Three-body antikaon-nucleon systems
Shevchenko, N V
2016-01-01
The paper contains a review of the exact or accurate results achieved in the field of the three-body antikaon-nucleon physics. Different states and processes in $\\bar{K}NN$ and $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}N$ systems are considered. In particular, quasi-bound states in $K^- pp$ and $K^- K^- p$ systems were investigated together with antikaonic deuterium atom. Near-threshold scattering of antikaons on deuteron, including $K^- d$ scattering length, and applications of the scattering amplitudes are also discussed. All exact three-body results were calculated using some form of Faddeev equations. Different versions of $\\bar{K}N$, $\\Sigma N$, $\\bar{K}\\bar{K}$, and $NN$ potentials, specially constructed for the calculations, allowed investigation of the dependence of the three-body results on two-body input. Special attention is paid to the antikaon-nucleon interaction, being the most important for the three-body systems. Additionally performed approximate calculations demonstrate accuracy of the commonly used approaches.
Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of three-body systems
L(U) Meng-Jiao; REN Zhong-Zhou; LIN Qi-Hu
2012-01-01
The application of the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm in three-body systems is studied.We develop a program and use it to calculate the property of various three-body systems.Regular Coulomb systems such as atoms,molecules,and ions are investigated.The calculation is then extended to exotic systems where electrons are replaced by muons.Some nuclei with neutron halos are also calculated as three-body systems consisting of a core and two external nucleons.Our results agree well with experiments and others' work.
Three Body Resonance Overlap in Closely Spaced Multiple Planet Systems
Quillen, Alice C
2011-01-01
We compute the strengths of zero-th order (in eccentricity) three-body resonances for a co-planar and low eccentricity multiple planet system. In a numerical integration we illustrate that slowly moving Laplace angles are matched by variations in semi-major axes among three bodies with the outer two bodies moving in the same direction and the inner one moving in the opposite direction, as would be expected from the two quantities that are conserved in the three-body resonance. A resonance overlap criterion is derived for the closely and equally spaced, equal mass system with three-body resonances overlapping when interplanetary separation is greater than an order unity factor times the planet mass to the one quarter power. We find that three-body resonances are sufficiently dense to account for wander in semi-major axis seen in numerical integrations of closely spaced systems and they are likely the cause of instability of these systems. For interplanetary separations outside the overlap region, stability tim...
Three-body systems in pionless effective field theory
Vanasse, Jared
2016-04-01
Investigations of three-body nuclear systems using pionless effective field theory (EFTπ̸) are reviewed. The history of EFTπ̸ in nd and pd scattering is briefly discussed and emphasis put on the use of strict perturbative techniques. In addition renormalization issues appearing in pd scattering are also presented. Bound state calculations are addressed and new perturbative techniques for describing them are highlighted. Three-body breakup observables in nd scattering are also considered and the utility of EFTπ̸ for addressing them.
Analytical solution of relativistic three-body bound systems
Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A.A. [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-10-15
In this paper we have investigated in detail the relativistic three-body bound states. We carried out calculations in six-dimensional representation on the basis of the Jacobi coordinates. The obtained second-degree differential equation is solved by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method and the energy eigenvalues are obtained. Consequently we obtained the binding energy of the three-nucleon bound system. Here we used the generalized Woods-Saxon spin-independent potential in our calculations. The dependence of the three-body binding energy on the potential parameters is also investigated. (orig.)
Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions
F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.;
2013-01-01
demonstrate that mass-imbalanced systems that are accessible in the field of ultracold atomic gases can have a rich three-body bound state spectrum in two dimensional geometries. Small light-heavy mass ratios increase the number of bound states. For 87Rb-87Rb-6Li and 133Cs-133Cs-6Li we find respectively 3 and...
Effective three-body interaction in compound systems
In the framework of a resonating group formalism the author derives effective N-body equations. For a three-cluster system he obtains terms which correspond to an effective three-body force. The effective potentials are calculated for the case 4He + n + p. In addition the author presents a separable approximation of the effective interaction. (HSI)
Mapping the three-body system - decay time and reversibility
Lehto, H. J.; Kotiranta, S.; Valtonen, M. J.; Heinämäki, P.; Mikkola, S.; Chernin, A. D.
2008-08-01
In this paper we carry out a quantitative analysis of the three-body systems and map them as a function of decaying time and initial configuration, look at this problem as an example of a simple deterministic system and ask to what extent the orbits are really predictable. We have investigated the behaviour of about 200000 general Newtonian three-body systems using the simplest initial conditions. Within our resolution these cover all the possible states where the objects are initially at rest and have no angular momentum. We have determined the decay time-scales of the triple systems and show that the distribution of this parameter is fractal in appearance. Some areas that appear stable on large scales exhibit very narrow strips of instability and the overall pattern, dominated by resonances, reminds us of a traditional Maasai warrior shield. Also an attempt is made to recover the original starting configuration of the three bodies by backward integration. We find there are instances where the evolution to the future and to the past lead to different orbits, in spite of time symmetric initial conditions. This implies that even in simple deterministic systems there exists an arrow of time.
Mapping the three-body system - decay time and reversibility
Lehto, H J; Valtonen, M J; Heinamaki, P; Mikkola, S; Chernin, A D
2008-01-01
In this paper we carry out a quantitative analysis of the three-body systems and map them as a function of decaying time and intial conguration, look at this problem as an example of a simple deterministic system, and ask to what extent the orbits are really predictable. We have investigated the behavior of about 200 000 general Newtonian three body systems using the simplest initial conditions. Within our resolution these cover all the possible states where the objects are initially at rest and have no angular momentum. We have determined the decay time-scales of the triple systems and show that the distribution of this parameter is fractal in appearance. Some areas that appear stable on large scales exhibit very narrow strips of instability and the overall pattern, dominated by resonances, reminds us of a traditional Maasai warrior shield. Also an attempt is made to recover the original starting conguration of the three bodies by backward integration. We find there are instances where the evolution to the f...
Series of broad resonances in atomic three-body systems
Diaz, D; Hu, C -Y
2016-01-01
We re-examine the series of resonances found earlier in atomic three-body systems by solving the Faddeev-Merkuriev integral equations. These resonances are rather broad and line-up at each threshold with gradually increasing gaps, the same way for all thresholds and irrespective of the spatial symmetry. We relate these resonances to the Gailitis mechanism, which is a consequence of the polarization potential.
Yarmukhamedov, R
2016-01-01
Asymptotic expressions for the radial and full wave functions of a three{body bound halo nuclear system with two charged particles in relative coordinates are obtained in explicit form, when the relative distance between two particles tends to infinity. The obtained asymptotic forms are applied to the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of the three-body (pn?) wave functions for the halo ($E^*=3.562$ MeV, $J^{\\pi}=0^+$, $T=1$) state of $^6$Li derived by D. Baye within the Lagrange-mesh method for two forms of the $\\alpha N$ -potential. The agreement between the calculated wave function and the asymptotic formula is excellent for distances up to 30 fm. Information about the values of the three-body asymptotic normalization functions is extracted. It is shown that the extracted values of the three-body asymptotic normalization function are sensitive to the form of the $\\alpha N$ -potential. The mirror symmetry is revealed for the three-body asymptotic normalization functions derived for the isobaric ($^6$He, $^...
Gravitational waves from periodic three-body systems.
Dmitrašinović, V; Suvakov, Milovan; Hudomal, Ana
2014-09-01
Three bodies moving in a periodic orbit under the influence of Newtonian gravity ought to emit gravitational waves. We have calculated the gravitational radiation quadrupolar waveforms and the corresponding luminosities for the 13+11 recently discovered three-body periodic orbits in Newtonian gravity. These waves clearly allow one to distinguish between their sources: all 13+11 orbits have different waveforms and their luminosities (evaluated at the same orbit energy and body mass) vary by up to 13 orders of magnitude in the mean, and up to 20 orders of magnitude for the peak values. PMID:25238346
Meson exchange current and three-body force contributions to the 4He charge form factor
Effects of meson exchange current (MEC) on the charge form factor (CFF) and charge density of 4He are investigated, including pair, mesonic and retardation current terms. The influence of three-body force (3BF) is considered by adopting the realistic wave function obtained from the nuclear Hamiltonian which explicitly includes the two-pion exchange 3BF. As a result the 3BF is found to greatly enhance the MEC contribution. When the 3BF is taken into account, the MEC contribution is shown to remove most of the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental CFF's at the second maximum. Resulting effects on the charge density are found to yield a depression in the central region. (author)
A simple parameter-free wavefunction for the ground state of three-body systems
Full text: The study of the structure and stability of Coulombic three-body systems [m1m2m3], with arbitrary masses mi and charges zi (i = 1, 2, 3), has been the subject of many investigations. Recently, we have proposed a pedagogical, simple and parameter-free wavefunction for the ground state of two-electron atoms. The proposal was then generalized to more general atomic three-body systems in which one of the particles is positively charged (z3 > 0) and heavier than the other two which are negatively charged (z1 2 ij = μijzizj where μij mimj/(mi + mj) (i ≠ j = 1, 2, 3) are the reduced masses. In terms of the interparticles coordinates r1 = r13, r2 = r23 and r12 (particle 3 is placed at the origin of the coordinates), the proposed wavefunction reads ψARGGEN = NARGGEN eν13r2(1 + ν12r12)[1 + c(r12 + r22], where NARGGEN is the normalization constant and c is replaced by an analytical expression in terms of (mi, zi) in order to minimize the mean energy of the ground state. The wavefunction ψARGGEN : has the same form for all systems; is parameter-free; is nodeless; satisfies, by construction, all two-particle cusp conditions; and yields reasonable ground state energies for several systems including the prediction of a bound state for H-, D-, T- and Mu-. A wavefunction with all these characteristics is presently not available in the literature. The simplicity of ψARGGEN is such that analytical expressions for the ground state energy can be derived. Hence, we have a useful predictive and simple analytical tool (which, to our knowledge, is not available in the literature) to estimate the energy, and therefore to study the stability, of exotic Coulombic three-body systems. In addition, our proposal is simple enough, but sufficiently accurate to be used as a starting point in calculations of collision cross sections. Of course due to its simplicity, energy values cannot compete with those obtained with advanced variational wavefunctions which involve large number
Three body resonances in two meson-one baryon systems
Martínez Torres, Alberto; Khemchandani, K. P.; Oset Báguena, Eulogio
2007-01-01
We report four $\\Sigma$'s and three $\\Lambda$'s, in the 1500 - 1800 MeV region, as two meson - one baryon S-wave $(1/2)^+$ resonances. We solve Faddeev equations in the coupled channel approach. The invariant mass of one of the meson-baryon pairs and that of the three particles have been varied and peaks in the squared three body $T$-matrix have been found very close to the existing $S$ = -1, $J^P= 1/2^+$ low lying baryon resonances. The input two-body $t$-matrices for meson-meson and meson-b...
Ground and excited states for exotic three-body atomic systems
Gasaneo G.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available An Angular Correlated Conﬁguration Interaction method is extended and applied to exotic threebody atomic systems with general masses. A recently proposed angularly correlated basis set is used to construct, simultaneously and with a single diagonalization, ground and excited states wave functions which: (i satisfy exactly Kato cusp conditions at the two-body coalescence points; (ii have only linear parameters; (iii show a fast convergency rate for the energy; (iv form an orthogonal set. The eﬃciency of the construction is illustrated by the study a variety of three-body atomic systems [m1− m2− m3z3+ ] with two negatively charged light particles, with 123 diverse masses m1− and m2−, and a heavy positively charged nucleus m3z3+. The calculated ground 11S and several excited n1,3S state energies are compared with those given in the literature, when available. We also present a short discussion on the critical charge necessary to get a stable three-body system supporting two electrons, an electron and a muon, or two muons.
Zero Energy Ground State in the Three-Body System
Gridnev, Dmitry K.
2009-01-01
We consider a 3--body system in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ with non--positive potentials and non--negative essential spectrum. Under certain requirements on the fall off of pair potentials it is proved that if at least one pair of particles has a zero energy resonance then a square integrable zero energy ground state of three particles does not exist. This complements the analysis in \\cite{1}, where it was demonstrated that square integrable zero energy ground states are possible given that in all two--b...
Universal low-energy behavior in three-body systems
We consider a pairwise interacting quantum 3-body system in 3-dimensional space with finite masses and the interaction term V12 + λ(V13 + V23), where all pair potentials are assumed to be nonpositive. The pair interaction of the particles (1, 2) is tuned to make them have a zero energy resonance and no negative energy bound states. The coupling constant λ > 0 is allowed to take the values for which the particle pairs (1, 3) and (2, 3) have no bound states with negative energy. Let λcr denote the critical value of the coupling constant such that E(λ) → −0 for λ → λcr, where E(λ) is the ground state energy of the 3-body system. We prove the theorem, which states that near λcr, one has E(λ) = C(λ − λcr)[ln(λ − λcr)]−1 + h.t., where C is a constant and h.t. stands for “higher terms.” This behavior of the ground state energy is universal (up to the value of the constant C), meaning that it is independent of the form of pair interactions
Zero Energy Ground State in the Three--Body System
Gridnev, Dmitry K
2009-01-01
We consider a 3--body system in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ with non--positive potentials and non--negative essential spectrum. Under certain requirements on the fall off of pair potentials it is proved that if one pair has a zero energy resonance then a square integrable zero energy ground state of three particles does not exist. This complements the analysis in \\cite{1}, where it was demonstrated that zero energy ground states is possible in the absence of zero energy resonances in particle pairs. As a corollary it is proved that one can tune the coupling constants of pair potentials so that for any given $R, \\epsilon >0$: (a) the bottom of essential spectrum is at zero; (b) there is a negative energy ground state $\\psi(\\xi)$, where $\\int |\\psi(\\xi)|^2 = 1$; (c) $\\int_{|\\xi| \\leq R} |\\psi(\\xi)|^2 < \\epsilon$.
Exactly solvable models for multidimensional and three-body quantum systems
In the adiabatic representation, multidimensional and three-body inverse scattering problems are discussed on the basis of a consistent formulation of both the multichannel inverse problem for gauge systems of equations describing slow dynamics of the system and parametric one for fast dynamics. The method of constructing a wide class of exactly solvable models is investigated by generalizing the Bergmann potentials to the parametric family of inverse problems and systems of equations with covariant derivatives. A constructive approach to the three-body inverse scattering problem is based on the global adiabatic representation for three-body wave functions obtained in terms of the local adiabatic expansions of the Faddeev components
The self-consistent field model for Fermi systems with account of three-body interactions
Yu.M. Poluektov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a microscopic model of self-consistent field, the thermodynamics of the many-particle Fermi system at finite temperatures with account of three-body interactions is built and the quasiparticle equations of motion are obtained. It is shown that the delta-like three-body interaction gives no contribution into the self-consistent field, and the description of three-body forces requires their nonlocality to be taken into account. The spatially uniform system is considered in detail, and on the basis of the developed microscopic approach general formulas are derived for the fermion's effective mass and the system's equation of state with account of contribution from three-body forces. The effective mass and pressure are numerically calculated for the potential of "semi-transparent sphere" type at zero temperature. Expansions of the effective mass and pressure in powers of density are obtained. It is shown that, with account of only pair forces, the interaction of repulsive character reduces the quasiparticle effective mass relative to the mass of a free particle, and the attractive interaction raises the effective mass. The question of thermodynamic stability of the Fermi system is considered and the three-body repulsive interaction is shown to extend the region of stability of the system with the interparticle pair attraction. The quasiparticle energy spectrum is calculated with account of three-body forces.
Atlas of three body mean motion resonances in the Solar System
Gallardo, Tabaré
2013-01-01
We present a numerical method to estimate the strengths of arbitrary three body mean motion resonances between two planets in circular coplanar orbits and a massless particle in an arbitrary orbit. This method allows us to obtain an atlas of the three body resonances in the Solar System showing where are located and how strong are thousands of resonances involving all the planets from 0 to 1000 au. This atlas confirms the dynamical relevance of the three body resonances involving Jupiter and Saturn in the asteroid belt but also shows the existence of a family of relatively strong three body resonances involving Uranus and Neptune in the far Trans-Neptunian region and relatively strong resonances involving terrestrial and jovian planets in the inner planetary system. We calculate the density of relevant resonances along the Solar System resulting that the main asteroid belt is located in a region of the planetary system with the lowest density of three body resonances. The method also allows the location of th...
Stability of the three-body Coulomb systems with J=1 in the oscillator representation
The oscillator representation is applied to calculate the energy spectrum of three-body Coulomb systems with J total angular momentum. For the three-body Coulomb systems with J=1 and arbitrary masses the region of stability is determined. For the systems (A+A-e-), (pe-C+), (pB-e-) and (D+e-e+), the values for the critical masses of A-, B-, C- and D-particles are obtained: mA=2.22me, mB=1.49me, mC=2.11me and mD=4.15me. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
On the inherent self-excited macroscopic randomness of chaotic three-body system
Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming
2014-01-01
What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human being. In this paper, 10000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 1.0E-60 to 100) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 1.0E-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopi...
On the motion of a three-body system on hypersurface of proper energy
Based on the fact that for a Hamiltonian system there exists equivalence between phase trajectories and geodesic trajectories on the Riemannian manifold M (the Lagrangian surface of the body system), the classical three-body problem is formulated in the framework of six ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of the second order on the energy surface of the body system. It is shown that in the case when the total interaction potential of the body system depends on the relative distances between particles, the three of six geodesic equations describing rotations of formed by three bodies triangle are solved exactly. Using this fact, it is shown that the three-body problem can be described in the limits of three nonlinear ODEs of canonical form, which in phase space is equivalent to the autonomous sixth-order system. The equations of geodesic deviations on the manifold R3 (the space of relative distances between particles) are derived in an explicit form. A system of algebraic equations for finding the homographic solutions of a restricted three-body problem is obtained. The initial and asymptotic conditions for solution of the classical scattering problem are found
Configuration maintaining control of three-body ring tethered system based on thrust compensation
Huang, Panfeng; Liu, Binbin; Zhang, Fan
2016-06-01
Space multi-tethered systems have shown broad prospects in remote observation missions. This paper mainly focuses on the dynamics and configuration maintaining control of space spinning three-body ring tethered system for such mission. Firstly, we establish the spinning dynamic model of the three-body ring tethered system considering the elasticity of the tether using Newton-Euler method, and then validate the suitability of this model by numerical simulation. Subsequently, LP (Likins-Pringle) initial equilibrium conditions for the tethered system are derived based on rigid body's equilibrium theory. Simulation results show that tether slack, snapping and interaction between the tethers exist in the three-body ring system, and its' configuration can not be maintained without control. Finally, a control strategy based on thrust compensation, namely thrust to simulate tether compression under LP initial equilibrium conditions is designed to solve the configuration maintaining control problem. Control effects are verified by numerical simulation compared with uncontrolled situation. Simulation results show that the configuration of the three-body ring tethered system could maintain under this active control strategy.
Stripping reactions in a three-body system. Comparison of DWBA and exact solutions
Stripping reactions 'a estados no continuo' are studied in a three particle system. Since the three-body problem has an exact treatment, comparison will be made between the exact solution and the DWBA model solution. This problem is more complex in the continuous case, as shown in the convergence problem of the standard DWBA amplitude radial integral
$D^*$ $\\Xi N$ bound state in strange three-body systems
Garcilazo, H
2016-01-01
The recent update of the strangeness $-2$ ESC08c Nijmegen potential incorporating the NAGARA and KISO events predicts a $\\Xi N$ bound state, $D^*$, in the $^3S_1 (I=1)$ channel. We study if the existence of this two-body bound state could give rise to stable three-body systems. For this purpose we solve the bound state problem of three-body systems where the $\\Xi N$ state is merged with $N$'s, $\\Lambda$'s, $\\Sigma's$ or $\\Xi$'s, making use of the most recent updates of the two-body ESC08c Nijmegen potentials. We found that there appear stable states in the $\\Xi NN$ and $\\Xi \\Xi N$ systems, the $\\Xi \\Lambda N$ and $\\Xi \\Sigma N$ systems being unbound.
