is used for simulations, and measured and modeled results are shown.
A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ''identical'' values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs
反倾销对底盘行业造成升级压力——专访天津大学机械学院副教授天津惠德汽车进气系统有限公司总经理兼总工程师刘德新%Anti-dumping causes pressure for upgrade for chassis industry——An special interview to the associate professor of Tianiin University, the General Manager & Chief Engineer of Tianiin HuiDe Air Intake Manifold Co., Ltd, Dexin Liu
Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V
Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034
Full Text Available Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS, the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc, Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh, and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells.
Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-Fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-Jin
Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP) to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc), Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh), and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc) which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells. PMID:25295588
Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F
The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.
Baggs, Dean; Yu , Ting Hung; Haley, Bret; Benny Chiang, Benny; Chau , Natalie; Wu, Jimmy; Sanchez , Esau; To, Aldrich; Min, Bryant; Anthony Humme, Anthony; Lee, Dong Hyun; Justin Kennedy, Justin; Miller, Matthew; Pratti, Christopher; Lin, Steve
Goal: To build the highest performing car possible while adhering to the FSAE Guidelines. This year, we are designing and building a race car for the 2015 FSAE competition in Lincoln, Nebraska. We have two different to analyze two different strategies. The first is a superlight design carbon fiber and steel chassis coupled with a minimalistic suspension package, and powered by a light yet powerful dirt bike engine. The second is a traditional steel tube chassis, proving superior manufactu...
Haislet, Donald A.; Wilson, Larry
A Tactical SIGINT System Hardware program developed by ESL, a subsidiary of TRW Avionics and Surveillance Group, is discussed. The program studied the parts of typical systems that have the greatest size, weight, and power leverage, namely, the chassis, circuit-card assemblies, thermal management techniques, and interconnections. Mechanical weight savings were achieved in both chassis and modules due to replacement of aluminum with metal matrix composites. Circuit miniaturization based on multichip modules made it possible to reduce a key digital circuit by 8:1.
The Opel Speedster is a medium-range sports car with an aluminium chassis and a GFRP body. It is based on the Lotus Elise and was developed to maturity in the course of two years. The emphasis was on good dynamic characteristics. [German] Der Opel Speedster ist ein Mittelmotor-Sportwagen mit Aluminium-Chassis und einer Karosserie aus glasfaserverstaerktem Kunststoff. Entwicklungs-Schwerpunkt war eine exzellente Fahrdynamik, die hohen Fahrspass gewaehrleisten soll. Der Opel Speedster wurde auf Basis des Lotus Elise in rund zwei Jahren zur Serienreife entwickelt. (orig.)
Dan N. DUMITRIU; Cornel Lala
A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The p...
Reduced vehicle model for optimizing the Body In White (BIW) with respect to vehicle dynamics and handling; Reduziertes Berechnungsmodell fuer ein Kraftfahrzeug zur Auslegung der Karosserie hinsichtlich fahrdynamischer Zielgroessen
Kolk, O. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany). Karosserieentwicklung Anbauteile/Technologiekonzepte
The author's investigations showed that the meeting of dynamic criteria for car body and chassis will not necessary serve to optimize car dynamics in general. The study describe the identification of secondary stiffness criteria and supplementary load cases with which the general dynamics of the car can be calculated and predicted. For fast and automatic motor vehicle assessment and optimization, a reduced calculation model is introduced in which the chassis is replaced by intersecting loads on the car body and the loads on the car body is modelled as a quasistatic load at a given moment of the driving process. (orig.)
IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble
Brewczyński, D.; Tora, G.
This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....
Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.
Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.
Franck, A R; Kasley, P A; Shea, M F
A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 microsec intervals, timestamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any ...
..., plastic drainage piping shall be supported at intervals not to exceed 4 feet and plastic water piping... provide protection against motion, vibration, road shock, or torque in the chassis. (3) Hangers and straps supporting plastic pipe shall not compress, distort, cut or abrade the piping and shall allow free...
Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.
... homogeneous material or from a single piece of composite material such as plywood. Body panel means a body... component, including but not limited to floor panels, and body panels made of composite materials such as... that encloses the bus occupant space, including the floor, but excluding the bumpers and chassis...
... published, on December 5, 2012, a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating... this FR notice as the ``preferred procurement program''). This proposed rule can be found at 77 FR...: countertops to the composite panels category; and wheel bearing and chassis grease to the greases...
... occurred in 1980 (45 FR 15810) when grain was not typically exported in large reusable containers but was... definitions of composite and average grades, limit the number of such containers that could be averaged or... containers are usually a metal truck/trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into...
A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 sec intervals, time stamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16 k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16 k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any system that supports PMC mezzanine modules
UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies
... files a certification pursuant to 24 CFR 3282.13 and complies with the standards set forth in 24 CFR... fuel tank with the exception of the filler cap. g. The acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/sec2 (9.81..., not described by paragraph (1) of this definition, having a chassis which extends behind the...