On the Inherent Self-Excited Macroscopic Randomness of Chaotic Three-Body Systems
Liao, Shijun; Li, Xiaoming
What is the origin of macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)? This is one of the most fundamental open questions for human beings. In this paper, 10 000 samples of reliable (convergent), multiple-scale (from 10-60 to 102) numerical simulations of a chaotic three-body system indicate that, without any external disturbance, the microscopic inherent uncertainty (in the level of 10-60) due to physical fluctuation of initial positions of the three-body system enlarges exponentially into macroscopic randomness (at the level O(1)) until t = T*, the so-called physical limit time of prediction, but propagates algebraically thereafter when accurate prediction of orbit is impossible. Note that these 10 000 samples use micro-level, inherent physical fluctuations of initial position, which have nothing to do with human beings. Especially, the differences of these 10 000 fluctuations are mathematically so small (in the level of 10-60) that they are physically the same since a distance shorter than a Planck length does not make physical sense according to the string theory. This indicates that the macroscopic randomness of the chaotic three-body system is self-excited, say, without any external force or disturbances, from the inherent micro-level uncertainty. It provides us the new concept "self-excited macroscopic randomness (uncertainty)". The macroscopic randomness is found to be dependent upon microscopic uncertainty, from the statistical viewpoint. In addition, it is found that, without any external disturbance, the chaotic three-body system might randomly disrupt with symmetry-breaking at t = 1000 in about 25% probability, which provides us new concepts "self-excited random disruption", "self-excited random escape" and "self-excited symmetry breaking" of the chaotic three-body system. Hence, it suggests that a chaotic three-body system might randomly evolve by itself, without any external forces or disturbance. Thus, the world is essentially uncertain, since such kind of self
High Precision Three-body Variational Method for Critical Nuclear Charge
Busuttil, Michael A.
For an atom there exists a critical nuclear charge Zc that is just sufficient to bind the nucleus and its electrons into a stable configuration. A study of the critical charge for two-electron atoms is presented with the purpose of improving accuracy for Zc. To this end, high precision techniques involving the variational method with multiple basis sets in Hylleraas coordinates are employed. The method is particularly well adapted to the case where one electron is strongly bound and the other is at the limit of becoming unbound. The results are analysed in terms of fractional powers of (Z -- Zc) related to the analytic structure of the energy E( Z) and a 1/Z expansion for the energy. This results in a Zc of 0.91102808(5). Future work prompted by this study includes development of direct techniques to determine Zc utilizing the low-Z stability of the method; developing the framework and mathematical justification for a novel bootstrap analysis method used in curve-fitting; and investigating the inclusion of finite nuclear mass, relativistic effects, and other higher order corrections in the determination of Zc.
Three-body forces are defined and their properties discussed. Evidence for such forces in the trinucleon bound states and scattering reactions is reviewed. The binding energy defects of the trinucleon bound states, the 3He charge density, the Phillips line for doublet n-d scattering lengths, and three-nucleon breakup reactions are discussed, together with the possible influence of three-body forces on these observables
Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces.
Chen, Youping
2006-02-01
Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed. PMID:16468857
Three-Body Abrasion Testing Using Lunar Dust Simulants to Evaluate Surface System Materials
Kobrick, Ryan L.; Budinski, Kenneth G.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Klaus, David M.
2010-01-01
Numerous unexpected operational issues relating to the abrasive nature of lunar dust, such as scratched visors and spacesuit pressure seal leaks, were encountered during the Apollo missions. To avoid reoccurrence of these unexpected detrimental equipment problems on future missions to the Moon, a series of two- and three-body abrasion tests were developed and conducted in order to begin rigorously characterizing the effect of lunar dust abrasiveness on candidate surface system materials. Two-body scratch tests were initially performed to examine fundamental interactions of a single particle on a flat surface. These simple and robust tests were used to establish standardized measurement techniques for quantifying controlled volumetric wear. Subsequent efforts described in the paper involved three-body abrasion testing designed to be more representative of actual lunar interactions. For these tests, a new tribotester was developed to expose samples to a variety of industrial abrasives and lunar simulants. The work discussed in this paper describes the three-body hardware setup consisting of a rotating rubber wheel that applies a load on a specimen as a loose abrasive is fed into the system. The test methodology is based on ASTM International (ASTM) B611, except it does not mix water with the abrasive. All tests were run under identical conditions. Abraded material specimens included poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), hardened 1045 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and 1018 steel. Abrasives included lunar mare simulant JSC- 1A-F (nominal size distribution), sieved JSC-1A-F (materials of aluminum and PMMA. The nominal JSC- 1A-F consistently showed more abrasion wear than the sieved version of the simulant. The lunar dust displayed abrasivity to all of the test materials, which are likely to be used in lunar landing equipment. Based on this test experience and pilot results obtained, recommendations are made for systematic abrasion testing of candidate materials intended for
Equilibrium configurations of the tethered three-body formation system and their nonlinear dynamics
Ming Xu; Jian-Min Zhu; Tian Tan; Shi-Jie Xu
2012-01-01
This paper considers nonlinear dynamics of tethered three-body formation system with their centre of mass staying on a circular orbit around the Earth,and applies the theory of space manifold dynamics to deal with the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the equilibrium configurations of the system.Compared with the classical circular restricted three body system,sixteen equilibrium configurations are obtained globally from the geometry of pseudo-potential energy surface,four of which were omitted in the previous research.The periodic Lyapunov orbits and their invariant manifolds near the hyperbolic equilibria are presented,and an iteration procedure for identifying Lyapunov orbit is proposed based on the differential correction algorithm.The non-transversal intersections between invariant manifolds are addressed to generate homoclinic and heteroclinic trajectories between the Lyapunov orbits.(3,3)-and (2,1)-heteroclinic trajectories from the neighborhood of one collinear equilibrium to that of another one,and (3,6)-and (2,1)-homoclinic trajectories from and to the neighborhood of the same equilibrium,are obtained based on the Poincaré mapping technique.
Mardling, Rosemary A
2013-01-01
Modern applications of celestial mechanics include the study of closely packed systems of exoplanets, circumbinary planetary systems, binary-binary interactions in star clusters, and the dynamics of stars near the galactic centre. While developments have historically been guided by the architecture of the Solar System, the need for more general formulations with as few restrictions on the parameters as possible is obvious. Here we present clear and concise generalisations of two classic expansions of the three-body disturbing function, simplifying considerably their original form and making them accessible to the non-specialist. Governing the interaction between the inner and outer orbits of a hierarchical triple, the disturbing function in its general form is the conduit for energy and angular momentum exchange and as such, governs the secular and resonant evolution of the system and its stability characteristics. Focusing here on coplanar systems, the first expansion is one in the ratio of inner to outer se...
Comment on the three-body theory for period changes in RS CVn systems
Van Buren, D.
1986-01-01
In the three-body theory for period variations in RS CVn systems, the timing residuals are interpreted as light-travel time differences as the eclipsing system moves about the barycenter of the triple. These residuals can require a larger orbit than Kepler's law allows, given the time scale of the period variations. For only two of eight systems investigated, SV Cam and V471 Tau, is the theory plausible in that the inferred barycentric motion of the binary is smaller than the orbit of the third body, and the inferred properties of the third body are both reasonable and consistent with its remaining hidden. The theory is thus not a general theory for period changes. Observational testing of the theory is straightforward and may lead to the detection of 'brown dwarfs' associated with eclipsing systems through their kinematic effects.
Faddeev-type calculation of (d,n) transfer reactions in three-body nuclear systems
Deltuva, A
2015-01-01
Exact Faddeev-type three-body equations are applied to the study of the proton transfer reactions $(d,n)$ in the system consisting of a nuclear core and two nucleons. The integral equations for the three-body transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework including the Coulomb interaction via the screening and renormalization method. For a weakly bound final nucleus the calculation of the $(d,n)$ reaction is more demanding in terms of the screening radius as compared to the $(d,p)$ reaction. Well converged differential cross section results are obtained for $^{7}{Be}(d,n)^{8}{B}$, $^{12}{C}(d,n)^{13}{N}$, and $^{16}{O}(d,n)^{17}{F}$ reactions. A comparison with the corresponding $(d,p)$ reactions is made. The calculations fail to reproduce the shape of the angular distribution for reactions on $^{12}{C}$ but provide quite successful description for reactions on $^{16}{O}$, especially for the transfer to the $^{17}{F}$ excited state $1/2^+$ when using a nonlocal optical potential.
Theoretical Studies of Direct and Resonant Reactive Scattering Involving Three-Body Systems.
Lutrus, Chen Kwee
The validity of DWBA method is checked to study the direct process for atom-diatomic molecule collisions. The DWBA results for the relative product rotational state distribution for H + D_2 to HD + D are demonstrated to be in good agreement with experimental observations and quasi-classical calculations. Direct comparison between the DWBA and exact close-coupling calculations for the reactive scattering angular distributions of H + H_2 to H_2 + H shows that the structures of angular distribution between the two methods are similar, and the effect of coupling strongly affects the absolute magnitude of cross sections but not the structure of normalized angular distributions. Information theoretic analysis of rotational surprisal is presented for the reactive collision process of H + D_2 to HD + D. Propensity of near linear surprisal at low collision energies and of deviation from linearity at higher collision energies is found. The theoretical formalism of resonance involving three-body systems is presented. Mathematically the three-body quasi-bound state is represented as a linear combination two-body quasi-bound states in terms of each arrangement. Its reduction to the effective two-body representation of the transition amplitude leads to Feshbach's theory of resonance, thus validating our three-body resonant scattering theory. A rigorous derivation of the T matrix is presented to study the effects of direct and resonant reactive scattering processes of e + AB to A + B^-. Analysis of dissociative attachment processes e + H_2 to H + H^- and e + HCl to H + Cl^- is presented, with emphasis on the roles of the direct and resonant processes in the total cross sections. Furthermore, Argand diagram analysis of the transition amplitude for the two dissociative attachment processes is performed. It is found that strong resonance is present in e + HClto H + Cl^-, but not in e + H_2 to H + H^ -. A new recursion relation for the evaluation of overlap between the Morse
Three body resonances in close orbiting planetary systems: Tidal dissipation and orbital evolution
Papaloizou, John C B
2014-01-01
We study the orbital evolution of a three planet system with masses in the super-Earth regime resulting from the action of tides on the planets induced by the central star which cause orbital circularization. We consider systems either in or near to a three body commensurability for which adjacent pairs of planets are in a first order commensurability. We develop a simple analytic solution, derived from a time averaged set of equations, that describes the expansion of the system away from strict commensurability as a function of time, once a state where relevant resonant angles undergo small amplitude librations has been attained. We perform numerical simulations that show the attainment of such resonant states focusing on the Kepler 60 system. The results of the simulations confirm many of the scalings predicted by the appropriate analytic solution. We go on to indicate how the results can be applied to put constraints on the amount of tidal dissipation that has occurred in the system. For example, if the sy...
Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System in the Restricted Three-Body Problem
Sergey V. Ershkov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3 bodies in regard to each other. Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in detail the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m3 around the 2nd of two giant-bodies m1, m2 (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories, the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2nd giant-body m2 (planet and the centre of mass of 3rd body (moon with additional effective mass ξ·m2 placed in that centre of mass ξ·m2+m3, where ξ is the dimensionless dynamical parameter. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass ξ·m2+m3 it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-elliptic orbit of 3rd body (moon around the 2nd body m2 (planet for most of the moons of the planets in Solar System.
Stability of the Moons orbits in Solar system in the restricted three-body problem
Ershkov, Sergey V
2015-01-01
We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon motion of negligible mass m3 around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m1, m2 (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m2 (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-elliptic orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m2 (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar s...
Three-body interactions in the condensed phases of helium atom systems
In this work we investigate how the description of several properties of helium atoms in the condensed phases are affected by the three-body terms of a very accurate inter-atomic potential. We introduce two phenomenological parameters in the three-body part of the inter-atomic potential in order to describe properly the equations of state of the solid and liquid phases. The calculations were performed using the multi-weight extension to the diffusion Monte Carlo method which allows accurate calculations of small energy differences in a significant way. The results show how the equations of state for both the liquid and solid phases and properties like the isothermal compressibility, the equilibrium, melting and freezing densities are affected by three-body interactions
Contact parameters in two dimensions for general three-body systems
F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.;
2014-01-01
We study the two dimensional three-body problem in the general case of three distinguishable particles interacting through zero-range potentials. The Faddeev decomposition is used to write the momentum-space wave function. We show that the large-momentum asymptotic spectator function has the same...
M. Carla Aragoni
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The 3 centre-4 electrons (3c-4e and the donor/acceptor or charge-transfer models for the description of the chemical bond in linear three-body systems, such as I3– and related electron-rich (22 shell electrons systems, are comparatively discussed on the grounds of structural data from a search of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD. Both models account for a total bond order of 1 in these systems, and while the former fits better symmetric systems, the latter describes better strongly asymmetric situations. The 3c-4e MO scheme shows that any linear system formed by three aligned closed-shell species (24 shell electrons overall has reason to exist provided that two electrons are removed from it to afford a 22 shell electrons three-body system: all combinations of three closed-shell halides and/or chalcogenides are considered here. A survey of the literature shows that most of these three-body systems exist. With some exceptions, their structural features vary continuously from the symmetric situation showing two equal bonds to very asymmetric situations in which one bond approaches to the value corresponding to a single bond and the second one to the sum of the van der Waals radii of the involved atoms. This indicates that the potential energy surface of these three-body systems is fairly flat, and that the chemical surrounding of the chalcogen/halogen atoms can play an important role in freezing different structural situations; this is well documented for the I3– anion. The existence of correlations between the two bond distances and more importantly the linearity observed for all these systems, independently on the degree of their asymmetry, support the state of hypervalency of the central atom.
Asano, Masanari; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro
2016-05-28
We compare the contextual probabilistic structures of the seminal two-slit experiment (quantum interference experiment), the system of three interacting bodies andEscherichia colilactose-glucose metabolism. We show that they have the same non-Kolmogorov probabilistic structure resulting from multi-contextuality. There are plenty of statistical data with non-Kolmogorov features; in particular, the probabilistic behaviour of neither quantum nor biological systems can be described classically. Biological systems (even cells and proteins) are macroscopic systems and one may try to present a more detailed model of interactions in such systems that lead to quantum-like probabilistic behaviour. The system of interactions between three bodies is one of the simplest metaphoric examples for such interactions. By proceeding further in this way (by playing withn-body systems) we shall be able to find metaphoric mechanical models for complex bio-interactions, e.g. signalling between cells, leading to non-Kolmogorov probabilistic data. PMID:27091163
Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer
Michaely, Erez
2014-01-01
Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass-loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital...
无
2000-01-01
A scheme for dealing with the quantum three-body problem is presented to separate the rotational degrees of freedom completely from the internal ones. In this method, the three-body Schridinger equation is reduced to a system of coupled partial differential equations, depending only upon three internal variables. For arbitrary total orbital angular momentum l and the parity (-1)l+λ (λ=0 or 1), the number of the equations in this system is l+1-λ. By expanding the wavefunction with respect to a complete set of orthonormal basis functions, the system of equations is further reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations.
马中骐
2000-01-01
A scheme for dealing with the quantum three-body problem is presented to separate the rotational degrees of freedom completely from the internal ones. In this method, the three-body Schrodinger equation is reduced to a system of coupled partial differential equations, depending only upon three internal variables. For arbitrary total orbital angular momentum l and the parity ( - 1)1+ λ (λ = 0 or 1), the number of the equations in this system is l + 1 - λ . By expanding the wavef unction with respect to a complete set of orthonormal basis functions, the system of equations is further reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations.
Interest in inert-gas afterglows has been refocused by the developing importance of high pressure gas lasers operating in the visible and ultraviolet wavelength regions. These devices emphasize use of selective energy transfer pumping of atomic or molecular additives to energy storing, atmospheric pressure inert gases excited by intense electron beam discharges, or by fast pulsed direct discharges. At atmospheric pressures, thermolecular reaction channels that would be completely undetectable at low pressure may become important. This dissertation concerns an examination of three-body effects that enhance the reaction rates for energy transfer and for ion-molecule reactions that occur in atmospheric pressures of inert gas diluent, even in the absence of any formation of product clusters. The archetype case of the reaction of the energy-storing species of helium with molecular nitrogen was studied in two different preionized discharge systems capable of operation to 6 atm of pressure. The thermolecular rate coefficient for the reaction He2+ + N2 + He was concluded to be 13.1 x 10-30 cm6/sec with no evidence of saturation up to pressures of 6 atm. Effective rates of reaction were observed to be increased by this channel to a value three times in excess of the Langevin rate that has been traditionally considered to be an upper limit on the overall rate of reaction
Fully nonadiabatic variational computations of energies of the H2+, HD+, and D2+ ions are carried out, making detailed allowance for the motions of all particles. Computations are performed using the basis set of exponential-trigonometric functions dependent on all the interparticle distances. The method of determining the nonlinear adjustable parameters that are responsible for the vibration-modulated exponential decrease of the basis functions with increasing the interparticle distances is developed in detail. Also examined is how an accuracy of the variational energy computations rises with an increase in the number N of the basis functions. For the maximal basis-set size (N = 300), the calculated ground-state energies of the HD+ and D2+ ions deviate from their exact values by 2 x 10-10 and 1 x 10-10 a.u., respectively; whereas the energy of the 2+ ion coincides with 2 its exact value to ten significant digits. The results obtained with the exponential-trigonometric basis set are eight orders of magnitude more precise than the computations with an even larger-sized (N = 350) basis set of monotonically decreasing purely exponential functions of the interatomic distances. This indicates that the exponential-trigonometric basis functions have considerable promise for accurate fully nonadiabatic variational computations of various three-body Coulomb systems with arbitrary masses of their particles. 18 refs., 4 tabs
The uniform method of numerical investigation of bound states and scattering processes 2→ 2 (including resonance states) in the Coulomb three-body (CTB) systems is developed. It is based on the adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) and includes the numerical realization and applications to the three-body mesic atomic systems. The results of calculations of bound states of these systems (including the local characteristics of the wave functions) and the scattering processes 2→ 2 (including the characteristics of the resonance states) are presented
Translational spectroscopy and coincidence detection of the neutral photofragments have been used to observe the dissociation dynamics of highly excited neutrals produced by charge exchange between keV cation beams with Cs, and the results from two novel systems are presented. CH5 is formed slightly above the 3s Rydberg level and dissociates into two possible fragmentation channels, H loss and H2 loss. The kinetic energy release distributions of the two products are presented and the branching ratio between the two is found to be 11.4 ± 1.5 : 1 with the H loss being the dominant channel. Production of the highly symmetric azabenzene sym-triazine in its 3s Rydberg state has been shown to induce dissociation to 3 HCN(Σ+). Examination of momentum correlation in the dissociation products shows that this dissociation occurs by two distinct mechanisms. Evidence from Monte Carlo simulations suggest a sequential mechanism occurs creating products accompanied by a kinetic energy release of ∼1.5-5 eV. A symmetric concerted mechanism is also observed and is associated with products receiving a 2-4 eV kinetic energy release.
Effect of dominant three-body interaction in two-dimensional square lattice
The effect of dominant three-body interaction to hard-core boson Hubbard model is studied on a two-dimensional square lattice. In terms of quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown explicitly a ρ = 2/3 solid phase with coexistence of charge-density-wave and bond orders appears due to the presence of the dominant three-body interaction. For strong three-body interaction, the ρ = 2/3 solid phase appears between superfluid phases and shrinks as decreasing the strength of the three-body interaction, forming a lobe structure in the phase diagram. For weak three-body interactions, superfluid phase exists for the whole range of hard-core densities except the full filled case, where the system is a Mott insulator.
Effect of dominant three-body interaction in two-dimensional square lattice
Liang, Ying; Guo, Huaiming
2012-12-01
The effect of dominant three-body interaction to hard-core boson Hubbard model is studied on a two-dimensional square lattice. In terms of quantum Monte Carlo method, it is shown explicitly a ρ = 2/3 solid phase with coexistence of charge-density-wave and bond orders appears due to the presence of the dominant three-body interaction. For strong three-body interaction, the ρ = 2/3 solid phase appears between superfluid phases and shrinks as decreasing the strength of the three-body interaction, forming a lobe structure in the phase diagram. For weak three-body interactions, superfluid phase exists for the whole range of hard-core densities except the full filled case, where the system is a Mott insulator.
The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis and searching for periodic orbits and resonances. We apply the results to some interesting problems of celestial mechanics. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications. (review article)
Musielak, Z E
2015-01-01
The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis, search for periodic orbits and resonances, and application of the results to some interesting astronomical and space dynamical settings. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications.
Del Dotto, Alessio; Salmè, Giovanni; Scopetta, Sergio
2016-01-01
Poincare' covariant definitions for the spin-dependent spectral function and for the momentum distributions within the light-front Hamiltonian dynamics are proposed for a three-fermion bound system, starting from the light-front wave function of the system. The adopted approach is based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of the Poincare' generators, that allows one to easily import the familiar and wide knowledge on the nuclear interaction into a light-front framework. The proposed formalism can find useful applications in refined nuclear calculations, like the ones needed for evaluating the EMC effect or the semi-inclusive deep inelastic cross sections with polarized nuclear targets, since remarkably the light-front unpolarized momentum distribution by definition fulfills both normalization and momentum sum rules. It is also shown a straightforward generalization of the definition of the light-front spectral function to an A-nucleon system.
Filikhin, Igor; Suslov, Vladimir; Vlahovic, Branislav
2014-03-01
We study structure of energy spectrum of light hyprnucleus Λ6Heusing cluster α + Λ + n model. In particular, the spin doublet (1-,2-) of Λ6Heis of interest for the testing the spin dependence of hyperon-nucleon potentials. Experimental value for 1- ground state energy of Λ6Hehas been reported to be -0.17 MeV below the threshold Λ5He+ n. Our study is based on the configuration-space Faddeev equations for a system of three non-identical particles. The analytical continuation method in a coupling constant is applied for calculation of resonance parameters. The results of calculations for low-lying spectra of the system α + Λ + n are presented. Within our model, the α-n potential is constructed to reproduce the results of R-matrix analysis for α-n scattering data. This potential simulates the Pauli exception for αn in the s-state with repulsive core. We use phenomenological α- Λ potential and for the Λ-n interaction the s-wave potential simulating model NSC97f. We calculated energies of the low-lying 1-, 2-, 2+, 0- states. Obtained results are discussed and compared with other calculations. This work is supported by NSF CREST (HRD-0833184) and NASA (NNX09AV07A).
Anderson, Oscar A.
1978-01-01
An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.
Half-classical three-body problem
A three-body system consisting of two heavy and one light particles is considered. The relative motion of the heavy particles is treated classically, while the light particle motion is described quantum mechanically. The interaction of these two degrees of freedom is self-consistently taken into account by the Feynman path-integral method. (author)
The quantum three-body problem
A complete set of orthonormal functions suitable for the variational calculation of the energy of a three-body system is proposed. The matrix elements of the hamiltonian are explicitly given for three spinless particles described by completely symmetric functions in configuration space. (Author)
Three-body resonance in meteoroid streams
Sekhar, A.; Asher, D. J.; Vaubaillon, J.
2016-05-01
Mean-motion resonances play an important role in the evolution of various meteoroid streams. Previous works have studied the effects of two-body resonances in different comets and streams. These already established two-body resonances were mainly induced either by Jovian or Saturnian effects but not both at the same time. Some of these resonances have led to spectacular meteor outbursts and storms in the past. In this work, we find a new resonance mechanism involving three bodies - i.e. meteoroid particle, Jupiter and Saturn, in the Perseid meteoroid stream. Long-term three-body resonances are not very common in real small bodies in our solar system although they can mathematically exist at many resonant sweet spots in an abstract sense in any dynamical system. This particular resonance combination in the Perseid stream is such that it is close to the ratio of 1:4:10 if the orbital periods of Perseid particle, Saturn and Jupiter are considered respectively. These resonant Perseid meteoroids stay resonant for typically about 2 kyr. Highly compact dust trails due to this unique resonance phenomenon are present in our simulations. Some past and future years are presented where three-body resonant meteoroids of different sizes (or subject to different radiation pressures) are computed to come near the Earth. This is the first theoretical example of an active and stable three-body resonance mechanism in the realm of meteoroid streams.
Three-body resonance in meteoroid streams
Sekhar, A.; Asher, D. J.; Vaubaillon, J.
2016-08-01
Mean-motion resonances play an important role in the evolution of various meteoroid streams. Previous works have studied the effects of two-body resonances in different comets and streams. These already established two-body resonances were mainly induced either by Jovian or Saturnian effects but not both at the same time. Some of these resonances have led to spectacular meteor outbursts and storms in the past. In this work, we find a new resonance mechanism involving three bodies - i.e. meteoroid particle, Jupiter and Saturn, in the Perseid meteoroid stream. Long-term three-body resonances are not very common in real small bodies in our Solar system although they can mathematically exist at many resonant sweet spots in an abstract sense in any dynamical system. This particular resonance combination in the Perseid stream is such that it is close to the ratio of 1:4:10 if the orbital periods of Perseid particle, Saturn and Jupiter are considered, respectively. These resonant Perseid meteoroids stay resonant for typically about 2 kyr. Highly compact dust trails due to this unique resonance phenomenon are present in our simulations. Some past and future years are presented where three-body resonant meteoroids of different sizes (or subject to different radiation pressures) are computed to come near the Earth. This is the first theoretical example of an active and stable three-body resonance mechanism in the realm of meteoroid streams.
Hyperspherical Three-Body Calculation for Exotic Atoms
Ground state energies of atomic three-body systems like negatively charged hydrogen, normal helium, positively charged-lithium, beryllium, carbon, oxygen, neon and negatively charged exotic-muonium and positronium atoms have been calculated adopting hyperspherical harmonics expansion method. Calculation of matrix elements of two body interactions needed in the hyperspherical harmonics expansion method for a three body system is greatly simplified by expanding the bra-and ket-vector states in the hyperspherical harmonics (HH) basis states appropriate for the partition corresponding to the interacting pair. This involves the Raynal-Revai coefficients (RRC), which are the transformation coefficients between the HH bases corresponding to the two partitions. Use of RRC become particularly essential for the numerical solution of three-body Schroedinger equation where the two-body potentials are other than Coulomb or harmonic. However in the present work the technique is used for two electron atoms 1H-(p+e-e-), D-(d+e-e-), Mu-(μ+e-e-), 4He(4He2+e-e-), 6Li(6Li3+e-e-), 10Be( 10Be4+e-e-), 12C(12C6+e-e-), 16O(16O8+e-e-) etc. and the exotic positronium negative ion Ps-(e+e-e-) where the interactions are purely Coulomb. The relative convergence in ground state binding energy with increasing Kmax for 20Ne has been demonstrated as a representative case. The calculated energies at Kmax = 28 using RRC's have been compared with those obtained by a straight forward manner in some representative cases to demonstrate the appropriateness of the use of RRC. The extrapolated energies have also been compared with those found in the literature. The calculated binding energies agree within the computational error. (author)
Internal motions in three-body bosonic Thomson atoms
A three-body bosonic Thomson atom, namely a system of three charged bosons in a harmonic trap, with a very large Wigner parameter, has been studied. The states with zero angular momentum and even parity denoted as 0n+ have been calculated and analysed; the basic modes of excitation of this system have been revealed. It was found that each lower 0n+ state (n is from 1 to 5) has its own means of internal motion. Although the size of the system is very sensitive to the strength of the trap, the other features are found to be insensitive to the strength if the system remains in the Wigner regime. The breathing mode was found to be the easiest to excite. (author)
Some Three-body force cancellations in Chiral Lagrangians
Arriola, E Ruiz
2016-01-01
The cancellation between off-shell two body forces and three body forces implies a tremendous simplification in the study of three body resonances in two meson-one baryon systems. While this can be done by means of Faddeev equations we provide an alternative and simpler derivation using just the chiral Lagrangian and the field re-parametrization invariance.
Three-body critical Casimir forces
Mattos, T. G.; Harnau, L.; Dietrich, S.
2015-04-01
Within mean-field theory we calculate universal scaling functions associated with critical Casimir forces for a system consisting of three parallel cylindrical colloids immersed in a near-critical binary liquid mixture. For several geometrical arrangements and boundary conditions at the surfaces of the colloids we study the force between two colloidal particles in the direction normal to their axes, analyzing the influence of the presence of a third particle on that force. Upon changing temperature or the relative positions of the particles we observe interesting features such as a change of sign of this force caused by the presence of the third particle. We determine the three-body component of the forces acting on one of the colloids by subtracting the pairwise forces from the total force. The three-body contribution to the total critical Casimir force turns out to be more pronounced for small surface-to-surface distances between the colloids as well as for temperatures close to criticality. Moreover, we compare our results with similar ones for other physical systems such as three atoms interacting via van der Waals forces.
Three-body resonance in meteoroid streams
Sekhar, Aswin; Vaubaillon, Jeremie
2016-01-01
Mean-motion resonances play an important role in the evolution of various meteoroid streams. Previous works have studied the effects of two-body resonances in different comets and streams. These already established two-body resonances were mainly induced either by Jovian or Saturnian effects but not both at the same time. Some of these resonances have led to spectacular meteor outbursts and storms in the past. In this work, we find a new resonance mechanism involving three bodies -- i.e. meteoroid particle, Jupiter and Saturn, in the Perseid meteoroid stream. Long-term three-body resonances are not very common in real small bodies in our solar system although they can mathematically exist at many resonant sweet spots in an abstract sense in any dynamical system. This particular resonance combination in the Perseid stream is such that it is close to the ratio of 1:4:10 if the orbital periods of Perseid particle, Saturn and Jupiter are considered respectively. These resonant Perseid meteoroids stay resonant for...
Three-Body Interaction of Rydberg Slow-Light Polaritons
Jachymski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Büchler, Hans Peter
2016-07-01
We study a system of three photons in an atomic medium coupled to Rydberg states near the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Based on the analytical analysis of the microscopic set of equations in the far-detuned regime, the effective three-body interaction for these Rydberg polaritons is derived. For slow light polaritons, we find a strong three-body repulsion with the remarkable property that three polaritons can become essentially noninteracting at short distances. This analysis allows us to derive the influence of the three-body repulsion on bound states and correlation functions of photons propagating through a one-dimensional atomic cloud.
Intelligent battery charging system
Everett, Hobert R., Jr.
1991-09-01
The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.
Resonance model for the three-body states of the A=6 reactions
Paris Mark W.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present an R-matrix-based model for three-body final states that has aspects of the Faddeev approach to three-particle scattering. The model is applied to describing the nucleon spectra for breakup reactions in the A = 6 systems. Calculations using a charge-symmetric parametrization agree fairly well with the experimental data, although they indicate larger contributions from the 5He or 5Li ground state are necessary.
Formation reconfiguration in restricted three body problem
Shengping Gong; Junfeng Li; Hexi Baoyin; Yunfeng Gao
2007-01-01
Reconfiguration of formation flying around a halo orbit of the Sun-Earth restricted three body system is investigated with impulse maneuvers. For a short time reconfiguration, the two-impulse maneuver is investigated with both analytical and numerical methods and the BeginningEnding (BE) method is proven to be an energy-optimal one of all two-impulse (TI) reconfigurations, and the energy consumption of BE is independent of the position of the chief spacecraft, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.Then, genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the energy consumption. The results show that the optimal energy increases with radius difference between the initial and final orbits, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.
The effect of dominant three-body interaction to the hard-core boson Hubbard model is studied on a two-dimensional square lattice. In terms of the quantum Monte Carlo method, a ρ = 2/3 solid phase is shown explicitly with the coexistence of a charge-density wave and a bond-order wave appearing due to the presence of the dominant three-body interaction. For the strong three-body interaction, the ρ = 2/3 solid phase appears between superfluid phases and shrinks as the strength of the three-body interaction decreases, forming a lobe structure in the phase diagram. For weak three-body interactions, the superfluid phase exists for the whole range of hard-core densities except the full filled case, where the system is a Mott insulator. Our results may be realized in cold-atom experiments.
Liang, Ying; Guo, Huaiming
2012-09-01
The effect of dominant three-body interaction to the hard-core boson Hubbard model is studied on a two-dimensional square lattice. In terms of the quantum Monte Carlo method, a ρ = 2/3 solid phase is shown explicitly with the coexistence of a charge-density wave and a bond-order wave appearing due to the presence of the dominant three-body interaction. For the strong three-body interaction, the ρ = 2/3 solid phase appears between superfluid phases and shrinks as the strength of the three-body interaction decreases, forming a lobe structure in the phase diagram. For weak three-body interactions, the superfluid phase exists for the whole range of hard-core densities except the full filled case, where the system is a Mott insulator. Our results may be realized in cold-atom experiments.
Model Study of Three-Body Forces in the Three-Body Bound State
Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2003-01-01
The Faddeev equations for the three-body bound state with two- and three-body forces are solved directly as three-dimensional integral equation. The numerical feasibility and stability of the algorithm, which does not employ partial wave decomposition is demonstrated. The three-body binding energy and the full wave function are calculated with Malfliet-Tjon-type two-body potentials and scalar Fujita-Miyazawa type three-body forces. The influence of the strength and range of the three-body force on the wave function, single particle momentum distributions and the two-body correlation functions are studied in detail. The extreme case of pure three-body forces is investigated as well.
Lavine method applied to three body problems
The methods presently proposed for the three body problem in quantum mechanics, using the Faddeev approach for proving the asymptotic completeness, come up against the presence of new singularities when the potentials considered v(α)(x(α)) for two-particle interactions decay less rapidly than /x(α)/-2; and also when trials are made for solving the problem with a representation space whose dimension for a particle is lower than three. A method is given that allows the mathematical approach to be extended to three body problem, in spite of singularities. Applications are given
Naive Dimensional Analysis for Three-Body Forces Without Pions
Griesshammer, Harald W.
2005-01-01
For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the ``pion-less'' Effective Field Theory of Nuclear Physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial-waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of dive...
A solution of the Coulomb three-body problem
In this work, a final state wave function is constructed which represents a solution of the three-body Schroedinger equation. The formulated wave function is superimposed of one basic analytical function with various parameters. The coefficients of these basic functions involved in final state wave function can be easily calculated from a set of linear equations. The coefficients depend only on incident energy of the system. The process can also be prolonged for application to the problems involving more than three bodies. (author)
Supercircle description of universal three-body states in two dimensions
Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.
2012-02-01
Bound states of asymmetric three-body systems confined to two dimensions are currently unknown. In the universal regime, two energy ratios and two mass ratios provide complete knowledge of the three-body energy measured in units of one two-body energy. We compute the three-body energy for general systems using numerical momentum-space techniques. The lowest number of stable bound states is produced when one mass is larger than two similar masses. We focus on selected asymmetric systems of interest in cold atom physics. The scaled three-body energy and the two scaled two-body energies are related through an equation for a supercircle whose radius increases almost linearly with three-body energy. The exponents exhibit an increasing behavior with three-body energy. The mass dependence is highly nontrivial. Based on our numerical findings, we give a simple relation that predicts the universal three-body energy.
Folding model with three-body force
The folding model has been applied to study the roles of the centre of mass and Pauli pair correlations in shaping the density dependence of the effective two-body interaction as given by the three-body force under the short range approximation. (author). 9 refs
Three-body forces and the trinucleons
Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs
On gravitational waves from classical three body problem
Fiziev, Plamen P
2016-01-01
Using an effective one body approach we describe in detail gravitational waves from classical three body problem on a non-rotating straight line and derive their basic physical characteristics. Special attention is paid to the irregular motions of such systems and to the significance of double and triple collisions. The conclusive role of the collinear solutions is also discussed in short.
Optimization of the variational basis in the three body problem
The procedure of variational oscillator basis optimization is proposed to the calculation the energy spectra of three body systems. The hierarchy of basis functions is derived and energies of ground and excited states for three gravitating particles is obtained with high accuracy. 12 refs
Exponential representation in the Coulomb three-body problem
The exponential representation in the Coulomb three-body problem is considered. It is shown that the exponential variational expansion in relative coordinates r32, r31 and r21 has a number of advantages for the bound state calculations in Coulomb three-body systems. Moreover, it appears that the exponential (or Laplace-Fourier) representation of the Coulomb three-body problem is an optimal approach to analyse and solve various three-body problems. The optimization of nonlinear parameters in the trial wavefunctions is also considered. The developed methods are used to determine the highly accurate ground 11S(L = 0)-state energies and other bound state properties for a number of He-like two-electron ions (Li+, Be2+, B3+, C4+, N5+, O6+, F7+ and Ne8+). To represent the ground state energies of these He-like ions we apply the Z-1 expansion. The asymptotic form of the ground state wavefunctions at large electron-nuclear distances for the He-like ions is briefly discussed. Considered hypervirial theorems are of great interest for these ions, since they allow one to obtain some useful relations between different expectation values. The generalization of the exponential variational expansion in relative coordinates to the four-body non-relativistic systems is also considered
The three-body problem from Pythagoras to Hawking
Valtonen, Mauri; Kholshevnikov, Konstantin; Mylläri, Aleksandr; Orlov, Victor; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka
2016-01-01
This book, written for a general readership, reviews and explains the three-body problem in historical context reaching to latest developments in computational physics and gravitation theory. The three-body problem is one of the oldest problems in science and it is most relevant even in today’s physics and astronomy. The long history of the problem from Pythagoras to Hawking parallels the evolution of ideas about our physical universe, with a particular emphasis on understanding gravity and how it operates between astronomical bodies. The oldest astronomical three-body problem is the question how and when the moon and the sun line up with the earth to produce eclipses. Once the universal gravitation was discovered by Newton, it became immediately a problem to understand why these three-bodies form a stable system, in spite of the pull exerted from one to the other. In fact, it was a big question whether this system is stable at all in the long run. Leading mathematicians attacked this problem over more than...
Resonance poles in three-body systems
Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.
1984-12-01
We develop a method for finding resonance poles in Faddeev equations. The method is computationally simpler than previous methods and is based on the rotation of contour technique. It is applied to πd elastic scattering with coupling to the NΔ channel. The position of the pole is compared with predictions based on Argand diagram and speed analysis. We find that the conventional methods are unreliable if the pole is further from the real axis than the Δ resonance pole.
Restricted three body problems at the nanoscale
Chan, Yue; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate some of the classical restricted three body problems at the nanoscale, such as the circular planar restricted problem for three C60 fullerenes, and a carbon atom and two C60 fullerenes. We model the van der Waals forces between the fullerenes by the Lennard-Jones potential. In particular, the pairwise potential energies between the carbon atoms on the fullerenes are approximated by the continuous approach, so that the total molecular energy between two fullerenes...
Smart electric vehicle charging system
João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; João L Afonso; Silva, Alberto R.
2011-01-01
In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience, weather information based on data mining, and simulation approaches. In order to allow information exchange and to help user ...
Three-body scattering at intermediate energies
The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial-wave decomposition. In its simplest form, the Faddeev equation for identical bosons, which we are using, is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. This equation is solved through Pade summation. Based on a Malfliet-Tjon-type potential, the numerical feasibility and stability of the algorithm for solving the Faddeev equation is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the selection of independent variables and the treatment of three-body breakup singularities with a spline-based method. The elastic differential cross section, semiexclusive d(N,N') cross sections, and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate-energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated and the convergence of the multiple-scattering series is investigated in every case. In general, a truncation in the first or second order in the two-body t matrix is quite insufficient
Three-Body Scattering at Intermediate Energies
Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2004-01-01
The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. In its simplest form the Faddeev equation for identical bosons, which we are using, is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. This equation is solved through Pade summation. Based on a Malfliet-Tjon-type potential, the numerical feasibility and stability of the algorithm for solving the Faddeev equation is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the selection of independent variables and the treatment of three-body break-up singularities with a spline based method. The elastic differential cross section, semi-exclusive d(N,N') cross sections and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated and the convergence of the multiple scattering series is investigated in every case....
Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases
Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; A. Zuliani; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.
2015-01-01
Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance e...
Transient analysis of charging system with centrifugal charging pumps
The CARD (CVCS Analysis for Design) code has been developed for the transient analysis of the letdown and charging system of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant. The computer code has been already verified and validated by comparing with actual test results. Analyzed in this paper are the flow and pressure transients in the charging line. The sensitivity studies are performed to select the acceptable control parameters of charging line backpressure controller and seal injection flow controller. In addition, the seal injection system transient is evaluated for the pressurizer auxiliary spray operation. It is shown that the charging line backpressure controller control parameters yield a significant effect on the charging system stability. The results obtained from this study will be used to verify the system design and to select the optimum control parameters for the charging system with centrifugal charging pumps
Optimized lower bounds in the three-body problem
We derive new lower bounds on three-body ground-state energies in terms of two-body binding energies. For three-body systems with different masses, we obtain a significant improvement as compared to previous results. In particular, the present method leads to exact results in the case of harmonic interactions, as opposed to what was found previously. It sheds light on the mechanism by which such bounds are obtained and appears to be extendable to four and more particles. The numerical results displayed show up to be very accurate estimates of the exact values, and can be used as checks in actual numerical calculations. Possible applications or generalizations are briefly outlined. (orig.)