A critical capability of the new RHIC low level rf (LLRF) system is the ability to synchronize signals across multiple locations. The 'Update Link' provides this functionality. The 'Update Link' is a deterministic serial data link based on the Xilinx RocketIO protocol that is broadcast over fiber optic cable at 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). The link provides timing events and data packets as well as time stamp information for synchronizing diagnostic data from multiple sources. The new RHIC LLRF was designed to be a flexible, modular system. The system is constructed of numerous independent RF Controller chassis. To provide synchronization among all of these chassis, the Update Link system was designed. The Update Link system provides a low latency, deterministic data path to broadcast information to all receivers in the system. The Update Link system is based on a central hub, the Update Link Master (ULM), which generates the data stream that is distributed via fiber optic links. Downstream chassis have non-deterministic connections back to the ULM that allow any chassis to provide data that is broadcast globally.
Full Text Available This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods
This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...
This book is organized under the following headings: lubricating oils; lubricating greases; synthetic lubricants; machine elements; lubricant application; internal combustion engines; stationary gas turbines; steam turbines; hydraulic turbines; nuclear power plants; automotive chassis components; automotive power transmissions; compressors; handling, storing, and dispensing lubricants, in-plant handling for lubricant conservation
Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.; Severino, F.
A critical capability of the new RHIC low level rf (LLRF) system is the ability to synchronize signals across multiple locations. The 'Update Link' provides this functionality. The 'Update Link' is a deterministic serial data link based on the Xilinx RocketIO protocol that is broadcast over fiber optic cable at 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). The link provides timing events and data packets as well as time stamp information for synchronizing diagnostic data from multiple sources. The new RHIC LLRF was designed to be a flexible, modular system. The system is constructed of numerous independent RF Controller chassis. To provide synchronization among all of these chassis, the Update Link system was designed. The Update Link system provides a low latency, deterministic data path to broadcast information to all receivers in the system. The Update Link system is based on a central hub, the Update Link Master (ULM), which generates the data stream that is distributed via fiber optic links. Downstream chassis have non-deterministic connections back to the ULM that allow any chassis to provide data that is broadcast globally.
Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
Tunable antennas are a promising way to overcome bandwidth limitations for the new communication standards. Since it is the chassis that resonates in the low frequencies, its tuning is pertinent and allows for more compact size designs. This paper proposes a coupling element based antenna. A reco...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental reports. 1002.11 Section 1002.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... model or chassis family of a product listed in table 1 of § 1002.1 for which a report under § 1002.10...
Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice
The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.
Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)
LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)
This is a photo of a flight electronics package enclosure designed for use in a rugged, High G environment. The electronics sub-chassis is additionally mounted on vibration isolators (shock mounts), thereby enabling use in a variety of High G applications
... vehicles manufactured on a third-party chassis, a change in frame structure, material or configuration, or... conformance with the OEM's modifications guidelines. New bus model means a bus model that— (1) Has not been... requirement for bus testing. Bus means a rubber-tired automotive vehicle used for the provision of...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...
Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...
Combs, Hanford L.
The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…
.... Capacity means the cumulative rated capacity of all initial crushers that are part of the plant. Capture... chassis or skids and may be moved by the application of a lifting or pulling force. In addition, there... be removed prior to the application of a lifting or pulling force for the purpose of transporting...
... vacuum pump, a Swiss charger, a Japanese AC compressor, and a Japanese DC-DC converter. Station 3... recreational vehicles. In that case, the chassis, plastic body parts, and various miscellaneous pieces of plastic trim were imported into the U.S. from China and assembled with U.S.- origin battery packs,...
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...
Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
A guide for advancement and training in the Equipment Operator 3 and 2 ratings for Navy personnel is provided in this manual. The chapters outline the duties and responsibilities of the equipment operators involved with engines, fuels, lubricants, pollution control, automotive power trains and chassis, automotive vehicles, materials-handling…
Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...
Nel lavoro si descrive un sistema basato su DSK TMS320C6711, contenuto in un apposito chassis progettato per la sperimentazione di algoritmi complessi di DSP. Sono descritte le risorse offerte da MATLab per il Rapid Prototyping in una specifica applicazione di "Virtual Dubbing" su speech deteriorato e alcune considerazioni sull'utilit? del loro impiego.
Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)
The brochure under consideration reports on the new Mercedes S-Class and consists of contributions to aspects like: historical aspects, vehicle concept, project management, digital-mock-up-process and packaging, design, car body, interior equipment, electrical systems/electronics, drives assistance systems, chassis, safety aspects, power train, noise, vibration, harshness, aerodynamics consumption, emission, testing, production.
... 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long-Wheelbase MPVs Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... Safety Administration (NHTSA) has received a petition to decide that 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class... safety standards (the U.S.-certified 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class (463 chassis) LWB MPV), and...
..., Maserati Quattroporte, Mercedes-Benz New Generation Compact Car (NGCC) Line Chassis/CLA-Class, Mitsubishi... Volvo S60. Subsequent to publishing the June 4, 2012 final rule (See 77 FR 32903), the agency also..., ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), provides for making determinations whether...