Naive Dimensional Analysis for Three-Body Forces Without Pions
Griesshammer, H W
2005-01-01
For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the ``pion-less'' Effective Field Theory of Nuclear Physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial-waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of divergence of the three-body diagrams which contain only two-body forces. This na\\"ive dimensional analysis must be amended as the asymptotic solution to the leading-order Faddeev equation depends for large off-shell momenta crucially on the partial wave and spin-combination of the system. It is shown by analytic construction to be weaker in most channels with angular momentum smaller than 3 than expected. This demotes many three-nucleon forces to high orders. Observables like the quartet-S-scattering length are less sensitiv...
Naive dimensional analysis for three-body forces without pions
For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the 'pionless' effective field theory of nuclear physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of divergence of the three-body diagrams which contain only two-body forces. This naive dimensional analysis must be amended as the asymptotic solution to the leading-order Faddeev equation depends for large off-shell momenta crucially on the partial wave and spin combination of the system. It is shown by analytic construction to be weaker than expected in most channels with angular momentum smaller than 3. This demotes many three-nucleon forces to high orders. Observables like the 4S3/2-scattering length are less sensitive to three-nucleon forces than guessed. I also comment on the Efimov effect and limit-cycle for non-zero angular momentum
M Saha Sarkar; S Sarkar
2015-09-01
New experimental data on 2+ energies of 136,138Sn confirm the trend of lower 2+ excitation energies of even–even tin isotopes with > 82 compared to those with N < 82. However, none of the theoretical predictions using both realistic and empirical interactions can reproduce experimental data on excitation energies as well as the transition probabilities ((2; 6+ → 4+)) of these nuclei, simultaneously, apart from the ones whose matrix elements have been changed empirically to produce mixed seniority states by weakening the pairing. We have shown that the experimental result also shows good agreement with the theory in which three-body forces have been included in a realistic interaction. The new theoretical results on transition probabilities are discussed to identify the experimental quantities which will clearly distinguish between different views.
Three-body scattering without partial waves
The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. In its simplest form the Faddeev equation for identical bosons is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. The elastic differential cross section, semi-exclusive d(N,N') cross sections and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated based on a Malfliet-Tjon type potential, and the convergence of the multiple scattering series is investigated in every case. In general a truncation in the first or second order in the two-body t-matrix is quite insufficient
Three-Body Scattering without Partial Waves
Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2004-01-01
The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. In its simplest form the Faddeev equation for identical bosons is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. The elastic differential cross section, semi-exclusive d(N,N') cross sections and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated based on a Malfliet-Tjon type potential, and the convergence of the multiple scattering series is investigated in every case. In general a truncation in the first or second order in the two-body t-matrix is quite insufficient.
Three-body Coulomb breakup of 11Li in the complex scaling method
Myo, T.; Aoyama, S.; Kato, K.; Ikeda, K.
2003-01-01
Coulomb breakup strengths of 11Li into a three-body 9Li+n+n system are studied in the complex scaling method. We decompose the transition strengths into the contributions from three-body resonances, two-body ``10Li+n'' and three-body ``9Li+n+n'' continuum states. In the calculated results, we cannot find the dipole resonances with a sharp decay width in 11Li. There is a low energy enhancement in the breakup strength, which is produced by both the two- and three-body continuum states. The enha...
The three-body problem in quantum mechanics
Different methods used in the analysis of the scattering of an elementary particle by a system of two bound particles are compared. All particles are considered spinless and distinguishable from each other. Two approaches are used in the treatment of the problem. In the first method we build an effective - potential which accounts for the interaction of the incident particle with the bound system. The second approach consists in treating the target as a system of two particles, whose momentum distribution is given by the bound state wavefunction. The three body system is then treated by the techniques of the multiple scattering series and of Glauber theory. (author)
Pseudotensor mesons as three-body resonances
Roca, L
2011-01-01
We show that the lightest pseudotensor mesons J^{PC}=2^-+ can be regarded as molecules made of a pseudoscalar (P) 0^-+ and a tensor 2^++ meson, where the latter is itself made of two vector (V) mesons. The idea stems from the fact that the vector-vector interaction in s-wave and spin 2 is very strong, to the point of generating the 2^++ tensor mesons. On the other hand the interaction of a pseudoscalar with a vector meson in s-wave is also very strong and it generates dynamically the lightest axial-vector mesons. Therefore we expect the PVV interaction to be strongly attractive and thus able to build up quasibound PVV resonances. We calculate the three body PVV interaction by using the fixed center approximation to the Faddeev equations where the two vectors are clustered forming a tensor meson. We find clear resonant structures which can be identified with the pi_2(1670), eta_2(1645) and K^*_2(1770) (2^-+) pseudotensor mesons.
Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model
Paris, Mark W.; Hale, Gerald M.
2016-06-01
We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n) and (n; n-α) to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1) nucleon-nucleon (NN) anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = {{{3^ - }} over 2}) and first excited state (Jπ = {{{1^ - }} over 2}) of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.
Correlations in charged bosons systems
The two and three-dimensional charge Bose gas have been studied. In the bidimensional case two different types of interaction were considered: l/r and l n(r). The method of self-consistent-field was applied to these systems, which takes into account the short range correlations between the bosons through a local-field correction. By using self-consistent numerical calculations, the structure factor S(k→) was determined. The pair-correlation function, the ground-state energy, the pressure of the gas and the spectrum of elementary excitations were obtained from S (k→). The screening density induced by a fixed charged impurity was calculated. In the high-density limit our calculations reproduce the results given by Bogoliubov's perturbation theory. In the intermediate-density region, corresponding to the strongly coupled systems, the results are in very good agreement with calculations based on HNC approximation as well as Monte Carlo method. The results are compared in several situations with RPA results showing that the self-consistent method is much more accurate. The two-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional one; the gas with interaction l/r is also more correlated than the logarithmic one at high densities, but it begins to be less correlated than this one in the low-density region. The thermodynamic functions of the two and three-dimensional systems at finite temperatures near absolute zero are calculated based upon the gas excitation spectra at zero temperature. (author)
Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.
2012-05-22
Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.
Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters
Gvaramadze, V V
2010-01-01
Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities ($\\geq$ 70 km/s) observed for some very massive ($\\geq$ 60-70 Msun) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g., $\\lambda$ Cep, BD+43 3654, Sk-67 22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative positi...
Quantum State Engineering with Circuit Electromechanical Three-Body Interactions
Abdi, Mehdi; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Hartmann, Michael J.
2015-05-01
We propose a hybrid system with quantum mechanical three-body interactions between photons, phonons, and qubit excitations. These interactions take place in a circuit quantum electrodynamical architecture with a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a transmon qubit whose shunt capacitance is free to mechanically oscillate. We show that this system design features a three-mode polariton-mechanical mode and a nonlinear transmon-mechanical mode interaction in the strong coupling regime. Together with the strong resonator-transmon interaction, these properties provide intriguing opportunities for manipulations of this hybrid quantum system. We show, in particular, the feasibility of cooling the mechanical motion down to its ground state and preparing various nonclassical states including mechanical Fock and cat states and hybrid tripartite entangled states.
Natural orbital expansions of highly accurate three-body wavefunctions
Natural orbital expansions are considered for highly accurate three-body wavefunctions written in the relative coordinates r32, r31 and r21. Our present method is applied to the ground S(L = 0) -state wavefunctions of the Ps- and inftyH- ions. Our best variational energies computed herein for these systems are E(Ps-) = -0.262 005 070 232 980 107 7666 au and E(inftyH- =-0.5277510165443771965865 au, respectively. The variational wavefunctions determined for these systems contain between 2000 and 4200 exponential basis functions. In general, the natural orbital expansions of these functions are compact and rapidly convergent functions, which are represented as linear combinations of some relatively simple functions. The natural orbitals can be very useful in various applications, including photodetachment and scattering problems
Classifying orbits in the restricted three-body problem
Zotos, Euaggelos E
2015-01-01
The case of the planar circular restricted three-body problem is used as a test field in order to determine the character of the orbits of a small body which moves under the gravitational influence of the two heavy primary bodies. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits and distinguishing between three types of motion: (i) bounded, (ii) escape and (iii) collisional. The presented outcomes reveal the high complexity of this dynamical system. Furthermore, our numerical analysis shows a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the escape regimes. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We also determined the escape and collisional basins and computed the corresponding escape/collisional times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collisional mechanism of orbi...
Normalization of the covariant three-body bound state vertex function
Adam, J; Savkli, C; Van Orden, J W; Gross, Franz; Savkli, Cetin
1997-01-01
The normalization condition for the relativistic three nucleon Bethe-Salpeter and Gross bound state vertex functions is derived, for the first time, directly from the three body wave equations. It is also shown that the relativistic normalization condition for the two body Gross bound state vertex function is identical to the requirement that the bound state charge be conserved, proving that charge is automatically conserved by this equation.
Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases
Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; Zuliani, A.; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.
2015-09-01
Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance energy transfer in cold Rydberg atoms using cold caesium atoms. In these resonances, additional relay atoms carry away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of energy transfer. These few-body processes present strong similarities with multistep FRET between chromophores sometimes called donor-bridge-acceptor or superexchange. Most importantly, they generalize to any Rydberg atom and could lead to new implementations of few-body quantum gates or entanglement.
Two-body and three-body halo nuclei
刘祖华; 张焕乔
2003-01-01
We have extracted the nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC) for the virtual transitions B→A+N via some transfer reactions and the radioactive nuclear beam experiments. With these coefficients, root-mean-square (rms) radii for the valence particle in some possible halo nuclei have been calculated. The values of rms radii extracted with ANC approach are nearly model-independent, hence are a good quantity for the investigation of nuclear halo. In addition, we have also calculated the rms radii for the two valence neutrons in some three-body systems in terms of the relationship between the radii of valence particle, core nucleus and nuclear matter. With two conditions for nuclear halo formation, we have examined these extracted rms radii. The results show that 11Be(1/2+, g.s), 12B(1-, 2.621 MeV), 13C(1/2+, 3.089 MeV), 14C(0-, 6.903 MeV), 14C(1-, 6.094 MeV), 15C(1/2+, g.s) and 19C(1/2+, g.s) with the valence particle in the 2s ground or excited state are the neutron halo nuclei, whereas 17F(1/2+, 0.495 MeV) and 21Na(1/2+, 2.423 MeV) are the proton halo nuclei in the excited state. For three-body systems, except the well-established two-neutron halo nuclei 6He and 11Li, 14Be and 17B might be the two-neutron halo nuclei as well.
Charge transfer in ionic systems
Charge transfer involving multiply charged ions in collision with atomic or molecular targets are determinant processes in controlled thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical plasma. In such processes, an electron is generally captured in a excited state of the ion, followed by line emission. The observation of line intensities provides important information on the electron temperature, density and spacial distributions in the emitting region of the plasma. From a theoretical point of view, different approaches may be used with regard to the collisional energy range of the process. A semi-classical method is currently used at keV energies, but the description of very low-velocity processes requires a complete quantum mechanical treatment of the dynamics of both electrons and nuclei. The first approach extensively used is the resolution of the stationary close-coupling equations, but we have analyzed recently the efficiency of a time-dependent wave packet method which provides a clear and physical insight into the dynamics of the processes and may be particularly interesting for polyatomic systems since it allows the possibility of developing a fully quantal mechanical treatment for some degrees of freedom, the other ones being treated classically. The keV energy range treatment is presented on two examples pointing out the case of complex ion-atom collision systems, as well as the differences between ion-atom and ion-molecule mechanisms. In connection with translation energy spectroscopy experiments of McLaughlin et al in the 4-28 keV impact energy range, we present a complete ab-initio theoretical approach of the N4+(2s)2S + He system taking into account both single and double electron capture channels. This is an extremely complex collisional system which involves numerous channels with short range interactions and a very intricate interaction region may be observed for interatomic distances around R = 3.5 a.u.. In agreement with experimental data, the
QED effects in high-Z atoms; three-body potentials
Electromagnetic three-body potentials were first studied by Primakoff and Holstein. Later, Chamugan and Schweber rederived these potentials and pointed out that they might be important in highly relativistic systems, however, their formulation was basically nonrelativistic. Mittleman, in a series of papers, constructed configuration space equations that included three-body potentials. His derivation started from first principles i.e. QED, and the resulting three-body potentials are more general than the Primakoff-Holstein potentials. In this thesis the contribution to the binding energy of a simple high-Z ion from the three-body potentials is calculated. In addition, the nature and structure of these potentials in greater detail are studied. Some ambiguities that arise when the transition from Fock to configuration space is made are studied in detail
A program to solve the quantum-mechanical collinear three-body Coulomb problem is described and illustrated by calculations for a number of representative systems and processes. In the internal region, the Schroedinger equation is solved in hyperspherical coordinates using the slow/smooth variable discretization method. In asymptotic regions, the solution is obtained in Jacobi coordinates using the asymptotic package GAILIT from the CPC library. Only bound states and scattering processes below the three-body disintegration threshold are considered here; resonances and fragmentation processes will be discussed in subsequent parts of this series. (author)
Efimov Effect in Nuclear Three-Body Resonance Decays
Garrido, Eduardo; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.
2006-01-01
We investigate the effects of the nearly fulfilled Efimov conditions on the properties of three-body esonances. Using the hyper-spheric adiabatic expansion method we compute energy distributions of fragments in a three-body decay of a nuclear resonance. As a realistic example we investigate the 1- state in the halo nucleus 11Li within a three-body 9Li + n + n model. Characteristic features appear as sharp peaks in the energy distributions. Their origin, as in the Efimov effect, is in the ...
Three-body recombination in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum gas
Huang, Bo; Zenesini, Alessandro; Grimm, Rudolf
2016-05-01
Quantum three-body recombination in three-dimensional systems is influenced by a series of weakly bound trimers known as Efimov states, which are induced by short-range interactions and exhibit a discrete scaling symmetry. On the other hand, two-dimensional systems with contact interactions are characterized by continuous scale invariance and support no Efimov physics. This raises questions about the behaviour of three-body recombination in the transition from three to two dimensions. We use ultracold caesium atoms trapped in anisotropic potentials formed by a pair of counter-propagating laser beams to experimentally investigate three-body recombination in quasi-two-dimensional systems with tunable confinement and tunable interactions. In our recent experiments, we observed a smooth transition of the three-body recombination rate coefficient from a three-dimensional to a deeply quasi-two-dimensional system. A comparison between the results obtained near two Feshbach resonances indicates a universal behaviour of three-body recombination in the quasi-two-dimensional regime. Austrian Science Fund FWF within project P23106.
Planetary and satellite three body mean motion resonances
Gallardo, Tabaré; Badano, Luciana
2016-01-01
We propose a semianalytical method to compute the strengths on each of the three massive bodies participating in a three body mean motion resonance (3BR). Applying this method we explore the dependence of the strength on the masses, the orbital parameters and the order of the resonance and we compare with previous studies. We confirm that for low eccentricity low inclination orbits zero order resonances are the strongest ones; but for excited orbits higher order 3BRs become also dynamically relevant. By means of numerical integrations and the construction of dynamical maps we check some of the predictions of the method. We numerically explore the possibility of a planetary system to be trapped in a 3BR due to a migrating scenario. Our results suggest that capture in a chain of two body resonances is more probable than a capture in a pure 3BR. When a system is locked in a 3BR and one of the planets is forced to migrate the other two can react migrating in different directions. We exemplify studying the case of...
Nutan Singh
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability of triangular Lagrangian points in the elliptical restricted three body problem, under the effect of radiation pressure stemming from the more massive primary on the infinitesimal. We adopted a set of rotating pulsating axes centered at the centre of mass of the two primaries Sun and Jupiter. We have exploited method of averaging used by Grebenikov, throughout the analysis of stability of the system. The critical mass ratio depends on the radiation pressure, eccentricity and the range of stability decreases as the radiation parameter increases. Keywords: Dynamical system, elliptical restricted three body problems, lagrangian points, radiation pressure, and stability.
Relativistic three-body quark model of light baryons based on hypercentral approach
In this paper, we have treated the light baryons as a relativistic three-body bound system. Inspired by lattice QCD calculations, we treated baryons as a spin-independent three-quark system within a relativistic three-quark model based on the three-particle Klein–Gordon equation. We presented the analytical solution of three-body Klein–Gordon equation with employing the constituent quark model based on a hypercentral approach through which two- and three-body forces are taken into account. Herewith the average energy values of the up, down and strange quarks containing multiplets are reproduced. To describe the hyperfine structure of the baryon, the splittings within the SU(6)-multiplets are produced by the generalized Gursey Radicati mass formula. The considered SU(6)-invariant potential is popular “Coulomb-plus-linear” potential and the strange and non-strange baryons spectra are in general well reproduced. (author)
Boundedness of Formation Configuration for Nonlinear Three-body Dynamics
LI Peng; SONG Yongduan
2011-01-01
The configuration boundedness of the three-body model dynamics is studied for Sun-Earth formation flying missions. The three-body formation flying model is built up with considering the lunar gravitational acceleration and solar radiation pressure. Because traditional linearized dynamics based method has relatively lower accuracy, a modified nonlinear formation configuration analysis method is proposed in this paper. Comparative studies are carried out from three aspects, i.e., natural formation configuration with arbitrary departure time, initialization time and formation configuration boundedness, and specific initialization time for bounded formation configuration. Simulations demonstrate the differences between the two schemes,and indicate that the nonlinear dynamic method reduces the error caused by the model linearization and disturbance approximation, and thus provides higher accuracy for boundedness analysis, which is of value to initial parameters selection for natural three-body formation flying.
Analytical Solution of the Bosonic Three-Body Problem
We revisit the problem of three identical bosons in free space, which exhibits a universal hierarchy of bound states (Efimov trimers). Modeling a narrow Feshbach resonance within a two-channel description, we map the integral equation for the three-body scattering amplitude to a one-dimensional Schroedinger-type single-particle equation, where an analytical solution of exponential accuracy is obtained. We give exact results for the trimer binding energies, the three-body parameter, the threshold to the three-atom continuum, and the recombination rate
Control microprocessor system for charge particle channeling
Control microprocessor systems are widely applied not only in designing industrial robots but in providing functioning of different experimental plants. The experiment control system for charge particle channeling has been considered in the paper. Flexibility, relatively low cost and high reliability are advantages of these systems
Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework
The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, 20C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of 20C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D0 and D*0 mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)
Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework
Canham, David L.
2009-05-20
The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)
Three-body direct nuclear reactions: Nonlocal optical potential
Deltuva, A
2009-01-01
The calculations of three-body direct nuclear reactions with nonlocal optical potentials are performed for the first time using the framework of Faddeev-type scattering equations. Important nonlocality effect is found for transfer reactions like d+16O -> p + 17O often improving the description of the experimental data.
Satellite capture and the restricted three-body problem
This is a general numerical study of satellite capture in the gravitational palnar restricted three-body problem. The initial motivation is a desire to understand the probable capture origin of the irregular Jovian satellites. The scope is broadened in order to developed a foundation for understanding gravitational capture in general. The two most important parameters are the mass ratio μ and the primary eccentricity ep. Each is varied separately, in order to isolate effects on capture by the smaller mass from the larger mass. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) In C0-x0 space, the capture time is an exceeding complex function. (2) The complexity is due to an infinite number of periodic orbit families. (3) The capture time is intimately connected to the periodic orbit families. (4) The structure of the periodic orbit families in the C0-x0 plane is self-similar, indicating that it is fractal. (5) The C0-x0 structure is very sensitive to ep. (6) There are two well-defined distributions in semimajor axis/eccentricity space of orbits around m1 (the more massive primary) that get capture by m2. The changes in a and e of these distributions are shown as a function of μ and of ep. (7) Capture into retrograde motion is much less probable than capture into prograde motion. (8) There is no distinction in semimajor axis, eccentricity, or orbit orientation between prograde and retrograde capture. (9) Capture occurs near primary pericenter. (10) For the current Jupiter-Sun system, capture occurs for heliocentric elements a ∼ 3.74-4.06 AU, and e ∼ 0.06-0.29
Correlation properties of a three-body bosonic mixture in a harmonic trap
Barfknecht, R. E.; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Foerster, A.;
2016-01-01
We make use of a simple pair correlated wave function approach to obtain results for the ground-state densities and momentum distribution of a one-dimensional three-body bosonic system with different interactions in a harmonic trap. For equal interactions this approach is able to reproduce the...
Duffy, Brenton
The distinguishing characteristic of the elliptic restricted three-body problem from that of the circular case is a pulsating potential field resulting in non-autonomous and non-integrable spacecraft dynamics, which are difficult to model using classical methods of analysis. The purpose of this study is to harness modern methods of analytical perturbation theory to normalize the system dynamics about the circular restricted three-body problem and about one of the triangular Lagrange points. The normalization is achieved through a canonical transformation of the system Hamiltonian function based on the Lie transform method introduced by Hori and Deprit in the 1960s. The classic method derives a near-identity transformation of a Hamiltonian function expanded about a single parameter such that the transformed system possesses ideal properties of integrability. One of the major contributions of this study is to extend the normalization method to two-parameter expansions and to non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems. The two-parameter extension is used to normalize the system dynamics of the elliptic restricted three-body problem such that the stability of the triangular Lagrange points may be determined using the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. Further dynamical analysis is performed in the transformed phase space in terms of local integrals of motion akin to Jacobi's integral of the circular restricted three-body problem. The local phase space around the Lagrange point is foliated by invariant tori that effectively separate the planar dynamics into qualitative regions of motion. Additional analysis is presented for the incorporation of control into the normalization routine with the goal of eliminating the non-circular secular perturbations. The control method is validated on a test case and applied to the elliptic restricted three-body problem for the purposes of stabilizing the motion around the triangular Lagrange points.
Sarty, Adam James
The three-body photodisintegration of ^3He has been measured at energies below the pion production threshold using a continuous bremsstrahlung gamma-ray beam at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory. Coincident proton pairs emitted on opposite sides of the beam were detected using four sets of plastic scintillator telescopes arranged symmetrically about the beam at 81^ circ and 91^circ. Differential cross sections were extracted, as a function of the undetected neutron momentum, from kinematic regions where three-body forces effects are expected to be maximized and two-body mechanisms suppressed. These measured cross sections show an enhancement over calculations using one-body and two -body photo-absorption mechanisms only. The inclusion of the two-pion-exchange three-body absorption mechanism is needed to adequately describe the data. This constitutes direct evidence for the existence of three-body forces in ^3He, since the two-pion-exchange mechanism is directly related to three-body forces through gauge invariance. Cross sections differential only in the solid angles of the two detected protons were also measured as a function of incident gamma-ray energy. The angular and energy dependence of these cross sections were compared to those expected from 3N phase-space considerations alone. The measured angular dependence is indicative of a non-phase -space distribution, with an enhancement in the collinear geometry. The measured energy distribution followed the general trend of phase-space predictions, but show a departure from phase-space in the 150-200 MeV energy range.
Extraction of $\\gamma$ from three-body B decays
Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; London, David
2012-01-01
The conventional use of two-body B decays to extract $\\gamma$, although theoretically clean, is currently statistics-limited. On the other hand, a bulk of data on three-body B decays is available from $B$ factories. Applying the flavor-SU(3)-symmetric approach proposed in Ref.\\ \\cite{ReyLeLorier:2011ww} to \\babar data, we find the highly promising result $\\gamma = (81^{+4}_{-5} ({\\rm avg.}) \\pm 5 ({\\rm std.\\ dev.}))^\\circ$. This establishes the use of three-body B decays as a viable alternative for the extraction of weak phases. In this preliminary analysis we have neglected several sources of uncertainties such as the effect of flavor-SU(3) breaking due to meson masses, and error correlations between input experimental parameters. A better understanding of these will improve the viability of this method.
Tensor forces in the three-body problem
The three-body problem is considered using separable two-body interactions. The two-body potentials used contain both attraction and repulsion each of the attractive and repulsive parts of the two-body potentials also include tensor forces. The effect of the tensor forces is investigated by making use of the separable approximation. By introducing the separable expansion in the three-body problem, the Faddev equations are reduced to a well-behaved set of coupled integral equations. The integral equations obtained are solved numerically using separable two-body interactions with potential functions of the Yamaguchj, Gaussian, Tabakin, Mongan and Reid forms. The calculated values of the binding energies for the nuclei 3H, 3He and 6Li are in good agreement with the experimental values. The effect of the tensor forces is found to improve the binding energy by about 4,491%-8,327%
Continuum capture in the three-body problem
The three-body problem, especially the problem of electron capture to the continuum in heavy particle collisions is reviewed. Major topics covered include: second born-induced asymmetry in electron capture to the continuum; historical context, links to other tests of atomic scattering theory; experiments characterizing the velocity distribution of ECC electrons; other atomic physics tests of high velocity Born expansions; atom capture; capture by positrons; and pion capture to the continuum
Oscillatory orbits in the restricted elliptic planar three body problem
Guardia, Marcel; Mart\\'\\in, Pau; Sabbagh, Lara; Seara, Tere M.
2015-01-01
The restricted planar elliptic three body problem models the motion of a massless body under the Newtonian gravitational force of the two other bodies, the primaries, which evolve in Keplerian ellipses. A trajectory is called oscillatory if it leaves every bounded region but returns infinitely often to some fixed bounded region. We prove the existence of such type of trajectories for any values for the masses of the primaries provided they make almost circular orbits.
Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, Dennis
2013-08-01
A few-body type computation is performed for a three-charge-particle collision with participation of a slow antiproton and a muonic muonium atom (true muonium), i.e. a bound state of two muons in its ground state. The total cross section of the following reaction , where muonic anti-hydrogen is a bound state of an antiproton and positive muon, is computed in the framework of a set of coupled two-component Faddeev-Hahn-type equation. A better known negative muon transfer low energy three-body reaction: is also computed as a test system. Here, t+ is triton and d+ is deuterium.
Study of Three-Body Y(10860) Decays
Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barrett, M; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belhorn, M; Belous, K; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bra\\v, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Choi, K -S; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Crnkovic, J; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dingfelder, J; Dole\\v, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Frey, A; Fujikawa, M; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; GrossePerdekamp, M; Guo, H; Haba, J; Hamer, P; Han, Y L; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jaegle, I; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, B H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Kody\\v, P; Koga, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreps, M; Kri\\v, P; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kurihara, E; Kuroki, Y; Kuzmin, A; Kvasni\\v, P; Kwon, Y -J; Kyeong, S -H; Lange, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S -H; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Li, J; Li, X; Li, Y; Libby, J; Lim, C -L; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; MacNaughton, J; Marlow, D; Matvienko, D; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Mikami, Y; Miyabayashi, K; Miyachi, Y; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Müller, T; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakano, T; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neichi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Niiyama, M; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Panzenböck, E; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, H K; Park, K S; Peak, L S; Pedlar, T K; Peng, T; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petri\\v, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Reisert, B; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Rorie, J; Rozanska, M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sasao, N; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schönmeier, P; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stani\\v, S; Stari\\v, M; Stypula, J; Sugihara, S; Sugiyama, A; Sumihama, M; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Takeichi, H; Tamponi, U; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Tanida, K; Taniguchi, N; Tatishvili, G; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Thorne, F; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uchida, T; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Vanhoefer, P; VanHulse, C; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, L; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N; Zyukova, O
2012-01-01
We report preliminary results on the analysis of the three-body Y(10860)=> B barB pi, Y(10860) => (B barB* + c.c.) pi and Y(10860)=> B* barB* pi decays including an observation of the Y(10860)=> Zb(10610)+- pi-+ => [B barB*+c.c]+- pi-+ and Y(10860)=> Zb(10650)+- pi-+ => [B* barB*]+- pi-+ decays as intermediate channels. We measure branching fractions of the three-body decays to be Br(Y(10860)=> [B barB*+c.c.]+- pi-+)=(28.3+-2.9+-4.6)x10^{-3} and Br(Y(10860)=> [B* barB*]+- pi-+)=(14.1+-1.9+-2.4)x10^{-3} and set 90% C.L. upper limit Br(Y(10860)=> [B barB]+- pi-+)Y(nS)pi+pi-, n=1,2,3 decays and the analysis of the internal structure of the three-body Y(10860)=>hb(mP)pi+pi-, m=1,2 decays. The results are based on a 121.4 1/fb data sample collected with the Belle detector at a center-of-mass energy near the Y(10860).
Dmitrašinović, V
2015-01-01
We present results of numerical calculations showing a three-body orbit's period's $T$ dependence on its topology. This dependence is a simple linear one, when expressed in terms of appropriate variables, suggesting an exact mathematical law. This is the first known relation between topological and kinematical properties of three-body systems. We have used these results to predict the periods of several sets of as yet undiscovered orbits, but the relation also indicates that the number of periodic three-body orbits with periods shorter than any finite number is countable.
Three-body bound states and the development of odd-frequency pairing
We link the formation of an odd-frequency paired state to the development of an anomalous three-body scattering amplitude. We show how a simple ansatz leads to a simple realization of odd-frequency superconductivity in a mean-field model of the Kondo lattice. The gapless quasiparticles of this state are equal mixtures of particle and hole at zero frequency and their spin and charge coherence factors vanish, unlike conventional even-paired BCS quasiparticles. We discuss the difficulties this and other models face in attempting to explain experiments in heavy-fermion superconductors. (orig.)
Automated control system in charged particle accelerators
A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab
Simulating charge transport in flexible systems
Timothy Clark
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.
Simulating charge transport in flexible systems
Timothy Clark
2015-01-01
Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models) that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our ...
Photofragment translational spectroscopy of three body dissociations and free radicals
North, S.W.
1995-04-01
This dissertation describes several three-body dissociations and the photodissociation of methyl radicals studied using photofragment translational spectroscopy. The first chapter provides an introduction to three body dissociation, examines current experimental methodology, and includes a discussion on the treatment of photofragment translational spectroscopy data arising from three-body fragmentation. The ultraviolet photodissociation of azomethane into two methyl radicals and nitrogen is discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the photodissociation of acetone at 248 nm and 193 nm. At 248 nm the translational energy release from the initial C-C bond cleavage matches the exit barrier height and a comparison with results at 266 nm suggests that
LHCb: Can LHCb Study Three Body Decays with Neutrals?
Fawcett, W
2013-01-01
In this poster we present the first attempt to use a new method to measure CP violation in Dalitz plots. This method is unbinned, model independent and has a greater sensitivity than binned methods. Preliminary studies have been made using the three body decays $D^0 \\rightarrow K_\\rm{S}^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$, which is especially challenging since there is one neutral particle in each of the final states. An attempt to visualise where CP violation occurs in Dalitz plots is also presented.
Three-body bound states in finite volume with EFT
Three particles with large scattering length display a universal spectrum of three-body bound states called ''Efimov trimers''. We calculate the modification of the Efimov trimers of three identical bosons in a finite cubic box and compute the dependence of their energies on the box size using effective field theory. The renormalization of the effective field theory in the finite volume is explicitly verified. We investigate the effects of partial wave mixing and study the behavior of shallow trimers near the dimer energy. Finally, we present first results for the triton in a finite volume.
Three-body 3He photodisintegration in the Δ region
Three-body 3He photodisintegration was measured in the photon energy range (Eγ) of 145--425 MeV. The total cross section for photon absorption on the np pairs in 3He, σ(3He(γ,np)psp), where psp is a spectator proton, is reported here for the first time. The Eγ dependence of the σ is found to scale to that of σ(2H(γ,np)), and the ratio is determined to be σ(3He(γ,np)psp)/σ(2H(γ,np))=1.24±0.,26
SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system
Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.
1985-10-01
We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
On the Appearance of Families of Efimov States in the Spinor Three-Body Problem
Colussi, V. E.; Greene, Chris H.; D`Incao, J. P.
2016-03-01
Few-body systems with access to multiple internal levels exhibit richness beyond that typically found in their single-level counterparts. One example is that of Efimov states in strongly-correlated spinor three-body systems. In [V. E. Colussi, C. H. Greene, and J. P. D'Incao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 045302 (2014)] this problem was analyzed for spinor condensates finding a complex level structure as in an early work [Bulgac and Efimov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 22, 153 (1976)] in nuclear physics, and the impact of Efimov physics on the general form of the scattering observables was worked out. In this paper we discuss the appearance of novel families of Efimov states in the spinor three-body problem.
Casal, J.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Arias, J. M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.
2016-04-01
A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of B (E 1 ) distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to 11Li (9Li+n +n ) and 6He (4He+n +n ) three-body systems for which some data exist.
Casal, J; Arias, J M; Gómez-Camacho, J
2016-01-01
A relationship between the Coulomb inclusive break-up probability and the radiative capture reaction rate for weakly-bound three-body systems is established. This direct link provides a robust procedure to estimate the reaction rate for nuclei of astrophysical interest by measuring inclusive break-up processes at different energies and angles. This might be an advantageous alternative to the determination of reaction rates from the measurement of $B(E1)$ distributions through exclusive Coulomb break-up experiments. In addition, it provides a reference to assess the validity of different theoretical approaches that have been used to calculate reaction rates. The procedure is applied to $^{11}$Li ($^{9}$Li+n+n) and $^6$He ($^{4}$He+n+n) three-body systems for which some data exist.
Casimir-Polder repulsion: Three-body effects
Milton, Kimball A; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan
2015-01-01
In this paper we study an archetypical scenario in which repulsive Casimir-Polder forces between an atom or molecule and two macroscopic bodies can be achieved. This is an extension of previous studies of the interaction between a polarizable atom and a wedge, in which repulsion occurs if the atom is sufficiently anisotropic and close enough to the symmetry plane of the wedge. A similar repulsion occurs if such an atom passes a thin cylinder or a wire. An obvious extension is to compute the interaction between such an atom and two facing wedges, which includes as a special case the interaction of an atom with a conducting screen possessing a slit, or between two parallel wires. To this end we further extend the electromagnetic multiple-scattering formalism for three-body interactions. To test this machinery we reinvestigate the interaction of a polarizable atom between two parallel conducting plates. In that case, three-body effects are shown to be small, and are dominated by three- and four-scattering terms....
Effects of Varying the Three-Body Molecular Hydrogen
Turk, Matthew J.; /San Diego, CASS; Clark, Paul; Glover, S.C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Greif, T.H.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst. Plasmaphys.; Abel, Tom; Klessen, Ralf; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.
2011-03-03
The transformation of atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen through three-body reactions is a crucial stage in the collapse of primordial, metal-free halos, where the first generation of stars (Population III stars) in the Universe are formed. However, in the published literature, the rate coefficient for this reaction is uncertain by nearly an order of magnitude. We report on the results of both adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the collapse of metal-free halos as a function of the value of this rate coefficient. For each simulation method, we have simulated a single halo three times, using three different values of the rate coefficient. We find that while variation between halo realizations may be greater than that caused by the three-body rate coefficient being used, both the accretion physics onto Population III protostars as well as the long-term stability of the disk and any potential fragmentation may depend strongly on this rate coefficient.
Flow equation of functional renormalization group for three-body scattering problems
Tanizaki, Yuya
2013-11-01
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish an exact flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.
Flow equation of functional renormalization group for three-body scattering problems
Tanizaki, Yuya
2013-01-01
Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish a new and correct flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.
Density functional theory of charged colloidal systems
The phase behavior of charged colloidal systems has been studied recently by the density functional theory formalism (DFT) [R. van Roij, M. Dijkstra, and J. P. Hansen, Phys. Rev. E >59, 2010 (1999)]. A key feature of this approach is the appearance of a density and temperature-dependent effective Hamiltonian between the charged colloids. Under certain approximations, the effective Hamiltonian is made up only of a sum of position-independent one-body or volume terms and two-body colloid-separation dependent terms. In the limit of low colloidal densities, the DFT results do not reduce to the familiar Debye-Huckel limiting law nor do the results agree with previous work based on an identical approach but were developed using traditional statistical-mechanical methods [B. Beresford-Smith, D. Y. C. Chan, and D. J. Mitchell J. Colloid Interface Sci. >105, 216 (1985)]. This paper provides a reconciliation of these differences and comments on the significance of the one-body volume terms in the effective Hamiltonian of a system of charged colloids in determining thermodynamics and phase behavior
PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations
Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger
2008-07-31
The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.
Three-body bound states of two bosonic impurities immersed in a Fermi sea in 2D
Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-04-01
We consider two identical impurities immersed in a Fermi sea for a broad range of masses and for both interacting and non-interacting impurities. The interaction between the particles is described through attractive zero-range potentials and the problem is solved in momentum space. The two impurities can attach to a fermion from the sea and form three-body bound states. The energy of these states increase as function of the Fermi momentum k F, leading to three-body bound states below the Fermi energy. The fate of the states depends highly on two- and three-body thresholds and we find evidence of medium-induced Borromean-like states in 2D. The corrections due to particle-hole fluctuations in the Fermi sea are considered in the three-body calculations and we show that in spite of the fact that they strongly affect both the two- and three-body systems, the correction to the point at which the three-body states cease to exist is small.
Nuclear structure with unitarily transformed two-body plus phenomenological three-body interactions
The importance of three-nucleon forces for a variety of nuclear structure phenomena is apparent in various investigations. This thesis provides a first step towards the inclusion of realistic three-nucleon forces by studying simple phenomenological threebody interactions. The Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) and the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provide two different approaches to derive soft phase-shift equivalent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions via unitary transformations. Although their motivations are quite different the NN interactions obtained with the two methods exhibit some similarities. The application of the UCOM- or SRG-transformed Argonne V18 potential in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and including the second-order energy corrections emerging from many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) reveals that the systematics of experimental ground-state energies can be reproduced by some of the interactions considering a series of closed-shell nuclei across the whole nuclear chart. However, charge radii are systematically underestimated, especially for intermediate and heavy nuclei. This discrepancy to experimental data is expected to result from neglected three-nucleon interactions. As first ansatz for a three-nucleon force, we consider a finite-range three-body interaction of Gaussian shape. Its influence on ground-state energies and charge radii is discussed in detail on the basis of HF plus MBPT calculations and shows a significant improvement in the description of experimental data. As the handling of the Gaussian three-body interaction is time-extensive, we show that it can be replaced by a regularized three-body contact interaction exhibiting a very similar behavior. An extensive study characterizes its properties in detail and confirms the improvements with respect to nuclear properties. To take into account information of an exact numerical solution of the nuclear eigenvalue problem, the No-Core Shell Model is applied to
Nuclear structure with unitarily transformed two-body plus phenomenological three-body interactions
Guenther, Anneke
2011-02-02
The importance of three-nucleon forces for a variety of nuclear structure phenomena is apparent in various investigations. This thesis provides a first step towards the inclusion of realistic three-nucleon forces by studying simple phenomenological threebody interactions. The Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM) and the Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) provide two different approaches to derive soft phase-shift equivalent nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions via unitary transformations. Although their motivations are quite different the NN interactions obtained with the two methods exhibit some similarities. The application of the UCOM- or SRG-transformed Argonne V18 potential in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and including the second-order energy corrections emerging from many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) reveals that the systematics of experimental ground-state energies can be reproduced by some of the interactions considering a series of closed-shell nuclei across the whole nuclear chart. However, charge radii are systematically underestimated, especially for intermediate and heavy nuclei. This discrepancy to experimental data is expected to result from neglected three-nucleon interactions. As first ansatz for a three-nucleon force, we consider a finite-range three-body interaction of Gaussian shape. Its influence on ground-state energies and charge radii is discussed in detail on the basis of HF plus MBPT calculations and shows a significant improvement in the description of experimental data. As the handling of the Gaussian three-body interaction is time-extensive, we show that it can be replaced by a regularized three-body contact interaction exhibiting a very similar behavior. An extensive study characterizes its properties in detail and confirms the improvements with respect to nuclear properties. To take into account information of an exact numerical solution of the nuclear eigenvalue problem, the No-Core Shell Model is applied to
JSPAM: A restricted three-body code for simulating interacting galaxies
Wallin, John; Harvey, Allen
2015-01-01
Restricted three-body codes have a proven ability to recreate much of the disturbed morphology of actual interacting galaxies. As more sophisticated n-body models were developed and computer speed increased, restricted three-body codes fell out of favor. However, their supporting role for performing wide searches of parameter space when fitting orbits to real systems demonstrates a continuing need for their use. Here we present the model and algorithm used in the JSPAM code. A precursor of this code was originally described in 1990, and was called SPAM. We have recently updated the software with an alternate potential and a treatment of dynamical friction to more closely mimic the results from n-body tree codes. The code is released publicly for use under the terms of the Academic Free License (AFL) v.3.0 and has been added to the Astrophysics Source Code Library.
Critical points of the Bose–Hubbard model with three-body local interaction
Avila, C.A.; Franco, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia); Souza, A.M.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000 São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea s/n, 24210-346 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva-Valencia, J., E-mail: jsilvav@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-09-12
Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we study a one-dimensional system of bosons that interact with a local three-body term. We calculate the phase diagram for higher densities, where the Mott insulator lobes are surrounded by the superfluid phase. We also show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. The critical points of the Kosterlitz–Thouless transitions were determined through the von Neumann block entropy, and its dependence on the density is given by a power law with a negative exponent. - Highlights: • We studied the Bose–Hubbard model with a local three-body interaction term. • We show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. • We found a power law dependence of the critical point position with the density.