蒋尚; 张利清; 卢阳
With the development of military electronic technology , electronic equipment chassis is widely used in the field of aviation and aerospace .The job of the military electronic equipment development must pay at-tention to ensure function ,also ensure the reliability of the electronic chassis products in order to ensure that the case can adapt to various flight conditions .The paper combines with the actual demand to design a kind of military electronic equipment chassis structure .Compared with the traditional plug type chassis , the chassis has some features such as large internal connections reliability an high stiffness , light weight , good manufac-turability , convenient bugging , heat conduction , etc.Through the whole machine by overall fixation by bolt , the chassis with structure stiffness big , can adapt to harsh environment of space flight , improving the working reliability of the electronic equipment and adaptability .Through the phase change heat sink thermal control device as a case , the chassis arrives good heat dissipation effect .%随着军用电子技术的发展，电子设备机箱在航空、航天等领域应用非常的广泛。为了保证机箱能够适应各种飞行条件，研制一种既要保证功能，又要保证可靠性的电子机箱产品是军用电子设备研制必须重视的工作。文中针对实际需求，研究了一种军用电子设备机箱的结构设计。与传统的插板式机箱相比，这种机箱具有刚度大、内部连接可靠性高、重量轻、工艺性好、调试方便、导热能力强等优点。整机通过贯穿的螺栓实现整体固定，其结构刚度大，能够适应严酷航天飞行环境，提高电子设备工作的可靠性和适应性，另外，通过相变热控装置作为整个机箱热沉，达到良好的散热效果。
Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of a fuzzy regulation using for machine tracking of the harvest machines. The main aim of this work was to practice verify and evaluate of functionality of control fuzzy algorithms for an Ackerman’s chassis which are generally used in agriculture machines for the crops harvesting. Design of the fuzzy control algorithm was focused to the wall following algorithm and obstacle avoidance. To achieve of the reliable results was made the real model of vehicle with Ackerman’s chassis type, which was controlled by PC with using development board Stellaris LM3S8962 based on ARM processor. Fuzzy control algorithms were developed in LabView application. Deviations were up to 0.2 m, which can be reduced to 0.1 m by hardware changing.
Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed
A new plasma/catalyst continuously regenerative hybrid system (PCRHS) is introduced to reduce diesel particulate matter (DPM), NOx, CO, etc., contained in diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst temperature, plasma energy density, and exhaust gas characteristics were investigated with a passenger diesel car (2500cc) at the dynamometer test bed and chassis dynamometer with CVS-75 test mode. It was reported that the smoke removal efficiency was around 70% at the dynamometer test bed with 80 W energy consumption, and that PM removal efficiency was 68% at the chassis dynamometer. The NOx was reduced up to 20% according to the electrode types and temperature, respectively. The hybrid system test shows that DPM and CO were almost removed and NOx reduced to 30% simultaneously by the system. Considering these results, PCRHS could be a promising method to regenerate diesel particulate
The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort
Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to develop an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions natural gas-fueled school bus. To develop the bus, SwRI teamed with Blue Bird, Incorporated, a school bus manufacturer, Deere Power Systems Group, an engine manufacturer, and CNG Cylinder Company, a supplier of compressed natural gas storage and handling systems. The primary focus of work for Phase 1 was the design of the component systems, i.e. vehicle, engine, and fuel storage systems. The bus chassis prototype is expected to be completed by the middle of July, 1995. A complete prototype vehicle body and chassis should be delivered to SwRI by the beginning of December, 1995. This prototype vehicle will include the new compressed natural gas cylinders and associated fuel storage system hardware which has been designed by CNG Cylinder Company.
Dan N. Dumitriu
Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.
Tusset, Ângelo Marcelo, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Piccirillo, Vinícius, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Janzen, Frederic Conrad, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lenz, Wagner Barth, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UTFPR- PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José Manoel, E-mail: email@example.com [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)
The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort.
Full Text Available Pollutant emission caused by motor vehicles is a major concern for humanity. In Brazil, the National Council of Environment (CONAMA created the Program for Controlling Air Pollution caused by Motor Vehicles (PROCONVE, which aims at controlling the emission of polluting gases caused by vehicles. The program is already in its 7th phase, and aims at the development of chassis technology with Euro V. The introduction of this new type of chassis on the market can cause impacts on bus companies and in society in general. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how a large bus company went through the deployment phase of Euro V. As any new deployment has its problems and difficulties, the implementation in Brazil would be no different, but after this phase, the main objective of the standard was fulfilled with the reduction of toxic gases into the atmosphere, ensuring sustainability and tranquility to future generations.
Lane, Gerald R.
To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.
This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.
Bashir Sajo Mienda
Full Text Available The increasing need for the bio-based industrial production of compounds via microbial cell factories leads to a demand for computational pathway prediction tools. A variety of algorithms have been developed that can be used to identify possible metabolic pathways and their corresponding enzymatic parts. These prediction tools play a central role in metabolic pathway design and microbial chassis selection for industrial chemical production. Here, we briefly discuss how the development of some key computational tools, which are currently available for pathway construction, could facilitate the synthetic redesign of microbial chassis. Special emphasis is given to the characteristics and drawback(s of some of the computational tools used in pathway prediction, and a generalized workflow for the design of microbial chemical factories is provided. Perspectives, challenges and future trends are briefly highlighted.
Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve
A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.
The Sandia MA165 Neutron Generator System was designed for use in the Sandia Safeguards Unattended Equipment/Material Pass-Through. As this neutron generator system design evolved, it became simpler to use while it also became more versatile. Two operations which were previously controlled manually by the operator were automated in the new design. Its stand alone characteristic has allowed it to become a versatile laboratory tool. Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory are both currently using versions of the MA165 system for their research. Aside from power supplies, the system consists of a neutron generator package and an electronic control chassis. This manual describes, in detail, the neutron generator package, the theory of operation of the electronic control chassis, and instructions for using the MA165 system
This thesis deals about the conditions and requirements that must be aply for the construction of the race car. It summarizes the important technical regulations, that development must follow. The second half of the work describes construction of car, which started from bare bodywork. Construction began preparing the body, its safety equipment and installation of necessary components. Then is described the chassis installation in and finally drive assembly.
Knoop, Henning; Steuer, Ralf
Cyanobacteria are a promising biological chassis for the synthesis of renewable fuels and chemical bulk commodities. Significant efforts have been devoted to improve the yields of cyanobacterial products. However, while the introduction and heterologous expression of product-forming pathways is often feasible, the interactions and incompatibilities of product synthesis with the host metabolism are still insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigate the stoichiometric properties and ...
Pan, Yuchen; Duncombe, Todd A.; Kellenberger, Colleen A.; Hammond, Ming C.; Herr, Amy E.
We describe a platform for high-throughput electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) for identification and characterization of molecular binding reactions. A photopatterned free-standing polyacrylamide gel array comprised of 8 mm-scale polyacrylamide gel strips acts as a chassis for 96 concurrent EMSAs. The high-throughput EMSAs was employed to assess binding of the Vc2 cyclic-di-GMP riboswitch to its ligand. In optimizing the riboswitch EMSAs on the free-standing polyacrylamide gel arra...
Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; SEIGNEUR, Christian; CHARRON, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; POLO, Lucie
Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were dilut...
Ehlers, S. L.; Jones, K. J.; Morgan, R. E.; Hixson, Jay
The goal of this project is to fabricate a chassis/circuit card demonstration entirely 'wired' with embedded and interconnected optical fibers. Graphite/epoxy Standard Electronic Module E (SEM-E) configured panels have been successfully fabricated. Fiber-embedded SEM-E configured panels have been subjected to simultaneous signal transmission and vibration testing. Packaging constraints will require tapping composite-embedded optical fibers at right angles to the direction of optical transmission.
This report describes the master thesis project “Weight Optimization of a Composite Chassis for a Multimodal Lightweight Vehicle” which is a part of the Master program in Naval Architecture and a part of a research project at the Centre for Naval Architecture, KTH. Demands on smart and energy efficient transport solutions are continuously increasing. In the Stockholm region the citizens are expected to increase with 25% and the road vehicles with 80% until 2030, putting high demands on the tr...
M. K. Aripin; Yahaya Md Sam; Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.; Kemao Peng; N. Hamzah; Ismail, M. F.
Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with...
M Navarrete; F. A. Godínez; F. Serrania
The impact response of sandwich panels with an improved structure to increase their impact resistance isinvestigated. In order to compare the impact performance of sandwich structures, a specific and instrumenteddrop-weight impact tester was designed and developed. The experimental part of this work is an evaluation oncomposite sandwich panels behavior used in the manufacturing of the UNAM Electrobús chassis. Two differentsandwich structures are analyzed: the first type is a structure compose...
Hari Suryo Utomo; Fatma Lestari
Factors Related to Contact Dermatitis on Workers at PT Inti Pantja Press Industri. PT Inti Pantja Press Industri (IPPI) is an automotive manufacturing industry for car pressing body and car chassis. In the manufacturing process, its uses a variety of chemicals which may cause contact dermatitis for workers. There are other factors which may cause the contact dermatitis to workers worsen including indirect causes. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to contact derm...
GIECHASKIEL Barouch; SCHIEFER Erich; SCHINDLER Wolfgang; AXMANN Harald; DARDIOTIS CHRISTOS
Particulate emissions cause adverse health effects and for this reason they are regulated since the 80s. Vehicle regulations cover particulate emission measurements of a model before its sale, known as type approval or homologation. For heavy-duty engines the emissions are measured on an engine dynamometer with steady state points and transient cycles. For light-duty vehicles (i.e. the full power train) the particulate emissions are assessed on a chassis dynamometer. The measurement of partic...
Semi-active suspension systems promise to significantly reduce the necessary trade-off be-tween handling and passenger comfort present in conventional suspension systems by enabling active chassis and wheel control. Öhlins Racing AB have developed a semi-active suspension technology known as CES, Continuously controlled Electronic Suspension, based on solenoid control valves which are integrated into specially designed hydraulic dampers, and are currently developing control and estimation sys...