JSPAM: A restricted three-body code for simulating interacting galaxies
Wallin, J. F.; Holincheck, A. J.; Harvey, A.
2016-07-01
Restricted three-body codes have a proven ability to recreate much of the disturbed morphology of actual interacting galaxies. As more sophisticated n-body models were developed and computer speed increased, restricted three-body codes fell out of favor. However, their supporting role for performing wide searches of parameter space when fitting orbits to real systems demonstrates a continuing need for their use. Here we present the model and algorithm used in the JSPAM code. A precursor of this code was originally described in 1990, and was called SPAM. We have recently updated the software with an alternate potential and a treatment of dynamical friction to more closely mimic the results from n-body tree codes. The code is released publicly for use under the terms of the Academic Free License ("AFL") v. 3.0 and has been added to the Astrophysics Source Code Library.
Critical points of the Bose–Hubbard model with three-body local interaction
Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we study a one-dimensional system of bosons that interact with a local three-body term. We calculate the phase diagram for higher densities, where the Mott insulator lobes are surrounded by the superfluid phase. We also show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. The critical points of the Kosterlitz–Thouless transitions were determined through the von Neumann block entropy, and its dependence on the density is given by a power law with a negative exponent. - Highlights: • We studied the Bose–Hubbard model with a local three-body interaction term. • We show that the Mott insulator lobes always grow as a function of the density. • We found a power law dependence of the critical point position with the density
Green's function method for strength function in three-body continuum
Suzuki, Y; Baye, D
2009-01-01
Practical methods to compute dipole strengths for a three-body system by using a discretized continuum are analyzed. New techniques involving Green's function are developed, either by correcting the tail of the approximate wave function in a direct calculation of the strength function or by using a solution of a driven Schroedinger equation in a summed expression of the strength. They are compared with the complex scaling method and the Lorentz integral transform, also making use of a discretized continuum. Numerical tests are performed with a hyperscalar three-body potential in the hyperspherical-harmonics formalism. They show that the Lorentz integral transform method is less practical than the other methods because of a difficult inverse transform. These other methods provide in general comparable accuracies.
Cleaning Dirty Surfaces: A Three-Body Problem.
Stoehr, Bastian; Hall, Colin; Evans, Drew; Murphy, Peter
2016-07-20
Human interaction with touch screens requires physical touch and hence results in contamination of these surfaces, resulting in the necessity of cleaning. In this study we discuss the three bodies of this problem and how each component contributes and can be controlled. Utilizing a standard fingerprint machine and a standard cleanability test, this study examines the influence of parameters such as the wiping speed and pressure, the material and surface area of the cloths, and the surface energy of the contaminated surfaces. It was shown that fingerprint contamination undergoes shear banding and hence is not easily removed. The degree of material removal depends on the position of the shear plane, which is influenced by surface energies and shear rates. PMID:27351355
Soft dipole mode in ^{11}Li and three body continuum
Lurie, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu F
1994-01-01
Properties of the neutron rich ^{11}Li nucleus are calculated in the framework of the cluster model ^{9}Li +n+n. The formalism of the harmonic oscillator representation of the scattering theory is used for the description of bound and continuum spectrum states in the three-body-democratic-decay approximation. It is shown that this approach allows one to take into account adequately the long asymptotic tail of the ^{11}Li wave function ({\\em neutron halo}) and to reproduce correctly the binding energy, radius and ^{11}Li electromagnetic dissociation cross-section on target nuclei. The shape and the energy position of the B(E1) peak corresponding to the soft dipole mode are also in agreement with experiment.
Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering
We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1D2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference ΔσL(pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P11 interaction. (author)
Three-body processes in the presence of Coulomb forces
Rigorous definitions are provided for the scattering amplitudes describing elastic, inelastic and rearrangement reactions of one charged particle and a bound state of two other charged bodies, and of break-up amplitudes with one neutral and two charged particles. The resulting expressions confirm, and give precise meaning to, what is intuitively anticipated in conventional approaches. Furthermore, integral equations for these transition amplitudes are available which render feasible practical calculations of Coulomb corrections in three-particle reactions. 2 references
Exact solution of the restricted three-body Santilli-Shillady model of $H_{2}$ molecule
Aringazin, A K
2000-01-01
In this paper, we study the exact solution of the restricted isochemical model of $H_2$ molecule with fixed nuclei recently proposed by Santilli and Shillady in which the two electrons are assumed to be bonded/correlated into a quasiparticle called the {\\it isoelectronium}. Under the conditions that: 1) the isoelectronium is stable; 2) the effective size of the isoelectronium is ignorable, in comparison to internuclear distance; and 3) the two nuclei are at rest, the Santilli-Shillady model of the $H_2$ molecule is reduced to a restricted {\\it three-body} system essentially similar to a neutral version of the $H_2^+$ ion, which, as such, admits exact solution. Our main result is that the restricted three-body Santilli-Shillady approach to $H_2$ is capable to fit the experimental binding energy, at the isoelectronium mass parameter $M=0.308381m_e$, although under optimal internuclear distance about 19.6% bigger than the conventional experimental value, indicating an approximate character of the three-body mode...
Three-body force for baryons from the D0-D4/D8 matrix model
Li, Si-wen
2016-01-01
This is an extensive work to our previous paper \\cite{key-08} studied on the D0-D4/D8 holographic system. We compute the three-body force for baryons with the D0-D4/D8 matrix model derived in \\cite{key-08} with considering the non-zero QCD vacuum. We obtain the three-body force at short distances but modified by the appearance of the smeared D0-branes i.e. considering the effects from the non-trivial QCD vacuum. We firstly test our matrix model in the case of 't Hooft instanton and then in two more realistic case: (1) three-neutrons with averaged spins and (2) proton-proton-neutron (or proton-neutron-proton). The three-body potential vanishes in the former case while in two latter cases it is positive i.e. repulsive and makes sense only if the constraint for stable baryonic state is satisfied. We require all the baryons in our computation aligned on a line. These may indicate that the cases in dense states of neutrons such as in neutron stars, Helium-3 or Tritium nucleus all with the non-trivial QCD vacuum.
Quantum simulation of a three-body interaction Hamiltonian on an NMR quantum computer
Tseng, C H; Sharf, Y; Knill, E H; Laflamme, R; Havel, T F; Cory, D G
2000-01-01
Extensions of average Hamiltonian theory to quantum computation permit the design of arbitrary Hamiltonians, allowing rotations throughout a large Hilbert space. In this way, the kinematics and dynamics of any quantum system may be simulated by a quantum computer. A basis mapping between the systems dictates the average Hamiltonian in the quantum computer needed to implement the desired Hamiltonian in the simulated system. The flexibility of the procedure is illustrated with NMR on 13-C labelled Alanine by creating the non-physical Hamiltonian ZZZ corresponding to a three body interaction.
Microscopic nuclear equation of state with three-body forces and neutron star structure
The equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is discussed within the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach. First the energy per particle E/A is calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock limit with the Argonne v18 potential, using the continuous choice as auxiliary potential. Then, the contribution of three-body clusters is determined by solving the Bethe-Faddeev equation, and the equivalence with the same calculations based on the standard choice as auxiliary potential, is demonstrated. In spite of reaching a quite good convergence of the hole-line expansion, the resulting EOS does not fit the empirical saturation density (ρ0 = 0.17 fm-3). To this end, three-body forces (TBF) are introduced. A first class of microscopic TBF comprises effects due to NN-bar virtual excitations via σ and ω-meson exchanges (the main relativistic correction to Brueckner theory), the 2π-exchange, and the virtual excitation of the lowest nucleonic resonance N*(1440). We compare with a phenomenological TBF, involving two parameters adjusted on the saturation density and energy. Next, using microscopic or phenomenological TBF, the symmetry energy of nuclear matter is computed, allowing to determine the EOS of beta-stable and charge neutral matter, and the properties of neutron stars, in particular the mass-radius curve
S Mahapatra; J Nag; D P Sural; S N Mukherjee
2001-10-01
We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in a simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efﬁcient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated by explaining the structural properties of some nuclei of current interest, namely halo nuclei and double- hypernuclei. The ansatz used here may be of value in a number of three particle problems of similar nature.
Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system
Wu, Ko-Jen
2013-12-10
An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.
Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei
Hossein Sadeghi; Hassan Khalili; Shahla Nahidinejad
2014-09-01
Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper, we also compare the obtained binding energy result with experimental and other cluster and shell models. The results of all schemes agree very well showing the high accuracy of our method to calculate the other many-body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster interactions. The experimental values of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$ Be) = (11.90 ± 0.13) MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = (20.49 ± 1.15) MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = (22.23 ± 1.15) MeV seem to be more compatible with our calculated value of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$Be) = 14.04 MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = 19.31 MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = 21.45 MeV in comparison with the other calculated results by Hiyama et al, Gal et al and Guleria et al.
Global Regularization Method for Planar Restricted Three-body Problem
Sharaf, M. A.; Dwidar, H. R.
2015-12-01
In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z=x+iy=ν cos n(u+iv), where i=√{-1}, 0 computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudo-time τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u,v,u',v') and (x,y,dot{x},dot{y}) in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time {t} is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of {n}. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of {t}. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of the initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for the numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.
Ejection and Capture Dynamics in Restricted Three-Body Encounters
Kobayashi, Shiho; Sari, Re'em; Rossi, Elena M
2012-01-01
We study the tidal disruption of binaries by a massive point mass (e.g. the black hole at the Galactic center), and we discuss how the ejection and capture preference between unequal-mass binary members depends on which orbit they approach the massive object. We show that the restricted three-body approximation provides a simple and clear description of the dynamics. The orbit of a binary with mass m around a massive object M should be almost parabolic with an eccentricity |1-e| < (m/M)^{1/3} << 1 for a member to be captured, while the other is ejected. Indeed, the energy change of the members obtained for a parabolic orbit can be used to describe non-parabolic cases. If a binary has an encounter velocity much larger than (M/m)^{1/3} times the binary rotation velocity, it would be abruptly disrupted, and the energy change at the encounter can be evaluated in a simple disruption model. We evaluate the probability distributions for the ejection and capture of circular binary members and for the final e...
We investigate the stability and phase transition of localized modes in Bose–Einstein Condensates (BECs) in an optical lattice with the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model by considering both two- and three-body interactions. We find that there are three types of localized modes, bright discrete breather (DB), discrete kink (DK), and multi-breather (MUB). Moreover, both two- and three-body on-site repulsive interactions can stabilize DB, while on-site attractive three-body interactions destabilize it. There is a critical value for the three-body interaction with which both DK and MUB become the most stable ones. We give analytically the energy thresholds for the destabilization of localized states and find that they are unstable (stable) when the total energy of the system is higher (lower) than the thresholds. The stability and dynamics characters of DB and MUB are general for extended lattice systems. Our result is useful for the blocking, filtering, and transfer of the norm in nonlinear lattices for BECs with both two- and three-body interactions
HCI-induced molecule fragmentation: non-Coulombic explosion and three-body effects
The study of highly charged ion-induced diatomic (CO) and triatomic (CO2) molecules fragmentation by the coincident measurement of the fragment momenta is presented. It is shown that the experimental results together with ab initio calculations including a large number of potential energy curves evidence the limitation of the Coulomb explosion model to reproduce the dynamics of the fragmentation. The geometry modification of the CO2 molecule during the breakup is explored and the concerted or sequential nature of the dissociation is discussed for two fragmentation channels. Finally, the fragmentation of the H2 molecules following collisions with slow multicharged ions is analysed for various projectiles and energies. From the energy spectra, the effect of the projectile on the H+ fragments is evidenced. This three-body effect is discussed in connection with the results of two model calculations including or not the role of the projectile. (orig.)
State approaches to the system benefits charge
Fang, J M
1997-07-01
This report documents the consideration and implementation of a non-bypassable system benefits charge (SBC) in six states through mid-May 1997. The SBC is being established to sustain important public-policy programs during the electric industry restructuring process. The states covered include Arizona, California, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. This report was prepared for the Office of Energy and Resource Planning, Utah Department of Natural Resources, under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Sustainable Technology Energy Partnerships Initiative, Second Round (STEP-2). The purpose of the report is to provide decision makers in Utah, including the Utah Public Service Commission and the state legislature, with relevant information on the SBC for use in their deliberation on the matter. The issues faced by the six states are the SBC in general; surcharge rate or funding levels; administrative structure and procedures; and actions, guidelines, and principles by program area.
Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2002-01-01
The Faddeev equations for the three-body bound state are solved directly as thre e-dimensional integral equations without employing partial wave decomposition. Two-body forces of the Malfliet-Tjon type and simple spin independent genuine three-body forces are considered for the calculation of the three-body binding energy.
Řezáč, Jan; Huang, Yuanhang; Hobza, Pavel; Beran, Gregory J O
2015-07-14
Many-body noncovalent interactions are increasingly important in large and/or condensed-phase systems, but the current understanding of how well various models predict these interactions is limited. Here, benchmark complete-basis set coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) calculations have been performed to generate a new test set for three-body intermolecular interactions. This "3B-69" benchmark set includes three-body interaction energies for 69 total trimer structures, consisting of three structures from each of 23 different molecular crystals. By including structures that exhibit a variety of intermolecular interactions and packing arrangements, this set provides a stringent test for the ability of electronic structure methods to describe the correct physics involved in the interactions. Both MP2.5 (the average of second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and spin-component-scaled CCSD for noncovalent interactions (SCS-MI-CCSD) perform well. MP2 handles the polarization aspects reasonably well, but it omits three-body dispersion. In contrast, many widely used density functionals corrected with three-body D3 dispersion correction perform comparatively poorly. The primary difficulty stems from the treatment of exchange and polarization in the functionals rather than from the dispersion correction, though the three-body dispersion may also be moderately underestimated by the D3 correction. PMID:26575743
Dark energy in the three-body problem: Wide triple galaxies
Emel'yanov, N. V.; Kovalev, M. Yu.; Chernin, A. D.
2016-04-01
The structure and evolution of triple galaxy systems in the presence of the cosmic dark-energy background is studied in the framework of the three-body problem. The dynamics of wide triple systems are determinedmainly by the competition between the mutual gravitational forces between the three bodies and the anti-gravity created by the dark-energy background. This problem can be solved via numerical integration of the equations of motion with initial conditions that admit various types of evolutionary behavior of the system. Such dynamical models show that the anti-gravity created by dark energy makes a triple system less tightly bound, thereby facilitating its decay, with a subsequent transition to motion of the bodies away from each other in an accelerating regime with a linear Hubble-law dependence of the velocity on distance. The coefficient of proportionality between the velocity and distance in this asymptotic relation corresponds to the universal value H Λ = 61 km s-1 Mpc-1, which depends only on the dark-energy density. The similarity of this relation to the large-scale recession of galaxies indicates that double and triple galaxies represent elementary dynamical cells realizing the overall behavior of a system dominated by dark energy on their own scale, independent of their masses and dimensions.
Fractal structures for the Jacobi Hamiltonian of restricted three-body problem
Rollin, G; Shepelyansky, D L
2015-01-01
We study the dynamical chaos and integrable motion in the planar circular restricted three-body problem and determine the fractal dimension of the spiral strange repeller set of non-escaping orbits at different values of mass ratio of binary bodies and of Jacobi integral of motion. We find that the spiral fractal structure of the Poincar\\'e section leads to a spiral density distribution of particles remaining in the system. We also show that the initial exponential drop of survival probability with time is followed by the algebraic decay related to the universal algebraic statistics of Poincar\\'e recurrences in generic symplectic maps.
Exponentially improved classical and quantum algorithms for three-body Ising models
Van den Nest, M.; Dür, W.
2014-01-01
We present an algorithm to approximate partition functions of three-body classical Ising models on two-dimensional lattices of arbitrary genus, in the real-temperature regime. Even though our algorithm is purely classical, it is designed by exploiting a connection to topological quantum systems, namely, the color codes. The algorithm performance (in achievable accuracy) is exponentially better than other approaches that employ mappings between partition functions and quantum state overlaps. In addition, our approach gives rise to a protocol for quantum simulation of such Ising models by simply measuring local observables on color codes.
Fractal structures for the Jacobi Hamiltonian of restricted three-body problem
Rollin, G.; Lages, J.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2016-08-01
We study the dynamical chaos and integrable motion in the planar circular restricted three-body problem and determine the fractal dimension of the spiral strange repeller set of non-escaping orbits at different values of mass ratio of binary bodies and of Jacobi integral of motion. We find that the spiral fractal structure of the Poincaré section leads to a spiral density distribution of particles remaining in the system. We also show that the initial exponential drop of survival probability with time is followed by the algebraic decay related to the universal algebraic statistics of Poincaré recurrences in generic symplectic maps.
Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;
2011-01-01
congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...
On reduction of the general three-body Newtonian problem and the curved geometry
In the framework of an idea of separation of rotational and vibrational motions, we have examined the problem of reducing the general three-body problem. The class of differentiable functions allowing transformation of the 6D Euclidean space to the 6D conformal-Euclidean space is defined. Using this fact the general classical three-body problem is formulated as a problem of geodesic flows on the energy hypersurface of the bodies system. It is shown that when the total potential depends on relative distances between the bodies, three from six ordinary differential equations of second order describing the non-integrable hamiltonian system are integrated exactly, thus allowing reducing the initial system in the phase space to the autonomous system of the 6th order. In the result of reducing of the initial Newtonian problem the geometry of reduced problem becomes curved. The latter gives us new ideas related to the problem of geometrization of physics as well as new possibilities for study of different physical problems.
Nuclear spectroscopy on charge density wave systems
This book is the first coherent presentation of investigations of charge density wave (CDW) systems by nuclear spectroscopic techniques. It is addressed to the graduate students and elder scientist who are interested in modern aspects of solid state physics and want to acquire a broader knowledge of nuclear spectroscopy techniques applied to CDW systems. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to CDW's in general and to the question what can be learned about CDW's by nuclear spectroscopy techniques. Chapter 2 gives a Landau theory description of CDW formation in chain-like tetrachalcogenides. Chapter 3 treats experimental results on layered transition metal compounds. A short introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC), and the Moessbauer effect (ME) is included in this chapter because all three techniques have been extensively applied to Ta-dichalcogenides which are prominent members of this family of materials. Chapter 4 and 5 treat in great detail CDW dynamics and transport in chain-like like transition metal chalcogenides and molybdenum bronzes, respectively. Chapter 6 treats the one-dimensional inorganic complex salt K-2Pt(CN)4Br0.3.2H2O (KCP) studied by NMR on a variety of nuclei. Chapter 7 demonstrates the tremendous advances of high resolution NMR in yielding spin density maps of organic radical salts and is intended to stimulate the application of this powerful technique more directly to CDW phenomena
Emerging bosons with three-body interactions from spin-1 atoms in optical lattices
We study two many-body systems of bosons interacting via an infinite three-body contact repulsion in a lattice: a pairs quasicondensate induced by correlated hopping and the discrete version of the Pfaffian wave function. We propose to experimentally realize systems characterized by such interaction by means of a proper spin-1 lattice Hamiltonian: spin degrees of freedom are locally mapped into occupation numbers of emerging bosons, in a fashion similar to spin-1/2 and hardcore bosons. Such a system can be realized with ultracold spin-1 atoms in a Mott insulator with a filling factor of 1. The high versatility of these setups allows us to engineer spin-hopping operators breaking the SU(2) symmetry, as needed to approximate interesting bosonic Hamiltonians with three-body hardcore constraint. For this purpose we combine bichromatic spin-independent superlattices and Raman transitions to induce a different hopping rate for each spin orientation. Finally, we illustrate how our setup could be used to experimentally realize the first setup, that is, the transition to a pairs quasicondensed phase of the emerging bosons. We also report on a route toward the realization of a discrete bosonic Pfaffian wave function and list some open problems for reaching this goal.