Munyazikwiye, Bernard B.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.
An eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) approach for estimating the structural system matrices is proposed in this paper using the measurements of acceleration data available from the real crash test. A mathematical model that represents the real vehicle frontal crash scenario is presented. The model's structure is a double-spring-mass-damper system, whereby the front mass represents the vehicle-chassis and the rear mass represents the passenger compartment. The physical parameters of the ...
Munyazikwiye, Bernard B.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar
An eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) approach for estimating the structural system matrices is proposed in this paper using the measurements of acceleration data available from the real crash test. A mathematical model that represents the real vehicle frontal crash scenario is presented. The model’s structure is a double-spring-mass-damper system, whereby the front mass represents the vehicle-chassis and the rear mass represents the passenger compartment. The physical parameters of the ...
The author of this thesis is using the theory of marketing environment, marketing mix and product assortment of trade company for subsequent application to the analysis assortment of ELIT company. This company operates in the Czech Republic in the aftermarket as a distributor of spare parts for cars, trucks and motorcycles. In more details are analyzed chassis parts. In the thesis are also listed the most important competitors and in the conclusion are derived recommendations for the company ...
The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.
FLANDRIN, Y; Vidon, R; Cazier, F.; Hue, S.; DECHAUX, JC; Nollet, V.
A 25 passenger cars sample was selected on the basis of a 2001 year French fleet prediction. Various types of vehicle technologies, i.e. diesel and petrol cars both equipped with or without catalyst, were tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling for regulated emissions and individual Volatile Organic Compounds determination. A particular emphasis has been placed on toxic and/or photochemically reactive compounds such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-b...
Stulce, John R.
Rugged terrains, including much of the earthâ s surface, other planets, and many man-made structures, are inaccessible to wheeled and tracked vehicles. This has inspired research into legged vehicles. Prior to the research described here, virtually all legged vehicle designs relied on the concept of mounting actuated leg-type mechanisms onto a single rigid frame or chassis. This dissertation research explores and advances a novel vehicle concept that uses passive legs attached to an actu...
This invention concerns nuclear medicine and, in particular, a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The scanner is characterized by its chassis carrying highly inwardly focused collimators around a scanning field and by several collimator rigs and translation and rotational drive systems
Jia-Sheng Hu; Chien-Chu Yeh
Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For exam...
Kiran Jadhav*, Rahul Joshi, Dr Pradip Kumar Patil
The leaf springs are widely used in suspension system of railway carriages and automobiles. But the form in which it is normally seen is laminated leaf spring.To assure proper spring life, the maintenance and inspection process must include the entire suspension system of springs and chassis parts. The motoring public has learned that proper maintenance on their vehicles is essential to obtain longer life and economical service in this age of rising equipment and fuel costs. In most norma...
This book explores the use of robots for industrial arc welding applications. A number of important issues, such as safety and economics are addressed. A wide range of industrial installation applications are described including production line chassis welding with multiple robots. The use of vision based sensor systems is explained to provide data on joint location and joint volume. Other areas covered include flexible manufacturing systems, computer integrated manufacture and design problems. The book concludes with a review of future trends. (UK)
Vold Korgaard Jensen, Jaide
The identification of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a glutamate producer in the 1950’s was the start of its career as an amino acid producer. C. glutamicum has now been employed as cell factory for industrial amino acid production for over five decades and has a market size to reach $20 billion by 2020. As C. glutamicum was isolated for its natural ability to produce glutamate it makes it an excellent chassis for engineering it to produce its derivatives ornithine, proline, put...
Curk, Boris; Klampfer, Saša
Robotics is fast growing area, which achieves full bloom in last teen years. Now days, manipulators are indispensable part in industry. We use them for weld chassis, for steel and wood cultivation, for disperse coloring, steel cutting and so on. Since 1992, for each year, number of robots rapidly increases. Reason for that is their universality, but because of that property, people start initiates them into farms, agricultures, green houses, warehouses, into electronics production for composi...
Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.
Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.
The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.
Ciniviz, Murat; ÖRS, ilker
The effects of gasoline-bioethanol blended fuels (E50, E85, E100) on vehicle performance (wheel power, fuel consumption) and exhaust emissions (CO, CO2, HC, NOx) of vehicle with spark ignition (SI) engine which is a new generation fuel injection system and electronic ignition system were studied. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer while running the vehicle at two different gear (third gear and forth gear), and six different vehicle speeds for both gear. The results obtained fro...
Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-jin
Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing f...
FONTARAS GEORGIOS; FRANCO GARCIA Vicente; Dilara, Panagiota; MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano
The mass emissions of CO2 and regulated pollutants (NOX, HC, CO, PM) of thirteen Euro 5 compliant passenger cars (seven gasoline, six Diesel) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were driven repeatedly over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) and the more dynamic WMTC and CADC driving cycles. Distance-specific emission factors were derived for each pollutant and sub-cycle which were subsequently compared to the corresponding emission factors provided by the referen...