A non-variational approach to the quantum three-body Coulomb problem
Chi, Xuguang
2005-07-01
This thesis presents a general non-variational approach to the solution of three-body Schrodinger's equation with Coulomb interactions, based on the utilization of symmetries intrinsic to the three-body Laplacian operator first proposed by W. Y. Hsiang. Through step by step reductions, the center of mass degree of freedom is first removed, followed by the separation of all the rotational degrees of freedom, leading to a coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) in terms of the rotationally invariant internal variables {f1, f2, f3}. A crucial observation is that in the subspace where all the rotational degrees of freedom have been removed, there is an intrinsic spherical symmetry which can be fully utilized through the introduction of hyperspherical coordinates. By expressing the reduced Schrodinger's PDEs (with all the rotational degrees of freedom separated out) in terms of the hyperspherical coordinates, with the subsequent introduction of Jacobi polynomials as the angular eigenfunctions and Laguerre polynomials to expand the radial component, a system of infinite linear algebraic equations is obtained for the expansion coefficients. A numerical scheme is presented whereby the Coulomb interaction matrix elements are calculated to a very high degree of accuracy with minimal effort, and the truncation of the linear equations is carried out through a systematic procedure. The resulting matrix equations are solved through an iteration process, carried out on a PC. Numerical results are presented for the hydrogen negative ion H-, the helium and helium-like ions (Z = 3˜6), the hydrogen molecule ion H+2 and the positronium negative ion Ps-. Comparison with the variational and other approaches shows our results to be of comparable accuracy for the eigenenergies, but can yield highly accurate wave functions as by-products. Results on low-lying excited states are obtained simultaneously with the ground state properties with no extra effort. In particular, for the
3He(d,p)4He reaction calculation with three-body Faddeev equations
In order to investigate the 3He-n-p system as a three-body problem, we have formulated 3He-n and 3H-p effective potentials using both a microscopic treatment and a phenomenological approach. In the microscopic treatment, potentials are generated by means of the resonating group method (RGM) based on the Minnesota nucleon-nucleon potential. These potentials are converted into separable form by means of the microscopic Pauli correct (MPC) method. The MPC potentials are properly formulated to avoid Pauli forbidden states. The phenomenological potentials are obtained by modifying parameters of the EST approximation to the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential, such that they fit the low-energy 3He-n, 3H-p, and 3He-p phase shifts. Therefore, they describe the 3He-n differential cross section, the polarization observables, and the energy levels of 4He. The 3He-n-p Faddeev equations are solved numerically. We reproduce correctly the ground state and the first excited state of 5Li. Furthermore, the Paris-type potential is used to investigate the 3He(d,p)4He reaction at a deuteron bombarding energy of 270 MeV, where the system is treated as a three-body problem. Results for the polarized and unpolarized differential cross sections demonstrate convergence of the Born series. (orig.)
On Out of Plane Equilibrium Points in Photo-Gravitational Restricted Three-Body Problem
M. K. Das; Pankaj Narang; S. Mahajan; M. Yuasa
2009-09-01
We have investigated the out of plane equilibrium points of a passive micron size particle and their stability in the field of radiating binary stellar systems Krüger-60, RW-Monocerotis within the framework of photo-gravitational circular restricted three-body problem. We find that the out of plane equilibrium points (, = 6, 7, 8, 9) may exist for range of 1 (ratio of radiation to gravitational force of the massive component) values for these binary systems in the presence of Poynting–Robertson drag (hereafter PR-drag). In the absence of PR-drag, we find that the motion of a particle near the equilibrium points 6,7 is stable in both the binary systems for a specific range of 1 values. The PR-drag is shown to cause instability of the various out of plane equilibrium points in these binary systems.
Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Lomdahl, P. S.
1982-01-01
lower and higher charge than ±2e / 3. The effect of discreteness is taken into account and gives rise to chaotic deformed solitons as the interchain coupling increases. The model may be applied to tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) under 19-kbar pressure.......We have studied the effect of interchain interaction on thermally excited solitons in a charge-density wave for a Peierls system of commensurability 3. In such a system solitons with charges ±2e / 3 are expected. It is shown that the interchain coupling in some cases will generate solitons with...
Nucleon-nucleon scattering length from three-body reactions
Experiments aimed at the measurement of the singlet scattering lengths 1anp and 1ann of the NN-interaction in the presence of a heavy spectator are described. The values obtained are compared with the results of measurements of other reactions. The very good agreement of the experimental values of 1anp from all breakup reactions and elastic scattering as well as agreement of the values of 1ann from breakup reactions and disagreement with the value from the π-d → nnγ reaction cast doubts on the hypothesis ascribing this discrepancy to a 3N-force. This result also suggests a stronger effect of a violation of the charge independence principle than previously accepted. 101 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs. (author)
Three-body scattering problem in the fixed center approximation: the case of attraction
Kudryavtsev, Alexander E; Romanov, Alexander I
2016-01-01
We study scattering of a light particle on a bound pair of heavy particles (e.g., the deuteron) within the fixed center approximation in the case of light-heavy attraction, solving the integral equation for the three-body Green's function both in the coordinate and in the momentum space. The results for the three-body scattering amplitude appear to be ambiguous -- they depend on a single real parameter. This parameter may be fixed by a three-body input, e.g., the three-body scattering length. We also solve the integral equation for the three-body Green function in the momentum space, introducing a finite cut-off. We show that all three approaches are equivalent. We also discuss how our approach to the problem matches with the introduction of three-body contact interaction as done by other authors.
Nonlocal Properties of Dynamical Three-Body Casimir-Polder Forces
We consider the three-body Casimir-Polder interaction between three atoms during their dynamical self-dressing. We show that the time-dependent three-body Casimir-Polder interaction energy displays nonlocal features related to quantum properties of the electromagnetic field and to the nonlocality of spatial field correlations. We discuss the measurability of this intriguing phenomenon and its relation with the usual concept of stationary three-body forces
Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.
1991-01-01
Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)
Motions of Kepler circumbinary planets in restricted three-body problem under radiating primaries
Dermawan, B., E-mail: budider@as.itb.ac.id; Hidayat, T., E-mail: taufiq@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Huda, I. N., E-mail: ibnu.nurul@students.itb.ac.id; Mandey, D., E-mail: mandey.de@gmail.com; Utama, J. A., E-mail: judhistira@yahoo.com; Tampubolon, I., E-mail: ihsan.tampubolon@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wibowo, R. W., E-mail: ridlo.w.wibowo@gmail.com [Department of Computational Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
By observing continuously a single field of view in the sky, Kepler mission reveals outstanding results on discoveries of exoplanets. One of its recent progress is the discoveries of circumbinary planets. A circumbinary planet is an exoplanet that moves around a binary system. In this study we investigate motions of Kepler circumbinary planets belong to six binary systems, namely Kepler-16, -34, -35, -38, -47, and -413. The motions are considered to follow the Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). Because the primaries (central massive objects) are stars, they are both radiatives, while the planet is an infinitesimal object. The primaries move in nearly circular and elliptic orbits with respect to their center of masses. We describe, in general, motions of the circumbinary planets in RTBP under radiating primaries. With respect to the averaged zero velocity curves, we show that motions of the exoplanets are stable, in accordance with their Hill stabilities.
Use of the Faddeev differential equations for computations of three-body resonances
Algorithm, based on explicit representations for analytic continuation of the T-matrix Faddeev components on unphysical sheets, is worked out for calculations of resonances in the three-body quantum problem. According to the representations, poles of T-matrix, scattering matrix and Green function on unphysical sheets, interpreted as resonances, coincide with those complex energy values where appropriate truncations of the scattering matrix have zero as eigenvalue. Scattering amplitudes on the unphysical sheet, necessary to construct scattering matrix, are calculated on the basis of the Faddeev differential equations. The algorithm developed is applied to search for the resonances in the nnp system and in a model three-boson system. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Approximation properties of basis functions in variational three-body problem
Vanyashin, V S
2000-01-01
A new variational basis with well-behaved local approximation properties and multiple output is proposed for Coulomb systems. The trial function has proper behaviour at all Coulomb centres. Nonlinear asymptotic parameters are introduced softly: they do not destroy the self-optimized local behaviour of the wave function at vanishing interparticle distances. The diagonalization of the Hamiltonian on a finite Hilbert subspace gives a number of meaningful eigenvalues. Thus together with the ground state some excited states are also reliably approximated. For three-body systems all matrix elements are analytically obtainable up to rational functions of asymptotic parameters. The feasibility of the new basis usage has been proved by a pilot computer algebra calculation. The negative sign of an electron pair local energy at their Coulomb centre has been revealed. PACS number: 31.15.Pf
Motions of Kepler circumbinary planets in restricted three-body problem under radiating primaries
By observing continuously a single field of view in the sky, Kepler mission reveals outstanding results on discoveries of exoplanets. One of its recent progress is the discoveries of circumbinary planets. A circumbinary planet is an exoplanet that moves around a binary system. In this study we investigate motions of Kepler circumbinary planets belong to six binary systems, namely Kepler-16, -34, -35, -38, -47, and -413. The motions are considered to follow the Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). Because the primaries (central massive objects) are stars, they are both radiatives, while the planet is an infinitesimal object. The primaries move in nearly circular and elliptic orbits with respect to their center of masses. We describe, in general, motions of the circumbinary planets in RTBP under radiating primaries. With respect to the averaged zero velocity curves, we show that motions of the exoplanets are stable, in accordance with their Hill stabilities
Three-body forces mandated by Poincare invariance
Poincare invariant models for the three-nucleon system are examined which have the same heuristic relation to field theories as the nonrelativistic nuclear models. The generators of the infinitesimal dynamical transformations can be obtained as functions of the kinematic generators, the invariant mass operator of the interacting system, and additional operators. These additional operators are the components of the Newton-Wigner position operator in the instant form, and the transverse components of the spin in the front form. The relativistic dynamics of Poincare transformations is examined, and then these concepts are applied to two-nucleon systems. The transition to a fully interacting three-nucleon system is made
Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle
Anegawa, Takafumi
2010-09-15
Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.
Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects
Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Brown, G. V.
2012-01-01
Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.
Effects of Microscopic Three-body Forces in Asymmetric Nuclear Matter
无
2001-01-01
The efiects of microscopic three-body forces on the equatioil of state(EOS)and the single particle properties of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter have been studied within Brueckner-Hartree-Fock framework~[1]The microscopic three-body force model constructed from meson exchange current approach in Ref.~[2] has been extended to isospin asymmetric nuclear matter
Quasi-periodic Solutions of the Spatial Lunar Three-body Problem
ZHAO Lei
2013-01-01
By application of KAM theorem to Lidov-Ziglin's global study of the quadrupolar approximation of the spatial lunar three-body problem, we establish the existence of several families of quasi-periodic orbits in the spatial lunar three-body problem.
Nuclear matter with three-body forces from self-consistent spectral calculations
Soma, Vittorio; Bozek, Piotr
2007-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter in the self-consistent T-matrix scheme including three-body nuclear interactions. We study the effect of the three-body force on the self-energies and spectral functions of nucleons in medium.
Development of a Space-charge-sensing System
Teiji Watanabe
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A system for remotely measuring the distribution of air space charge in real time is developed. The system consists of a loudspeaker and an electric field antenna. By propagating a burst of directional sound wave from the speaker, a modulation in the space charge and, therefore, an electric field change at ground is produced. The distribution of the space charge density is derived from the E-field change which can be measured by the E- field antenna. The developed system has been confirmed by both laboratory and field experiments.
Three-body bound states in atomic mixtures with resonant p-wave interaction
Efremov, Maxim A; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Schleich, Wolfgang P
2013-01-01
We employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to find the effective potential in a three-body system consisting of a light particle and two heavy ones when the heavy-light short-range interaction potential has a resonance corresponding to a non-zero orbital angular momentum. In the case of an exact resonance in the p-wave scattering amplitude, the effective potential is attractive and long-range, namely it decreases as the third power of the inter-atomic distance. Moreover, we show that the range and power of the potential, as well as the number of bound states are determined by the mass ratio of the particles and the parameters of the heavy-light short-range potential.
Analytic Expression for Three-Body Recombination Rates into Deep Dimers
We investigate three-body recombination rates into deep dimers in cold atomic gases with large scattering length within hyper-spherical adiabatic zero-range approach. We derive closed analytic expressions for the rates for one- and two-species gases. Although the deep dimers are beyond the zero-range theory the latter can still describe the recombination into deep dimers by use of one additional short-range absorption parameter. The recombination rate, as function of the scattering length, retains the known universal behavior—the fourth power trend with characteristic log-periodic peaks—however increasing the short-range absorption broadens the peaks until they are eventually completely smeared out. Increasing the heavy-to-light mass ratio in a two-species system with two identical bosons and a third particle decreases the distance between the peaks and increases the overall scale of the recombination rate. (author)
Muonic molecules as three-body Coulomb problem in adiabatic approximation
The three-body Coulomb problem is treated within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. The surface functions are expanded into Faddeev-type components in order to ensure the equivalent representation of all possible two-body contributions. It is shown that this decomposition reduces the numerical effort considerably. The remaining radial equations are solved both in the extreme and the uncoupled adiabatic approximation to determine the binding energies of the systems (dtμ) and (d3Heμ). Whereas the ground state is described very well in the uncoupled adiabatic approximation, the excited states should be treated within the coupled adiabatic approximation to obtain good agreement with variational calculations. (orig.)
Thomas-Ehrman effect in a three-body model: $^{16}$Ne case
Grigorenko, L V; Zhukov, M V
2014-01-01
The dynamic mechanism of the Thomas-Ehrman shift is studied in three-cluster systems by example of $^{16}$Ne and $^{16}$C isobaric mirror partners. We predict configuration mixings for $0^+$ and $2^+$ states in $^{16}$Ne and $^{16}$C. Large isospin symmetry breaking on the level of wave function component weights is demonstrated for these states and discussed as three-body mechanism of Thomas-Ehrman shift. It is shown that the description of the Coulomb displacement energies requires a consistency among three parameters: the $^{16}$Ne decay energy $E_T$, the $^{15}$F ground state energy $E_r$, and the configuration mixing parameters for the $^{16}$Ne/$^{16}$C $0^+$ and $2^+$ states. Basing on this analysis we infer the $^{15}$F $1/2^+$ ground state energy to be $E_r=1.39-1.42$ MeV.
The study of atomic three-body problems in hyperspherical coordinates
In this review the application of hyperspherical coordinates is discussed for the solution of some of the typical atomic and molecular problems, and the new physical insights obtained from such studies are shown. In particular, it is shown how correlations between two excited electrons can be conveniently understood in terms of the surface harmonics at a constant hyperradius and visualized by displaying the surface charge densities on the angular coordinates that describe radial and angular correlations. It is shown that a new set of correlation quantum numbers K, T and A for any two-electron states can be deduced by analyzing the surface harmonics; here K and T describe angular correlation and A = +1, -1 or 0) describes radial correlation. Because of the isomorphic correlations, states which have A = +1 or -1 are shown to exhibit supermultiplet structure while states which have A = 0 are shown to behave like singly excited states. Therefore this classification scheme includes the independent particle approximation as a subset. The relations of these quantum numbers to the collective vibrations and rotations of molecule-like normal modes are also discussed. Applications of hyperspherical harmonics to the three-body breakup and linear triatomic collisions are also discussed briefly. 57 refs., 15 figs
Deep Charging Evaluation of Satellite Power and Communication System Components
Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.; Chu, B.; Wong, F.; Gardiner, G.; Wright, K. H.; Phillips, B.
2016-01-01
Deep charging, in contrast to surface charging, focuses on electron penetration deep into insulating materials applied over conductors. A classic example of this scenario is an insulated wire. Deep charging can pose a threat to material integrity, and to sensitive electronics, when it gives rise to an electrostatic discharge or arc. With the advent of Electric Orbit Raising, which requires spiraling through Earth's radiation belts, satellites are subjected to high energy electron environments which they normally would not encounter. Beyond Earth orbit, missions to Jupiter and Saturn face deep charging concerns due to the high energy radiation environments. While predictions can be made about charging in insulating materials, it is difficult to extend those predictions to complicated geometries, such as the case of an insulating coating around a small wire, or a non-uniform silicone grouting on a bus bar. Therefore, to conclusively determine the susceptibility of a system to arcs from deep charging, experimental investigations must be carried out. This paper will describe the evaluation carried out by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center on subscale flight-like samples developed by Space Systems/Loral, LLC. Specifically, deep charging evaluations of solar array wire coupons, a photovoltaic cell coupon, and a coaxial microwave transmission cable, will be discussed. The results of each evaluation will be benchmarked against control sample tests, as well as typical power system levels, to show no significant deep charging threat existed for this set of samples under the conditions tested.
Capacitor discharge ignition system having a charging control means
Fitzner, A.O.
1984-02-28
The invention provides charging control circuitry for a capacitor descharge ignition system having power capacitors connected to be discharged by main electronic switches such as SCR's into ignition transformers to sequentially fire the engine's spark plugs. The charging control circuits each include a charging SCR to limit charging current flow to the main capacitor, unless a discharge pulse into the ignition transformer has occurred in the recent past. Thus if a short circuit in either the main capacitor or main SCR in one of the ignition circuits prevents that ignition circuit form properly functioning, the charging SCR will limit the flow of charging current to the defective circuit and allow the other ignition circuit to receive charging current. The gate of the charging SCR is controlled by an amplified signal from a memory capacitor which is charged by the discharge pulse from the corresponding ignition circuit. The same memory capacitor also provides power to drive an indicator such as a light emitting diode.
Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model
Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2015-01-01
We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds to...... the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering...... length is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the...
Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems
Che Yanbo; Zhou Yan; Sun Yue; Hu Bo
2013-01-01
As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of t...
Charge frustration in complex fluids and in electronic systems
Carraro, Carlo
1996-01-01
The idea of charge frustration is applied to describe the properties of such diverse physical systems as oil-water-surfactant mixtures and metal-ammonia solutions. The minimalist charge-frustrated model possesses one energy scale and two length scales. For oil-water-surfactant mixtures, these parameters have been determined starting from the microscopic properties of the physical systems under study. Thus microscopic properties are successfully related to the observed mesoscopic structure.
A survey of different classes of Earth-to-Moon trajectories in the patched three-body approach
de Sousa-Silva, Priscilla A.; Terra, Maisa O.
2016-06-01
This paper deals with Earth-to-Moon transfers in the patched three-body approach, in which the Sun-Earth-Moon-Spacecraft four-body system is approximated by two coupled Circular Restricted Three-Body Problems (CR3BP). This approach provides preliminary solutions that can be numerically refined into full four-body solutions. The standard transfers in this approach are low-energy manifold guided solutions with long transfer time which connect transit and non-transit orbits of each three-body system. Besides the standard transit-non-transit connections, there are alternative solutions involving a bi-parametric family of quasi-periodic orbits around the Earth. These solutions connect quasi-periodic orbits on two-dimensional tori of the Sun-Earth-Spacecraft system with L1 or L2 transit solutions of the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system to provide transfers with lunar ballistic capture and short flight time. We review the dynamical elements employed to obtain the different classes of transfers and give examples of solutions obtained from sets of initial conditions around the Earth that are consistent with current infrastructure for space exploration.
Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators
Vorogushin, M F
2004-01-01
The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...
Nonlinear Landau-Zener Tunnelling with Two and Three-Body Interactions
WEI Xiu-Fang; TANG Rong-An; YONG Wen-Mei; XUE Ju-Kui
2008-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear Landau-Zener tunnelling of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an accelerating optical lattice with two- and three-body interactions between the particles. The influence of the three-body interaction on the eigenstates and the transition probability are discussed both analytically and numerically.The analytical eigenstates and the tunnelling probability are obtained,which are verified by numerical methods.It is shown that the eigenstates and the tunnelling probability are modified dramatically by three-body interaction.
Effect of three-body forces on the lattice dynamics of noble metals
P R Vyas; C V Pandya; T C Pandya; V B Gohel
2001-04-01
A simple method to generate an effective electron–ion interaction pseudopotential from the energy wave number characteristic obtained by ﬁrst principles calculations has been suggested. This effective potential has been used, in third order perturbation, to study the effect of three-body forces on the lattice dynamics of noble metals. It is found that three-body forces, in these metals, do play an important role. The inclusion of such three-body forces appreciably improves the agreement between the experimental and theoretical phonon dispersion curves.
Folding model analysis of Λ binding energies and three-body ΛNN force
Working within the framework of the folding model, we analyze the Λ binding energy data of light hypernuclei with effective two-body ΛN plus three-body ΛNN interaction. The two-body density for the core nucleus required for evaluating the three-body force contribution is obtained in terms of the centre of mass pair correlation. It is found that except for Λ5He the data are fairly well explained. The three-body force seems to account for the density dependence of the effective two-body ΛN interaction proposed earlier. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs
Zotos, Euaggelos E.
2015-08-01
We numerically investigate the case of the planar circular restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an oblate spheroid. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration and the space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the oblateness coefficient has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.