This thesis aims to compare the performance class of tractors above 300 kW according to technical parameters and Exploitation, propose suitable machinery for the tractor trains and lines. The initialport of the thesis is devoted to the technical parameters of tractors, especially the engine, transmission system, chassis, cab, electro-hydraulic system and electronic equipment. In the conclusion, the individual tractors are compared and evaluated according to the selected method.
KARAVALAKIS George; FONTARAS GEORGIOS; BAKEAS Evangelos; STOURNAS Stamos
This study investigates the impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on the regulated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a modern passenger vehicle. The vehicle was Euro 4 compliant fitted with a direct injection common-rail diesel engine and a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer using constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted ...
A time domain simulation model for the dynamic system chassi-suspension-cab is described and used. The validation showed good agreement between model and experimental results. The influence of different suspension parameters on vibration damping capacity and the requirement for free space in the construction were investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on the effects of passive non-linear suspension elements. An optimization model has been developed and used to optimize suspension parame...
The thesis describes the bearing between the chassis and the land, and current trends used of tires. Are listed and described the different types of tire construction. The main objective of this thesis is to describe a methodology for the experimental measurement of the drawbar properties of the tractor and analyze changes in drawbar performance due changes in inflation pressure of the tires. Measured and calculated data are processed by regression analysis.
Nakamura Satoshi; Sakamoto Kazumasa; Nishioka Kensuke
The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with...
Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.
Vojtěch Klouček; Stanislav Prýl; Veronika Šulcová
Design of the integrated gear mechanism so arranged that to the three-phase asynchronous motor chassis with a squirrel cage is integrated gear mechanism with internal teeth. In order to eliminate all the backlashes in the gearing and bearings, is branched into two identical gears, between which is inserted the flexible component.The kinematics of bodies, which held general planar motion, are solved by matrix methods of investigation of constrained multibody systems.
Бондар, Юрій Іванович; Сухов, Віталій Віталійович
Identify the relationship between the aerodynamic loads , weight of the wing structure and its deformations is an important issue in the early stages of the design of transport category aircraft.Existing methods of the weight analysis allow to estimate weight of basic elements of the plane (a wing, a fuselage, plumage, the chassis, wing mechanisation), but forecasting of distribution of these weights along their basic axes is a special problem.The work purpose is working out of a way of forec...
Gao, Y.; Chen, X.
Planetary robotic missions rely on rovers to produce surface mobility for multiple sites sampling and exploration. For example, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have been extremely successful in the exploring a wide area of the Martian surface in the past four years. Each of the MER has the size of a golf car and weights ~170 kg. They both result in a massive launch of nearly 1100 kg. Small rovers (5-30 kg) can help to provide moderate surface traverse and greatly reduce cost of the mission, e.g. the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission. There is a growing interest in the micro-rover design and how to maximize performance of a miniaturized system. For example, the rover traversability and locomotion capability will be compromised if the objective is to reduce the size of the vehicle. Undoubtedly, this affects the rover performance in terms of mobility and usefulness to the mission. We propose to overcome this problem by investigating a new generation of rover chassis design to maximize its terrian capability. This paper presents a chassis concept suited for a micro-rover system and negotiating with different planetary terrains such as the Moon and Mars. The proposed tracked-wheel is motivated by bringing together advantages of wheels and tracks, in the same time keeping the design simple and easy to implement. The chassis is built based on four tracked-wheels and offers 10 DOF for the vehicle. Analysis based on Bekker theories suggests this design can generate larger tractive effort (drawbar pull) compared to the wheeled design for the same rover dimensions. As a result, a more effective and efficent chassis can be achieved and leave a large design margin for the science payload.
Zuern, Joerg; Mierisch, Uwe; Mueller-Finkeldei, Rainer; Koellermeyer, Albrecht [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Mercedes-Benz Trucks
The requirements placed on modern construction vehicles are very diverse. In quarries and mines, extreme load-carrying capacity and durability are required, whereas transporting concrete demands lightweight construction. From two to four axles, all-wheel configurations must be covered. Vehicle applications include semitrailers and customized chassis frames for dump truck, concrete moving, and special-purpose body designs. The new Mercedes-Benz Arocs satisfies these properties. (orig.)
Robinson, D. Reed; Wood, Carl G.
A six-wheeled autonomous omni-directional vehicle (ODV) called T3 has been developed at Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS). This paper focuses on T3's ability to climb stairs using its unique configuration of 6 independently driven and steered wheels and active suspension height control. The ability of T3, or any similar vehicle, to climb stairs is greatly dependent on the chassis orientation relative to the stairs. Stability criteria is developed for any vehicle dimensions and orientation, on any staircase. All possible yaw and pitch angles on various staircases are evaluated to find vehicle orientations that will allow T3 to climb with the largest margin of stability. Different controller types are investigated for controlling vertical wheel movement with the objective of keeping all wheels in contact with the stairs, providing smooth load transfer between loaded and unloaded wheels, and maintaining optimum chassis pitch and roll angles. A controller is presented that uses feedback from wheel loading, vertical wheel position, and chassis orientation sensors. The implementation of the controller is described, and T3's stair climbing performance is presented and evaluated.
Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.
This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.
As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred
This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.
Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice
In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.
Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J
High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.
Zoran Đ. Majkić
Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the
It is often important to carry out EMI analysis in the design phase of an electronic product to predict the radiated emissions. An EMI analysis is important to predict if the product complies with the FCC regulations as well as to gain an understanding of the noise coupling and radiation mechanisms. EMI analysis and prediction of radiated emissions in electronic products that have an electrically large chassis, pose a challenge due to the presence of multiple resonant structures and noise-coupling mechanisms. The study focusses on the investigation of the main noise coupling mechanisms, the approach and methods used for the modeling of a flat panel display. Full-wave simulation models are a powerful tool for the prediction of radiated emissions and the visualization of coupling paths within the product. The first part deals with the measurement of radiated emissions from the display under standard test conditions and the identification of the main noise sources using near-field scanning. The contribution of the chassis components - frame, back cover and the back panel, to the radiated emission is analyzed using shielding measurements. Noise coupling from the main board, flex cables, display driver boards and the display is analyzed from measurements. The second part deals with the full-wave modeling of the components - main board, flex cables, chassis and the display driver boards. The modeling approach is demonstrated by highlighting some of the challenges in modeling larger structures having many details. The simulation model contains the main components of the TV that contribute to far-field radiation. The full-wave modeling is done using the CST Microwave Studio. Two sets of simulation models are described - the common mode models and the complete models. The use of the common mode models for the identification of the resonant structures is demonstrated. The far-field radiated emissions along with the coupling mechanism within the flat panel display can be
简要分析了螺纹连接在汽车结构中的作用和松动的原因，指出在预紧力变形和受轴向、横向动静载荷作用下，螺纹连接会发生松动。%a brief analysis of the causes of the threaded connection looseness, points out that in the pre tightening force deformation and axial, transverse static dynamic loading, thread connection looseness. And briefly discussed the chassis design application.
The objective of this paper is to design and produce a robot based on a four wheel chassis equipped with a robotic arm capable of manipulating small objects. The robot should be able to operate in an autonomous mode controlled by a microcontroller and in a mode controlled wirelessly by an operator in real time. Precision and accuracy of the robotic arm should be sufficient for the collection of small objects, such as syringes and needles. The entire robot should be easy to operate user-friend...
Otero, A.D. [College of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires C1063ACV (Argentina); Ponta, F.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)
We developed a computational model based on a finite-element mixed formulation with quadratic isoparametric beam elements. We applied this model to the analysis of a blade-wagon: a novel structure characteristic of an innovative concept in wind-power called VGOT Darrieus turbine. We studied the structural behaviour of its main components: chassis, suspension and blade, using combinations of beam/bar elements in an appropriate assembling. We defined a set of parameters to characterize the structural behaviour which help to understand the contribution of the different components and assist the process of redesign. (author)
Time studies and an ergonomic assessment were carried out in logging operations for three logging machines based on backhoe loader chassis. The time studies were completed with a follow-up study of one backhoe loader-based single-grip harvester. The studies indicated a productivity at the same level as that of specialized Nordic logging machines. Ergonomics also proved to be good. Mean ground pressure exerted by the backhoe loader-based logging machines was a little higher than for some of th...
Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer
Covering: 2000 to 2016Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383
余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤
结合混合动力车工作原理，从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面，详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.
The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs
Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana
The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.
The unit for the conditioning of radioactive waste by means of encapsulation comprises a casing machine, which consists, on the one hand, of a shielded and aerated tunnel; the tunnel itself is furnished with a fixed production station for the casing, a fixed control station and a fixed sealing station; the casing machine consists, on the other hand of an inactive zone and a shielded container; the conditioning unit consists of a chassis platform and a girder in the rear and also of a detachable gooseneck. (orig.)
Jung, T.; Liu, J.; Maescher, G.; Mauch, H.; Stolze, F.J. [Volkswagen AG, Abt. Betriebsfestigkeit, Brieffach 17 12, 38436 Wolfsburg (Germany)
The procedures for durability evaluation in the automotive engineering are represented, especially the methods, load assumption, fatigue testing and the regulations for the release and quality control. By practical examples of the vehicle development from chassis, aggregate and body the procedure is described, in particular the used experimental and virtual simulation methods (Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Dargestellt wird die prinzipielle Vorgehensweise beim Nachweis der Betriebsfestigkeit in der Fahrzeugentwicklung: die Methoden, Lastannahme, Festigkeitspruefung und die Vorschriften fuer die Freigabe und Qualitaetssicherung. An praktischen Beispielen der Fahrzeugentwicklung aus Fahrwerk, Aggregat und Karosserie werden die Vorgehensweise und die verwendeten experimentellen und rechnerischen Simulationsmethoden erlaeutert. (Abstract Copyright , Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)
Because of their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer many applications in automotive design. In the first part of the article, in the March edition of ATZ, the use of plastic materials in car production was described from the point of view of chassis, body and engine components. In this second part, the surface treatment of plastic body components is discussed. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. In der Maerz-Ausgabe der ATZ wurde der Einsatz dieser Werkstoffe in der Automobilproduktion in Fahrwerks-, Karosserie- und Motorkomponenten beschrieben. Der vorliegende zweite Teil widmet sich der Thematik der Oberflaechenbehandlung mit Kunststoffen. (orig.)
The paper describes, development of modular card cage, housing passive 8 slots ISA backplane which will be mounted in standard 19 inch, 4U bin. This modular chassis consists of a passive ISA backplane, latest Intel processor based single board computer and other various system specific boards being developed and designed in house. The paper discusses the methodology followed, embedded real time operating system selected for networking these systems to the supervisory nodes which in turn will also be networked to plant bus through a gateway. (author). 1 fig
A modular, multichannel current regulator system has been developed to power the low current correction and focusing magnets used for beam transport. The basic module consists of a relay rack housing four card crates with eight regulators per crate. The rack also contains a utility chassis and common power supplies. Each regulator card includes a communications microprocessor and a temperature controlled analog circuit block containing precision reference, serial DAC, shunt resistor and error amplifier. The regulators are linear, bipolar units capable of furnishing up to 10 amps at 20 volts with less than 0.01% ripple and drift
WANG Jun-fang; GE Yun-shan; TAN Jian-wei; HE Chao; YOU Ke-wei; YOU Qiu-wen
Number concentration and size distribution from gasoline cars are investigated at transient modes on the chassis dynamometers,which are measured using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for the ECE15 and EUDC cycles.Results indicate that,during cold start,particle number emission is higher than that under hot start.It is found that the number of particles increases with the vehicle speeds.Furthermore,particles with diameter smaller than 200 nm constitute the predominant part of total emission in the entire cycle.In addition,the tentative information about composition of emitted particles is also discussed.
Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee
Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera
Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve
Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. On the table is a refurbished, spare orbiter point sensor chassis and a motherboard. Components are being tested to determine why one of the four liquid hydrogen tank low-level fuel cut-off sensors failed in a routine prelaunch check during the launch countdown July 13. The failure caused mission managers to scrub Discovery's first launch attempt. The sensor protects the Shuttle's main engines by triggering their shutdown in the event fuel runs unexpectedly low. The sensor is one of four inside the liquid hydrogen section of the External Tank (ET).
Hockett, John E. (Inventor)
An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.
Franco, Tiago Daniel Heliodoro
A partir de um modelo automóvel proposto por um designer foram modeladas, em software CAD comercial, estruturas compatíveis para o chassis e para a carroçaria, seguindo algumas das práticas usadas na indústria automóvel. A estrutura modelada foi sujeita a testes de simulação numérica, usando o ABAQUS, um software comercial que usa o Método dos Elementos Finitos. Foram usados dois materiais, um aço e um alumínio, de modo a poder tomar uma decisão sobre o material mais apropri...
Sanchez, Christopher Medina
This paper is an approach in how to design a composite sandwich laminate, that is to be used for an open wheeled race car with a monocoque chassis. The composite sandwich design of the monocoque must be in accordance with the 2013 Formula SAE regulations. The composite sandwich laminate is to be used in a preliminary monocoque design based on the Revolve NTNU’s 2013 student race car, the KA Aquilo R. The composite materials for the monocoque’s sandwich structure are HexPly 6376 and Rohacel...
Toulmin, H.A. Jr.
This report describes the results of an automobile driveability, emission, fuel economy and performance testing program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A total of twenty-two 1977 and 1978 model vehicles were subjected to a series of tests when adjusted to the manufacturers' recommended settings and when adjusted to simulate maladjustments found on in-use vehicles in an earlier EPA Restorative Maintenance Evaluation Project. The CRC driveability tests were performed on a weather controlled large roll chassis dynamometer at 16C and the emissions and fuel economy tests were conducted according to the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, except that evaporative emissions tests were not conducted.
Modak, Girish Sudhir; Bhoomkar, Manmohan Manikrao
The study proposes an innovative and completely new but low-cost configuration of a platform that can easily climb stairs. This platform serves the purpose of a chassis. Different versions, such as staircase-climbing wheelchair or staircase-climbing trolley for material transferring, can be derived depending on the structure built on the platform. The driving wheels have a shape that completely matches with the profile of the steps. Complex components are eliminated. Thus, this platform is conveniently applicable in the configurations useful for climbing staircases.
Wing Thye Woo
Viewing the Chinese economy as a speeding car, there are three types of development that could crash the car: (1) a hardware failure, which is the breakdown of an economic mechanism (analogous to the collapse of the chassis of the car), for example, a banking crisis; (2) a software failure, which is a flaw in governance that creates social disorders (analogous to a fight among the people inside the car), for example, the state not being able to meet the rising social expectations about its pe...
The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)
Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha
This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.
Baier, A; A. Niedworok
Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque loa...