Zotos, Euaggelos E
2015-01-01
We numerically investigate the case of the planar circular restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an oblate spheroid. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration $(x,y)$ and the $(x,E)$ space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the oblateness coefficient has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.
Zotos, Euaggelos E
2015-01-01
The case of the planar circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an emitter of radiation is numerically investigated. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration $(x,y)$ and the $(x,C)$ space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the radiation pressure factor has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.
Research on Battery Charging-Discharging in New Energy Systems
Che Yanbo
2013-07-01
Full Text Available As an energy storage component, the battery plays increasingly important role in new energy industry. Charging and discharging system is the vital part of the application of the battery, but the charge and discharge are always designed separately and carried by different part in the traditional application. Additionally, most battery discharge mode and method are always simplified which cannot ensure to meet the demand of power utilization. In the actual energy storage system, the design of the energy converter, which make the power storage and supply as a whole and the design of the charge and discharge method, will play an important role in efficient utilization of the battery system. As a part of the new energy system, the study makes battery and the charging and discharging system as a whole to store energy, which can store and release electric energy high efficiently according to the system state and control the bidirectional flow of energy precisely. Using TMS320F2812 as the control core, the system which integrates charging and discharging with battery monitoring can achieve the bidirectional Buck/Boost power control. It can achieve three-stage charging and selective discharging of the battery. Due to the influence of the diode reverse recovery time, current oscillation will appear. In order to eliminate the oscillation, we can set the circuit to work in critical conduction mode. The experimental result shows that the system can achieve the charging and discharging control of lead-acid battery and increase the battery life time further.
The time-transformed leapfrog scheme of Mikkola and Aarseth was specifically designed for a second-order differential equation with two individually separable forms of positions and velocities. It can have good numerical accuracy for extremely close two-body encounters in gravitating few-body systems with large mass ratios, but the non-time-transformed one does not work well. Following this idea, we develop a new explicit symplectic integrator with an adaptive time step that can be applied to a time-dependent Hamiltonian. Our method relies on a time step function having two distinct but equivalent forms and on the inclusion of two pairs of new canonical conjugate variables in the extended phase space. In addition, the Hamiltonian must be modified to be a new time-transformed Hamiltonian with three integrable parts. When this method is applied to the elliptic restricted three-body problem, its numerical precision is explicitly higher by several orders of magnitude than the nonadaptive one's, and its numerical stability is also better. In particular, it can eliminate the overestimation of Lyapunov exponents and suppress the spurious rapid growth of fast Lyapunov indicators for high-eccentricity orbits of a massless third body. The present technique will be useful for conservative systems including N-body problems in the Jacobian coordinates in the the field of solar system dynamics, and nonconservative systems such as a time-dependent barred galaxy model in a rotating coordinate system
S Kumar; V S Bhasin
2004-09-01
The ground state wave function of 11Li obtained in a three-body model proposed earlier (S Kumar and V S Bhasin, Phys. Rev. C65, 034007 (2002)) has been employed to study the probability distributions, momentum distributions and n–n correlation. Complex scaling method has been used to find the energy positions and widths of the three resonant states of 11Li above the breakup threshold. The formalism is extended further to study the -decay of 11Li to two channels. One is the -transition of 11Li into a high lying excited state of 11Be at 18.3 MeV, i.e., 11Be* and the second is the decay to deuteron + 9Li channel. The 11Be* state has been considered as a halo analog state identified as a bound three-body (9Li + n + p) system. The n- 9Li interaction in-corporates both the virtual state and the p-wave resonance observed experimentally. For p- 9Li interaction, a Coulomb corrected separable interaction is constructed using charge indepedendence for strong interaction part. The n–p interaction is operative only in 3S1 state corresponding to the isotopic spin h = 0. As a result the 11Be* state has the same isotopic spin as that of 9Li core, i.e., = 3/2. Using these realistic parameters as input and without invoking any other free parameter, the model has been used to predict the strength of the Gamow–Teller -decay of 11Li to 11Be* , i.e., GT = 1.5 and the value of the branching ratio to 9Li + deuteron channel to be 1.3 × 10−4. These results are found to be in rather good agreement with the recent experimental findings.
Photoinduced phase transition in charge order systems. Charge frustration and interplay with lattice
Lattice effects on photoexcited states in an interacting charge-frustrated system are examined. Real-time dynamics in the interacting spinless fermion model on a triangular lattice coupled to lattice vibration are analyzed by applying the exact diagonalization method combined with the classical equation of motion. A photoinduced phase transition from the horizontal stripe-type charge order (CO) to the 3-fold CO occurs through a characteristic intermediate time domain. By analyzing the time evolution in detail, we find that these characteristic dynamics are seen when the electron and lattice sectors are not complementary to each other but show cooperative time evolutions. The dynamics are distinct from those from the vertical stripe-type CO, in which a monotonic CO melting occurs. A scenario of the photoinduced CO phase transition with lattice degree of freedom is presented from the viewpoint of charge frustration. (author)
Charging reactive power considering system security aspects
The pricing of reactive power in power systems was discussed. This issue does not draw much attention because reactive power typically responds to only a small share of the total market power. The challenge in system security arises when the reactive power market is considered as an auxiliary tool to improve the voltage level profile and the reactive power control is considered to obtain a larger load margin. In such cases, for each transaction, the responsibility of the reactive power changes are determined along with some control actions to reduce the system loss in the critical area, and to increase the load margin. This paper also presented a new approach for pricing these control actions and outlined some system configurations and operating conditions. Tests were performed using a real 39-bus system sample in which all limits were considered.
Microscopic Three-Body Force Effect on Nucleon-Nucleon Cross Sections in Symmetric Nuclear Matter
ZHANG Hong-Fei; ZUO Wei; Lombardo Umberto; LI Zeng-Hua; LI Jun-Qing
2008-01-01
We provide a microscopic calculation of neutron-proton and proton-proton cross sections in symmetric nuclear matter at various densities, using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation scheme with the Argonne V14 potential including the contribution of microscopic three-body force. We investigate separately the effects of three-body force on the effective mass and on the scattering amplitude. In the present calculation, the rearrangement contribution of three-body force is considered, which will reduce the neutron and proton effective mass, and depress the amplitude of cross section. The effect of three body force is shown to be repulsive, especially in high densities and large momenta, which will suppress the cross section markedly.
Comparison of classical and quantal calculations of helium three-body recombination
Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Wang, Jia; Greene, Chris H
2013-01-01
A general method to study classical scattering in $n$-dimension is developed. Through classical trajectory calculations, the three-body recombination is computed as a function of the collision energy for helium atoms, as an example. Quantum calculations are also performed for the $J^{\\Pi}$ = $0^{+}$ symmetry of the three-body recombination rate in order to compare with the classical results, yielding good agreement for $E\\gtrsim$ 1 K. The classical threshold law is derived and numerically confirmed for the Newtonian three-body recombination rate. Finally, a relationship is found between the quantum and classical three-body hard hypersphere elastic cross sections which is analogous to the well-known shadow scattering in two-body collisions.
Adiabatic hyperspherical representation for the three-body problem in two dimensions
D'Incao, J. P.; Esry, B. D.
2014-10-01
We explore the three-body problem in two dimensions using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. We develop the main equations in terms of democratic hyperangular coordinates and determine several symmetry properties and boundary conditions for both interacting and noninteracting solutions. From the analysis of the three-body effective potentials, we determine the threshold laws for low-energy three-body recombination, collision-induced dissociation, as well as inelastic atom-diatom collisions in two dimensions. Our results show that the hyperspherical representation can offer a simple and conceptually clear physical picture for three-body process in two dimensions which is also suitable for calculations using finite-range two-body interactions supporting a number of bound states.
Fan, Yameng; Wu, Chengyin; Xie, Xiguo; Wang, Peng; Zhong, Xunqi; Shao, Yun; Sun, Xufei; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang
2016-06-01
We experimentally studied three-body fragmentation dynamics of (CO2)23+ generated by intense femtosecond laser fields. Three-dimensional momentum vectors as well as kinetic energies were measured for correlated fragmental ions using the technology of coincidence measurement. The results demonstrate that sequential fragmentation channel dominates for three-body fragmentation of (CO2)23+, in which the weak van der Waals bond breaks first and then one strong covalent bond.
Electric mobility and charging: systems of systems and infrastructure systems
Bonnema, G. Maarten; Muller, Gerrit; Schuddeboom, Lisette
2015-01-01
In light of European and worldwide environmental programs, reduction of CO2 emissions and improvements in air quality receive a lot of attention. A prominent way to improve on both aspects is the replacement of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles with Electrical Vehicles. Yet, simply replacing vehicles will not result in proper electric mobility because using Electrical Vehicles depends on many systems and infrastructures including the chargers, parking sites and payment structures. In this p...
The search for competing charge orders in frustrated ladder systems
A recent study revealed the dynamics of the charge sector of a one-dimensional quarter- filled electronic system with extended Hubbard interactions to be that of an effective pseudospin transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in the strong coupling limit. With the twin motivations of studying the co-existing charge and spin order found in strongly correlated chain systems and the effects of inter-chain couplings, we investigate the phase diagram of coupled effective (TFIM) systems. A bosonisation and RG analysis for a two-leg TFIM ladder yields a rich phase diagram showing Wigner/Peierls charge order and Neel/dimer spin order. In a broad parameter regime, the orbital antiferromagnetic phase is found to be stable. An intermediate gapless phase of finite width is found to lie in between two charge-ordered gapped phases. Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions are found to lead from the gapless phase to either of the charge-ordered phases. Low energy effective Hamiltonian analyses of a strongly coupled 2-chain ladder system confirm a phase diagram with in-chain CO, rung-dimer, and orbital antiferromagnetic ordered phases with varying interchain couplings as well as superconductivity upon hole-doping. Our work is potentially relevant for a unified description of a class of strongly correlated, quarter-filled chain and ladder systems. (autor)
Multidimensional and three-body inverse scattering problems in the adiabatic representation
In the adiabatic representation, the multidimensional and three-body inverse scattering problems are discussed on the basis of consistent formulation of both the multichannel inverse problem for gauge systems of equations describing ''slow'' dynamics of the system, and the parametric one for ''fast'' dynamics. The method of constructing a wide class of exactly solvable multidimensional models is investigated by comparing the Bargmann potentials with the parametric family of inverse problems and systems of equations with covariant derivatives. A problem introducing an extra matrix of scalar potentials so as to conserve supersymmetry and thus conditions for topological effects is studied. A direct generalization of the Witten supersymmetric quantum mechanics for gauge equations with additional scalar potentials is given. Coupling of supersymmetry and geometric phases and the influence of additional scalar potentials under the degeneracy of the ground state, and as a result under topological effects, are discussed. Algebraic Bargmann and Darboux transformations for equations of a more general form than the Schroedinger ones with an additional functional dependence (h(r)) in the right-hand side of equations are constructed. (orig.)
Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki
2016-04-01
Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [H. Asada, Phys. Rev. D 80, 064021 (2009)], the gravitational radiation reaction to Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution of the three-body problem is investigated in an analytic method. The previous work is based on the energy balance argument, which is sufficient for a two-body system because the number of degrees of freedom (the semimajor axis and the eccentricity in quasi-Keplerian cases, for instance) equals that of the constants of motion such as the total energy and the orbital angular momentum. In a system with three (or more) bodies, however, the number of degrees of freedom is more than that of the constants of motion. Therefore, the present paper discusses the evolution of the triangular system by directly treating the gravitational radiation reaction force to each body. The perturbed equations of motion are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. It is found that the triangular configuration is adiabatically shrinking and is kept in equilibrium by increasing the orbital frequency due to the radiation reaction if the mass ratios satisfy the Newtonian stability condition. Long-term stability involving the first post-Newtonian corrections is also discussed.
Stability domain of systems of three arbitrary charges
We present results on the stability of quantum systems consisting of a negative charge -q1 with mass m1 and two positive charges q2 and q3, with masses m2 and m3, respectively. We show that, for given masses mi, each instability domain is convex in the plane of the variables (q1/q2, q1/q3). A new proof is given of the instability of muonic ions (α, p, μ-). We then study stability in some critical regimes where q3 2: stability is sometimes restricted to large values of some mass ratios; the behavior of the stability frontier is established to leading order in q3/q2. Finally we present some conjectures about the shape of the stability domain, both for given masses and varying charges, and for given charges and varying masses. Refs. 19 (author)
Determination of a Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Refrigerant Charge
YangChun－Xin; DangChao－Bin
1995-01-01
A physical model is established in this paper to describe the heat transfer and two phase flow of a refrigerant in the evaporator and condenser of a vapor compression refrigeration system.The model in then used to determine the refrigerant charge in vapor compression units.The model is used for a sensitivity analysis to determine the effect that varing design parameters on the refrigerant charge,The model is also used to evaluate the effect of refrigerant charge and the thermal physical properties on the refrigeration cycle,The predicted value of the refigerant charge and experimental data agree well The model and the method presented in this paper could be used to design vapour compression units such as domestic refrigeratirs and air conditioners.
A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results
A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed
First results with the charging system of the Vivitron
An original, Van de Graaff type, belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the Vivitron, a 35 MV Tandem accelerator. Together with a detailed description of it, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very first tests of the real system are reviewed
D+ → K- pi+pi+: three body final state interaction
Full text: Even with the important advances of the last decade, the charmed meson decays are still poorly understood theoretically. We do not understand, for instance, why the kappa scalar resonance is responsible for about 70% of the fit in the decay D+ → K- pi+pi+ , as observed by the E791 collaboration (2002) and confirmed by several others. The fact that quark c can not be considered neither soft nor heavy means that there are no approximation schemes to treat D decays. With the LHCb, we will have high statistic data about D and B decays. This scenario suggest that it is important to develop more precise theoretical models which that could be useful in the experimental analyses. Literature available at present treat the three body decay final state interaction (FSI) as a two-body interaction plus a spectator. However, if the FSI behaved as a (2+1) system, we would find K pi phases on the experimental data of D+ → K- pi+pi+, as announced in Watson theorem, but this does not happen. This indicates a lack of knowledge about the 3-body decay in two different directions. The first one concerns the weak vertex, still not suitably treated in literature. The second one is to include proper three body pseudoscalar FSIs. This work discusses the relevance of 3 body FSI in the D+ → K- pi+pi+ using a model based on Chiral perturbation theory (ChPT)a. Following the idea that pi+pi+ interaction are suppressed, we assume that K interacts with one pion at a time. The perturbative solution of this decay includes adding diagrams with different numbers of loops. The first diagram represent the partonic decay. The second, is a one loop interaction between K pi, which is the main diagram of those theories that consider (2 + 1) system. The third one is a two loop interaction, where the second loop is between the kaon and the first spectator pion. We calculate this three first diagrams and quantify the relative importance of then in the D+ → K- pi+pi+ amplitude. The analyses
Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.
Puig-Ventosa, I
2008-12-01
Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain. PMID:18783932
Optimal charge control strategies for stationary photovoltaic battery systems
Li, Jiahao; Danzer, Michael A.
2014-07-01
Battery systems coupled to photovoltaic (PV) modules for example fulfill one major function: they locally decouple PV generation and consumption of electrical power leading to two major effects. First, they reduce the grid load, especially at peak times and therewith reduce the necessity of a network expansion. And second, they increase the self-consumption in households and therewith help to reduce energy expenses. For the management of PV batteries charge control strategies need to be developed to reach the goals of both the distribution system operators and the local power producer. In this work optimal control strategies regarding various optimization goals are developed on the basis of the predicted household loads and PV generation profiles using the method of dynamic programming. The resulting charge curves are compared and essential differences discussed. Finally, a multi-objective optimization shows that charge control strategies can be derived that take all optimization goals into account.
High eccentricity MMRs in the circular planar restricted three-body problem
Wang, Xianyu; Malhotra, Renu
2016-05-01
Mean motion resonances [MMRs] play an important role in the evolution of the solar system and have significantly influenced the population of the minor planets. Most previous theoretical analyses of mean motion resonances have focused on the low eccentricity regime, but with new discoveries of high eccentricity resonant minor planets and even exoplanets, there is increasing motivation to examine the dynamics of MMRs in the high eccentricity regime. Here we report on a study of the high eccentricity regime of MMRs in the circular planar restricted three-body problem. Numerical analysis of several important interior and exterior resonances are performed for a wide range of secondary-to-primary mass ratio µ, and for a wide range of eccentricity of the particle. The surface of section of a vs. ψ is used to study the stable resonant regions, where a is the semi-major axis and ψ is the angle between the planet and the particle at periapse; the usual resonant argument is an integer multiple of ψ. We find that for each resonant ratio, the center and extent of stable librations of ψ changes depending upon the eccentricity and mass ratio µ. Some libration centers that are stable at lower eccentricity become unstable and chaotic at higher eccentricity. However, large new stable islands reappear at higher eccentricity, albeit at shifted libration centers. We discuss the mass and eccentricity dependence of the centers and widths of stable resonance zones.
Diffusion along mean motion resonance in the restricted planar three-body problem
Fejoz, Jacques; Kaloshin, Vadim; Roldan, Pablo
2011-01-01
We study the dynamics of the restricted planar three-body problem near a mean motion resonance, i.e. a resonance involving the Keplerian periods of the two lighter bodies revolving around the most massive one. This problem is often used to model Sun-Jupiter-asteroid systems. For the primaries (Sun and Jupiter), we pick a realistic mass ratio $\\mu=10^{-3}$ and a small eccentricity $e_0>0$. The main result is a construction of a variety of diffusing orbits which show a drastic change of the osculating eccentricity of the asteroid, while the osculating semi major axis is kept almost constant. The proof relies on the careful analysis of the circular problem, which has a hyperbolic structure, but for which diffusion is prevented by KAM tori. In the proof we verify certain non-degeneracy conditions numerically. Based on the work of Treschev, we conjecture that the time of diffusion for this problem is at least $\\sim -\\ln(\\mu e_0)/(\\mu^{3/2}e_0)$. We expect our instability mechanism to apply to realistic values of $...
Three-body correlations in the decay of $^{10}$He and $^{13}$Li
Jonson, B; Cortina-Gil, D; Simon, H; Emling, H; Nyman, G; Nilsson, T; Johansson, H T; Borge, M J G; Paschalis, S; Muenzenberg, G; Zhukov, M V; Weick, H; Pramanik, U Datta; LeBleis, T; Meister, M; Reifarth, R; Chulkov, L V; Lantz, M; Riisager, K; Mahata, K; Suemmerer, K; Langer, C; Chatillon, A; Richter, A; Kulessa, R; Palit, R; Aksyutina, Yu; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Shulgina, N B; Prokopowicz, W; Forssen, C; Ickert, G; Fynbo, H O U; Tengblad, O; Boretzky, K
2010-01-01
The very exotic nuclear resonance systems. He-10 and Li-13, are produced in proton-knockout reactions from relativistic beams of Li-11 and Be-14. The experimentally determined energy and angular correlations between their decay products, He-8 + n + n and Li-11 + n + n, are analyzed using an expansion of decay amplitudes in a restricted set of hyperspherical harmonics. By considering only a small number of terms it is possible to extract the expansion coefficients directly from the experimental three-body correlations. This provides a model-independent way of getting information about the decay process. on the structure of the decaying nucleus and on the quantum characteristics of the binary subsystems The results show that the He-8 + n + n relative-energy spectrum can be interpreted as consisting of two resonances, an I-pi = 0(+) ground state and an excited I-pi = 2(+) state. The Li-11 + n + n relative-energy spectrum is interpreted as an I-pi = 3/2(-) ground state overlapping with excited states having a str...
Study of charmless three-body decays of neutral B mesons with the LHCb spectrometer
Sobczak, Krzysztof Grzegorz
This thesis describes an exploratory work on three-body charmless neutral $B$ mesons decays containing either a $K_S$ or $\\pi^0$. The events are reconstructed with the LHCb spectrometer installed at Cern (Geneva, CH) recording the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The phenomenology of such modes is rich and covers the possibility to measure all angles of the unitarity triangle linked to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The single example of the $\\gamma$ measurement is explored in this document. The LHC accelerator and the most relevant sub-detector elements of the LHCb spectrometer are described in details. In particular, emphasis is given to the calorimetry system for which the calibration and alignment of the PreShower (PRS) of the electromagnetic calorimeter has been performed. We used particles at minimum ionisation deposit for such a task. The calibration results until year 2011 are reported as well as the method of the PS alignment with respect to the tra...
L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem
Chen, Zheng
2016-06-01
In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.